Inligting

Shaw II DD- 373 - Geskiedenis


Shaw II
(DD-373: dp. 1.450; 1. 341'4 ''; b. 34'8 "; dr. 17 '; s. 35
k .; kpl. 204; a. 5 4 '', 12 21 "tt., 2 dct .; cl. Mahan)

Die tweede Shaw (DD-373) is op 1 Oktober 1934 neergelê by die United States Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa .; op 28 Oktober 1935 gelanseer; geborg deur juffrou Dorthy L. Tinker; en op 18 September 1936 in diens geneem, het lt.kom. E.A. Mitchell in bevel.

Na kommissie het Shaw tot April 1937 in Philadelphia gebly toe sy die Atlantiese Oseaan oorsteek op haar vaart met afwyking. Toe sy op 18 Junie na Philadelphia terugkeer, het sy met 'n jaar werfwerk begin om tekortkominge reg te stel voordat sy in Junie 1938 aanvaardingsproewe voltooi het. Shaw het die res van die jaar oefensessies in die Atlantiese Oseaan uitgevoer. Sy het daarna na die Stille Oseaan gegaan en van 8 Januarie tot 4 April 1939 'n opknapping op Mare Island ondergaan.

Shaw het aan die weskus gebly tot April 1940 en deelgeneem aan verskillende oefeninge en dienste gelewer aan draers en duikbote wat in die gebied werk. In April vaar sy na Hawaii waar sy deelneem aan Fleet Problem XXI, 'n agt -fase operasie vir die verdediging van die Hawaiiaanse gebied. Sy het tot November in die Hawaiiaanse gebied gebly toe sy teruggekeer het na die weskus vir opknapping.

Terug in die Hawaiiaanse gebied teen middel Februarie 1941, het Shaw in die waters gewerk tot November toe sy die Navy Yard by Pearl Harbor binnegegaan het vir herstelwerk, in YFD-2.

Op 7 Desember was Shaw nog steeds in 'n droogdok. Tydens die Japannese aanval het sy drie treffers gemaak: twee bomme deur die voorwaartse masjiengeweerplatform en een deur die hawe -vleuel van die brug. Vure versprei deur die skip. Teen 0925 was alle brandbestrydingsgeriewe uitgeput en die bevel om die skip te laat vaar, is gegee. Pogings om die beskuldigdebank te oorstroom, was slegs gedeeltelik suksesvol; en kort na 0930 het Shaw se voorblad tydelik opgeblaas.

Tydelike herstelwerk is in Desember 1941 en Januarie 1942 by Pearl Harbor gedoen. Op 9 Februarie het Shaw einde Junie na San Francisco gevaar waar sy herstelwerk, insluitend die installering van 'n nuwe boog, aan die einde van Junie voltooi het. Na opleiding in die San Diego -omgewing keer Shaw op 31 Augustus terug na Pearl Harbor. Vir die volgende twee maande het sy konvooie tussen die weskus en Hawaii begelei. In die middel van Oktober het sy, as 'n eenheid van 'n draermag wat op Enterprise gesentreer was, Pearl Harbor vertrek en weswaarts gegaan. Die ontmoetings met 'n draermag wat op Hornet gesentreer was, het die twee draersgroepe saamgesmelt as T, vra Force 61 en het noord van die Santa Cruz -eilande beweeg om vyandelike magte op te vang wat op pad was na Guadalcanal.

Teen die oggend op die 26ste was albei die draergroepe aangeval. As 'n meegaande skip, Porter
(DD-356), gestop om oorlewendes uit 'n torpedovliegtuig neer te haal, is sy getorpedeer. Shaw het Porter gehelp. 'N Halfuur later is sy beveel om die bemanning van Porter op te neem en die vernietiger te laat sink. Periscope -waarnemings gevolg deur diepte -aanvalle het die uitvoering van die missie vertraag. Teen die middag was die oordrag egter voltooi. 'N Uur later was Porter weg, en Shaw het die toneel verlaat om weer by die taakgroep aan te sluit.

Twee dae later is Shaw op pad na die New Hebrides waar sy begin het met die begeleiding van skepe wat mans en voorrade na Guadalcanal vervoer het. Sy het hierdie plig tot November en Desember en tot Januarie voortgesit
1943. Op 10 Januarie, terwyl hy die Noumea -hawe in Nieu -Caledonië binnegekom het, het Shaw op die Sournois -rif gegrond. Sy is op die 15de vrygelaat, maar groot skade aan haar romp, propellers en klanktoerusting het tydelike herstelwerk in Noumea nodig gehad, gevolg deur lang herstelwerk en herrangskikking by Pearl Harbor, wat haar tot in September geneem het.

Op 6 Oktober is Shaw weer weswaarts en bereik Noumea op die 18de en Milne Bay New Guinea, op die 24ste. Shaw, wat nou 'n eenheid van die 7de amfibiese mag is, het die res van Oktober en gedurende November versterkings na Lae en Finsehhafen begelei. Na 'n onsuksesvolle afleidingsaanval deur die weermag teen Umtingalu, New Britain, op 15 Desember, het Shaw oorlewendes van twee rubberbote teruggekry en Westralia en Carter Hall terug na Buna, Nieu -Guinee, begelei.

Op 25 Desember begelei Shaw eenhede wat betrokke was by die aanval op Cape Gloucester, waar sy vuurwapenondersteuning bied en as 'n vegvliegtuigdirekteur dien. Op die 26ste het Shaw ongevalle en skade opgedoen toe hy deur twee "Vals" aangeval is. Ses en dertig mans is beseer, waarvan drie later aan hul wonde beswyk het. Shaw keer op 27ste terug na Kaap Sudest, Nieu -Guinee; het haar gewondes en dooies na die walfasiliteite daar oorgeplaas en na Milnebaai gegaan vir tydelike herstelwerk. Permanente herstelwerk is op 1 Mei 1944 by Hunter's Point, San Francisco, voltooi.

Shaw keer op die 10de terug na Pearl Harbor, sluit hom daar by die 5de vloot aan en vaar op die 15de na die Marshalls. Sy het op 11 Junie met die TF-52 uit die Marshalls begin om aan die aanval op Saipan deel te neem. Vier dae later het die aanval begin. Vir die volgende drie en 'n half weke het die vernietiger tussenin gedraai

siftings- en brandondersteuningspligte. In die middel van Julie was sy terug in die Marshalls. Op die 18de is Shaw aan die gang om met die Guam -aanvalmag na die Marianas terug te keer. Tydens die aksie wat gevolg het, het sy begeleide en patrolliepligte uitgevoer.

Shaw het op 23 September uit die Marianas vertrek. Na 'n tender wat herstel was by Eniwetok, het sy op 20 Oktober weer by die 7de Amfibiese Mag aangesluit en op 25 op pad na Leyte Golf. By die konvooi -begeleiding tussen die Filippyne en Nieu -Guinee was Shaw betrokke totdat die inval van Luzon op 9 Januarie 1945 by die Lingayengolf plaasgevind het. Na hierdie operasie was Shaw betrokke by die herowering van Manilabaai. Na die operasies in Luzon ondersteun sy die aanranding en besetting van Palawan gedurende die tydperk van 28 Februarie tot 4 Maart.

Begin April het sy in die Visayans geopereer en op 2 April twee Japannese bakke aan die brand gesteek by Bohol. Sy is kort daarna op 'n onbekende hoogtepunt beskadig en het tydelike herstelwerk ondergaan. Op die 25ste vaar sy na die Verenigde State. Shaw het op 19 Mei in San Francisco aangekom. Herstelwerk en veranderinge het haar in Augustus geneem. Die werk is op die 20ste voltooi. Sy vertrek daarna na die ooskus. By aankoms in Philadelphia is sy na New York gestuur vir deaktivering. Haar naam, wat op 2 Oktober 1945 ontneem is, is twee dae later uit die vlootlys geskrap. Haar hulk is in Julie 1946 geskrap.

Shaw het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog elf strydsterre verdien.


