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Geskiedenis van Raritan I - Geskiedenis


Raritan ek

(Fr: t. 1,726; Ibp. 174'10 "; b. 45 '; dr. 22'8"; dph. 14'4 "; a. 44 gewere)

Die eerste Raritan, 'n fregat wat by die Philadelphia T 'avy Yard gebou is, is in 1820 neergelê en op 13 Junie 1843 gelanseer, geborg deur Comdr. Frederick Engle.

Op 20 Februarie 1844 het die fregat, onder bevel van kapt. Franeis H. Gregory, die hawe van New York opgeruim en na die South At] antie geseil waar sy as vlagskip van kommando Daniel Turner gedien het totdat sy in November 1845 na die Verenigde State teruggekeer het.

Raritan, gebaseer op Pensaeola, werk toe saam met die Home Squadron, aangesien dit die ooskus van Mexiko versper en Armv -magte ondersteun tydens die oorlog met Mexiko. As Commodore David Connor se vlagskip, het sy by Potomac aangesluit om 500 man by Point Isabel te land om die militêre depot in Mei 1846 te versterk. Gedurende 1847 het sy in Maart aan die landings by Vera Cruz deelgeneem; op Tuxpan in April; en in Tabaseo in Junie.

Raritan het daarna teruggetrek na Norfolk, waar sy in 1848 gewoon was. In 1849 was sy weer vlagskip van die Wes -Indiese eskader, daarna as vlagskip vir die tuisskader, en in 1850 is sy na die Stille Oseaan oorgeplaas om tussen Panama te vaar. en Kaap Horn en so ver wes as die International Date Line. In Junie 1851 by Valparaiso aangekom, het sy uit die hawe gery tot Oktober 1852 toe sy aan die gang was om na die Verenigde State terug te keer. Met haar tuiskoms was sy gewoonlik in Norfolk gelê. Raritan het daar gebly totdat dit op 20 April 1861 deur die Unie -magte vernietig is toe hulle die vlootwerf ontruim het.


Geskiedenis onder River Road: die verdwene stad Raritan Landing

Getrou aan sy naam, was Raritan Landing 'n besige hawegemeenskap wat begin in die vroeë tot middel van die 1700's begin het. Die seuns van handelaars uit New York, wat gretig was om hul eie lot te bereik, het besef dat daar geld in die produktiewe lande van die Raritan -vallei was, as hulle die geld in die stad kon kry. Boere het baie graan, hout en vee om te verkoop, en die groeiende stadsbevolkings het 'n groot aptyt en krimpende hoeveelhede beskikbare grond waarop hulle kon boer. Versending per boot sou die vinnigste en produktiefste roete wees, wat hulle sou laat winkel op die verste binnelandse navigasiepunt op die Raritanrivier.

Raritan Landing, met vergunning van Rutgers Libraries
Pakhuise het op die noordelike oewer van die Raritanrivier, wes van New Brunswick, begin opduik namate boere geleer het van die nuwe geleentheid om hul gewasse te verkoop. Daar word gesê dat 50 of meer waens op 'n slag op die Great Road Up Raritan (nou River Road) in 'n ry staan ​​en wag vir hul geleentheid om hul ware af te laai. 'N Klein maar digte gemeenskap het gegroei rondom die handel met inwoners wat onder meer huise, winkels, stalle en 'n meule bou.

Waarom het Raritan Landing dan verdwyn? Sy afsterwe het in fases gekom. Eerstens het die Revolusionêre Oorlog 'n klopjag meegebring by die soek na Britte en Hessiërs wat eers eiendom gebuit en toe geboue afgebrand het, wat baie inwoners in die proses weggejaag het. Sommige inwoners het teruggekeer, maar baie het hul lot aan ryker handelaars verkoop, wat die karakter van die gemeenskap in die proses verander het. In die 1830's het nuwer, vinniger vervoer na die gebied gekom in die vorm van die Delaware- en Raritan -kanaal en die Camden- en Amboy -spoorweg, wat boere en handelaars in staat gestel het om hul goedere vinniger op die mark te bring. Raritan Landing het in wese uitgedien geraak.

Teen 1870 is baie van die geboue afgebreek, die grond is omskep in weiding. Sestig jaar later is sigbare spore van die dorp uitgewis, bedek met drie meter vulsel wat daar gestort is toe grond oorkant River Road opgegrawe is vir die bou van die Rutgers -stadion. Gelukkig het die plaaslike historikus Cornelius Vermeule 'n kaart van Raritan Landing gemaak op grond van sy eie kinderherinneringe en verhale van familielede.

Verskeie van die meer interessante artefakte uit die grawe word in East Jersey Olde Towne vertoon, maar frustrerend genoeg het DOT -argeoloë slegs 'n deel van die oorblyfsels van Raritan Landing opgegrawe. Die staat moes slegs gebiede ondersoek wat deur padbou versteur sou word, en baie meer van die ou dorpie onder die oppervlak sou laat. Selfs die fondamente wat hulle ontdek het, is nou onsigbaar vir die oog, nadat hulle weer bedek was. Sommige is selfs selfs verhard.

Die ding is, dit is nog steeds daar en wag vir toekomstige geslagte om dit te vind. Wie weet wanneer dit opgegrawe sal word, of deur wie. Ons kan net hoop dat as ons afstammelinge kies om meer pad daar te bou, hulle genoeg sal omgee vir die skat van ons gedeelde verlede.


Raritania

Dit is bekend dat dit moeilik is om 'n geskiedenis van die spioengenre aan te bied, deels as gevolg van die poreuse grense van die genre. Soos Donald McCormick en Katy Fletcher opgemerk het Spy -fiksie: 'n kenner se gids, die term '' spioenasieverhaal 'is op sigself 'n verkeerde benaming', want dit word nie net as 'n kombers gebruik vir die aktiwiteite van spioene in al hul vorme nie, maar ook teen-spioene, regeringsfunksionarisse wat spioene gebruik,

Daarbenewens is dit moontlik om enige avontuurverhaal of oorlogsverhaal te oorweeg wat 'n bietjie intelligensie -insameling insluit of 'n soort spioenasieverhaal interesseer, sodat diegene wat 'n begin soek, dikwels wys op Odysseus se ondersoek na die Trojaanse lyne in Homeros Ilias (maak die spioenasieverhaal so oud soos letterkunde).

Die spioenasieverhaal soos ons dit ken, het nietemin twee eienskappe wat dit onderskei. Een daarvan is dat dit in die hoedanigheid fokus op die spioen en sy aktiwiteite. Die ander is dat dit met die hedendaagse, werklike politiek handel, eerder as dié van 'n histories verre omgewing (soos James Fenimore Cooper se roman van die Revolusionêre Oorlog van 1821 The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground, dikwels beskryf as die eerste Engelstalige spioenieroman), of 'n heeltemal fiktiewe roman (soos Ruritania, in Anthony Hope se 1894 Die gevangene van Zenda). Sulke fiksie is grotendeels 'n produk van die twintigste eeu, waartydens dit ontstaan ​​het uit die kruising van twee genres wat in die dekades daarvoor ontstaan ​​het.

Die eerste is die verhaal van misdaad en opsporing, 'n produk van die romantiek se fassinasie met gemarginaliseerdes en die ekstreme, en die koms van moderne polisiemagte en stedelike lewe soos ons dit ken. Hierdie genre floreer natuurlik teen die laat negentiende eeu, toe Arthur Conan Doyle Sherlock Holmes aan die wêreld voorlê in 'N Studie in Scarlet (1887).

Die tweede is die verhaal van die hedendaagse politiek, waarvan die nuwe gewildheid waarskynlik te wyte is aan die feit dat, soos Jan Bloch dit in sy klassieke uit 1899 gestel het. Die toekoms van die oorlog in sy tegniese, ekonomiese en politieke verhoudings,

In die eeu na die Franse Revolusie het die eens polities passiewe onderdane van Europa toenemend dienspligtiges en reserviste in die weermag van hul nasies geword. Hulle was toenemend lesers, sowel as die gevolg van nasionale onderwysstelsels en die groter beskikbaarheid en laer koste van boeke en koerante, terwyl telegrawe nuus meer onmiddellik gemaak het, en fotografie het 'n ongekende illustrasie van die dekking gegee. Teen die tyd van die Krimoorlog (1854-1855) speel die openbare mening iets soos sy hedendaagse rol in buitelandse beleid, en die neiging het voortgegaan deur die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog (1861-1865), "die eerste groot oorlog waarin 'n groot aantal geletterde mans veg as gewone soldate, 'soos Theodore Ropp opgemerk het Oorlog en die moderne wêreld. En natuurlik was hulle toenemend kiesers namate demokratisering versprei en verdiep het.

