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Die vroegste bekende vroulike geneesheer het waarskynlik nog nooit bestaan ​​nie


Merit Ptah word dikwels die eerste vroulike dokter genoem. Nou noem 'n navorser dit 'n geval van verkeerde identiteit.

Vir dekades word 'n eertydse Egiptenaar, bekend as Merit Ptah, gevier as die eerste vroulike geneesheer en 'n rolmodel vir vroue wat medisyne betree. Tog sê 'n navorser van die University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus nou dat sy nooit bestaan ​​het nie en is 'n voorbeeld van hoe wanopvattings kan versprei.

'Byna soos 'n speurder, moes ek haar verhaal na elke leidraad terugvind om te ontdek hoe dit alles begin en wie Merit Ptah uitgevind het,' sê Jakub Kwiecinski, PhD, 'n instrukteur in die departement immunologie en mikrobiologie aan die CU Skool vir Geneeskunde en 'n mediese historikus.

Sy studie is verlede week in die Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences .

Die groei van verdienste Ptah

Kwiecinski se belangstelling in Merit Ptah ('geliefd by god Ptah') is opgewek nadat sy haar naam op soveel plekke gesien het.

"Merit Ptah was oral. In aanlynplasings oor vroue in STEM, in rekenaarspeletjies, in populêre geskiedenisboeke, is daar selfs 'n krater op Venus wat na haar vernoem is," het hy gesê. "En tog, met al hierdie vermeldings, was daar geen bewys dat sy werklik bestaan ​​nie. Dit het gou duidelik geword dat daar nie 'n ou Egiptiese vrouedokter was met die naam Merit Ptah nie."

Deur diep in die historiese geskiedenis te gaan, het Kwiecinski 'n geval van verkeerde identiteit ontdek wat 'n eie lewe gekry het, aangevuur deur diegene wat gretig was na 'n inspirerende verhaal.

Baie van die verslae waarsku dat 'n mens nie verwar moet word met die vrou van Ramose, die goewerneur van Thebe, wat die 18de dinastie van Egipte is , word hier getoon, maar dit lyk asof die naam van die begin af verwar is. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Geboorte van 'n moderne legende

Volgens Kwiecinski, Merit Ptah, het die dokter haar oorsprong in die dertigerjare toe Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead, 'n mediese historikus, dokter en aktivis, 'n volledige geskiedenis van mediese vroue regoor die wêreld wou opstel. Haar boek is in 1938 gepubliseer.

Sy het gepraat oor die opgrawing van 'n graf in die Vallei van die Koning, waar daar 'n 'foto was van 'n vrouedokter genaamd Merit Ptah, die moeder van 'n hoëpriester, wat haar' die Hoofdokter 'noem.

Kwiecinski het gesê daar is geen rekord van so 'n persoon wat 'n dokter was nie.

'Verdienste Ptah as naam bestaan ​​in die ou koninkryk, maar verskyn nie in een van die versamelde lyste van antieke Egiptiese genesers nie - selfs nie as een van die' legendariese 'of' kontroversiële gevalle 'nie,' het hy gesê. "Sy is ook afwesig in die lys van vroulike administrateurs van die ou koninkryk. Daar is geen grafte in die ou koninkryk in die Vallei van die Konings nie, waar die verhaal Merit Ptah se seun plaas, en slegs 'n handjievol sulke grafte bestaan ​​in die groter gebied, Theban Nekropolis. "

Die ou koninkryk van Egipte het van 2575 tot 2150 vC geduur.

  • Sarkofaag van Egiptiese hoëpriester opgegrawe met hiërogliewe inskripsies en aanbiedingstonele
  • Canopiese potte van 'n 'Lady of the House' wat in die graf van die hoëpriester bewaar word
  • 9 Ou dokters en legendariese genesers wat die medisyne vir ewig verander het

Verkeerde identiteit?

Maar daar was 'n ander vrou wat opvallend ooreenstem met Merit Ptah. In 1929-30 het 'n opgrawing in Giza 'n graf van Akhethetep, 'n hofdienaar van die Ou Koninkryk, ontbloot. Binne het 'n valse deur 'n vrou met die naam Peseshet uitgebeeld, vermoedelik die moeder van die grafheuse, beskryf as die 'Opsiener van Geneesvroue'. Peseshet en Merit Ptah kom uit dieselfde tydperke en word albei genoem in die grafte van hul seuns wat hoëpriesterlike amptenare was.

Graf van Akhethetep in Saqqarah

Hierdie ontdekking is in verskeie boeke beskryf en een daarvan het in Hurd-Mead se private biblioteek ingekom. Kwiecinski glo Hurd-Mead het Merit Ptah met Peseset verwar.

'Ongelukkig het Hurd-Mead in haar eie boek per ongeluk die naam van die antieke geneser, sowel as die datum waarop sy geleef het, en die plek van die graf, vermeng,' het hy gesê. "En so, uit 'n misverstaande geval van 'n egte Egiptiese vrouegeneesheer, Peseshet, 'n oënskynlik vroeë Merit Ptah, is 'die eerste vroulike geneesheer' gebore."

Egiptiese fluisteringe

Die Merit Ptah -verhaal het wyd en syd versprei, gedryf deur 'n verskeidenheid kragte. Kwiecinski het gesê dat 'n faktor die gewilde opvatting van antieke Egipte as 'n byna sprokiesagtige land is "buite tyd en ruimte" wat perfek geskik is vir die skep van legendariese verhale.

Die verhaal het versprei deur amateurhistorikuskringe en 'n soort eggokamer geskep, anders as hoe valse nuusberigte vandag versprei word.

'Uiteindelik hou dit verband met 'n uiters emosionele, partydige - maar ook diep persoonlike - kwessie van gelyke regte,' het hy gesê. 'Dit het altesaam 'n perfekte storm veroorsaak wat die verhaal van Merit Ptah keer op keer laat vertel het.'

Tog sê Kwiecinski dat die opvallendste deel van die verhaal nie die fout is nie, maar die vasberadenheid van geslagte vroulike historici om die vergete geskiedenis van vroulike genesers te herstel, wat bewys dat wetenskap en medisyne nog nooit uitsluitlik manlik was nie.

'Alhoewel Merit Ptah nie 'n outentieke ou Egiptiese vrouegeneesheer is nie,' het hy gesê. "Sy is 'n baie ware simbool van die 20ste eeuse feministiese stryd om vroue terug te skryf in die geskiedenisboeke, en om medisyne en STEM vir vroue oop te maak."


Die vroegste bekende vroulike geneesheer het waarskynlik nog nooit bestaan ​​nie - geskiedenis

As versorgers van kinders, familie en gemeenskap was dit natuurlik dat vroue die verpleegsters, die versorgers was, namate die menslike samelewing ontwikkel het. Verpleegkunde is moontlik die oudste beroep, aangesien sommige verpleegsters van die begin af vir hul dienste betaal is. Dit was veral die geval met nat verpleegsters wat 'n baba verpleeg het toe die ma gesterf het of haar kind nie kon versorg nie. 'N Vrou wie se baba nie die geboorte oorleef het nie, of wat gereed was om haar kind te speen, of wat meer as een baba kon verpleeg, sou 'n nat verpleegster aanvaar, wat gewoonlik in die huis van haar werkgewer sou woon.

Die huis was eintlik die middelpunt van gesondheidsorg, en gedurende die eerste twee eeue na die Europese verkenning van Noord -Amerika was alle verpleegkunde tuisverpleegkunde. Selfs toe die eerste hospitaal van die land in 1751 in Philadelphia begin het, was dit in die eerste plek beskou as 'n asiel of armhuis wat nog 'n eeu of meer sou verbygaan voordat die publiek hospitale as betroubaar en veilig beskou het.

Die burgeroorlog het 'n enorme impuls gegee aan die bou van hospitale en die ontwikkeling van verpleegkunde as 'n geloofsberoep. Aanvanklike vrywilligers uit die oorlog was egter dikwels nie anders as 'kampvolgers' nie, die vroue (soms minnares en soms vroue) wat hul soldate gevolg het. Dit was 'n era van skerp klasomskrywings, en veral in die suide kon 'agbare' vroue nie in 'n militêre hospitaal gesien word nie.

Sommige vroue het die moed en gesonde verstand gehad om dekor te trotseer, veral in die noorde, waar die Amerikaanse sanitêre kommissie die voorloper van die Rooi Kruis geword het. Die bekendste van hierdie vroue is natuurlik Clara Barton - maar haar genie was in die verspreiding van voorraad en in die ontwikkeling van stelsels vir vermistes en dooies, nie in verpleegkunde nie. Barton self het erken dat sy eintlik net ongeveer ses maande van die vierjarige oorlog verpleeg het en dat ander vroue baie meer gedoen het.