Die kinders van Pearl Harbor

Vyf en sewentig jaar gelede, met dagbreek, lê meer as 150 skepe en diensvaartuie van die Amerikaanse Stille Oseaan-vloot voor anker, langs die piere, of in 'n droogdok in Pearl Harbor op die hawaiiaanse eiland Oahu. Teen laatoggend het die verrassing van die Japannese lug- en mini-duikbootaanval 19 skepe laat sink of erg beskadig en honderde vliegtuie vernietig.

Die dood was oral. Die tol dié dag onder militêre personeel is algemeen bekend. Van die 2335 dienspligtiges wat tydens die aanval dood is, is byna die helfte aan die USS dood Arizona toe 'n Japannese bom die slagskip se voorste kruitmagasyn opblaas en die skip uitmekaar ruk. Honderde is ook dood aan boord van ander geteisterde vlootvaartuie en tydens bomaanvalle en aanvalle op nabygeleë vliegvelde.

Maar min mense besef dat 68 burgerlikes ook in die aanval dood is. Japannese vegters het 'n klein aantal gestamp en gebombardeer. Die meeste sterf egter in vriendelike vuur toe skulpe van kuswagte se skepe en lugafweerbatterye aan die oewer wat op die Japannese gerig is, in Honolulu en elders op die eiland val. Elf van die oorledenes was kinders van 16 jaar en jonger.

Die Hirasaki -gesin het die ergste oggend gely. Die Japannees-Amerikaanse ma, pa en hul drie kinders. 2, 3 en 8 jaar oud, saam met 'n 14-jarige neef, beskut in die gesin se restaurant in die sentrum van Honolulu. 'N Foutiewe dop het die gebou getref. Net die ma het oorleef. Sewe ander beskermhere wat daar dekking geneem het, is ook dood in die ontploffing.

1941: Die stryd teen die skaduoorlog: 'n verdeelde Amerika in 'n oorlogswêreld

In "1941: Fighting the Shadow War, A Divided America in a World at War" verken historikus Marc Wortman die min bekende geskiedenis van Amerika se klandestiene betrokkenheid by die Tweede Wêreldoorlog voor die aanval op Pearl Harbor.

Tallose kinders in die hele Oahu was ook getuie van die aanval, miskien nie nader as die 8-jarige Charlotte Coe nie. Ek het Charlotte vier jaar gelede leer ken toe ek haar ondervra het vir 'n boek wat ek geskryf het oor die tydperk voor die Pearl Harbor -aanval. Charlotte, wie se getroude naam Lemann was, sou twee jaar later aan kanker sterf, maar toe ons praat, vertel sy die noodlottige oggend van haar ervarings asof dit 'n film is wat sedertdien voortdurend in haar gedagtes afspeel.

Charlotte woon saam met haar ouers en die vyfjarige broer, Chuckie, in een van die 19 netjiese bungalows langs 'n kringloop in 'n gebied bekend as Nob Hill, aan die noordelike punt van Ford Island. Die eiland was die tuiste van 'n vlootstasie in die middel van Pearl Harbor. Hulle vader, Charles F. Coe, was daar derde in bevel. Die Nob Hill -moeders het oor hul ongeveer 40 jong#“Navy juniors ” gekyk terwyl hul vaders na die lugstasie se hangare, operasionele geboue en vliegtuie van die eiland af gegaan het. Die huis van die Coe -gesin kyk uit oor die suidekanaal van die hawe en die dubbele ry ligplekke, bekend as Battleship Row.

Die lugstasie en die Stille Oseaan -vloot het die kinders se dae en nagte bepaal. Charlotte, Chuckie en hul vriende hardloop gereeld uit die nabygeleë beskuldigdebank om beamptes te ontmoet wat van die skepe afklim. Charlotte het snags in die bed gelê en kon stemme uit die flieks hoor wat aan matrose aan boord vertoon word. Tot en met die Pearl Harbor -aanval onthou sy dat sy en die ander kinders gratis as voëls op Ford Island gewoon het en daagliks 'n boot skool toe geneem het op die vasteland van Oahu. By die huis het die welige tropiese kuslyn van Pearl Harbor gedien as hul speelplek.

Maar Ford Island was iets anders: 'n teiken. Die agt slagskepe wat langs Battleship Row vasgemeer was, was die Japannese aanvallers se primêre doelwit toe hulle die oggend van 7 Desember 1941 na Pearl Harbor vlieg.

Die eerste ontploffing om 07:48 die oggend het Charlotte uit 'n goeie slaap wakker gemaak. "Staan op!" Onthou sy hoe haar pa geskree het. "Die oorlog begin. Die familie en die mans, vroue en kinders van die ander huise jaag om skuiling in 'n voormalige artillerieplasing wat onder 'n naburige huis gegrawe is. Terwyl hulle hardloop, zoom 'n kakie-gekleurde vliegtuig met rooi sirkels onder sy vlerke so laag verby dat Charlotte die vlieënier se gesig sien.


Die bombardement van Pearl Harbor – The Lost Photos

Die aanval op Pearl Harbor het die VSA oornag in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog ingelui. In die dekades sedert die aanval is vasgestel dat die Japannese nie bedoel het dat die aanval 'n volledige verrassing sou wees nie. Die Japannese Oorlogsverklaring was veronderstel om afgelewer te word, maar die Japannese ambassadeur kon nie betyds die boodskap lewer voordat die aanval ontvang is nie.

Amerikaanse verliese was: ongevalle
VSA: 218 KIA, 364 WIA.
USN: 2 008 KIA, 710 WIA.
USMC: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.
Burgerlikes: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.
TOTAAL: 2.403 KIA, 1.178 WIA.
Slagskepe
USS Arizona (BB-39) – totale verlies toe 'n bom haar tydskrif tref.
USS Oklahoma (BB-37) – Totale verlies toe sy omslaan en in die hawe sak.
USS California (BB-44) – Gesink op haar bed. Later grootgemaak en herstel.
USS West Virginia (BB-48) – Gesink op haar bed. Later grootgemaak en herstel.
USS Nevada – (BB-36) Gestrand om te voorkom dat dit sink. Later herstel.
USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) – Ligte skade.
USS Maryland (BB-46) – Ligte skade.
USS Tennessee (BB-43) Ligte skade.
USS Utah (AG-16) – (voormalige slagskip as doelwit gebruik) – Gesink.
Cruisers
USS New Orleans (CA-32) en#8211 Ligte skade ..
USS San Francisco (CA-38) – Ligte skade.
USS Detroit (CL-8) – Ligte skade.
USS Raleigh (CL-7) – Swaar beskadig, maar herstel.
USS Helena (CL-50) – Ligte skade.
USS Honolulu (CL-48) en#8211 Ligte skade ..
Vernietigers
USS Downes (DD-375) – vernietig. Onderdele gered.
USS Cassin – (DD-372) vernietig. Onderdele gered.
USS Shaw (DD-373) – Baie swaar skade.
USS Helm (DD-388) – Ligte skade.
Minelaag
USS Ogala (CM-4) – Gesink, maar later grootgemaak en herstel.
Watervliegtuig tender
USS Curtiss (AV-4) – Erg beskadig, maar later herstel.
Herstelskip
USS Vestal (AR-4) – Erg beskadig, maar later herstel.
Harbour Tug
USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) – Gesink, maar later grootgemaak en herstel.
Vliegtuie
188 Vliegtuie vernietig (92 USN en 92 Amerikaanse Lugmagkorps.)

Inligtingsessie vir Japannese vliegpersoneel oor die Pearl Harbor -aanval. 'N Diagram van Pearl Harbor en die aanvalplan van die vliegtuig is op die dek geteken. 6 Desember 1941


Die Guadalcanal -veldtog

Die Guadalcanal -veldtog van 1942–43 het 'n deurslaggewende oorwinning deur die geallieerde magte in die Stille Oseaan geword.

Leerdoelwitte

Som die strategie en die geallieerde oorwinning van die Guadalcanal -veldtog op

Belangrike wegneemetes

Kern punte

  • Na die aanval op Pearl Harbor in 1941, het Japan sy beheer oor verskeie gebiede in die Stille Oseaan -gebied aansienlik uitgebrei. Deur die suidelike Salomonseilande te beveilig, wou die Japannese die aanbod- en kommunikasieroetes tussen die VSA, Australië en Nieu -Seeland vernietig.
  • Geallieerde magte het in November 1942 'n beslissende oorwinning behaal tydens die Seestryd van Guadalcanal. In Februarie 1943 het die Japannese magte hul ontruiming uit Guadalcanal voltooi.
  • Hierdie veldtog het alle Japannese uitbreidingspogings beëindig en die Geallieerdes in 'n posisie van militêre en sielkundige oppergesag geplaas.