Gevolglik was daar nie net 'n gehoor om oor hierdie onderwerpe te skryf nie, maar 'n premie vir 'n beroep op die openbare mening, tuis en in die buiteland (openbare mening in die buiteland speel ook 'n toenemende rol in beleidsberekeninge). Fiksie was een van die komponente van so 'n skryfwerk, met 'n invasieverhaalgenre wat deur verhale soos die "The Battle of Dorking" van George Chesney geloods is, 'n besonder belangrike aspek daarvan. Daar was 'n duidelike plek vir spioene in hierdie scenario's, en van redelik vroeg af het hulle buitelandse agente uitgebeeld wat 'n geteikende land binnekom om geheime te steel, sabotasie te pleeg of om te lê totdat die skietery begin het voordat hulle by die geveg aangesluit het. Die spioenasie was egter slegs 'n klein deel van die verhaal, en die spioene was selde die regte karakters. In 1882's Hoe John Bull Londen verloor hetDit is byvoorbeeld Franse soldate wat as toeriste die land binnegedring het, wat die Britse einde van die tonnel wat Dover met die vasteland verbind, verower, wat die koms van hul kamerade vergemaklik. Die Franse kelner wat in Engeland werk, wat werklik deel uitmaak van 'n indringermag, het 'n cliché geword.

Die konvergensie tussen die twee genres was reeds duidelik in die Sherlock Holmes-verhale, veral in 1894 se "The Adventure of the Naval Treaty", waarin Holmes ingeroep word om 'n ontbrekende kopie op te spoor van 'n geheime Anglo-Italiaanse vlootverdrag, wat die protagoniste was angstig, sou sy weg in die hande kon kry van die Russiese en Franse ambassadeurs. Dit was slegs die eerste van Holmes se uitstappies in sulke aangeleenthede, en Arthur Conan Doyle was verre van die enigste skrywer wat so belang gestel het. William Le Queux's Die Groot Oorlog in Engeland in 1897 (1894) het 'n buitelandse spioen prominent in die plot verskyn, die boosaardige "graaf Von Beilstein", 'n kosmopolitiese avonturier wat in Rusland gearresteer is weens sy kriminele gedrag (Russiese note vervals en dit gebruik het om juwele van twintigduisend pond te bekom), en het 'n Russiese agent geword om sy vryheid te herwin. Nie lank daarna nie, behaal Edward Phillips Oppenheim 'n noemenswaardige sukses in Die geheimsinnige meneer Sabin (1898), die titelfiguur waarin 'n Franse aktrise 'n "Richelieu van sy dae" was - teen Engeland.

Tog weerspieël die destydse heersende neiging om die handelaar van die spioen as 'ongekunsteld' te beskou, en was oorwegend buitelandse booswigte (of as hulle landgenote, verraaiers was), met die rol van die gewoonlik amateur-protagonis meestal die frustrasie van hul planne (soos in die verhale hierbo bespreek). Cooper-agtige verhale waarin 'n spioen die held was, het eers na die eeuwisseling verskyn met boeke soos Max Pemberton se Pro Patria (1901), Rudyard Kipling se avontuur in Indië Kim (1901) en Erskine Childers ' Riddle of the Sands (1903).

Die romans van Pemberton en Childers beeld Britte uit wat op geheimsinnige buitelandse dinge te doen kom - in die geval van Pemberton, 'n geheime Franse plan om 'n Kanaaltunnel te bou, in Childers, die avonture van 'n paar Britte wat die Friese kus vaar wat op geheimsinnige doen en late beland het in die area. Deur dit te ondersoek, leer hulle van Duitse voorbereidings om die gebied te gebruik as 'n verhoog vir 'n inval in Brittanje. In Kipling se roman word die titulêre protagonis, 'n Anglo-Ierse weeskind, vasgevang in die Groot Spel tussen Brittanje en Rusland. Vandag identifiseer historici van die genre ook algemeen Kim of Raaisel as die eerste moderne spioenieroman.

Natuurlik kan dit aangevoer word Kim is in wese 'n pikareske wat die vroeë deel van 'n spioen se loopbaan volg, en Raaisel 'n seilverhaal wat spioenasie behels. Dit was egter nie lank nie, voordat skrywers begin het met die vervaardiging van meer volledig gefokusde werke op hierdie tema, en in die proses die rowwe grense van die veld vasgestel het en die kerntemas, bekommernisse en plotformules daarvan - sowel as die omvang van die standpunte binne wat daaropvolgende skrywers oor die algemeen gewerk het.

William Le Queux het sy vroeë uitstappies in hierdie gebied verbygegaan as skrywer van invalsverhale in Spies of the Kaiser: Plan van die ondergang van Engeland (1909) bied 'n versameling losweg verbonde verhale aan wat gerig is op Duitse planne teen Engeland (veral bekend as diefstal van tegniese geheime as basis vir 'n spioenasieverhaal). Edward Phillips Oppenheim het dieselfde gedoen, die boek waarvoor hy vandag die beste onthou word, Die Groot Nabootsing (1920) opvallend as 'n vroeë behandeling van die idee van die driedubbele agent en diepgaande mol. Van John Buchan Die nege en dertig stappe (1915) het ons 'n onskuldige man gegee wat gedwing is om op vlug te gaan deur skurke wat hy byna eenhandig moet opneem om sy naam skoon te maak en die dag te red (en het die spioengenre sy eerste hoofreeks in Richard Hannay gegee), terwyl HC "Sapper" McNeile's Bulldog Drummond (1920) was 'n uiters invloedryke proto-James Bond-avontuur.

Intussen behandel Joseph Conrad spioenasie reeds as 'n onderwerp van ernstige drama en bied hy 'n meer kritiese beskouing van die spel self in Die geheime agent (1907) en Onder Westerse oë (1911). Verhale van lomp mannetjies wat slegte speletjies speel wat menselewens vernietig, terrorisme en terrorisme, agentprovokate en valse vlagaanvalle - sowel as hoe die spel lyk vanuit 'n dubbelagent, en 'n voorsmakie van latere verhale oor verdorwenheid van die orde kragte. W. Somerset Maugham het ironie en humor na die genre gebring Ashenden (1928), sowel as 'n sterk spioenasiegevoel as 'n kwessie van vervelige roetine, 'n bewustheid van die omvang en organisasie van moderne intelligensie -operasies, en 'n onvergeetlike spymaster in 'R' ('n generasie voordat Ian Fleming ons 'M' gegee het) ).

In die volgende dekade het Eric Ambler die konvensies van Oppenheim, Buchan en geselskap op hul kop gestaan ​​- en 'n linkse blik op hulle gebied - in romans soos Die Dark Frontier (1936), asook Agtergrond vir gevaar (1937), Oorsaak vir alarm (1938) en 'N Kis vir Dimitrios (1939). Die Dark Frontier was 'n reguit parodie op die konvensies van die genre (wat 'n protagonis aangebied het wat nie sy ware identiteit onthou nie en eerder dink dat hy 'n legendariese superoperasie was Die Bourne -identiteit, en die tema om kernwapens uit die hande van 'skelm' state te hou), terwyl die buitestaanders in romans soos die Agtergrond vir gevaar gee nie 'n heldhaftige weergawe van hulself op die manier van Buchan se Richard Hannay nie, maar is bloot gewone mense wat om hul lewens veg. Graham Greene, wat ongeveer dieselfde tyd in die genre begin het, het 'n soortgelyke kursus in boeke gevolg Hierdie geweer vir huur (1936), wat 'n bedrywige voorstel wat boosaardige werkgewers op die been bring nadat hulle hom verraai het. Die verhale van Ambler en Greene is ook opmerklik vanweë die uitbeelding van die bedreiging omdat dit nie afkomstig is van buitelanders of inheemse radikale nie (bv. Agtergrond vir gevaar en Oorsaak vir alarmof nyweraars wat oorlog verwelkom, of selfs uitlok, vir die wins wat dit hulle sal inhou Hierdie geweer vir huur) en heldhaftigheid wat nie in 'ons' mense is nie, maar diegene wat gewoonlik as skurke beskou word (soos Ambler se Sowjet -superspy Andreas P. Zaleshoff).