Miskien was die bekendste verpleegster destyds Mary Ann Bickerdyke van Illinois. Haar toevallige loopbaan, 'n weduwee van middeljarige ouderdom, het begin toe sy geld wat deur plaaslike liefdadigheidsorganisasies ingesamel is, afgelewer het by die reuse, indien tydelike, hospitale wat die Unie op die kruising van die Mississippi- en Ohio-riviere gebou het. Nadat sy getuig van lydende soldate wat letterlik niemand gehad het om vir hulle te sorg nie, was sy die enigste vrou wat generaal William T. Sherman met sy leër toegelaat het. By die Tennessee -stryd van Lookout Mountain was sy die enigste verpleegster vir ongeveer tweeduisend mans.

In die Konfederasie was kaptein Sally Tompkins en Phoebe Pember die vernaamste verpleegsters. Tompkins is as 'n offisier in die Konfederale weermag aangestel, sodat sy die mag het om voorraad te bestel. Sy het haar Richmond -herehuis in die Robertson -hospitaal omskep en 'n reputasie gevestig vir buitengewone kwaliteit: Tompkins -hospitaal het verreweg die laagste sterftesyfer van enige fasiliteit in die noorde of suide, alhoewel dokters die ergste gevalle na haar gestuur het. Haar personeel van ses - waarvan vier swart vroue wat nog in slawerny was - het meer as 1.600 pasiënte behandel en slegs 73 verloor, 'n buitengewoon lae getal in 'n era voordat kiemteorie verstaan ​​is.

Phoebe Levy Pember c. 1855

Phoebe Levy Pember het ietwat meer bekend geword sedert die poskantoor haar onlangs op 'n reeks seëls van die burgeroorlog ingesluit het. 'N Jong weduwee uit 'n welgestelde, Joodse gesin in Charleston en Atlanta, het sy noordwaarts na die Konfederale hoofstad Richmond gegaan en uiteindelik die grootste hospitaal ter wêreld bestuur. Op 'n gemiddelde dag het Pember toesig gehou oor die behandeling van 15 000 pasiënte, waarvan die meeste deur byna 300 slavinne versorg is.

Die oorlog het dus tot groter respek vir verpleegsters gelei, iets wat die kongres in 1892 erken het, toe dit 'n wetsontwerp wat pensioene aan verpleegsters in die burgeroorlog gegee het, te laat aanvaar is. Belangriker nog, die oorlog was die begin van die verskuiwing van die beroep van die huis na die hospitaal en kliniek. Die gevolg was 'n ontploffing van verpleegskole in die laat negentiende eeu. Gewoonlik was hierdie skole nou verbonde aan 'n hospitaal, en verpleegsters - waarvan almal vermoedelik vroulik was - het in die hospitaal gewoon en gewerk.

Hulle word dikwels 'susters' genoem (soos die Britse verpleegsters nog steeds is), maar hul lewens was inderdaad soortgelyk aan dié van nonne. Hulle is verbied om te trou, en hulle is in 'n "verpleegstershuis" op hospitaalterrein geklou, waar elke aspek van die lewe streng gedissiplineer is. Studente -verpleegsters is glad nie betaal nie, en omdat te veel hospitale hierdie gratis arbeid na klas- en laboratoriumtyd waardeer het, het baie mense hul dae deurgebring om vloere te skrop, wasgoed te doen en ander take. Leergange het egter deels verbeter as gevolg van die ontwikkeling van 'n tradisie met pette: elke verpleegskool het 'n kenmerkende pet wat vroue na die gradeplegtigheid gedra het, en omdat haar opvoedkundige agtergrond letterlik elke dag sigbaar was, het skole gou standaarde verhoog sodat hul gegradueerdes bevestig hul kwaliteit.

Daar was meer vroulike dokters (en hospitaalbestuurders) gedurende die 19de eeu as wat die meeste mense vandag besef - en sommige van hierdie vroulike dokters het die behoefte aan verpleegsters erken en gewerk om die beroep te professionaliseer. Dr. Marie Zakrewska het 'n mediese skool vir vroue in Boston gestig wat tydens die Burgeroorlog in 1862 verbonde was aan haar New England -hospitaal vir vroue en kinders - en 'n dekade later, in 1872, begin sy 'n geassosieerde verpleegskool wat die land was eerste.

Linda Richards was die eerste gegradueerde en staan ​​dus bekend as Amerika se eerste professioneel opgeleide verpleegster. Richards het haar eie programme vir presedente opgestel as superintendent van verpleegkunde in die Bellevue-hospitaal in New York, en in Massachusetts General Hospital het sy ook die eerste verpleegskool in Japan op die been gebring.

Soos die meeste destydse onderwysinstellings, het hierdie skole nie Afro -Amerikaners toegelaat nie, en die informeel opgeleide swart vroue wat tydens die Burgeroorlog verpleeg het, kon selde geloofsbriewe verkry. Die eerste swart verpleegster met die erkenning was Mary Mahoney, wat in 1879 aan die doktor Zakrewska se verpleegskool in Boston studeer het. Aangesien segregasie tot in die 20ste eeu die reël bly, het Mahoney gelei by die National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses, wat in 1908 begin het.

Gedurende die vier dekades tussen die burgeroorlog en die begin van die twintigste eeu het die beeld van verpleegsters oorgegaan van 'n ietwat minder as eerbare beskouing na 'n gerespekteerde beroep. Die volgende eeu sou nog meer veranderings meebring, en verpleegsters van die 19de eeu sou die beroep amper nie herken soos in die 21ste eeu nie. Hulle sou egter saamstem dat 'n wêreld van verskil in die versorging van pasiënte plaasgevind het, en dat dit 'n onvermydelike voordeel was - wat hoofsaaklik deur vroue bereik is.


Die geskiedenis van dokters / dokters

Selfs in die ergste tye is dit redelik veilig om met medisyne te gaan. Goed, want die beroep bestaan ​​al meer as 25 000 jaar in die een of ander vorm.

Kyk na die geskiedenis van dokterswees, van die Steentydperk tot die Inligtingsera.

Prehistoriese “ dokters ”: 25,000 BC +
Die eerste “healers ” is in grotskilderye in die huidige Frankryk beskryf. Die skilderye is tot 27 000 jaar gelede met radiokoolstof gedateer en het mense uitgebeeld wat plante vir medisinale doeleindes gebruik. Dit is die eerste aangetekende voorbeeld van wat uiteindelik ontwikkel het tot die eerste mediese kennisbasis wat deur stamme oorgedra is. Trepanasie en#8211 wat die skedel deurboor om pyn te verlig, is duisende jare gelede met vlekke sukses gedoen

Behandel soos 'n Egiptenaar: Chirurgie 5 000 jaar gelede
Die antieke Egiptenare was nie net een van die gesondste mense op aarde nie (Homerus – van Odyssey -roem, nie die in die ou Egipte nie Simpsons episode – erken hul openbare gesondheidsorgstelsel, sowel as die droë klimaat), maar Egiptenare het ook 'n paar van die eerste aangetekende operasies uitgevoer: wortelkanaal (sommige bewyse dui daarop dat tande al 9 000 jaar gelede in Indië geboor is.) Destyds was doktersbeoefening die bemeestering van bonatuurlike tekste, asook later opleiding in anatomie en diagnose.

“ Neem twee paddas en bel my in die oggend ”
Sowat 3 000 jaar gelede was die eertydse Babiloniërs moontlik die eerste wat voorskrifte aangebied het. Babyloniese gesondheid “ experts ” het ook 'n diagnostiese teks gehad met 'n aantal simptome en behandelings wat voorheen gewerk het.

Griekeland en die geboorteplek van mediese etiek
Onder die invloed van Egiptiese en Babiloniese medisyne het die beroemde Griekse “physician ” Hippokrates die Hippocratic Corpus geskryf, 'n versameling van ongeveer sewentig vroeë mediese werke uit antieke Griekeland wat sterk verband hou met Hippokrates en sy studente. Die bekendste is dat Hippokrates die Hippokratiese eed vir dokters uitgevind het, wat vandag nog steeds relevant en in gebruik is.