Sleutel terme

  • Slag van die Koraalsee: 'N Groot seestryd in die Stille Oseaan -teater van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog tussen die Keiserlike Japannese vloot en die geallieerde vloot- en lugmag van die Verenigde State en Australië, het 4-8 Mei 1941 geveg. gesink het, sou die stryd 'n strategiese oorwinning vir die Geallieerdes wees.
  • Slag van Midway: 'N beslissende seestryd in die Stille Oseaan -teater van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Tussen 4 en 7 Junie 1942 het die Vloot van die Verenigde State 'n aanval van die Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) teen Midway Atoll deurslaggewend afgewyk en die Japannese vloot onherstelbare skade aangerig.
  • Tulagi: 'N Klein eiland in die Salomonseilande, net aan die suidkus van Florida -eiland. Die Japannese het dit op 3 Mei 1942 beset, met die doel om 'n watervliegtuigbasis in die omgewing op te rig, maar die Japanse skepe is die volgende dag met vliegtuie van die USS Yorktown toegeslaan in die voorspel van die Slag van die Koraalsee.
  • Salomonseilande: 'N Soewereine staat in Oseanië, oos van Papoea -Nieu -Guinee, bestaande uit byna 1 000 eilande. 'N Paar van die intensste gevegte tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het daar plaasgevind, veral die belangrikste operasies van die Geallieerde magte teen die Japannese keiserlike magte, wat op 7 Augustus 1942 gelanseer is, met gelyktydige vlootbombardemente en amfibiese landings op die Florida -eilande. by Tulagi en Red Beach op Guadalcanal.
  • Guadalcanal: 'N Tropiese eiland in die suidwestelike Stille Oseaan. Gedurende 1942–43 was dit die toneel van bitter gevegte tussen Japannese en Amerikaanse troepe wat die Amerikaanse magte uiteindelik gewen het.

Die Guadalcanal-veldtog, ook bekend as die Slag van Guadalcanal en met die naam Operation Watchtower, was 'n militêre veldtog wat tussen 7 Augustus 1942 en 9 Februarie 1943 op en om die eiland Guadalcanal in die Pacific Theatre van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gevoer is . Dit was die eerste groot offensief van die geallieerde magte teen die ryk van Japan.

Agtergrond

Die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor in 1941 het 'n groot deel van die Amerikaanse slagskipvloot verlam en 'n oop en formele oorlogstoestand tussen die twee nasies veroorsaak. Die aanvanklike doelwitte van die Japannese leiers was om die Amerikaanse vloot te neutraliseer, besittings wat ryk is aan natuurlike hulpbronne in beslag te neem, en strategiese militêre basisse te vestig om die ryk van Japan in die Stille Oseaan en Asië te verdedig. Om hierdie doelwitte te bereik, het die Japannese magte die Filippyne, Thailand, Malaya, Singapoer, Birma, Nederlands -Indië, Wake -eiland, Gilbert -eilande, Nieu -Brittanje en Guam ingeneem. Die res van die Geallieerde moondhede het by die VSA aangesluit in die oorlog teen Japan, waarvan verskeie, waaronder die Verenigde Koninkryk, Australië en Nederland, ook deur Japan aangeval is.

Verdere pogings van die Japannese om hul strategiese inisiatief voort te sit en hul buitenste verdedigende omtrek in die suide en die sentrale Stille Oseaan aanvallend uit te brei, is tydens die vlootgevegte van die Koraalsee (Mei 1941) en Midway (Junie 1941) onderskeidelik in die wiele gery. Tot op hierdie stadium was die Geallieerdes in die Stille Oseaan op die verdediging, maar hierdie strategiese oorwinnings het hulle die geleentheid gebied om die inisiatief van Japan te gryp.

Die Geallieerdes het die Salomonseilande ('n protektoraat van die Verenigde Koninkryk), spesifiek die suidelike Salomonseilande van Guadalcanal, Tulagi en Florida Island, as die eerste teiken gekies. Die keiserlike Japanse vloot het Tulagi in Mei 1942 beset en 'n watervliegtuigbasis daar naby gebou. Geallieerde kommer het toegeneem toe die IJN vroeg in Julie 1942 'n groot vliegveld by Lunga Point op die nabygeleë Guadalcanal begin bou-van so 'n basis af sou Japannese langafstandbomwerpers die seeligne van kommunikasie van die Weskus van Amerika na die bevolkte Ooskus van Australië. Teen Augustus 1942 het die Japannese ongeveer 900 seemagte op Tulagi en nabygeleë eilande gehad en 2800 personeel op Guadalcanal.

Veldtog

Op 7 Augustus 1942 land die Geallieerde magte, oorwegend Amerikaans, op die eilande Guadalcanal, Tulagi en Florida in die suidelike Salomonseilande, met die doel om die gebruik daarvan deur die Japannese te weier om die aanbod- en kommunikasieroetes tussen die VSA te bedreig, Australië en Nieu -Seeland. Die geallieerdes was ook van plan om Guadalcanal en Tulagi as basis te gebruik om 'n veldtog te ondersteun om uiteindelik die groot Japannese basis by Rabaul op New Britain te vang of te neutraliseer. Die Geallieerdes het die Japannese verdedigers wat die eilande sedert Mei 1942 beset het, oorweldig en Tulagi en Florida sowel as 'n vliegveld (later Henderson Field) wat in aanbou was op Guadalcanal ingeneem. Kragtige Amerikaanse vlootmagte het die landings ondersteun.

Verras deur die geallieerde offensief, het die Japannese tussen Augustus en November 1942 verskeie pogings aangewend om Henderson Field weer in te neem. Drie groot veldslae, sewe groot vlootgevegte en voortdurende, byna daaglikse luggevegte, het 'n hoogtepunt bereik in die beslissende Vlootslag van Guadalcanal vroeg in November 1942. Die laaste Japanse poging om Henderson Field uit die see te bombardeer en te land met genoeg troepe om dit terug te neem. verslaan is. In Desember 1942 het die Japannese verdere pogings om Guadalcanal terug te neem, laat vaar en hul oorblywende magte teen 7 Februarie 1943 ontruim, te midde van 'n offensief deur die Amerikaanse weermag XIV Corps, wat die eiland aan die Geallieerdes toegegee het.

Effek

Die Guadalcanal -veldtog was 'n beduidende strategiese gekombineerde wapenoorwinning deur die geallieerde magte oor die Japannese in die Pacific Theatre. Die Japannese het die hoogwatermerk bereik van hul verowerings in die Stille Oseaan, en Guadalcanal het die oorgang van die Geallieerdes van defensiewe operasies na die strategiese offensief in daardie teater en die begin van offensiewe operasies, insluitend die Salomonseilande, Nieu-Guinee, en Veldtogte in die sentrale Stille Oseaan, wat gelei het tot die uiteindelike oorgawe van Japan en die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Die sielkundige oorwinning was miskien net so belangrik soos die militêre oorwinning vir die Geallieerdes. Op gelyke speelveld het die Geallieerdes die beste land-, lug- en vlootmagte van Japan geklop. Na Guadalcanal beskou geallieerde personeel die Japannese weermag met baie minder vrees en ontsag as vroeër. Daarbenewens het die Geallieerdes die uiteindelike uitkoms van die Stille Oseaanoorlog met 'n baie groter optimisme beskou.

Stille Oseaan -teatergebiede: Japannese beheer van die westelike Stille Oseaan -gebied tussen Mei en Augustus 1942. Guadalcanal is in die regter onderste middel van die kaart geleë.


1. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. 'Baie kinders van Japannese afkoms het voor die ontruiming die openbare skool Raphael Weill, Geary- en Buchananstraat bygewoon. Hierdie toneel wys eerstegraders tydens die vlagplegtigheid. Ontruimdes sal vir altyd in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede gehuisves word. Daar sal voorsiening gemaak word vir voortgesette opleiding. ” Dorothea Lange, fotograaf. Oorlogverskuiwingsowerheidsfoto. 20 April 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library, Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

2. http://memory.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Amerikaanse geheue. Naval gestuur van die bevelvoerder in Chief Pacific (CINCPAC) wat die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor, 7 Desember 1941, aangekondig het. (John J. Ballentine Papers).

3. http://www.archives.gov. Die National Archives and Records Administration. USS Shaw (DD-373) ontplof tydens die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor. Onbekende vlootfotograaf. 7 Desember 1941. Algemene rekords van die Departement van die Vloot, 1798-1947. (80-G-16871) [VENDOR # 91].

4. http://memory.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Amerikaanse geheue. President Roosevelt onderteken die oorlogsverklaring teen Japan. Desember 1941. Foto van Office of War Information. Farm Security Administration en Office of War Information Collection (The Library of Congress). No.17109-ZD. Reproduksienommer: LC-USZ62-15185 DLC (b & ampw film kopie neg.) Digitale ID: cph 3a17434.

5. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. “In Los Angeles se "Little Tokyo" het die nuus oor Japan se aanval op Pearl Harbor gister geskokte stilte gelaat. Daar was geen demonstrasie nie, min kommentaar. Hier is twee jongmense wat die eksaminator en die plaaslike Japannese koerant verkoop. Ongeveer 20 000 Japannese woon in die stad, meestal Nisei, of tweede generasie, gebore in Amerika. "-onderskrif op foto. 7 Desember 1941. Eie -instelling: Universiteit van Suid -Kalifornië, biblioteek. Departement spesiale versamelings, Streeksgeskiedenis sentrum. Identifiseerder: JARDA-2-07.

6. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: Tweede Wêreldoorlog se plakkaatversameling. Wraak op 7 Desember. Bernard Perlin, kunstenaar. 1942. Uitgewer: Washington, D.C .: U.S. G.P.O .: Versprei deur Afdeling Openbare Navrae, Office of War Information. "War Information Office"-Maandelikse katalogus 1943, p. 95. Voorwerpnr. IIIE.11. Belnommer: Pr32. 5015: 15.

7. http://www.loc.gov. Die Library of Congress Online -uitstalling "Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers and Broadcasters during World II II". Voorspel tot die Japanese Exodus: Civilian Executive Order No. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. April 1942.

8. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië. Mans van hierdie twee vroue word as gevaarlike vyandelike vreemdelinge aangehou. Vroue en kinders is saam met ander persone van Japannese afkoms ontruim en sal die tyd by die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede deurbring. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. San Francisco, Kalifornië, 25 April 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

9. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: Tweede Wêreldoorlog se plakkaatversameling. Onthou 7 Desember! Allen Saalburg, kunstenaar. 1943. Uitgewer: Washington, D.C .: U.S. G.P.O .: Versprei deur Afdeling Openbare Navrae, Office of War Information. "War Information Office"-Maandelikse katalogus 1943, p. 95. Voorwerpnr. IIIE.5. Belnommer: Pr32. 5015: 14/3.

10. http://www.archives.gov. Die Nasionale Argief. Verkoop van goedere in San Francisco, Kalifornië. Kliënte koop goedere in 'n winkel wat deur 'n eienaar van Japannese afkoms bedryf word tydens 'n voor-ontruimingsverkoping. Ontruimes van Japannese afkoms sal gedurende die oorlog in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede gehuisves word. LNR -identifiseerder: 536042.

11. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Na ontruimingsbevele is hierdie winkel, op 13th en Franklinstraat, gesluit. Die eienaar, 'n gegradueerde van Japannese afkoms aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, plaas die I AM AN AMERICAN -bord op 8 Desember, die dag na Pearl Harbor. Ontruimers van Japannese afkoms sal vir altyd in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede gehuisves word. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Oakland, Kalifornië, 13 Maart 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

12. http://www.archives.gov. Die Nasionale Argief. Dankie -nota in "Little Tokyo" in Los Angeles, Kalifornië. Meneer en mevrou K. Tseri het hul drogistery gesluit ter voorbereiding op die ontruiming uit hul huis en besigheid. LNR -identifiseerder: 536001.

13. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië.Opskrifte van koerante, in stand op 14th en Broadway, wat op 27 Februarie 1942 voorgehou is, vir die ontruiming van persone van Japannese afkoms uit militêre gebiede. Op 19 Februarie het president Roosevelt aan die minister van oorlog gedelegeer om enige persoon, vreemdeling of burger uit te sluit van enige gebied wat nodig mag wees, op grond van militêre noodsaaklikheid. Ontruimes van Japannese afkoms sal vir altyd in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede gehuisves word. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Oakland, Kalifornië, 27 Februarie 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

14. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Die Smithsonian National Museum of American History: Behring Center. Aanlyn galery: 'n Meer volmaakte unie Japannese Amerikaners en die Amerikaanse grondwet. Waarskuwing! Ons huise is nou in gevaar! Ons werk - hou aan die brand! 1942. General Motors Corporation.

15. http://www.loc.gov. Die afdeling Library of Congress: Afdrukke en foto's. Onderbroke lewens: Inwoners van Japannese afkoms wag op die bus. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. April 1942.

16. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië. Los Angeles, Kalifornië.- Ontruimers van Japannese afkoms wat na Manzanar, Calif. Clem Albers, fotograaf. Los Angeles, Kalifornië, 1 April 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

17. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. The Little Jap is 'n groot taak. Kantoor vir noodbestuur. Office of War Information. Tak vir binnelandse bedrywighede. Buro vir Spesiale Dienste.

18. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. Die Library of Congress. Amerikaanse geheue: Amerika van die Groot Depressie tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: swart-en-wit foto's van die FSA-OWI, 1935-1945. Die ontruiming van Japannese-Amerikaners uit Weskusgebiede onder 'n Amerikaanse noodoorlog. Japannese-Amerikaanse kind wat saam met sy ouers na Owens Valley ontruim word. Russell Lee, fotograaf. Los Angeles, Kalifornië, April, 1942. Farm Security Administration- Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress) Belnommer: LC-USF33- 013296-M5. Reproduksienommer: LC-USF33-013296-M5 DLC (b & ampw film nitrate neg.), LC-USZ62-129127 DLC (b & ampw film kopie neg. Van lêerdruk).

19. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. Die Library of Congress. Amerikaanse geheue: Amerikaanse geheue: Amerika van die Groot Depressie tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog: swart-en-wit foto's van die FSA-OWI, 1935-1945. Beeld sonder titel. Geskep tussen 1935 en 1942. Farm Security Administration- Office of War Information Photograph Collection (The Library of Congress) Belnommer: LC-USF33- 013286-M4. Voortplantingsnommer: LC-USF33-013286-M4 DLC (b & ampw film film nitrate neg.)

20. http://www.archives.gov. The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion Plakkate uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Hou hierdie hande af. G.K. Odell, kunstenaar. NARA Still Picture Tak (NWDNS-44-PA-97).

21. http://lcweb2.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Prints and Photographs Online Catalogue. Bainbridge Ontruiming van eiland (was.) - [Japannees-Amerikaanse] ma en slapende baba gereed om hul huis te verlaat. 30 Maart 1942. Foto deur Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Belnommer: LOT 10617, v. 3, p. 246 [item] [P & ampP]. Reproduksienommer: LC-USZ62-88338 (b & ampw filmkopie neg.)

22. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. "Jap. Jy is volgende! Ons sal die taak voltooi!" James Montgomery Flagg, kunstenaar. Amptelike plakkaat van die Amerikaanse weermag.

23. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Kalifornië.-Twee kinders van die Mochida-gesin wat saam met hul ouers op 'n ontruimingsbus wag. Die jongeling aan die regterkant hou 'n toebroodjie wat haar gegee is deur een van 'n groep vroue wat by 'n plaaslike kerk was. Die gesinseenheid word ongeskonde gehou tydens ontruiming en in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede waar evakueerders van Japannese afkoms vir die hele tyd gehuisves sal word. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Hayward, Kalifornië, 8 Mei 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

24. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Plakkate uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Dit is die vyand. Anonieme kunstenaar. 1942. Ontwerpinskrywing, Plakkaatwedstryd.

25. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Turlock, Kalifornië-Hierdie jong ontruimers van Japannese afkoms wag op hul beurt vir bagasie-inspeksie by aankoms by hierdie vergaderingsentrum. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Turlock, Kalifornië, 2 Mei 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

26. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Kalifornië-Hierdie mense van Japannese afkoms wag op die spesiale bus wat hulle en ander ontruimdes na die Tanforan Assembly Center sal neem. Die pa van hierdie klein gesin sorg vir hul bagasie en bedrolle. Hulle sal die tyd by die War Relocation Authority deurbring. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Turlock, Kalifornië, 2 Mei 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

27. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Plakkate uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Aanval op 'n blanke vrou. Anonieme karikatuur.

28. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Hayward, Kalifornië.-'n Jong lid van 'n ontruimde gesin wat op 'n ontruimingsbus wag. Ontruimers van Japannese afkoms sal vir altyd in die sentrums vir oorlogsverskuiwingsowerhede gehuisves word. Dorothea Lange, Fotograaf. Hayward, Kalifornië, 8 Mei 1942. Eie -instelling: The Bancroft Library. Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley.

29. http://www.library.northwestern.edu. Northwestern University Library: Tweede Wêreldoorlog se plakkaatversameling. Geen lojale burger van die Verenigde State nie. 1943. Uitgewer: Washington, D.C .: U.S. G.P.O .: Versprei deur die Afdeling Openbare Navrae, Office of War Information. Voorwerpnr. VII.6.

30. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Plakkate uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Japannese tipe. "Hoe om Japs van die Chinese te vertel." Desember 1941. Life Magazine.

31. http://content.cdlib.org. Aanlyn argief van Kalifornië. [postcard] [Our concentration camp in Topaz, Utah. The barbed wire fence and guard towers are not visible.] [On verso:] Dec 16, 1944. Mr. and Mrs. Uchida. Our lifes memory. Topaz city Utah. Looking down frm 1/2 million gl water tank (Daily usege of amount 150,000 gls.) Hight 130 ft. R. Kasai. Owning Institution: Bancroft Library.

32. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California. Manzanar, Calif.--Grandfather and grandson of Japanese ancestry at this War Relocation Authority center. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Manzanar, California, July 2, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

33. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. One of the young Heart Mountain school children is enjoying a swing on the center's play ground. Iwasaki Hikaru, Photographer. Heart Mountain, Wyoming, November 24, 1943. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

34. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Keep talking I'm all ears. Office for Emergency Management, Office of War Information, Domestic Operations Branch, Bureau of Special Services.

35. http://www.loc.gov. The Library of Congress: Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, Broadcasters during world war II. This is America: Keep it Free. Propaganda Poster Based on Dorothea Lange Photograph. Chicago: Sheldon-Claire, 1942.

36. http://content.cdlib.org. California Digital Library. Manzanar, Calif.--Evacuee boy waiting at the entrance of the Recreational Hall at this War Relocation Authority center. He is anxious for the baseball team to assemble. Dorothea Lange, Photographer. Manzanar, California, July 1, 1942. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

37. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Boundary sign, "Stop - Area Limits." Charles E. Mace, Photographer. Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, September 28, 1943. Courtesy of National Archives.

38. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Boy behind barbed wire fence, Tule Lake. "Mr. George Oni and his daughter Georgette Chize Oni biding farewell to brother Henry Oni." Jack Iwata, photographer. Tule Lake Center, Newell, California, February 7, 1946. Courtesy of National Archives.

39. http://timmer.org. Online Readings: History 20 Primary Documents and Essays. Untitled. Archie Miyatake, photographer. Manzanar Relocation Camp, California, circa 1942-1945.

40. http://bss.sfsu.edu. Japanese American Internment Curriculum: Posters from World War II. Keep This Horror From Your Home.

41. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. Young children at Jerome Relocation Center. Gretchen Denson Van Tassel, photographer. Arkansas, January 18, 1944. Owning Institution: The Bancroft Library. University of California, Berkeley.

42. http://snuffy.lib.umn.edu. University of Minnesota University Libraries: “A Summons to Comradeship” World War I and II Posters and Postcards. Material Conservation. Jack Campbell, creator. Record Number: msp04425.

43. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Guards atop guard tower. "Arcadia, California. Military police on duty in watch-tower at Santa Anita Park assembly center for evacuees of Japanese ancestry. Evacuees are transferred later to War Relocation Authority centers for the duration." Clem Albers, photographer. April 6, 1942. Courtesy of National Archives.

44. http://www.archives.gov. l The National Archives: Powers of Persuasion Poster Art from World War II. Ours. to fight for--Freedom From Fear. Norman Rockwell, artist. ©1943 SEPS: The Curtis Publishing Co. Printed by the Government Printing Office
for the Office of War Information. NARA Still Picture Branch. (NWDNS-208-PMP-46).

45. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Jap Hunting License. David P. Bailey, creator. January 9, 1942.

46. http://content.cdlib.org. c Online Archive of California. "They're Japanese -- but loyal Americans. In 1917, Kaytaro Tsukamoto served with the United States Army. Now a San Francisco businessman, he is commander of the Japanese American Legion Post. Here he shows his 11-year-old son Wilmer pictures of himself when he was an American doughboy of '17. Tsukamoto was born in this country."--caption on photograph. February 20, 1942. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-1-35.

47. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. 8 University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Stop Him and the Job’s Done. 1945. Harry Horst Meyers, Artist.
Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.

48. http://faculty.rmwc.edu. Japanese-American Internment Camp. A white man pointing the sign at the store saying "We don't want Japs”.

49. http://orpheus.ucsd.edu. UC San Diego, Mandeville Special Collections Library: Dr. Seuss Went to War: A Catalog of Political Cartoons by Dr. Seuss. Waiting for the Signal from Home. Theodor Seuss Geisel, artist. February 13, 1942. PM.

50. http://americanhistory.si.edu. Smithsonian National Museum of American History: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the US Constitution. Young boy and guard with rifle, Seattle. "Two-and-one-half-year-old Masura Shibayana is too young to know that his ancestral country is at war with his adopted country, so he shows only polite interest in the US Army sentry with his rifle and fixed bayonet at the left. The youngster and his Japanese parents are among those facing evacuation from the Seattle war area." AP/Wide World Photo, Seattle Bureau. March 28, 1942.

51. http://www.authentichistory.com. The Authentic History Center: Primary Sources from American Popular Culture. Strike ‘em Dead Remember Pearl Harbor Matchbook.

52. http://content.cdlib.org. a Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "Jap Repatriates -- This is the Hiyarama family and friends, on of the groups of Japanese repatriates who boarded the liner Matsonia in Seattle for removal to Japan. Most came from Texas internment camp."--caption on photograph. December 8, 1945. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-15.

53. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "Jap Civilians Leave Shanghai in Crowded Ship -- Jap repatriates, who had led a life of comparative ease in China during the war, find themselves a bit crowded together in the holds of the S.S. Meiyu Maru, which is carrying them back to Nippon."--caption on photograph. December 12, 1945. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-11.

54. http://narademo.umiacs.umd.edu. University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies. Stop This Monster That Stops at Nothing. Produce to the Limit. This is Your War. Office for Emergency Management. Office of War Information. Domestic Operations Branch. Bureau of Special Services.

55. http://content.cdlib.org. Online Archive of California: Jarda Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives. "A Man in Four Million -- This pouting little man is one of more than four million Japanese repatriates who have been transported to the Japanese homeland from Far Eastern ports and Pacific Islands in a gigantic passenger-carrying operation by the U.S. Navy. A million more such passengers will be repatriated before the end of the year, when the program will be completed. The Navy used Liberty Ships, former naval vessels of Japan and U.S. Navy amphibious craft in carrying out the big job. All costs of the repatriation operation are borne by the Japanese government."--caption on photograph. August 24, 1946. Owning Institution: University of Southern California. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Regional History Center. Identifier: JARDA-8-06.