As ons na hierdie lys werke kyk, lyk dit asof daar later nie meer later skrywers sou kon byvoeg nie, behalwe die duidelike aanpassing van die genre by veranderings in die internasionale politiek (die uitbreek van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog of die Koue Oorlog), tegnologie (soos vliegtuigreise, kommunikasiesatelliete en rekenaars) en houdings teenoor ras, geslag en geslag (een manier waarop Drummond was nie soos Bond), die aanvaarding van 'moeilike', modernistiese verteltegnieke (wat elke genre in die loop van die twintigste eeu aangeraak het) en die neiging van boeke om te verleng ('n kwessie van tendense in die uitgewersbedryf as geheel). Die genre het nietemin oor die daaropvolgende dekades op drie noemenswaardige maniere ontwikkel.

Die eerste is die veranderende aard van die protagoniste. In die vroeë romans hierbo genoem (die eienaardige werke van Conrad opsy), was die helde tipies mans met openbare skoolopleiding, onafhanklike inkomste en dienende here-sportlui tuis in klubs in Londen en op landelike landgoedere. Hulle het gereeld lewens gelei deur rykdom te erf (soos Everard Dominey in Die Groot Nabootsing, Sapper's Drummond, en die naamlose protagonis van Geoffrey Household se 1939 Skelm Mannetjie), of dit reeds opgehoop het (soos Buchan se Hannay, wat aan die begin van Die nege en dertig stappe het reeds in die suide van Afrika sy fortuin verdien voordat hy na Brittanje gekom het). Sulke werksgeleenthede wat hulle wel beklee het, was gewoonlik van die aard waarteen die hoër klas gewoonlik aangetrokke was, en wat waarskynlik 'n lang verlof sou toelaat (soos Childers 'Carruthers in Die raaisel van die sand, 'n amptenaar van die buitelandse kantoor kan 'n maand verlof neem net om te gaan seil en te skiet in die Baltiese Oseaan, of vir die saak, Ambler -helde hou daarvan Kis vir Dimitriosse Charles Latimer). Hulle was geneig om konserwatiewe uitkykpunte te hê en het by die politieke en sosiale ortodoksie van hul tyd gehou, waaronder 'n simplistiese nasionalisme. En hulle het gewoonlik op eie inisiatief die avontuur aangegaan, dikwels na 'n toevallige ontmoeting, met 'n rustelose geaardheid en 'n smaak vir avontuurlike faktore in hul besluit (laasgenoemde het in die geval van Drummond die duidelikste behandel).

Later was protagoniste minder geneig om sulke voorbeelde van hoogmoedigheid te wees, soos met die naamlose held van Len Deighton Die IPCRESS -lêer (1961) en die opvolgers daarvan, en Adam Hall's Quiller, wat die leser opmerksaam vertel dat 'Ons is nie gentlemen' terwyl hy kyk hoe 'n lid van die opposisie in 'n motor doodbrand nadat hy besluit het om hom nie in te red nie Die Berlynse memorandum (1966) .1 Hulle was nie net meer geneig om ambivalent oor die spel te wees nie, maar hulle was dikwels sinies oor nasionalisme en politieke ideologie. Dit was nie net die geval toe hulle buitestaanders ongelukkig genoeg was om deurmekaar te raak in die onderneming nie, soos die joernalis Thomas Fowler in Graham Greene se Die Stil Amerikaner (1955), maar ook toe hulle professionele intelligensiepersoneel was, soos John le Carré -karakters soos Alec Leamas in Die spioen wat uit die koue ingekom het (1963). Soms het dit selfs tot vyandigheid of minagting van die establishment gegaan, en nie net linkses nie, maar ook regse skrywers en sulke gevoelens (soos in William Haggard se eiesoortige kolonel Russell -romans). Boonop het die professionele persone al hoe meer pittige amateurs soos Bulldog Drummond uitgedruk, beslis wat die reekskarakters betref.

Die tweede is 'n toenemende erkenning van, en reaksie op, wat nuttig die 'klein klinknagel' probleem genoem kan word. Soos Maugham dit gestel het Ashenden,

In die roman werk Maugham binne die raamwerk wat hy beskryf het om ons 'n protagonis te gee wat nie voltooide aksies sien nie (die drama in sy helde se avonture wat gewoonlik deur ander gebeurtenisse en faktore verskaf word), maar dit was 'n rariteit, en ander skrywers het dit hanteer op twee verskillende maniere.

Een groep het dit eenvoudig geïgnoreer of daaraan gewerk, met helde wat gelukkig meer deelgeneem het, byvoorbeeld omdat sommige onwaarskynlike omstandighede hulle gedwing het om op hul eie te werk (soos in die verhale deur Buchan en Ambler hierbo genoem). Die ander groep bestee toenemend aandag aan die 'uitgebreide en ingewikkelde masjien' en beskryf sy werksaamhede breedvoerig, sowel burokraties as tegnologies. Ian Fleming se romans het James Bond byvoorbeeld as deel van 'n groot organisasie voorgestel en die leser baie bewus gemaak van die feit in romans soos Moonraker (1955) en Donderbal (1961) (selfs al het sy lidmaatskap in die spesiale dubbel-o-afdeling hom in die soorte uitsonderlike posisies geplaas wat hierbo genoem is). Ander, latere skrywers het verder gegaan en nie hul vertelling gekonsentreer op een karakter of 'n paar karakters nie, maar eerder 'n groot aantal standpuntkarakters gebruik om te wys, asook om meer aspekte van die werking van die masjien te vertel, sodat die plot werklik die kern van die verhaal, en die nasionale veiligheid stel die ware protagonis, met die oënskynlike karakters eintlik net 'klinknaels' daarin. (Hoogstens kan een van die karakters as 'n protagonis herken word omdat hy 'n plek in die masjien inneem waarmee hy 'n groter beeld van die prentjie kan kry as die ander.)

Frederick Forsyth was 'n deurslaggewende ontwikkelaar van laasgenoemde benadering, met romans soos sy klassieke Die Dag van die Jakkals (1971), waarin die titulêre sluipmoordenaar die verhaal as 'n kode begin en eindig, en die opposisie is nie soseer Claude Lebel (wat eers halfpad in die verhaal ingevoer word nie), maar die Franse veiligheidsstaat waaroor Lebel uitsonderlike magte uitoefen vir 'n kort tydjie. Sewe jaar later het Forsyth die benadering aansienlik uitgebrei Die Devil's Alternative (1978), net soos Larry Collins en Dominique LaPierre Die vyfde ruiter (1980). Daar kan egter gesê word dat Tom Clancy hierdie 'epiese' benadering tot die verhaal van die internasionale veiligheidskrisis, sy held, Jack Ryan, toon (wat die eerste keer in 1984 bekendgestel is) Die jag vir rooi Oktober) nie 'n veldoperateur nie, maar 'n intelligensie -ontleder, wat in die vervolgverhale posisies van agtereenvolgens groter verantwoordelikheid beklee het - tot aan die einde van die presidentskap self Ere -skuld (1994).

Die derde is 'n laat, maar beduidende Amerikanisering van die genre uit die sewentigerjare. Daar was beslis 'n paar Amerikaners wat voorheen 'n mate van sukses in die genre gekry het, soos Edward Aarons, skrywer van die Sam Durrell -romans, Donald Hamilton, wat die Matt Helm -reeks geskryf het, en Richard Condon met die klassieke Die Manchuriaanse kandidaat (1959), maar byna al die belangrike vernuwers op hierdie gebied voor 1970, waarvan almal die skrywers onthou en gelees het, is Britte. In sy geskiedenis van die misdaadverhaal uit 1972, Sterflike gevolge, Het Julian Symons bespiegel dat dit te wyte was aan

Daar lyk iets in hierdie analise, veral as die Amerikaanse skrywers wat in hierdie tyd 'n plons gemaak het, soos Robert Ludlum in Die erfenis van Scarlatti (1971) en Die Matareesirkel (1979), Trevanian in Die Eiger -sanksie (1972), James Grady in Ses dae van die Condor (1973) en Charles McCarry in Die Miernik -dossier (1973) en Die trane van die herfs (1975), bied meer gevarieerde en genuanseerde sienings oor sulke aangeleenthede. Daar is geen twyfel dat baie Amerikaanse skrywers groot kommersiële sukses geniet het (soos Ludlum en Clancy gedoen het), en hoewel dit moeilik sou wees om te wys op 'n Amerikaner met die status van 'n Greene of 'n le Carré, was daar egter iets meer gelykheid aan die status van latere Amerikaanse en Britse skrywers op die gebied.