Dit sal u waarskynlik nie doodmaak nie#8230
Teen die tyd dat medisyne in die Midde -Ooste in die 9de eeu beoefen word, het dokters begin oefen in wat u hospitale kan noem. Rondom hierdie tyd het dokters oor die algemeen geweet hoe om katgut en tang, gips, ligatuur, chirurgiese naald, saag, kopvelle en die steeds kalmerende, chirurgiese lepel te gebruik. Op hierdie stadium was geneeskunde meer geneig om u te help as om u te benadeel.

Middeleeuse Europa en die eerste mediese skole
In die 12de eeu het daar universiteite en die eerste mediese skole ontstaan. Op hierdie stadium was die dokter-wees minder afhanklik van die “-evangelie ” van reeds bestaande mediese tekste en meer van die toepassing van die tekste en ander op die individuele ervarings van 'n dokter in die veld. Die vermoë om die gesondheid van 'n pasiënt betroubaar te beïnvloed, is steeds getref.

19de eeu en die ontploffing van die wetenskap
Gedurende die afgelope paar honderd jaar het dokters baat gevind by die gebruik van ontwikkelende wetenskappe soos chemie. Dokters het toegang tot ander dissiplines gekry om pasiënte te help genees. Hulle het ook begin gebruik maak van verskeie fasette van medisyne om siektes te genees. Onder die goedjies wat tot die beskikking van dokters uit die 19de eeu bestaan: kennis van evolusie, psigiatrie, die begin van genetika en immunologie.

Sê net ja vir dwelms: Moderne medisyne begin
Na 1920 hoef dokters nie meer toestemming van die kerk te vra voordat hulle begin oefen of chirurgies doen nie. Uiteindelik het betroubare voorskrifmedisyne en penisillien die siekte begin bekamp voordat 'n operasie of ander laaste oorde nodig was. Moderne chirurgie het mondig geword. Die laaste lobotomie om skisofrenie te behandel, is in 1970 gedoen.

Die moderne dokter
Moderne medisyne is natuurlik alles wat mense verwag as hulle 'n hospitaal besoek, maar 'n moderne dokter in die ontwikkelde wêreld is net so 'n superheld of 'n wetenskapfiksiekarakter as vriendelike saagbene. Die gebruiksgordel en die gereedskap wat 'n moderne dokter beskikbaar het, bevat chirurgiese lasers en robotte, magnetiese beeldmotors met groot krag en datastrome in netwerk.

Die toekoms: robotte, pasiënte op afstand, draadlose data -voer ..
Tussen tegnologie en skaarsheid aan werklike dokters, is dit waarskynlik dat toekomstige dokters pasiënte op enige manier sal sien: dit kan op afstand beteken (vanaf die ander kant van 'n skerm of robot) of as deel van 'n monteerlynproses (robotassistente doen dit eintlik die meeste werk, met dokters wat by die laaste stap kom om die diagnose te bevestig of die moeilikste deel van die operasie uit te voer.) Die medisyne sal ook aangepas word vir elke pasiënt se individuele genoom, toegedien deur nano-skaal en sportstadion. grootte apparate, oor tydsones en selfs in ander wêrelde.

Is dit nie 'n dosyn jaar skool werd nie? As u ook geskiedenis wil maak, kyk vandag na ons doktersposte via die onderstaande knoppie!


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Die kern manlike lede van elke gesin was verwant en kom hoofsaaklik voort uit die vermenging tussen Neolitiese boere in die streek met migrante uit die steppe, soos verwag is van vorige genetiese werk oor die oorsprong van Europeërs. Die individuele huishoudings kan ook vir 'n paar generasies bestaan, het hulle gevind.

Maar die vroue wat op die begraafplase gevind is, was heeltemal iets anders. Sommige kom uit die voor-alpiene laaglande en sommige tot 350 kilometer daarvandaan, volgens die data.

In byna al die huishoudings was die wyfies nie verwant aan die mannetjies nie, omdat hulle hul huise verder verlaat het om te trou, en die navorsers skryf.

Speld, vroulike begrafnis, Königsbrunn. K. Massy

Trou? Dit lyk so. Grafgoed wat saam met die vroue begrawe is, dui daarop dat hulle ook lede van die gesin met 'n hoë status was, berig die span.

In styl begrawe

Die mans het nie veel beweeg nie en is tuis begrawe, dit lyk asof drie van die mannetjies in hul adolessensie ver van die huis afgedwaal het, gebaseer op isotoopanalise van hul tande. Hulle het egter teruggekom.

Vroue, aan die ander kant, het blykbaar hierdie boerderye verlaat en verdwyn. Byna al die eerste- en tweedegraadse genetiese verwantskappe is gevind tussen mense wat op dieselfde plek begrawe is, maar nie op verskillende plekke en mdash nie en van die tien ouer-nageslagpare wat gevind is, was nie een vrou nie. Let daarop dat nege van hierdie tien manlike nakomelinge volwasse was. Die afleiding is dat die meisies weg is om êrens anders met vreemdelinge te trou.

Dolk, manlike begrafnis, Kleinaitingen. K. Massy

Die grafgoed van mans en vroue verskil. Mans is hoofsaaklik met wapens begrawe: die skrywers noem dolke, byle, beitels en pylkoppe. Die vroue is begrawe met versierings, insluitend groot hoofrokke en 'n groot ringe, 'skryf die span.

Soos gewoonlik in die geval van mense wat duisende jare lank weg is, is dit alles wat interpreteer kan word, maar die konsensus in argeologiese kringe is dat ryk begraafgoed daarop dui dat die dooie individu belangrik was.

Beide mans en vroue het hierdie grafgoed gehad, maar die argeoloë het opgemerk dat dit interessant is dat wapens baie meer gereeld in grafte van mans met familielede gevind is as in grafte van mans sonder naasbestaandes. En dit dui aan wat? Erfenis, moontlik. Op een plek was slegs drie van die 16 begrafnisse toegerus, en hulle skryf & ndash en die drie was 'n ma en haar twee seuns. Die argeoloë vermoed dit dui daarop dat status in die Bronstydperk in Duitsland geërf is. Die teorie dat status geërf is, word verder ondersteun deur die ontdekking van kinders wat met grafgoed begrawe is.

Let weer daarop dat die vroue van ver gekom het met 'n isotopiese ontleding van hul tande, maar byna almal is in styl begrawe.

Dolk, manlike begrafnis, Haunstetten. (c) K. Massy

Nou, saam met hierdie plaaslike mans en buitelandse vroue met 'n hoë status, het die navorsers mense gevind wat, as gevolg van die afwesigheid van grafartikels, plaaslik en laag in status was. Hoe hul status gedefinieer kan word en personeel, bediendes, slawe en slawe - sal 'n raaisel moet bly. Maar hulle was nie die arme familielede nie. Hulle was nie plaaslik nie.

Ons het nooit gedink iets so ingewikkeld as wat dit destyds kon bestaan ​​nie, & rdquo Stockhammer sê & ndash betekenis op die vlak van die individuele huishouding. Die gedagte was dat sosiale strukture baie eenvoudiger was. Dit blyk egter dat ldquolife in die vroeë bronstydperk in Sentraal -Europa baie meer kompleks was as wat ons gedink het. & Rdquo

Om duidelik te wees, niemand het gedink dat die mense van die vroeë bronsperiode demokratiese, blomsnuffende egalitêre peaceniks was nie. Vanuit die kontinentale perspektief (in teenstelling met die plaaslike), vind 'n toename in die aantal grafte in die vroeë bronstydperk plaas. Verhale van konings en koninginne en hul nageslag gaan terug na die begin van die skryf van 'n paar sprokies wat gebaseer is op sosiale stratifikasie en twis, en dit lyk asof dit tot 6000 jaar teruggaan, voor die opgetekende geskiedenis self.

Die veronderstelling was dat Duitsland in die Bronstydperk 'n groot aantal kleinboere en 'n klein groepie elite gehad het. Die onverwagte element, soos gesê, is die sosiale stratifikasie nie tussen huishoudings nie, maar binne hulle.

Koperskyf, vroulike begrafnis (oorspronklike en rekonstruksie.) K. Massy

Die gewoonte om ver te reis om te trou, is nie 'n skok in die sin dat 'n mens voortdurend 'n eksogame huweliksnetwerk in prehistoriese Europa vind nie. Om die een of ander rede, al dan nie bewus van die gevare wat bloedskande inhou, probeer die ou mense dit blykbaar vermy.

Sommige van die bruide in die Lech -vallei het hul oorsprong in 'n groep wat bekend staan ​​as die Unitice -kultuur, en moes minstens 350 kilometer daarvandaan afkomstig wees en moontlik in die huidige Tsjeggiese Republiek, Pole of Slowakye, meen die navorsers. Dit is waar dat die perd teen die tyd van hierdie prehistoriese bewegings getem is: dit het ongeveer 5 500 jaar gelede ver oos van hierdie vallei gebeur. Maar ons weet nie hoe hierdie vroue vervoer is as hulle geloop het of iets anders nie.