Like the USS Hammann , there was nothing particular special about the USS Shaw (DD-373). Just one destroyer in a fleet with dozens similar to her, really.

Laid down in 1934 as the tenth of the Mahan -class of destroyers, she weighed in around 1500 tons. Armed with five 5"/38 guns and a whopping 12 torpedo tubes, there was no question that she was quite able to fight other ships her size, and with a top speed of 35kts she could outrun many of the ships she couldn't stand toe-to-toe with. None of these numbers, however, made her different than any other destroyer in the US Navy. She joined the Pacific fleet in 1940 after her shakedown cruise, training and overhaul. In November of 1941, she found herself at Pearl Harbor, in a floating drydock for the sort of repairs that any ship needs after a while.

It wasn't until December 7th, 1941 that she became famous, thanks to one picture. The Shaw , hit by three bombs probably meant for the USS Nevada , was set ablaze. While the crew attempted to extinguish the fires, it was quickly realized that the attempt was doomed to failure and abandon ship was called at 0925. Five minutes later, her forward magazines exploded.

After seeing this photograph, one could be excused for thinking that the Shaw was destroyed, in much the same way as the USS Arizona . Indeed, for some 30 years I just assumed that was the case. In fact, it wasn't.

The explosion severed the Shaw 's bow completely and to be honest, fairly neatly. at least as far as that sort of thing goes. It also sank the floating drydock she was in ( YFD-2 , in case you were wondering), which went a long way towards extinguishing her fires.

If you'll direct your attention towards the top of this picture, you'll see just how dramatically she was truncated. as if an axe amputated everything forward of her bridge structure. If you look at the bottom of the picture, you'll see the Cassin and the Downes just forward of the battleship Pennsylvania . In fact, the sole Pearl Harbor survivor I've met served on the Downes . Maar ek dwaal af.

Someone had the bright idea that the Shaw , bifurcated though she was, could be repaired. Refloated, fitted with a wooden bow and fixed up enough to be able to sail on her own, she steamed off to San Francisco. There, she was "placed under the anchor" and refit with a replacement bow.

By the end of August, 1942, 68 years ago, the USS Shaw returned to Pearl Harbor, a ship whole again. She served through the rest of the war in the Pacific, making her presence felt at Guadalcanal, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, and Luzon. She was decommissioned on October 2nd, 1945 and stricken from the Navy List two days later. She was scrapped in 1946, ending what could only be called an eventful life.

Posted by: Wonderduck at 09:49 PM | Comments (2) | Add Comment
Post contains 514 words, total size 5 kb.

1 At that point in the war, they were willing to jump through hoops to save any hull that could be saved, just because they were desperately short.

A ship damaged that badly in 1944 they would have written off in an instant. But by that point brand new destroyers were pouring off the blocks in the US at a rate of dozens per month.

Posted by: Steven Den Beste at August 24, 2010 11:38 PM (+rSRq)

The US probably also still had the drydock capacity to do the installation and repairs at that time. In 1944, US drydocks would have been crowded to capacity both with American and Allied ships needing overhaul and repairs.

Of course, we are talking about a US that in 1941, before it entered the war, laid down 85 destroyers, taking an average of 6 months to complete each one (And depending on which yard you are talking about, a destroyer would be completed in 4 months.). That is slightly under half the destroyers built by Japan between 1921 and 1945.

What really mystifies me is why Cassin and Downes had their machinery reused in new hulls. I can understand reusing the reduction gears, but the rest of the engineering plant would not have been identical to what the likely hulls would have been designed for.


Ons Geskiedenis

1850 – Oak Ridge Male Institute was conceived on April 7th by 43 local citizens who, being desirous of promoting the cause of education, contributed a total of $629 and appointed five trustees to bring the Institute to fruition.

1852 – The founding year of Oak Ridge Male Institute. Within two years the name was changed to Oak Ridge Institute and females were admitted. Girls attended Oak Ridge Institute until 1929.

1861-1866 – The school was closed because of the Civil War. Scores of eligible aged students (probably about 100) enlisted or were conscripted into Southern units. (These units included the Guilford Guards, Stonewall Boys, Wilkes Guards, 11th Regiment of N.C. Volunteers, Madison Greys, Confederate Guards, Troublesome Boys, Guilford Men, 21st Regiment, 57th Regiment, 48th Regiment, 22nd Regiment, 45th Regiment, 29th Regiment, and many other regiments of N.C. troops).

1875 – 1914 – John Allen Holt and his brother Martin Hicks Holt, operated the school. The Chapel & Holt Hall are constructed, and was said to be the “finest school structure” in the state of North Carolina.

1895 – George Stephens, an 1891 graduate of Oak Ridge Institute, is credited with having caught the first forward pass thrown in football in a game between UNC and Georgia. In the crowd was John W. Heisman, who later relayed the incident to Walter Camp (the “Father of American Football”).

1914 – Professor Thomas E. Whitaker becomes President of Oak Ridge Institute. After the devastating fire that destroyed the main schoolhouse and the Chapel on January 14, 1914, Mr. Whitaker rebuilds Oak Ridge out of the ashes and into a military academy. During his 15 year administration the following buildings were constructed – Alumni Hall, Linville Chapel, King Gymnasium, as well as Holt, Brooks and Whitaker Hall Dormitories.

1917 – The school became military and the boys uniformed under the supervision of the War Department. The school trained and graduated men who served in World War I.

1919 – George Parrott, a 1905 graduate of Oak Ridge Institute, was an officer in the US Navy during World War I. A recipient of the Navy Cross, he was killed during the accidental collision between the USN Shaw (DD-68) and the British transport, HMS Aquitania, on October 9, 1918. On July 23, 1919, George Parrott was honored by his naming on the Clemson-class destroyer, USS Parrott (DD-218), which later saw significant service during World War II.

1926 – Oak Ridge was designated a Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps unit.

1929 – The name was changed to Oak Ridge Military Institute and limited to males only.

1932 – A two-year junior college was established and continued until 1966.

1946 – A monument on campus and various tributes memorialized the 42 ORMI alumni who lost their lives in World War II. During the Second World War, 127 of the academy’s alumni were awarded a Purple Heart during the conflict, while another 27 alumni earned the Silver Star.

1952 – Hollywood film legend Ava Gardner makes a surprise visit to campus to see her nephew, Cadet Robert S. Creech, Class of 1953.

1971 – Girls were admitted again and the name was changed to Oak Ridge Academy.

1975 – Keith Cokely, a 1975 graduate of Oak Ridge Academy, becomes the first African-American Cadet to hold the position of Battalion Commander and Commander of the Corps of Cadets.

1981 – The name changed again to its present name, Oak Ridge Military Academy. Both boys and girls are now uniformed.

1988 – Dale Earnhardt Jr. attends Oak Ridge Military Academy.

1991 – Oak Ridge was named the “Official Military Academy of North Carolina” by the State Legislature.

1992 – Jennifer Childers, a 1992 graduate of Oak Ridge Military Academy, becomes the first female Cadet to hold the position of Battalion Commander and Commander of the Corps of Cadets.

1995 – Nancy Mellette, a 1996 graduate, submits her application for admission into The Citadel and attempts to enter the Military College of South Carolina as one of its first female cadets. Nancy’s plight for enrollment brings positive public attention nationally to herself and ORMA, featuring articles in People Magazine (click here for article) and culminating with a cover story by NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw.

1996 – Oak Ridge Military Academy Drill Team (The Lady Cadet’s), an all female drill team, won the National Drill Team Championship in Daytona Beach, Florida. Coached by Carl T. Lloyd.

2002 – The Academy celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary.

2002 – Academy builds the largest building on campus. 33,000+ square foot, three level Academic building.