Al drie hierdie veranderinge was teen die einde van die sewentigerjare goed gevestig, teen die tyd dat die spioengenre weer 'n bietjie verslete begin lyk het. In die lig daarvan herinner ek my nogmaals aan die argument van John Barnes in die opstel "Reading for the Undead" dat genres geneig is om 'n lewensiklus van drie generasies te volg, terwyl die eerste generasie iets nuuts ontdek, 'n tweede generasie wat 'n gevestigde veld vind en gaan voort om sy steeds onbenutte potensiaal te ontwikkel ('n proses wat waarskynlik gelei sal word deur 'n kritiese herbeoordeling van vorige werk) en die derde minder besorg oor innovasie as om 'goed te doen', soos dit verander

Dit is maklik om in die strik te val om feite by teorieë te pas. Tog lyk dit asof die spioenasieverhaal (baie soos die raaisel en wetenskapfiksie) na hierdie kursus gegaan het, met skrywers soos Childers, Le Queux en Oppenheim wat eerste generasie vroeë innoveerders was, en Ambler en Greene vroeë tweede generasie skrywers wat nuwe idees (polities sowel as esteties) en groter vaardigheid na 'n genre bring wat reeds dreig om muf te word voor hul verskyning.

In die derde generasie, duidelik aan die gang in die sewentigerjare, was daar 'n groter neiging om terug te kyk, blykbaar uit die feit dat die genre so oorbeklemtoon is dat parodie nie herken word nie, soos gebeur het met Trevanian se Jonathan Hemlock-romans en Shibumi (1979), wat bykans universeel deur kritici sowel as die algemene gehore gelees is as regstreekse rillers (tot groot frustrasie van die skrywer). Daar is ook 'n toenemende prominensie van verhale in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (en ander vroeëre tydperke) in die produksie van nuwe skrywers soos Robert Ludlum en Ken Follett, en die opstanding van James Bond deur John Gardner en Glidrose Publications in 1981 met Lisensie hernu.3

Dit lyk asof generiese grense in hierdie stadium van die lewensiklus vaag word, en hierdie neiging was ook duidelik in die lewe van die spioenasieverhaal, en word toenemend gehidreer met elemente uit ander genres wat die belangrikste belang bied, sowel as met die spioenasie van Craig Thomas. avonture "soos Firefox (1977), militêre techno-rillers soos Tom Clancy se Jack Ryan-boeke, Dale Brown s'n Dag van die Cheetah (1989) of Payne Harrison's Stormloos onversetlik (1989), en die Dirk Pitt -romans van Clive Cussler, soos Verhoog die Titanic! (1976) en Deep Six (1984), wat spioenasie en militêre optrede kombineer met historiese raaisel en maritieme avontuur (op 'n manier terugkeer na Childers).

Ontwikkelings binne die genre eenkant, blyk dit dat wêreldgebeure so 'n wending aangemoedig het. Die neiging om terug te kyk, kan gesien word as ten minste gedeeltelik 'n weerspieëling van die kulturele stemming van die sewentigerjare en 'n gevoel van nasionale agteruitgang (namate die naoorlogse oplewing eindig, die energiekrisis toeslaan en die agteruitgang van koloniale moondhede soos Brittanje en Frankryk het sy gang geloop), en van ambivalensie oor die huidige politiek (in reaksie op Viëtnam, Watergate en dies meer) wat vroeër tydperke gemaak het waarin aansprake op nasionale grootheid meer geloofwaardig en duidelik "goeie ouens" en "slegte ouens" was "makliker om aantrekliker te identifiseer (soos die Tweede Wêreldoorlog) .4

Dit is ook die moeite werd om te onthou dat die spioenasieverhaal ontstaan ​​het in 'n era van diepgaande internasionale spanning, waaroor die gevaar van sistemiese oorlog met groot mag voortdurend hang en groot ideologiese spanning, terwyl die liberale samelewing uit die negentiende eeu uitdagings van links en reg. Die koms van détente en die gedeeltelike afname van die spanning in die Koue Oorlog, wat dit moontlik meegebring het, het dit miskien vir sommige 'n bietjie minder oortuigend laat lyk en vroeëre konflikte was aantreklik aantrekliker. 'N Dekade later het die einde van die Koue Oorlog 'n groot deel van die oorblywende stoom uit die genre geneem. (Om dit reguit te sê, industriële spioenasie, terrorisme, internasionale misdaad, skelm state en die swak moontlikheid van Westerse konflik met Rusland of China was geen plaasvervanger vir die Sowjets nie.) Spioenasieromanse is daarna voortgegaan deur nuwe skrywers en soos#8211 Charles Cumming, Henry Porter, Barry Eisler en Daniel Silva - sowel as die ouer skrywers wat so gevestig is dat hulle byna immuun is vir sulke skommelinge in die mark - soos Forsyth, Clancy en le Carré (almal publiseer steeds). Hulle boekverkope en algehele kulturele impak was egter minder indrukwekkend as voorheen (hoewel Clancy nog steeds een van die topverkopers van die 90's was), en noemenswaardige innovasie skaarser, en die neiging om agteruit te kyk, groei net meer 5 In die 2000's was die meer suksesvolle verhale oor internasionale intrige meer geneig om histories-godsdienstig-vrymesselaars se raaisels in die manier van Dan Brown se Robert Langdon-romans (of Matthew Reilly se Jack West-romans) as konvensionele politieke intrige. Ek sien min tekens dat die genre 'n terugkeer gaan maak, maar om die term van John Barnes te gebruik, is die 'hiernamaals' ten minste 'n teenwoordigheid in die kulturele landskap.