Hierdie nuwe studie verander in elk geval ons persepsie van menslike sosiale kompleksiteit in die prehistoriese tyd. So ook die ontdekking van 'n oorlogsgebied van meer as 13 000 jaar oud in Soedan. Die gedagte was dat jagter-versamelaars waarskynlik nie oorlog toe gegaan het nie omdat hulle groepe klein was, hoogstens 'n paar dosyne, en as een groep 'n vleis by 'n ander groep het, kan dit vreedsaam voortgaan. Blykbaar het hulle dit nie noodwendig gedoen nie.


Teen 1975 was die sterftes van servikale kanker by swart vroue 16 uit 100,000 - 'n derde van wat hulle in die 1930's was

Haar tegnieke het gewerk. In 1965 het sy 'n skare van 250 vroue na die St Charles Borromeo Hall Parish in Suid -Philadelphia gelok om papsmere te ontvang. Teen 1975 was die sterftes van servikale kanker by swart vroue 16 uit 100,000 - 'n derde van wat hulle in die 1930's was.

Tog was die getal twee keer meer as vir wit vroue.

Hierdie ongelykheid bestaan ​​vandag nog. Swart en Spaanse vroue kry steeds servikale kanker meer as die ander groep, "moontlik as gevolg van verminderde toegang tot Pap-toetsing of opvolgbehandeling", volgens die Centers for Disease Control. As hulle dit wel kry, is swart vroue minstens 1,5 keer meer geneig om aan die siekte te sterf.

Die stil aktivis

In haar mediese opleiding was Dickens ook getuie van 'n ander verskynsel wat verwoestende vroue was, swart en wit: wette wat aborsie straf. In die Harlem -hospitaal het sy in 'n septiese aborsie -afdeling gewerk vir vroue wat aborsies gehad het - of hulself gegee het. Die ervaring het haar diep gepyn.

'Ek het net gevoel dat hierdie vroue verdien om versorg te word, net soos almal wat iets inkom,' sou sy onthou. 'En ek wou die komplikasies beslis nie weer sien nie.'

Nadat hy by die fakulteit van Penn's Medical School aangesluit het, het Dickens 'n verloskundige kliniek geopen om tieners te bedien (Krediet: Universiteit van Pennsylvania)

In die 1960's was dit in baie lande nog steeds onwettig om die voorbehoedpil aan ongetroude vroue te gee. Maar in 1967, nadat hy by die fakulteit van die Penn's Medical School aangesluit het, het Dickens 'n tiener -verloskundige kliniek geopen om tieners te leer hoe voorbehoeding werk en baie aangemoedig om dit te doen. Teen 1970 het 40 uit 50 tienermeisies wat sy raad gegee en opgespoor het, voorbehoedmiddels begin gebruik.

Dickens het jong toekomstige moeders omring met 'n groep van hul maats en hulle ondersteun met 'n maatskaplike werker, 'n gesinsbeplanningsberader, 'n verpleegster en 'n 'manlike uitreikwerker' wat vaders en nuwe mans aangemoedig het om deel te neem. Sy het klas gegee oor kinderopvoeding en het toekomstige moeders deur die hospitaal se geboorte-afdeling gereis om hul vrese oor die geboorteproses te versag. Daar was teaterproduksies, dansklasse en besoeke van 'n skoonheidskundige.


Die dokter wat die hande was en 'n kort lewe gered het

Ignaz Semmelweis was sy hande in gechloreerde kalkwater voordat hy werk.

Dit is die verhaal van 'n man wie se idees baie lewens kon red en ontelbare getalle vroue en pasgeborenes se koorsagtige en pynlike sterftes gespaar het.

U sal agterkom dat ek gesê het "kon hê."

Die jaar was 1846, en ons toekomstige held was 'n Hongaarse dokter met die naam Ignaz Semmelweis.

Semmelweis was 'n man van sy tyd, volgens Justin Lessler, 'n assistent -professor aan die Johns Hopkins School of Public Health.

Semmelweis beskou wetenskaplike ondersoek as deel van sy missie as dokter. De Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images steek onderskrif weg

Semmelweis beskou wetenskaplike ondersoek as deel van sy missie as dokter.

De Agostini Picture Library/Getty Images

Dit was 'n tyd wat Lessler beskryf as 'die begin van die goue era van die doktorwetenskaplike', toe dokters van hulle verwag het om wetenskaplike opleiding te kry.

Dokters soos Semmelweis dink dus nie meer aan siekte as 'n wanbalans wat veroorsaak word deur slegte lug of bose geeste nie. Hulle kyk eerder na anatomie. Lykskouings word meer algemeen, en dokters stel belang in getalle en die versameling van data.

Die jong dokter Semmelweis was geen uitsondering nie. Toe hy opdaag vir sy nuwe werk in die kraamkliniek in die Algemene Hospitaal in Wene, het hy sy eie data begin versamel. Semmelweis wou uitvind hoekom soveel vroue in kraamsale sterf as gevolg van kraamkoors - algemeen bekend as kinderbedkoors.

Hy het twee kraamsale in die hospitaal bestudeer. Die een is deur alle manlike dokters en mediese studente beman, en die ander is deur vroulike vroedvroue beman. En hy het die aantal sterftes op elke saal getel.

Toe Semmelweis die getalle skerp maak, ontdek hy dat vroue in die kliniek wat deur dokters en mediese studente beman word, amper vyf keer hoër is as vroue in die vroedvrouekliniek.

In die Wene Algemene Hospitaal het vroue 'n groter kans om te sterf na die bevalling as 'n manlike dokter dit bywoon, vergeleke met 'n vroedvrou. Josef en Peter Schafer/Wikipedia steek onderskrif weg

In die Wene Algemene Hospitaal het vroue 'n groter kans om te sterf na die bevalling as 'n manlike dokter dit bywoon, in vergelyking met 'n vroedvrou.

Josef en Peter Schafer/Wikipedia

Semmelweis het die verskille tussen die twee wyke deurgemaak en idees begin uitsluit.

Hy het dadelik 'n groot verskil tussen die twee klinieke ontdek.

In die vroedvroue se kliniek het vroue aan hul sye geboorte geskenk. In die dokterskliniek het vroue op hul rug geboorte gegee. Dus laat hy vroue in die dokterskliniek aan hul kante kraam. Die resultaat, volgens Lessler, was "geen effek nie."

Toe het Semmelweis opgemerk dat elke keer as iemand in die saal aan kinderbedkoors sterf, 'n priester stadig deur die dokterskliniek stap, verby die vrouebeddens met 'n bediende wat lui. Hierdie keer het Semmelweis die teorie aangegee dat die priester en die lui die vroue na die geboorte so verskrik het dat hulle koors kry, siek word en sterf.

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Dus laat Semmelweis die priester sy roete verander en die klok gooi. Lessler sê: "Dit het geen effek gehad nie."

Teen hierdie tyd was Semmelweis gefrustreerd. Hy neem verlof van sy hospitaalpligte en reis na Venesië. Hy hoop die breek en 'n goeie dosis kuns sal sy kop skoonmaak.

Toe Semmelweis terugkeer na die hospitaal, wag 'n paar hartseer, maar belangrike nuus op hom. Een van sy kollegas, 'n patoloog, het siek geword en gesterf. Volgens Jacalyn Duffin, wat die geskiedenis van medisyne aan die Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, onderrig het, was dit 'n algemene verskynsel.

Dit was 'n openbaring - kinderbedkoors was nie iets wat net vroue tydens die bevalling siek geword het nie. Dit was iets waaruit ander mense in die hospitaal ook siek kon word.

'Dit gebeur dikwels met die patoloë,' sê Duffin. "Daar was niks nuuts aan die manier waarop hy gesterf het nie. Hy het met sy vinger gepik terwyl hy 'n lykskouing gedoen het op iemand wat aan koors gesterf het." En toe word hy self baie siek en sterf.

Semmelweis het die patoloog se simptome bestudeer en besef die patoloog is dood aan dieselfde ding as die vroue wat hy laat lyk het. Dit was 'n openbaring: kinderbedkoors was nie iets wat net vroue tydens die bevalling siek geword het nie. Dit was iets waaruit ander mense in die hospitaal ook siek kon word.

Maar dit het nog steeds nie die oorspronklike vraag van Semmelweis beantwoord nie: "Waarom sterf meer vroue aan kinderbedkoors in die dokterskliniek as in die vroedvroukliniek?"