Shaw II DD- 373 - History

November and the Continuing Buildup (vervolg)

The buildup on Guadalcanal continued, by both sides. On 11 November, guarded by a cruiser-destroyer covering force, a convoy ran in carrying the 182d Infantry, another regiment of the Americal Division. The ships were pounded by enemy bombers and three transports were hit, but the men landed. General Vandegrift needed the new men badly. His veterans were truly ready for replacement more than a thousand new cases of malaria and related diseases were reported each week. The Japanese who had been on the island any length of time were no better off they were, in fact, in worse shape. Medical supplies and rations were in short supply. The whole thrust of the Japanese reinforcement effort continued to be to get troops and combat equipment ashore. The idea prevailed in Tokyo, despite all evidence to the contrary, that one overwhelming coordinated assault would crush the American resistance. The enemy drive to take Port Moresby on New Guinea was put on hold to concentrate all efforts on driving the Americans off of Guadalcanal.

Native guides lead 2d Raider Battalion Marines on a combat/reconnaissance patrol behind Japanese lines. The patrol lasted for less than a month, during which the Marines covered 150 miles and fought more than a dozen actions. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 51728

On 12 November, a multifaceted Japanese naval force converged on Guadalcanal to cover the landing of the main body of the 38th Division. Rear Admiral Daniel J. Callaghan's cruisers and destroyers, the close-in protection for the 182d's transports, moved to stop the enemy. Coastwatcher and scout plane sightings and radio traffic intercepts had identified two battleships, two carriers, four cruisers, and a host of destroyers all headed toward Guadalcanal. A bombardment group led by the battleships Hiei and Kirishima, with the light cruiser Nagura, and 15 destroyers spearheaded the attack. Shortly after midnight, near Savo Island, Callaghan's cruisers picked up the Japanese on radar and continued to close. The battle was joined at such short range that each side fired at times on their own ships. Callaghan's flagship, the San Francisco, was hit 15 times, Callaghan was killed, and the ship had to limp away. The cruiser Atlanta (CL-104) was also hit and set afire. Rear Admiral Norman Scott, who was on board, was killed. Despite the hammering by Japanese fire, the Americans held and continued fighting. The battleship Hiei, hit by more than 80 shells, retired and with it went the rest of the bombardment force. Three destroyers were sunk and four others damaged.

The Americans had accomplished their purpose they had forced the Japanese to turn back. The cost was high. Two antiaircraft cruisers, the Atlanta and the Juneau (CL-52), were sunk four destroyers, the Barton (DD-599), Cushing (DD-376), Monssen (DD-436), and Laffey (DD-459), also went to the bottom. In addition to the San Francisco, the heavy cruiser Portland and the destroyers Sterret (DD-407), and Aaron Ward (DD-483) were damaged. One one destroyer of the 13 American ships engaged, the Fletcher (DD-445), was unscathed when the survivors retired to the New Hebrides.

With daylight came the Cactus bombers and fighters they found the crippled Hiei and pounded it mercilessly. On the 14th the Japanese were forced to scuttle it. Admiral Halsey ordered his only surviving carrier, the Enterprise, out of the Guadalcanal area to get it out of reach of Japanese aircraft and sent his battleships Washington (BB-56) and South Dakota with four escorting destroyers north to meet the Japanese. Some of the Enterprise's planes flew in to Henderson Field to help even the odds.

In the great naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 12-15 November, RAdm Daniel J. Callaghan was killed when his flagship, the heavy cruiser San Francisco (CA-38) took 15 major hits and was forced to limp away in the dark from the scene of action. Department of Defense (Navy) Photo 80-G-20824 and 80-G-G-21099

On 14 November Cactus and Enterprise flyers found a Japanese cruiser-destroyer force that had pounded the island on the night of 13 November. They damaged four cruisers and a destroyer. After refueling and rearming they went after the approaching Japanese troop convoy. They hit several transports in one attack and sank one when they came back again. Army B-17s up from Espiritu Santo scored one hit and several near misses, bombing from 17,000 feet.

Moving in a continuous pattern of attack, return, refuel, rearm, and attack again, the planes from Guadalcanal hit nine transports, sinking seven. Many of the 5,000 troops on the stricken ships were rescued by Tanaka's destroyers, which were firing furiously and laying smoke screens in an attempt to protect the transports. The admiral later recalled that day as indelible in his mind, with memories of "bombs wobbling down from high-flying B-17s of carrier bombers roaring towards targets as though to plunge full into the water, releasing bombs and pulling out barely in time, each miss sending up towering clouds of mist and spray, every hit raising clouds of smoke and fire." Despite the intensive aerial attack, Tanaka continued on to Guadalcanal with four destroyers and four transports.

Japanese intelligence had picked up the approaching American battleship force and warned Tanaka of its advent. In turn, the enemy admirals sent their own battleship-cruiser force to intercept. The Americans, led by Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee in the Washington, reached Sealark Channel about 2100 on the 14th. An hour later, a Japanese cruiser was picked up north of Savo. Battleship fire soon turned it away. The Japanese now learned that their opponents would not be the cruisers they expected.

The resulting clash, fought in the glare of gunfire and Japanese searchlights, was perhaps the most significant fought at sea for Guadalcanal. When the melee was over, the American battleships' 16-inch guns had more than matched the Japanese. Both the South Dakota and the Washington were damaged badly enough to force their retirement, but the Kirishima was punished to its abandonment and death. One Japanese and three American destroyers, the Benham (DD-796), the Walke (DD-416), and the Preston (DD-379), were sunk. When the Japanese attack force retired, Admiral Tanaka ran his four transports onto the beach, knowing they would be sitting targets at daylight. Most of the men on board, however, did manage to get ashore before the inevitable pounding by American planes, warships, and artillery.

The Japanese Model 89 (1929)
50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger

Born out of the need to bridge the gap in range between hand grenades and mortars, the grenade discharger evolved in the Imperial Japanese Army from a special purpose weapon of infantry assault and defense to an essential item of standard equipment with all Japanese ground forces.

Commonly called Juteki by the Japanese, this weapon officially was designated Hachikyu Shiki Jutekidarto, or 1189 Model Heavy Grenade Discharger, the term "heavy" being justified by the powerful 1-pound, 12-ounce high explosive shell it was designed to fire, although it also fired the standard Model 91 fragmentation grenade.

To the American Marines and soldiers who first encountered this weapon and others of its kind in combat they were known as "knee mortars," likely so named because they generally were fired from a kneeling position. Typically, the discharger's concave baseplate was pressed firmly into the surface of the ground by the firer's foot to support the heavy recoil of the fired shell, but unfortunately the term "knee mortar" suggested to some untutored captors of these weapons that they were to be fired with the baseplate resting against the knee or thigh. When a Marine fired on of these dischargers from his thigh and broke his upper leg bone, efforts were swiftly undertaken in the field to educate all combat troops in the safe and proper handling of these very useful weapons.

The Model 89 (1929) 50mm Heavy Grenade Discharger is a muzzle-loaded, high-angle-of-fire weapon which weighs 10-1/4 pounds and is 24 inches in overall length. Its design is compact and simple. The discharger has three major components: the rifled barrel, the supporting barrel pedestal with firing mechanism, and the base plate. Operation of the Model 899 was easy and straightforward, and with practice its user could deliver accurate fire registered quickly on target.

Encountered in all major battles in the Pacific War, the Model 89 Grenade Discharger was an uncomplicated, very portable, and highly efficient weapon operated easily by one man. It was carried in a cloth or leather case with a sling, and its one-piece construction allowed it to be brought into action very quickly. This grenade discharger had the advantage over most mortars in that it could be aimed and fired mechanically after a projectile had been placed in the barrel, projectile firing not being dependent upon dropping down the barrel against a stationary firing pin as with most mortars, where barrel fouling sometimes caused dangerous hangfires. Although an instantaneous fuze employed on the Model 89 high explosive shell restricted this shell's use to open areas, the Model 91 fragmentation grenade with its seven-second fuze made this discharger effective in a jungle or forest setting, with complete safety for the user from premature detonation of projectiles by overhanging foliage. Smoke and signal shells, and an incendiary grenade, were special types of ammunition used with this versatile and effective weapons which won the respect of all who came to know it.— Edwin F. Libby

Ten thousand troops of the 38th Division had landed, but the Japanese were in no shape to ever again attempt a massive reinforcement. The horrific losses in the frequent naval clashes, which seemed at times to favor the Japanese, did not really represent a standoff. Every American ship lost or damaged could and would be replaced every Japanese ship lost meant a steadily diminishing fleet. In the air, the losses on both sides were daunting, but the enemy naval air arm would never recover from its losses of experienced carrier pilots. Two years later, the Battle of the Philippine Sea between American and Japanese carriers would aptly be called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot" because of the ineptitude of the Japanese trainee pilots.