NOTAS
1. Fleming's Bond kan beskou word as halfpad tussen hierdie en 'n latere generasie aksiehelde. Soos die ouer protagonisstyl, het hy na Eton gegaan, 'n onafhanklike inkomste geniet en 'n huishoudster het na sy woonstel omgesien. Hy is egter ook 'n jarelange professionele intelligensie-werker in die Britse Geheime Diens (en een met 'n "lisensie om dood te maak"), verwerp Victoriaanse sedes in sy houding teenoor dobbel en seks, en dit is nie onbekend om ambivalensie uit te spreek oor sy beroep en die doelwitte wat dit dien.
2. Symons skryf hierdie verskil toe aan die "direkte betrokkenheid van die Verenigde State by verskillende oorloë". Dit is egter nie oortuigend nie, aangesien Brittanje langer en meer betrokke was by beide die Wêreldoorloë as die Verenigde State (en baie meer daarin gely het), baie nader aan die "frontlinie" in die Koue Oorlog en in die dekades na 1945, betrokke by tientalle konflikte toe dit van sy ryk losgemaak is, nie almal klein nie (soos met die Maleisiese noodgeval). Die konteks waarin hulle die oorloë gevoer het, lyk eerder relevant. Die spioengenre verskyn in Brittanje tydens 'n tydperk van kommer oor die agteruitgang van die land in vergelyking met ander, stygende moondhede (soos Duitsland), vrese wat in die loop van die eeu werklik geword het. In die sewentigerjare, toe die verandering plaasgevind het vir Amerikaanse spioenasiefiksie, was daar 'n soortgelyke stemming in die Verenigde State (te midde van die Viëtnam -oorlog, die einde van die ekonomiese orde in Bretton Woods, die oliekrisis en ander sulke uitdagings). Hieruit kan 'n mens die gevolgtrekking maak dat die genre floreer in 'n tydperk waarin die vroom eenvoud van jingoïsme en nasionale eksepsionalisme verskyn, en die openbare mening in ag neem met die meer ingewikkelde realiteite van die lewe.
3. Ludlum se eerste boek, Die erfenis van Scarlatti (1971), gebruik 'n voorval in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog as 'n raam vir 'n verhaal van die opkoms van die Nazi's in die 20's en die Die Rhinemann Exchange (1974) was tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geheel en al 'n belangrike deel van Die Tweeling -aanspraakmakers (1976), en die opening van Die Holcroft -verbond (1978), wat as tema die naoorlogse nalatenskap van die Derde Ryk gehad het. Ken Follett het sy naam gemaak as 'n riller met 'n verhaal uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Die oog van die naald (1978), net soos Jack Higgins met die verhaal van die spioene en kommando's Die arend het geland (1975). Frederick Forsyth se eerste twee rillers, Die Dag van die Jakkals en Die Odessa -lêer (1973), was albei in die vroeë 1960's, tydens die afgelope tydperke van politieke krisis. Oor die algemeen het die belangrikste werke van die 1950's en 1960's nie vroeër tydperke gebruik nie.
4. Sommige Britse skrywers het beslis vergoed vir die vermindering van Brittanje deur die land se 'spesiale verhouding' met die Verenigde State te beklemtoon, soos Fleming in romans soos 1953 gedoen het Casino Royale (waar die kombinasie van Amerikaanse kontant en Britse vaardigheid Le Chiffre verslaan het), en soos ander tot op hede bly doen het. Teen die 1960's en 1970's was baie skrywers egter meer ironies, soos le Carré in Die kykglasoorlog (1965), 'N Klein stad in Duitsland (1968), en Tinker, kleermaker, soldaat, spioen (1974), en Joseph Hone in Die Privaatsektor (1971) – in al die boeke, die onvermoë of onwilligheid van Britse amptenare om by die agteruitgang van hul land aan te pas, was 'n prominente tema.
5. Een van le Carré se best ontvangde romans na die Koue Oorlog, 1995's Die kleermaker van Panama, was 'n huldeblyk aan Greene's Ons man in Havana (1958). 'N Ander voorbeeld hiervan is die besluit van die uitgewers van die post-Fleming James Bond-romans om 007 na die 1960's terug te keer, soos gebeur het in Sebastian Faulks se Duiwel mag omgee (2008). 'N Aantal outeurs het sulke huldeblyke ook gekombineer met elemente van wetenskapfiksie en fantasie, soos Charles Stross in sy' Bob Howard 'romans en verhale, en Tim Powers in Verklaar (2001).

(Hierdie opstel is voorheen gepubliseer as twee afsonderlike poste, "A History of the Spy Story, Part I: The Birth of a Genre" op 1 Februarie 2012 en "A History of the Spy Story, Part II: The Life of a Genre "op 6 Februarie 2012.)


Geskiedenis van Raritan I - Geskiedenis


William Baziotes
Wit voël
Olie op doek
(62,5 x 50,5 x 2,75 duim), 1957
Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Geskenk van Seymour H. Knox Jr.
© Boedel van William Baziotes
Foto: Albright-Knox Art Gallery/
Art Resource, NY
Frontispice Winter 2021

..die manier waarop 'n broer deernis vir 'n broer voel..so lyk 'n vredelose koninkryk vir my: nie 'n geknaagde lamsboud in 'n tierhok onder 'n vers van Jesaja nie, maar eerder twee mede-lyers wat aan mekaar gebind is teen hul wil.
Winter 2021, bladsy 71

Welkom by Raritaan-'n tydskrif van uitgebreide ondersoek. In die tradisie van onafhanklike tydskrifte van die Spectator tot Partisan Review, Raritaan bied skrywers en lesers die geleentheid vir volgehoue ​​nadenke en estetiese plesier, ongekunsteld deur akademiese jargon. Gestig in 1981 deur die vooraanstaande literêre kritikus Richard Poirier, en ondersteun deur Rutgers Universiteit, Raritaan is daarop gemik om die algemene leser by almal te bereik en om 'n besondere leeservaring te bied, wat 'n betrokke en bevraagtekenende benadering tot allerhande kulturele tekste koester: literêr, artistiek, politiek, histories, sosiologies, selfs wetenskaplik.

Ons bydraers is enkele van die mees prominente denkers van ons tyd - David Bromwich, Adam Phillips, Jacqueline Rose, Pankaj Mishra - sowel as talentvolle jonger skrywers wie se stemme ons pas begin hoor het - Corey Robin, Elizabeth Samet, Timothy Parrish, Kate Northrop, Jennifer Burns. In fiksie, poësie en vertalings sowel as reflekterende opstelle, Raritaan toon aan dat ondersoekende ondersoeke volkome versoenbaar is met persoonlike styl, en dat intellektuele lewe op sy beste 'n vorm van ernstige spel is. Ons nooi u uit om te verken Raritaan en as u hou van wat u sien, teken in op ons tydskrif.

Jackson Lears
Hoofredakteur

Jackson Lears: honderd sekondes
Redakteursnota - Somer 2020
Op 'n apokaliptiese oomblik voel die volk wat altyd beweer het dat dit 'n unieke verlossingsrol in die wêreldgeskiedenis speel, skielik in 'n ander vorm oorgedra. In die rykste land op aarde het die gevolge van die COVID-19-pandemie besonders katastrofies geblyk te wees. Lees meer.

Jackson Lears: honderd sekondes
Redakteursnota - Somer 2020

Keuses uit ons Winter 2021 -uitgawe ...

Twee gedigte
Bruce Bond

Seisoenale brande waar hulle ons ook al mag vind,
hier aan die rand van die noordelike woud,

aangesteek by oorsprong deur wolk, ongeluk,
of 'n hoëspanningskabel brand hulle 'n pad

'N Geskiedenis van vuur
Lucienne Bestall
BBC News Online, Maandag, 12 November 2018. Die nuus van vandag is swart van as. 'N Veldbrand brand in Malibu, die stad Paradise word platgeslaan en die lug in Kalifornië is donker van rook.

En nou, laat ons almal speel "Wat is my lyn?"
Willard Spiegelman

Op 9 Mei 1961, aan die begin van sy twee jaar lange termyn as voorsitter van die Federal Communications Commission, het Newton Minow 'n toespraak gehou by die National Association of Broadcasters. Een klein frase daarvan kom in die nasionale bewussyn en het sedertdien weerklink, hoewel dit gewoonlik uit verband geruk is.


Die geboorte van 'n kanaal

Gedurende die vroeë negentiende eeu was die industriële en vervoerrevolusies in hul kinderskoene, maar die verwagtinge van innovasie, doeltreffendheid, groei en rykdom wat hulle beloof het, sou die Amerikaanse verbeelding binnekort inhaal en die samelewing verander namate die eeu vorder. One such grand transportation achievement was the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. Its instant success ignited “canal fever” across the young country – canal projects reaching inland markets exploded across the eastern seaboard. These man-made waterways opened grand possibilities of expansion, development and untapped western markets. They were the new exciting internal improvement discussed by many – efficient transportation routes that could link resources, manufacturing centers and markets. And yet, while canals were new to the United States, they were well established and used across Europe and Asia. New Jersey’s Delaware and Raritan Canal was envisioned as just such an improvement. An inland waterway that reached across central New Jersey to provide a direct, quick and safe transportation route for the movement of freight between Philadelphia and New York. The idea had success written all over it.

While New Jersey roadways may have expanded from the early colonial period through the 18th century, they had not greatly improved by the 19th century. Travel remained difficult and always weather dependent. New Jersey lay between two busy centers of commerce – New York and Philadelphia – and the movement of goods, produce and local commodities between them was big business. Overland shipments could be laborious and prone to delays due to poor roads. Ocean transport, while more reliable, could take up to two weeks even in good weather. For this reason, merchants and businessmen like John Neilson and his son James of New Brunswick, were interested in and supported transportation improvements such as turnpikes, toll roads, and especially canals.