Duffin sê die dood van die patoloog het hom 'n idee gegee.

'Die groot verskil tussen die doktersafdeling en die vroedvroue -afdeling is dat die dokters lykskouings gedoen het en die vroedvroue nie,' sê sy.

Semmelweis veronderstel dus dat daar kadaweragtige deeltjies, klein stukkies lyk is, wat studente in die hande kry van die kadavers wat hulle ontleed het. En toe hulle die babas gebaar het, kom hierdie deeltjies binne -in die vroue wat die siekte sou ontwikkel en sterf.

Skote - Gesondheidsnuus

Skoolkinders wat handreiniger by wasgoed voeg, word steeds siek

As Semmelweis se hipotese korrek was, moet die sterftesyfer as gevolg van kinderbedkoors verminder word om van die kadaweragtige deeltjies ontslae te raak.

Daarom het hy sy mediese personeel beveel om hul hande en instrumente nie net met seep nie, maar met 'n chlooroplossing te begin skoonmaak. Chloor, soos ons vandag ken, is omtrent die beste ontsmettingsmiddel wat daar is. Semmelweis het niks van kieme geweet nie. Hy het die chloor gekies omdat hy gedink het dat dit die beste manier sou wees om ontslae te raak van die reuk wat die klein stukkies lyk agterlaat.

Semmelweis het niks van kieme geweet nie. Hy het die chloor gekies omdat hy gedink het dat dit die beste manier sou wees om ontslae te raak van die reuk wat die klein stukkies lyk agterlaat.

En toe hy dit oplê, het die koers van kinderbedkoors dramaties gedaal.

What Semmelweis had discovered is something that still holds true today: Hand-washing is one of the most important tools in public health. It can keep kids from getting the flu, prevent the spread of disease and keep infections at bay.

You'd think everyone would be thrilled. Semmelweis had solved the problem! But they weren't thrilled.

For one thing, doctors were upset because Semmelweis' hypothesis made it look like they were the ones giving childbed fever to the women.

And Semmelweis was not very tactful. He publicly berated people who disagreed with him and made some influential enemies.

Eventually the doctors gave up the chlorine hand-washing, and Semmelweis — he lost his job.

Even today, convincing health care providers to take hand washing seriously is a challenge.

Semmelweis kept trying to convince doctors in other parts of Europe to wash with chlorine, but no one would listen to him.

Even today, convincing health care providers to take hand-washing seriously is a challenge. Hundreds of thousands of hospital patients get infections each year, infections that can be deadly and hard to treat. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says hand hygiene is one of the most important ways to prevent these infections.

Over the years, Semmelweis got angrier and eventually even strange. There's been speculation he developed a mental condition brought on by possibly syphilis or even Alzheimer's. And in 1865, when he was only 47 years old, Ignaz Semmelweis was committed to a mental asylum.

The sad end to the story is that Semmelweis was probably beaten in the asylum and eventually died of sepsis, a potentially fatal complication of an infection in the bloodstream — basically, it's the same disease Semmelweis fought so hard to prevent in those women who died from childbed fever.


Earliest Known Female Physician Likely Never Existed - History

The first woman in America to receive a medical degree, Elizabeth Blackwell championed the participation of women in the medical profession and ultimately opened her own medical college for women.

Born near Bristol, England on February 3, 1821, Blackwell was the third of nine children of Hannah Lane and Samuel Blackwell, a sugar refiner, Quaker, and anti-slavery activist. Blackwell’s famous relatives included brother Henry, a well-known abolitionist and women’s suffrage supporter who married women’s rights activist Lucy Stone Emily Blackwell, who followed her sister into medicine and sister-in-law Antoinette Brown Blackwell, the first ordained female minister in a mainstream Protestant denomination.

In 1832, the Blackwell family moved to America, settling in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1838, Samuel Blackwell died, leaving the family penniless during a national financial crisis. Elizabeth, her mother, and two older sisters worked in the predominantly female profession of teaching.

Blackwell was inspired to pursue medicine by a dying friend who said her ordeal would have been better had she had a female physician. Most male physicians trained as apprentices to experienced doctors there were few medical colleges and none that accepted women, though a few women also apprenticed and became unlicensed physicians.

While teaching, Blackwell boarded with the families of two southern physicians who mentored her. In 1847, she returned to Philadelphia, hoping that Quaker friends could assist her entrance into medical school. Rejected everywhere she applied, she was ultimately admitted to Geneva College in rural New York, however, her acceptance letter was intended as a practical joke.

Blackwell faced discrimination and obstacles in college: professors forced her to sit separately at lectures and often excluded her from labs local townspeople shunned her as a “bad” woman for defying her gender role. Blackwell eventually earned the respect of professors and classmates, graduating first in her class in 1849. She continued her training at London and Paris hospitals, though doctors there relegated her to midwifery or nursing. She began to emphasize preventative care and personal hygiene, recognizing that male doctors often caused epidemics by failing to wash their hands between patients.

In 1851, Dr. Blackwell returned to New York City, where discrimination against female physicians meant few patients and difficulty practicing in hospitals and clinics. With help from Quaker friends, Blackwell opened a small clinic to treat poor women in 1857, she opened the New York Infirmary for Women and Children with her sister Dr. Emily Blackwell and colleague Dr. Marie Zakrzewska. Its mission included providing positions for women physicians. During the Civil War, the Blackwell sisters trained nurses for Union hospitals.

In 1868, Blackwell opened a medical college in New York City. A year later, she placed her sister in charge and returned permanently to London, where in 1875, she became a professor of gynecology at the new London School of Medicine for Women. She also helped found the National Health Society and published several books, including an autobiography, Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women (1895).


50 Fascinating Facts for Women’s History Month

History texts and classes are often dominated by male figures, yet women have played and continue to play a major role in the world’s economy, politics, culture and discoveries and deserve their fair share of recognition as well. March is Women’s History Month and there’s no better time to celebrate their contributions. Here are some fascinating facts about women’s history that will showcase some standouts, accomplishments, impacts and just how far they have come.

Deur die getalle

Here you’ll find some amazing stats about women in the world today.

  1. Today, 71% of moms with kids under 18 work. In 1975, fewer than 47% did. Once upon a time, the idea of women working outside of the home was frowned upon and most women who did so worked as maids, seamstresses, took in laundry or worked in one of the traditionally female fields. Today, more women not only work outside the home, but hold a wider variety of jobs, with some even making it to the top of business, technology and science fields.
  2. Women currently hold 17% of Congressional and Senate seats and 18% of gubernatorial positions in the U.S. While women are still underrepresented in political life, the current state of things is a far cry from a time when women weren’t even allowed to vote — a mere 90 years ago.
  3. In almost every country in the world, the life expectancy for women is higher than men. For virtually all causes of death at all ages, mortality rates are higher for men. Scientists aren’t entirely sure why this is the case, but believe it might have to do with the presence of estrogen in the body improving immune function.
  4. Approximately 14% of active members in the U.S. armed forces today are women. In 1950, women comprised less than 2% of the U.S. military. Today, women play an active role in serving their country through military service, but many in years past would simply disguise themselves as men in order to gain access to the battlefield, including well-known examples like Frances Clayton in the American Civil War.
  5. Over 60 percent of college degrees awarded in the U.S. every year are earned by women. In fact, women are more likely than men to get a high school diploma as well, and the numbers are only expected to rise in the coming years.
  6. The two highest IQs ever recorded, through standardized testing, both belong to women. One of these high IQ women is the columnist and author Marilyn vos Savant. Of course, these numbers should be taken with a grain of salt, as IQ tests aren’t perfect in measuring intelligence, but it does help show that women aren’t inferior to men in intelligence – as was claimed for centuries.
  7. More American women work in the education, health services, and social assistance industries than any other. It seems that while women are moving into the workforce in large numbers, they’re still taking on traditionally female positions like teaching, nursing and social services. These three industries employ nearly one-third of all female workers.

Sports

Check out these facts to learn more about women in sports throughout recorded history.