The turn of the 19th century ushered in the beginnings of the turnpike and steamboat eras which further served to improve transportation connections from New Brunswick to New York and Trenton to Philadelphia. Men such as Cornelius Vanderbilt, who established a successful steamboat line in New Brunswick, made their fortunes from these innovations. With backing and investment from the business and political communities, improvements to facilitate the ease of movement for people and products began early in the century. In 1807 the Trenton and New Brunswick Turnpike or “Straight Turnpike” (Route 1 today) opened for operation and while its surface was gravel, stone and timber, the majority of roads crossing central New Jersey remained little more than improved dirt paths. The Straight Turnpike was an improvement and viable alternative, but transportation was still a laborious and costly proposition. Change, however, was on the horizon.

The opening and quick success of the Erie Canal in New York ushered in fevered interest in canal building here in New Jersey. Talk of a canal across the central part of the state, essentially expediting trade between New York City and Philadelphia, was not new and is thought to have originated with William Penn in the 1690s. Attempts to approve such a project in the New Jersey legislature had taken place three times early in the 19th century but it wasn’t until the fourth attempt that the Delaware and Raritan Canal charter of 1830 was finally passed due in large part to the dogged determination, lobbying expertise and lavish entertaining efforts of James Neilson – a staunch believer in the potential financial benefit such a canal would pose.


Geskiedenis

In the early 1900&rsquos, the trend was for wealthy New York City families to acquire rural property within a comfortable distance outside of the city. This was in part because they desired an escape from the immigrant crowded city, and also to have a forum to grandstand their newfound wealth. Wealth which was made possible by the recent Industrial Revolution. Here they built extravagant &ldquoCountry Homes&rdquo and had parties typical of the Gilded Age, showcasing their profound success and prestige.

In 1905, using her vast family fortune, Kate Macy Ladd and her husband Walter Ladd followed this trend and acquired roughly 1,000 acres in the rolling hills of Somerset County, near the last train stop out of Manhattan. They commissioned architects Guy Lowell and Henry Janeway Hardenbergh to design their 33,000 square-foot brick Tudor mansion on their estate which they named Natirar, an anagram for Raritan. Green lawns slope gracefully from the mansion down to the very banks of the winding Raritan which traverses the estate for more then a mile in its course.

The architectural features of this Manor House are as timeless as it&rsquos hilltop location. The exquisite brickwork, intricate limestone trim, and slate roof highlight the exterior features while molded plaster ceilings wood-linen fold panels and teak floors adorn many rooms in the interior. Several of these features carried through to other structures once present on the estate such as cottages, carriage houses and gatehouses.

Unlike many of their contemporaries, the Ladd&rsquos did not host glamorous parties or flaunt their wealth. Natirar became the primary residence of the Ladd&rsquos, and Kate&rsquos Quaker upbringing and values inspired her into a philanthropic life with a mission to help others. Specifically, she opened an estate cottage, The Maple Cottage, to help ladies in distress regain their strength after illness. After her death in 1945, the convalescence center was moved into the mansion where it provided resources to women for a period of 50 years from the death of Walter in 1933.

In 1983 the now 500 acres property was sold to The King of Morocco, Hassan II who only visited the property a handful of times. Malcolm Forbes, a friend of the King originally introduced the property to him as a way to have a property close to Princeton University, where the King&rsquos sons attended. After his death, Mohammed VI of Morocco sold the 500 acres for $22 million to Somerset County in 2003. The ninety acres at the top of the property, which includes the Mansion, was then leased in a public-private partnership with the intent to restore this generational property back to greatness.


History of Raritan I - History

Pre-Colonial: Leni Lenape inhabit the region, utilizing a series of established paths, or trails, through the area that would become Sayreville. These include the Matchaponix, Deerfield, and the Minisink Trails, which the Lenape used to cross the Raritan River each Spring and Fall at present-day River Road, a location they called Matokshegan. Lenape artifacts have been discovered in numerous locations along these trails including the Winding Woods and Winding River developments and along Jernee Mill Road.

1663: In the Fall of this year, Dutch and English ships travel up the Raritan River for the first time, both with the intent of purchasing land from the Lenape. What they found was a handsome and fertile countryside marked by salt marshes, meadows, and forests of pine, oak, chestnut, and hickory. Throughout the low valley, the Lenni Lenape cultivated fields of maize, beans, and pumpkins. The Dutch named the large river they had explored for the Raritong tribe who they had encountered on the riverbanks.

17th Century: The East Jersey Proprietors purchase a large parcel of land between the Raritan and South Rivers (including most of present-day Sayreville) from two Lenape identified as the sachems Neskorhock and Pamehelett, who sold the land in exchange for: &ldquoone hundred & fifty fathoms of white wampam, fifty fathoms of black wampam, sixty match coats, sixty shirts, twenty yards of stoneware, four hundred knives, one hundred tobacco tongues, one hundred tobacco pipes, twenty pounds of tobacco, fifty yards of plates, twenty brass kettles, twenty guns, forty blankets, fifty pairs of stockings, fifty hatchets, fifty fine tobacco bowls, One hundred pounds of lead, eight and twenty pounds of beads, thirty glass bottles, thirty tin kettles, fifty pounds of gunpowder, twenty gallons of wine, two barrels of beer, and two barrels of cider.&rdquo

1684: Andrew Radford begins operating a ferry between Perth Amboy, the capital of East Jersey, and South Amboy, then known as the &ldquoOuter Plantations&rdquo or &ldquoDetached Plantations&rdquo of Perth Amboy. As a consequence, South Amboy becomes a port city of some consequence, serving as a vital link to stagecoaches that carried travelers between New York and Philadelphia along Lawrie&rsquos Road, now a significant thoroughfare in the colony.

1702: The Morgan family receives a land grant of about 500 acres from the East Jersey proprietors and settle in South Amboy along the banks of Cheesequake Creek, where they built a mansion named &ldquoSandcombe.&rdquo This entire area would take their family name.

1775: The Morgan family establishes a kiln at Cheesequake Creek where they produce pottery with local clay. Captain James Morgan (1734-1784) and his son, Major General James Morgan (1757-1822), both served and were briefly taken prisoner in the American Revolution, during which time the British ransacked their mansion, breaking 23 windows, taking everything of value, and tossing their valuable kiln into Cheesequake Creek. Major General Morgan later served in the 12th US Congress and then the War of 1812.

1777: One morning in July, over 150 British ships of war appear on the horizon and quickly fill the waters of the Raritan Bay. The residents of the Amboys watched in awe as Admiral Richard Howe commanded a landing of over 9,000 troops on Staten Island. In response, Governor Livingston appointed Captain James Morgan to guard the south side of the Raritan Bay and River with a militia of 50 men. Thus, the 2nd Regiment, Middlesex County Militia was formed, comprised of local men and boys, charged with the duty of harassing and impeding Redcoats at any sign of movement. Nighttime raids on the British ships anchored in the bay were frequent, as locals in small boats launched from the many rivers, inlets, and creeks along the shore. The Ye Old Spye Inn on Cheesequake Creek was one place where raiding patriots sought refuge.

1818: With the abolition of slavery in New Jersey, Maj. Gen. Morgan, along with a number of other wealthy landowning families from the hinterlands of South Amboy, devise and execute a plan to secretly smuggle their slaves to the South for profit. In March of that year, by cover of night, the sloop Thorpe left Wilmurt&rsquos dock in South Amboy and transferred a number of slaves into the brig Mary Ann, which was waiting in the bay to transport the human cargo to New Orleans. The clandestine operation was later exposed, but none of the men ever faced charges.

Early 19th Century: Settlement of the area increased, particularly along the Raritan River, where a number of small farms were established. River traffic increased as well with the establishment of steamboat service between New Brunswick and New York City and the transport of fruit, namely apples, peaches, and pears, from from the docks of the Village of Washington on the South River. The name &ldquoRoundabout&rdquo enters into common usage, a name derived from the circuitous bend in the Raritan where the Letts, Price, and French families had settled. Each of these families were engaged in the production of pottery.