  1. No women or girls were allowed at the first Olympics, but the Games of Hera, featuring footraces for women, were held every four years. In fact, women were not even allowed to watch the Olympic games or encouraged to participate in athletics (with the exception of the Spartans) so that the games existed at all is surprising. At their inception, the games only included that one event.
  2. At the first Winter Olympic Games in 1924, the only event open to women was figure skating. Only 15 women participated in these games, something that would change drastically over the decades.
  3. Women were not allowed to compete in track and field events at the Olympics until 1928. The ancient Greeks and Romans may have let women run in footraces in the Heraen Games, but when it came to the Olympics, both ancient and modern, these events were off limits to women until 1928. Unfortunately, some of the events were too much for the untrained female athletes, and because many collapsed after the end of the 800-meter race, it was banned until 1960.
  4. Roberta Gibb was the first woman to run and finish the Boston Marathon in 1966. Of course, she didn’t get official credit for it, as women were not allowed to enter the race until 1972, but her wins, in 󈨆, 󈨇, and 󈨈 seriously challenged long-held beliefs about the athletic prowess of women.
  5. Virne “Jackie” Mitchell, a pitcher, was the first woman in professional baseball. While women still don’t have much of a presence in baseball today, Mitchell proved that it wasn’t because they couldn’t play. During an exhibition game, she struck out both Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig. Her performance probably played a part in baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis banning women from the sport later that year.
  6. Mary, Queen of Scots is reported to be the first woman to play golf in Scotland. Golf today is still seen as a man’s sport, but this powerful and scandalous queen couldn’t have cared less. In fact, she even went out to play golf a few days after her husband Lord Darnley’s murder.
  7. Donald Walker’s book, Exercise for Ladies, warns women against horseback riding, because it deforms the lower part of the body. While this book was published in 1837, the views it documented about women doing any kind of exertion or exercise were to hold throughout the Victorian era and beyond.

Kultuur

Learn more about the role women have played in art, music and literature from these facts.

  1. The world’s first novel, Die verhaal van Genji, was published in Japan around A.D. 1000 by female author Murasaki Shikibu. It is still revered today for its masterful observations about court life and has been translated into dozens of languages.
  2. In 1921, American novelist Edith Wharton was the first woman to receive a Pulitzer Prize for fiction. She won the award for her novel The Age of Innocence, a story set in upper-class New York during the 1870s.
  3. Women often wrote under pen names in times when it was not seen as appropriate for them to contribute to literature. Even some female authors who are highly acclaimed today had to resort to fake names like Jane Austen, the Bronte Sisters, Mary Ann Evans (perhaps better known by her pen name George Eliot), and Louisa May Alcott.
  4. In the early years of the blues, from 1910 to 1925, the vast majority of singers were women.It might go against the common idea of just what the blues are or what they should sound like, but new research has found that some of the biggest players in the form of music were actually women.
  5. In an era when female painters had to struggle for acceptance, Artemesia Gentileschi was the first female to be accepted by the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. A follower of the style popularized by Caravaggio, her work is often particularly adept at bringing to life the passion and suffering of mythological and biblical women.

Amazing Women

These amazing women make for some pretty inspiring facts, perfect for Women’s History Month.

  1. Marie Curie is the only woman to ever win two Nobel Prizes. Her first award was for physics for her work on spontaneous radiation with her husband, with her second being in Chemistry for her studies of radioactivity.
  2. Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful women in the ancient world and the one and only female pharaoh in recorded history. She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt after taking over as a supposed regent for her son and reigned for over twenty years. While accounts seem to paint her reign as a favorable one, her images have been defaced on temples and inscriptions as though they meant to wipe her existence from history.
  3. Martha Wright Griffiths, an American lawyer and judge, pushed through the Sex Discrimination Act in 1964 as part of the Civil Rights Act. This act has helped protect countless women on the job and in everyday life from discrimination based on their gender.
  4. Journalist Nellie Bly put Jules Verne’s character Phileas Fogg to shame when she completed an around the world journey in only seventy two days– quite a feat before the invention of the airplane. Bly is also well-known for her expose on mental institutions, a project for which she had to fake psychological illness to gain access to the facilities.
  5. Jane Addams was the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Because of her work with the Hull House, the public philosopher, writer, leader and suffragist went down as one of the most influential and prolific women in American history.
  6. Upon her husband’s death, Cherokee leader Nancy Ward took his place in a 1775 battle against the Creeks, and led the Cherokee to victory. After the victory, she became head of the Woman’s Council and a member of the Council of Chiefs, playing a key role in social and political changes to the Cherokee nation throughout her life.
  7. In 1777, sixteen-year-old Sybil Ludington raced through the night to warn New York patriots that the British were attacking nearby Danbury, CT, where munitions and supplies for the entire region were stored during the heat of the Revolutionary War. While Paul Revere gets all the glory for nighttime rides, her journey took her twice the distance and helped the troops prepare and repel a British attack.
  8. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony spent their lives fighting for women’s suffrage, but neither lived long enough to see the Amendment granting them the right to vote. Stanton passed away in 1902, decades before women finally won out, and Anthony in 1906 only a few years later.
  9. African-American performer Josephine Baker was working in France during WWII, but not only as a singer, dancer and actress. She was also helping the war movement, smuggling numerous messages to French soldiers. She often hid messages inside her dress or concealed with invisible ink on her sheet music. Baker’s work in the war is only part of what makes her such an amazing figure, as she was the first African American female to star in a major motion picture, perform in a concert hall and played a big role in the Civil Rights Movement.

Famous Firsts

Paving the way for generations to come, these women took down barriers to become the first of their kind in a wide range of fields.

  1. In 1853 Antoinette Blackwell became the first American woman to be ordained a minister in a recognized denomination. Impressive, considering there are still only a handful of female ministers nationwide today.
  2. The earliest recorded female physician was Merit Ptah, a doctor in ancient Egypt who lived around 2700 B.C. Many historians believe she may be the first woman recorded by name in the history of all of the sciences, making her achievement all the more impressive.
  3. The first woman to rule a country as an elected leader in the modern era was Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka, who was elected as prime minister of the island nation in 1960 and later re-elected in 1970. She is still one of only a handful of female heads of states, though numbers are growing with female leaders being recently elected in places like Brazil, Switzerland, Costa Rice, Lithuania and Gabon.
  4. In 1756, during America’s Colonial period, Lydia Chapin Taft became the first woman to legally vote with the consent of the electorate. While all women didn’t enjoy this privilege until 1920, Taft was allowed to vote because her husband, a powerful local figure, had passed away right before a major town vote. She was allowed to step in in his stead.
  5. The first woman to run for U.S. president was Victoria Woodhull, who campaigned for the office in 1872 under the National Woman’s Suffrage Association. While women would not be granted the right to vote by a constitutional amendment for nearly 50 years, there were no laws prohibiting one from running for the chief executive position.
  6. The first female governor of a U.S. state was Wyoming governor Nellie Tayloe Ross, elected in 1924. Wyoming was also the first state to give women the right to vote, enacting women’s suffrage in 1869, making it a surprising leader in women’s rights.
  7. The first female member of a president’s cabinet was Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor under FDR. She remained in office for the duration of FDRs terms and helped put together the labor programs needed for the New Deal to succeed.
  8. The first person to make the daring attempt to go over Niagara Falls in a wooden barrel was a woman. On October 24, 1901, Annie Edson Taylor, a forty-three-year-old schoolteacher from Michigan plunged over the falls. She survived with only a small gash on her head, but swore to never take them on again.
  9. Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, was the first woman elected to serve in Congress. She was elected in both 1916 and 1940. A lifelong pacifist, she was the only member of Congress to vote against entering WWII.
  10. On May 15, 1809, Mary Dixon Kies received the first U.S. patent issued to a woman for inventing a process for weaving straw with silk or thread. Before then, most women inventors didn’t bother to patent their new inventions because they couldn’t legally own property independent of their husbands. Few could get the support necessary to turn their ideas into a reality.

Historical Happenings

Learn more about women in history from these interesting facts.

  1. Wyoming was the first state to grant women the right to vote. It was also the first state to elect a female governor, Nellie Tayloe Ross.
  2. The first country to grant women the right to vote in the modern era was New Zealand in 1893. In this same year, Elizabeth Yates also become major of Onehunga, the first ever female mayor anywhere in the British empire.
  3. In 1770, a bill proposing that women using makeup should be punished for witchcraft was put forward to the British Parliament. The use of makeup was frowned upon during this period for the effect it would have on men, and women who were thought to be luring men in with scents, makeup, wigs or other cosmetics were thought to be performing the devils’ work by inciting lustfulness. Even the Queen took a hard stance on makeup, calling it “impolite.”
  4. On Nov. 26, 1916 birth control activist Margaret Sanger was arrested for distributing birth control information. While Sanger’s views on race are questionable, her efforts to provide women with control over their reproduction were not. Birth control is still a hot issue among many, with some conservative groups condemning it altogether.
  5. Think that factory work was always done by men? In fact, during the 19th century, factory workers were primarily young, single women. Men and married women stayed home to work the farm or manage the house.
  6. Until 1846, the practice of obstetrics was a female-dominated field. It was then that most medical colleges decided women could not attend and the newly founded American Medical Association barred women. Legislation intended to regulate the medical profession also made it nearly impossible for young women to pursue a medical career. Today, however, obstetrics is a female-dominated field once again.
  7. Betsy Ross probably didn’t make the first American flag. While she may have been a flagmaker, patriot and businesswoman of note, there is little evidence to suggest that Betsy Ross actually made the first flag. In fact, the first retellings of this story didn’t happen until years after her death.