1820s: Steamboats fill the waters of the Raritan as competing interests fight to offer the fastest passage between New York and New Brunswick. The Antelope, owned by the Perth Amboy Steamboat Company, was one of the most popular steamers on the Raritan during the 19th century. Capable of holding 600 passengers, it offered free excursions from docks along the Raritan to the beach at Keyport, and its interior showcased two large paintings of Washington crossing the Delaware. For many steamboat passengers, however, the accommodations inside the steamer were no less more impressive than the scenery the trip afforded its passengers. One passenger traveling from New Brunswick wrote: &ldquoThe Raritan finds its sinuous way through broad green salt meadows that stretch off like soft carpets until they meet the clay beds and tangled woods of the Jersey Shore. It was indeed Holland the same flat landscape and long stretches of green marsh. One constantly expected a windmill to appear on the sedge, or the spires and crooked tiled roofs of a Dutch village.&rdquo

1830: Charles Ferson Durant, a native of Jersey City, becomes the first American balloonist when his first &ldquoflight&rdquo from Battery Park in Manhattan landed on the Johnson family farm in South Amboy (present-day site of Arleth School in Sayreville) on September 9, 1830.

1831: Local interests dig the Washington Canal in an effort to shorten the route from the Raritan River to the docks on the South River.

1832: The Camden & Amboy Railroad, New Jersey&rsquos first railroad, establishes passenger service between South Amboy and Bordentown along the old &ldquoLawrie&rsquos Road,&rdquo present-day Bordentown Avenue. Carriages were initially pulled along the tracks by teams of horses. On September 9, 1833 the steam locomotive John Bull was put into service. Weighing ten tons, the locomotive was disassembled before being shipped from England and then reassembled upon arrival. The John Bull was a marvel of its age, and many famous Americans are known to have been passengers on the Camden & Amboy Railroad, including Presidents John Quincy Adams and James K. Polk.

1840: James Woods constructs the first brick factory at Roundabout. The first schoolhouse is erected on Quaid Street that same year.

1848: Methodists begin holding regular services at Roundabout with the coming of a &ldquocircuit rider,&rdquo a preacher who traveled from town to town holding services for local populations. The methodists would later construct the oldest extant church in Sayreville.

1850: James R. Sayre of Newark and Peter Fisher of Fishkill, New York enter into a partnership to form a brick company at the Roundabout. The Sayre and Fisher Company quickly begins purchasing large tracts of clay-rich land along the south bank of the Raritan River, eventually buying out most of the small pottery and brick manufacturers then operating along the river, including the brickworks of James Woods.

1860: The first post office is established by Sayre & Fisher at Roundabout. Though still a part of South Amboy, the name &ldquoSayreville&rdquo begins to enter into usage, identifying the area once known as Roundabout. Although James R. Sayre never lived in Sayreville, he provided the capital to establish his brickworks, while Peter Fisher, with a background in the clay and brick industry of the Hudson River, provided the &ldquoknow-how.&rdquo The Fisher family resided in Sayreville and ran the brick company for generations.

1871: Through the generous donation of bricks and other construction materials by Peter Fisher, local Methodists build a church on Main Street near the intersection of Pulaski Avenue.

1870s: Large waves of German Immigrants begin settling the area, finding employment in the many clay and brick industries which were, by this time, operating throughout all corners of South Amboy.

1876: As the nation celebrated its centennial, the newly formed Township of Sayreville was carved out of approximately 14 square miles of South Amboy&rsquos hinterlands, consolidating Morgan, Melrose, Ernston, and Sayre&rsquos Village under one municipal government. Fewer than 2,000 people resided in the new township.

1880s: Waves of Irish immigrants begin settling in Sayreville, working as laborers in the brickyards. They settled in all areas of the township, though most lived in the Melrose section.

1881: The &ldquoGerman&rdquo Presbyterian Church is constructed on Main Street.

1883: Sayre & Fisher construct the Reading Room at the corner of Main Street and River Road. Not only did this building serve the community as a recreational hall, library, and all-around public meeting place, its ornate facade displayed the beauty, diversity, and versatility of Sayre and Fisher bricks to potential buyers.

1885: Sayreville&rsquos growing Roman Catholic community, largely Irish, form the parish of Our Lady of Victories. They construct a church near &ldquoMiller&rsquos Corner&rdquo on Main Street in 1889, prior to which point they had been attending mass at Catholic churches in neighboring South River and South Amboy.

1887: The Brookfield Glass Company constructs a glass insulator plant on Bordentown Avenue, in the Old Bridge section of Sayreville. It was, until 1922, the largest insulator plant in the United States.

1888: The Raritan River Railroad is incorporated and lays tracks through Sayreville, linking the community, and its industries, with South Amboy and New Brunswick.

1889: A fatal riot breaks out on May 5th, when approximately 100 railroad workers began construction on a spur from the main line of the Raritan River Railroad across the land of ex-freeholder Edward Furman, down through the brickyard to William F. Fisher's yard. Furman was opposed to their crossing his land, and called out his men. The railroad men were then reinforced by men from Fisher&rsquos brickyard. The Sacramento Daily Union newspaper reported the next day: &ldquoFurman's men attacked the railroaders and burned their ties, materials and car. Pistols, clubs and stones were freely used. George Kissinger, one of Furman's laborers, was killed outright. He was knocked down with a club and a sharp-pointed crowbar jammed through his head. John Kennedy, a railroad man, was so badly injured that he died within an hour. At 4 o'clock this morning the Sheriff of Middlesex county called out a posse of fifty men. When they reached the place, all was quiet, and the railroad men had stopped work to recruit their force.&rdquo

1890s: Waves of Polish Immigrants began to settle in Sayreville. In time, they would become the largest ethnic group in the community.

1890: August Rhode acquires the People&rsquos Hotel on Main Street and opens a soda and beer bottling works behind the popular hotel.

1890: The Enameled Brick and Tile Works is established in the Old Bridge section of the township. Tiles produced here would later be used in the construction of the Holland Tunnel.

1899: The International Smokeless Powder and Chemical Company purchases the Keenan family farm and, at the intersection of Washington Road and Deerfield Road, construct Sayreville&rsquos first chemical plant.

1901: The Middlesex and Somerset Traction Company lays trolley tracks through Sayreville , further connecting its population with the neighboring communities of South Amboy, South River, Milltown, and New Brunswick.

1903: The Crossman Sand and Clay Company begins mining in Sayreville in the area just to the west of Burt&rsquos Creek and the Such Clay Company. In that same year, the Sayre & Fisher Electric Company power the township&rsquos first electric street lights along Main Street.

1904: E.I. DuPont de Nemours purchases the International Smokeless Powder and Chemical Company and upgrade the plant. Henceforth, this section of the township is known as Parlin.

1907: Joseph Allgair establishes a hotel on Main Street along with a mineral water and soda bottling plant. The Allgair Hotel quickly becomes one of Sayreville&rsquos most important public spaces, hosting dances, parties, weddings, concerts, and political meetings.

1909: Sayreville&rsquos first Town Hall is constructed on Main Street. Prior to this time, the township committeemen held meetings at bars, hotels, and private residences.

1910: The population of Sayreville passes 5,000.

1912: DuPont is split by an anti-trust suit, and the Hercules Powder Company comes into existence.

1914: Sayreville&rsquos growing Polish population, wishing to worship in their own tongue, construct Saint Stanislaus Kostka Roman Catholic Church on Sandfield Road (MacArthur Avenue).

1915: The Raritan River Railroad is featured in an episode of the silent movie serial "The Perils of Pauline." The episode, titled "The Juggernaut," was staged on the main line of the railroad in Parlin and included the construction of trestle over Duck&rsquos Nest. The filming of &ldquoThe Juggernaut&rdquo required a dramatic &ldquoplunge from the trestle&rdquo that left a locomotive and several railroad cars submerged in the pond, making it one of the most ambitious films of the time.

1917: With America&rsquos entry into the Great War, munitions plants are rapidly constructed within the township. The California Shell Loading Company is built on Bordentown Avenue and the expansive T.A. Gillespie Shell Loading plant is built in Morgan.

1918: The T.A. Gillespie Shell Loading plant explodes, destroying the entire facility and killing about 100 workers over the course of three days. The City of South Amboy sustains major damage, and the blast is felt as far away as Newark.

1919: The Liberty Theater opens on Main Street. Built by Thomas Dolan, the theater brought silent films to the rural community for the first time.

1920: The Township of Sayreville is reorganized as a Borough with about 7,200 residents.

1934: National Lead builds a plant in Sayreville near Kearny&rsquos Point on the Raritan River.

1934: DuPont, Hercules, and National Lead construct a dam on the South River in order to provide a constant and reliable source of freshwater to the three industries. They name the dam and the resulting lake &ldquoDuhernal,&rdquo a combination of the three industries&rsquo names.