Innovative Women

These women came up with new and innovative ideas well worth reading about.


Earth's Earliest Dinosaur Possibly Discovered

A wonky beast about the size of a Labrador retriever with a long neck and lengthy tail may be the world's earliest known dinosaur, say researchers who analyzed fossilized bones discovered in Tanzania in the 1930s.

Now named Nyasasaurus parringtoni, the dinosaur would've walked a different Earth from today. It lived between 240 million and 245 million years ago when the planet's continents were still stitched together to form the landmass Pangaea. Tanzania would've been part of the southern end of Pangaea that also included Africa, South America, Antarctica and Australia.

It likely stood upright, measuring 7 to 10 feet (2 to 3 meters) in length, 3 feet (1 m) at the hip, and may have weighed between 45 and 135 pounds (20 to 60 kilograms).

"If the newly named Nyasasaurus parringtoni is not the earliest dinosaur, then it is the closest relative found so far," said lead researcher Sterling Nesbitt, a postdoctoral biology researcher at the University of Washington.

The findings, detailed online Dec. 5 in the journal Biology Letters, push the dinosaur lineage back 10 million to 15 million years than previously known, all the way into the Middle Triassic, which lasted from about 245 million to 228 million years ago. [See Photos of the Oldest Dinosaur Fossils]

Dating a dinosaur

The study is based on seemingly few bones &mdash a humerus or upper arm bone and six vertebrae &mdash though Nesbitt pointed out much of what we know about dinosaurs comes from similar number of fossils. Only a rare few dinosaurs are excavated with near-complete skeletons, a la museum centerpieces.

For their study, the researchers had to determine whether the bones indeed belonged to a dinosaur and how long ago the beast would've lived.

They dated the fossils based on the layer of rock in which it was found and the ages for the layers above and below it (over time layers of sediment accumulate on top of remains, making a vertical slice somewhat of a timeline into the past).

They also looked at the ages of rock layers with similar animal remains found across the globe.

As for whether the beast is a dinosaur, several clues say it is. For instance, dinosaurs grew quickly, and a cross-section of the humerus suggests bone tissue was laid down in a haphazard way, a telltale sign of rapid growth.

"We can tell from the bone tissues that Nyasasaurus had a lot of bone cells and blood vessels," said co-author Sarah Werning of the University of California, Berkeley, who did the bone analysis. "In living animals, we only see this many bone cells and blood vessels in animals that grow quickly, like some mammals or birds," Werning said in a statement.

The upper arm bone also sported a distinctively enlarged crest that would've served as a place of attachment for arm muscles.

"It's kind of your shoulder muscle or the equivalent in a dinosaur," Nesbitt told LiveScience, adding that "early dinosaurs are the only group to have this feature."

Vertebrate paleontologist and geologist Hans-Dieter Sues, who was not involved in the study, agrees with the dating and dinosaur tag placed on the remains. "I first saw the bones in the 1970s when the late Alan Charig (one of the co-authors) showed them to me," Sues, of the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., told LiveScience in an email. At that time none of his colleagues would accept that dinosaurs had appeared so early in geological history."

Sues added that additional, more complete remains are needed to confirm the relationships between Nyasasaurus and other dinosaurs. [6 Weird Species Discovered in Museums]

Answering a long-standing question

Paleontologists have for about 150 years suggested dinosaurs existed in the Middle Triassic, as the oldest dinosaur fossils fit into the Late Triassic period. However, that evidence has been fraught with uncertainty, with conclusions based on only dinosaurlike footprints or very fragmentary fossils. Footprints can be tricky to interpret, in this case, because other animals roaming Earth at the time would've made similar pedal prints.

"Previous to this find, all the oldest dinosaurs were all equally old from the same place in Argentina, and those sediments are about 230 million years [old]. So this pushes the dinosaur lineage or the closest relative to dinosaurs all the way back to the Middle Triassic," Nesbitt said during a telephone interview. "This is our best evidence of a Middle Triassic dinosaur."

In addition to pushing back the timeline for dinosaurs, Nesbitt says the study also reveals how dinosaurs emerged on Earth. Rather than waking up on the planet as the dominant beasts during their heydays in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, dinosaurs gradually ramped up to their reign.

"They were a unique group, but they didn't evolve and take over terrestrial ecosystems immediately," Nesbitt said. "Most of what we see in museums are from the Jurassic and Cretaceous when they did dominate &mdash at their origins they were just a part of the radiation of Archosaurs," or the dominant land animals during the Triassic period that included dinosaurs, crocodiles and their relatives.

Nesbitt hopes the discovery will encourage other paleontologists digging in Middle Triassic rocks to keep a lookout for dinosaurs &mdash fossils, that is.


Exposingthelieofislam

There have been very few people in the past who have had the guts to challenge the authenticity of islam’s “Muhammad”, and very little research has been done into the subject. However, when it is looked into, it becomes more and more apparent that just like the “jesus” of xianity, Muhammad is too a false, fabricated character created for no other purpose than the destruction, desecration and removal of the true Ancient Knowledge given to humanity by the Gods and the consequent enslavement of the Gentile People.

Islam and its false “prophet” have heaped untold sorrow and suffering upon humanity from the moment of their creation. One only need look to the Middle East and other areas and countries dominated by islam to see that this is true. The poverty, war, destruction, anti-life practices, abuse of women and children, total lack of personal privacy and freedom, filth, ignorance and violence in these areas all have their roots in islam and its Muhammad. To rid the world and the Gentile people of this suffering, the world must be rid of the lie that is Muhammad.

There is a ton of evidence to prove this character never existed. That which stands out most clearly is the fact that the only so-called “Ancient Sources” of information concerning the life of Muhammad are extremely questionable and have never been able to be proven accurate and authentic.

As one example, the earliest “biography” of Muhammad has left no surviving copies and even so is dated to at least 100 years after his supposed death. Very suspicious, to say the least, and the question has to arise, if this was such an important character as islam states, why did people wait 100 years to document his life and achievements? Also, considering the fact Muhammad had already been dead 100 years at the time, the biography could not have been written by anyone who knew him personally, and therefore the accuracy would have been extremely questionable. This biography is known only because it is mentioned in much later texts, and no copies or anything of the sort have ever been found to prove its existence. Hoekom? Because it never existed in the first place.

There are many more examples like this one. The same as with xianities “jesus”, the only place in which the life and existence of Muhammad is documented is within islam’s qur’an. Outside of this, there is nothing. One scholar wrote, “It is a striking fact that such documentary evidence as survives from the Sufnayid period makes no mention of the messenger of god at all. The papyri do not refer to him. The Arabic inscriptions of the Arab-Sasanian coins only invoke Allah, not his rasul [messenger] and the Arab-Byzantine bronze coins on which Muhammad appears as rasul Allah, previously dated to the Sufyanid period, have not been placed in that of the Marwanids. Even the two surviving pre-Marwanid tombstones fail to mention the rasul”.

The qur’an and pseudo-biographies of this supposed prophet claim that he was widely known, and that people, many of whom were powerful in the political world of the time, travelled from all over to witness his “miracles” and teachings. If this were so, there would be much surviving documentation for us to investigate, and it would be a known historical fact. We have hundreds of documentations of Alexander the Great, Christopher Columbus, all of the Egyptian Pharaohs and other powerful and influential people of history from those who saw and interacted with them, because they were real people who existed in a real time and were involved in events which really took place. It is human nature to document events and experiences in order to preserve them for future generations to learn from. However, as stated above, no documentation of this man Muhammad exists outside of the islamic texts, which themselves cannot be put forward as proof of his existence.

As for the inscriptions upon Arab Sasanian coins mentioning “Allah”, it has already been proven that the name “Allah” was STOLEN from the Ancient Pagan Title for the chief God or Goddess of an area, which was Al-Ilah. The Al-Ilah was the “supreme God” of a region. The Moon God Sin was given this title in much of Ancient Arabia, and many connections have been made between Sin and “Allah”, due only to the fact that islam STOLE this. This goes a lot deeper, however I will address this in an entirely separate article in the near future .