1939: Sayreville builds its first high school on Dane Street with a federal grant from the WPA.

1940: The Edison Bridge opens to vehicular traffic. When completed, it is the largest, highest, and longest span bridge of its type in the United States. Its erection by the Bethlehem Steel Company involved the lifting of the world's longest (260') and heaviest (198 tons) girder to an unprecedented height of 135' above the waters of the Raritan River.

1940: The chemical industry becomes the dominant employer in Sayreville, surpassing the brick industry.

1941: The United States enters World War II and Sayreville sends over 1,500 men into military service Sayreville&rsquos population stands at 8,186.

1945: Community leaders complete one of the first World War II memorials in the nation, a replica of the World War I memorial designed by a pastor from Our Lady of Victories R.C. Church. The Sayre & Fisher Brick Co. donates the bricks, and local men volunteer their time and expertise to the construction of the memorial.

1946: The Mayor and Council declare a four-day holiday in Sayreville from August 15th through 18th, inviting all neighboring communities to join in celebrations to welcome home the veterans of World War II. Events include softball games, boxing matches, a parade for returning servicemen and women, a baby parade, and a race between Mayor Phil McCutcheon of Sayreville, Mayor Joseph McKeon of South Amboy, and Mayor Matthew A. Maliszewski of South River. Gifts are presented to all of Sayreville&rsquos returning veterans, and a memorial service is held at the Colony Theater, where gifts are presented to the mothers of those who made the ultimate sacrifice in the war.

1947: The postwar housing boom begins as borough attorney Joseph Karcher actively promotes the benefits of Sayreville, proclaiming that &ldquothe people prosper where industry prospers.&rdquo With breakneck speed, the vast tracts of industrial land that separate Sayreville&rsquos seven neighborhoods are sold to housing developers. As America quickly became a suburban nation, for the first time, Sayreville&rsquos land itself became more valuable than the clay within.

1948: The Owens-Illinois Glass Company constructs a large plant on Jernee Mill Road to produce &ldquoKalo&rdquo, an insulation and roofing material.

1953: With the coming of the Garden State Parkway, the Driscoll Bridge is completed over the Raritan River. Designed as a sister-bridge to the Edison Bridge, together they are the widest bridge in the world.

1950s: A great number of new housing &ldquodevelopments&rdquo are built throughout the sprawling borough as clay companies sell their land holdings, which had depreciated in value with the growing housing boom. Laurel Park, the largest of these developments, becomes home to over 500 families. Other new housing projects include Pershing Park, President Park, Deerfield Estates, Hope Homes, Parkway Homes, and Haven Village.

1960s: More housing developments, such as Woodside, Sayre Woods, and Oak Tree East and West, raise Sayreville&rsquos population to 32,508 by the end of the decade.

1962: To meet the demands of a rapidly growing population, the Sayreville War Memorial High School is built in a more central location within the borough, on Washington Road amid the clay pits of the Crossman Sand and Clay Company and the Such Clay Company. The new school replaced the old high school on Dane Street.

1964: Sunshine Biscuits purchases the Owens-Illinois plant on Jernee Mill Road and Bordentown Avenue and begins producing Hydrox cookies and crackers.

1968: Sayreville is one of the first municipalities in the United States to elect a female mayor. In what the local papers called a &ldquodistaff slate,&rdquo Peggy Kerr challenges the local Democratic establishment and becomes mayor of the borough, and three women, Florence Koval, Dorothy Carter, and Dolores Zaccardi, are all elected to the borough council.

1969: The Sayre and Fisher Brick Company closes its doors after nearly 120 years in Sayreville.

1970s and 80s: Sayreville transitions from an industrial community to a suburb as its once vibrant industrial landscape continues to give way to housing developments, and more residents commute to jobs outside of town. Sayreville&rsquos governing body continues efforts to attract new industries during this time, and while a number of chemical companies locate within the borough, their presence results in a number of chemical spills and the illegal dumping of toxic materials, particularly in the area of lower Main Street and Horseshoe Road.

1979: The Crossman Sand and Clay Company ceases operations in Sayreville.

1982: The National Lead plant on the Raritan River closes, leaving a legacy of water pollution and soil contamination at Kearney&rsquos Point.

1990s: With the loss of most of Sayreville&rsquos industries, the borough embraces a new suburban identity, dropping the slogans of the past, such as &ldquoHome of Nationally Known Industries.&rdquo Housing developments continue to replace many of Sayreville&rsquos open clay pits.


Tydlyn

On May 12th James Graham, Cornelius Corsen and Samuel Winder purchase a tract of land on both sides of the Raritan River from Native Americans for one hundred and twenty pounds, or approximately eighty cents at today's value.

A grant of 1,904 acres is patented to Graham & Co., and the territory, known as Lot No. 7, is subdivided into four tracts.

On October 26th James Graham deeds a subdivision of his tract to Peter Van Nest, a Dutchman who migrated west from a Long Island settlement.

On May 1st, Peter Van Nest deeds the land to his son-in-law, Derrick Middaugh. Cornelius Middaugh (1698-1778), Derrick's son, will come into possession of the property upon the death of his father.

Cornelius sells the south portion of the land to his brother, George, who establishes a tavern there. This property, which is then sold to Richard Duyckinck and later F.F. Cornell, is located on Glaser Street behind the Frelinghuysen House.

A one-and-a-half-story wooden structure is erected, and is used possibly as a pre-Revolutionary tavern, public meeting hall, and/or prison. This structure, now known as the west wing, is the oldest section of the General John Frelinghuysen House.

Colonel Frederick Frelinghuysen purchases the property, which becomes known as the “Homestead” property. The one-story brick house is built adjacent west to the wooden structure sometime between 1740 and 1780, a fact based on the use of glazed headers, a material exclusive to the era. This section could have been built by Frederick or Cornelius.

Upon the death of Frederick, General John Frelinghuysen, his oldest son, inherits the homestead property.

John has a second story added to the brick house and renovates the interior. The house is now finished in the then popular Federal style, prominent in the U.S. from 1790 to 1830.

After the death of John, two of his six children, Sarah and Katherine, continue to occupy the house.

A Neo-classic portico is added to the north entrance. The four columns represent Equality, Liberty, Freedom, and Law. A two-story wing is added to the rear of the house on the west side. The wing is demolished during the 1974 restoration and addition work.

Katherine's will provides that her niece and two nephews shall inherit the house.

Two mantelpieces located on the first floor and the front doorway are removed from the house and relocated to the home of Joseph Frelinghuysen in Far Hills, NJ. A two-story wing is added to the rear of the house on the east side, replacing an earlier porch. The wing is also removed during the 1974 restoration and addition work.

David Glaser purchases the Homestead property, and extra rooms are added to the rear of the house. In 1951, it is managed by Glaser Realty Co. Inc. Most of the additions are demolished during 1974 renovation.


Raritan Arsenal History

Established on 17 Jan 1918 during World War I near the present day town of Edison, New Jersey. Established on a large site along the north bank of the Raritan River to provide a storage and shipping terminal for military supplies equipment and munitions headed overseas.

Raritan was established as a permanent ordnance depot shortly after World War I. Functions included vehicle storage and ammunition receiving, storage, shipping, transfer, and re-packing. Ordnance included 37mm and 40mm projectiles, fuzes, pyrotechnics, grenades, training rounds, and TNT.

From 1919 until 1941, the Ordnance Specialist Schools were located here. Several accidental explosions occurred during the period from 1919 through World War II in magazine buildings and outdoor storage areas.

During World War II, the storage facilities, shipping facilities and ammunition igloos were greatly expanded. A products division and field service ammunition school were also added to the Arsenal mission.

Many of the arsenal's activities were phased out in the 1950's. Some waste materials including ordnance and chemical agents were routinely disposed of by burial or pit burning creating potential contaminated areas that would later require cleanup. The arsenal was declared surplus in 1962 and closed in 1964 and turned over to the General Services Administration (GSA) for disposal.

At the time the arsenal closed in 1964 it consisted of 3,234 acres, approximately 440 buildings and 62 miles of roads and railways. Several large areas of the site have been developed but the U.S. Corps of Engineers is overseeing continuing cleanup of parts of the arsenal lands.


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