On the other hand, the real historical documentation that we have is in contradiction with the islamic version of history, which again proves that islam and its Muhammad are false.

As a small example, according to the history put forth by the qur’an and other islamic Texts, islam spread through much of Arabia peacefully and by willing conversions of hundreds of people. However, historical documentation tells us that this is not the case at all and that the time known as the islamic conquest was a time of brutal and savage war perpetrated by the bringers of islam against the Pagan people residing in the Arabian Peninsula and countries father East such as India at the time. Pagan Temples had to be destroyed, thousands and thousands of Ancient Sacred Texts full of the knowledge of the Gods were destroyed, Pagan Priesthood were brutally tortured and murdered, cities were besieged and raised to the ground and hundreds and thousands of people died as a result of the spread of islam.

Various other artifacts that have been found have blatantly contradicted what islam has put forth as history and reveal a different story altogether.

Aside from this, once again, we can expose the lies of islam through its connection to xianity. Xianity has been proven to be false. Everything it has was blatantly STOLEN from Ancient Paganism with the purpose of the enslavement and eventual destruction of our Gentile people. There is literally more than a ton of proof for this. One only need read through all of the articles contained on http://www.exposingchristianity.com by High Priestess Maxine Dietrich to see that this is true, I also highly recommend the book, “The Christ Conspiracy, the Greatest Story Ever Sold” by Acharya S.

When the enemy formed their trinity of lies, they gave it one major flaw, and that is the fact that all three are undeniably and irrevocably connected. Thus, when one comes down, the others must come down with it. At least to a very large extent.

The character Muhammad is said to have been descended from the jewish (Note another connection to the jews, the root of the lies and the perpetrators of Gentile Enslavement. Muhammad was always described as a jew himself, and NOT an Arab/Gentile!!) Ishmael, son of Abraham. “Abraham” has been proven to be fictitious and was a corruption stolen from the Hindu God Brahma. This has been discussed on exposingchristianity.com. As the stolen and corrupted jewish story goes, Abraham was most famous for his “many Sons”. This is a blatant corruption of Brahma and his “many forms”. Also, the connection can be made when you look at “Abraham and his wife Sarai/Sarah”. This was stolen from Brahma and his wife Saraswati, the Hindu Goddess of Knowledge. Once again, like all the fictitious characters invented by the enemy jews, there is absolutely no physical proof that Abraham ever existed, or that his so-called son Ishmael ever existed. It is safe to assume that anyone else said to be descended from them never existed either, and would therefore make them fictitious.

Connecting Muhammad with the jewish characters is yet another subliminal message of jewish supremacy over Gentile People. This is the entire purpose for islam’s invention of Muhammad. To enslave the Gentile people who have been blinded by the lie of islam and put them under the power of the enemy jews and their masters. It is simple as that.

Many of the other supposed family member of Muhammad are also nothing more than stolen and corrupted versions of Ancient Pagan Gods. A prime example is “Fatima”, supposedly Muhammad’s daughter, who was STOLEN from the Goddess Inanna/Isis/Al-Uzza. She was supposed to be portrayed as the fertile, “divine” mother, and divine Feminine. Although, considering how appallingly women are treated in islam, any reverence of “divine feminine” is an outright contradiction. None the less, Fatima’s character is stolen from the Goddess Al-Uzza, the Arabian Goddess of Fertility, motherhood and the Planet Venus, among other things. Al-Uzza was the original Arabian Feminine Divine and the sacred mother. Islam took this and horrendously corrupted it into “Fatima”, the so-called ideal islamic woman/mother and role model for women to live by. This is no different than in xianity where the virgin-kike Mary was also stolen from Inanna/Isis/Al-Uzza. Once again, it is a common theme throughout the enemy programs.

As well as this, Muhammad accompanied by his four family members Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein can be seen as a corrupted (Stolen) Spiritual Allegory. The Five together are a representation and corruption of the Five Elements of the Soul. Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hassan and Hussein = Akasha, Fire, Water, Air and Earth, the Elements which make up all that exists, the central forces of the Universe. These five characters are the central characters of islam. In the same way that the Akasha was supposed to have “given life” to Fire and Water, which further joined and gave birth to Air and Earth, Muhammad (Akasha) gave life to Fatima who married/joined with Ali (Fire and Water) and they in turn gave birth to Hassan and Hussein (Air and Earth). The Spiritual/Alchemical corruption is blatant here, and it is also blatant that these were never real characters, but stolen allegories.

There are countless more examples like this one. Another is the 󈫼 Imams”, who are a rip off of the 12 constellations of the Zodiac and the 12 Great Ages accompanying them. However, I will write on this in much more detail in a later article.

The qur’an makes many more connections between Muhammad and other characters who have been proven fictitious. An example is Moses/Musa who is stolen from a number of Ancient Pagan Gods, such as the Egyptian Gods Set and Horus. For more information regarding this, see exposingchristianity.com. Muhammad is also frequently compared to and given ties to xianities “jesus”, who again has been 100% proven to be stolen and fictitious. Again, see exposing christianity. A character who is constantly compared with and so deeply connected to fictitious characters is fictitious themselves.

The events which are said to have occurred throughout the life of Muhammad are also nothing more than Alchemical Corruptions. Here are but a few examples (There are far too many to list here, but more will be dealt with in a separate article):

-The qur’an relates how when Muhammad was only an infant, two men appeared to him and cut open his breast, retrieving his heart and removing from it a “Black Clot” which they proceeded to cast away. The “Black Clot” is the Philosophers Stone. The Philosophers Stone has often been described as “Black”, i.e. “The Black Stone” referred to in many Alchemical writings. “Black” refers to and Alchemical process before the Stone is transformed and becomes White. Black is Base/Lead. As has been said before, the Philosophers Stone is contained within the Heart Chakra, thus why they “removed it from his Heart”. Note how islam removes the Philosophers Stone (True Satanic Power, GodHead, etc) and “casts it away”. This is a powerful subliminal message.

-The “angel” (enemy thoughtform) Gabriel appears before Muhammad, striking the side of a hill and causing a Spring to come gushing forth. With it he instructs Muhammad on how to perform Ritual Ablution for purification, also teaching him the prayer postures, “the standing, the inclining, the prostrating and the sitting” to be accompanied by repetitions of sacred names. This is ripped straight from Ancient Yoga and Mantra Practices of the Far East! Anyone who practices Yoga and Meditation will be able to see this easily, the postures that are performed along with Mantras/Words of Power, in order to drastically increase Bio-Electricity. Although, in islam, the energy raised is reversed and directed not to the person performing the postures and Mantras, but to the enemy thoughtform. As well as this, the “striking the Hill, causing a spring to come gushing forth” is an Alchemical Corruption. The Chakras have often been portrayed allegorically as hills or mountains in various Ancient Texts throughout the world, due to their True Form. The “Spring” is referring to the Alchemical Elixirs which are released and “dripped” from the Chakras during the Magnum Opus.

-Muhammad performs a “miracle” by splitting the Full Moon into Two Halves, causing half a Moon to Shine on either side of the Mountain. Once again, the Mountain represents the Chakras, and the Moon being split in two represents the two polarities of the Soul.

-The “Isra and Mi’raj”, The Night Journey and the ascension through the Seven Heavens. This entire event is an Alchemical corruption and rip off of the raising of the Kundalini Serpent through the Seven Chakras. The word Mi’raj means ladder, which is referring to the Spine up which the Serpent Ascends. The qur’an relates how Muhammad rode a Winged Horse (An Ancient Alchemical Symbol!) to the “Circles of Heaven”- The Chakras. He is taken through each one until finally after going through the Seventh Heaven, he meets with “God”. It is blatantly obvious that this is a corruption of reaching “Enlightenment” when the Kundalini rises to the Seventh (Crown) Chakra.

As I said above, there are many other examples of this. The Stolen and corrupted Alchemy is astounding and blatant throughout islam and its qur’an.

This not only proves Muhammad to be false, but it also proves the qur’an to be false. Throughout its pages, it has professed these characters and events to be real, yet it has been proven that on the contrary, all of these characters are fictitious and STOLEN.

Everything that islam has, like xianity, has been STOLEN and corrupted from Ancient Pagan Religions that are many thousands of years older.

Bronne:
*Muhammad Sven Kalisch, German Muslim states “likely muhammad never existed”
*MUHAMMAD: his life based on the earliest sources, Martin Lings (Abu Bakar Siraj al-Din), 2006
* Quran (Arabic and English Translation)


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