A Japanese troop transport and her landing craft were badly damaged by the numerous Marine air attacks and were forced to run aground on Kokumbona beach after the naval Battle of Guadalcanal. Many enemy troops were killed in the attacks. Department of Defense (USMC) Photo 53510

The enemy troops who had been fortunate enough to reach land were not immediately ready to assault the American positions. The 38th Division and the remnants of the various Japanese units that had previously tried to penetrate the Marine lines needed to be shaped into a coherent attack force before General Hyakutake could again attempt to take Henderson Field.

General Vandegrift now had enough fresh units to begin to replace his veteran troops along the front lines. The decision to replace the 1st Marine Division with the Army's 25th Infantry Division had been made. Admiral Turner had told Vandegrift to leave all of his heavy equipment on the island when he did pull out "in hopes of getting your units re-equipped when you come out." He also told the Marine general that the Army would command the final phases of the Guadalcanal operation since it would provide the majority of the combat forces once the 1st Division departed. Major General Alexander M. Patch, commander of the Americal Division. would relieve Vandegrift as senior American officer ashore. His air support would continue to be Marine-dominated as General Geiger, now located on Espiritu Santo with 1st Wing headquarters, fed his squadrons forward to maintain the offensive. And the air command on Guadalcanal itself would continue to be a mixed bag of Army, Navy, Marine, and Allied squadrons.

The sick list of the 1st Marine Division in November included more than 3,200 men with malaria. The men of the 1st still manning the frontline foxholes and the rear areas—if anyplace within Guadalcanal's perimeter could properly be called a rear area—were plain worn out. They had done their part and they knew it.

On 29 November, General Vandegrift was handed a message from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The crux of it read: "1st MarDiv is to be relived without delay . and will proceed to Australia for rehabilitation and employment." The word soon spread that the 1st was leaving and where it was going. Australia was not yet the cherished place it would become in the division's future, but any place was preferable to Guadalcanal.


-- Table of Contents --


CHAPTER I -
Sections of an Act Erecting
Montgomery County -
Topography.


CHAPTER II - Part I
Ores, Minerals, Geology and Lime.


CHAPTER II - Part II
Ores, Minerals, Geology and Lime.


Chapter IV
Early Voyagers and Traders.

The First Swedish Settlement.


Chapter V -Part II
The First Swedish Settlement. (cont.)


Chapter VI
William Penn.- "The Holy Experiment,
a Free Colony for All Mankind."


Chapter VII
Penn's Arrival in America -
His Colony Founded
on the Delaware.


Chapter VIII
Material Improvements.


No Associated Illustrations.


No Associated Illustrations.


No Associated Illustrations.


Chapter XIII
The Colonial Era.


Chapter XV
The War Of 1812 And The Mexican War.


Chapter XVI - Part I
The Great Rebellion.
The Fourth and Fifty-First Regiments.


Chapter XVI - Part II
The Great Rebellion.
Roster of the Fifty-First Regiment.


No Associated Illustrations.


Chapter XVI - Part III
The Great Rebellion.
The Fifty-Third and Sixty-Eighth Regiments.


No Associated Illustrations.


Chapter XVI - Part IV
The Great Rebellion.
The 93rd, 95th, 106th, 129th & 138th Regiments.


No Associated Illustrations.


Chapter XVI - Part V
The Great Rebellion.
The 160th & 162th (17th Cavalry) Regiments.


No Associated Illustrations.


Chapter XVI - Part VI
The Great Rebellion.
The 175th, 179th, 11th, 17th & 19th Regiments
plus other independent units.


Chapter XVII
The Grand Army of the Republic.


Chapter XVIII
Redemptioners - Slavery -
The Underground Railroads


Chapter XIX
Graduates of the United States Military
and Naval Academies


Chapter XX
Montgomery County Established -
Municipal Government - The "Country Squire."


Chapter XXII
Manners and Customs - Sports and Pastimes -
Local Superstitions - Inns.


Shaw II DD- 373 - History

This collection has access restrictions. For details, please see the restrictions.

This is a finding aid. It is a description of archival material held in the Wilson Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Unless otherwise noted, the materials described below are physically available in our reading room, and not digitally available through the World Wide Web. See the Duplication Policy section for more information.

Expand/collapse Collection Overview

Grootte About 11,300 items (24.0 linear feet).
Abstract Ruth Faison Shaw was an artist, teacher, and art therapist who lived in North Carolina, New York, and Rome, finally settling in Chapel Hill, N.C. She was a proponent of using finger painting in education and therapy work. The collection contains personal and professional correspondence, writings, subject files, photographs, materials related to the use of art therapy for disturbed children and military veterans, original art work including nine finger paintings attributed to Shaw, and other items. Most of the correspondence dates after 1940. Many of the letters were written by friends and relatives to Shaw, but there are several letters she wrote. Letters discuss activities of friends and family, art and art therapy, theater, and various business activities and also contain references to finger painting as therapy in the rehabilitation of World War II soldiers. Also included are Shaw and Faison family history materials, financial and legal documents dating from 1919 to 1968, articles and other writings by or about Shaw or her areas of interest, printed materials, and clippings. Subject files compiled by Shaw reflect her interests especially finger painting, hospitals, and psychiatric treatment. Photographs depict Shaw family members, Shaw demonstrating fingerpainting techniques, and Shaw's finger paintings. Photograph albums document Shaw's travels in France and the Middle East immediately after World War I and her years spent in Rome and in New York.
Skepper Shaw, Ruth Faison, 1887-1969.
Taal Engels
Terug na bo

Expand/collapse Information For Users

Expand/collapse Subject Headings

The following terms from Library of Congress Subject Headings suggest topics, persons, geography, etc. interspersed through the entire collection the terms do not usually represent discrete and easily identifiable portions of the collection--such as folders or items.

Clicking on a subject heading below will take you into the University Library's online catalog.

  • Art therapy for children.
  • Art therapy--United States.
  • Chapel Hill (N.C.)--Social life and customs.
  • Faison family.
  • Finger painting.
  • France--Description and travel.
  • France--Photographs.
  • New York (N.Y.)--Social life and customs.
  • Rome (Italy)--Description and travel.
  • Rome (Italy)--Photographs.
  • Rome (Italy)--Social life and customs.
  • Shaw family.
  • Shaw, Ruth Faison, 1887-1969.
  • Veterans--Mental health services.
  • Women artists.
  • Women travelers--History--20th century.
  • World War, 1914-1918--France--Photographs.

Expand/collapse Biographical Information

Ruth Faison Shaw was born in 1887 near Wilmington, N.C. She worked as a school teacher in North Carolina before World War I, but in 1918 she traveled to France to travel and support the war effort in a volunteer position through the Young Men's Christian Association. After a brief return to North Carolina, Shaw went back to Europe in 1920 and worked as a teacher for British and American children in Rome. During this time, she published several books: Offerings and Offsprings , The Old Shoe , and The Second Old Shoe . She also developed her interest in finger-painting. In 1932, Shaw left Rome to teach finger painting at the Mac Jennet School in Paris. Soon after, she moved to New York, where she opened the Shaw Finger Paint Studio and published two more books: Finger Painting and Finger Painting and How I Do It . She retired in 1959 and moved to Chapel Hill, N.C., where she conducted research on the use of finger painting in psychiatric therapy at the Department of Psychiatry at North Carolina Memorial Hospital. Ruth Faison Shaw died on 3 December 1969.

Expand/collapse Scope and Content

The collection contains personal and professional correspondence, writings, subject files, photographs, materials related to the use of art therapy for disturbed children and military veterans, original art work including nine finger paintings attributed to Shaw, and other items. Most of the correspondence dates after 1940. Many of the letters were written by friends and relatives to Shaw, but there are several letters she wrote. Letters discuss activities of friends and family, art and art therapy, theater, and various business activities and also contain references to finger painting as therapy in the rehabilitation of World War II soldiers. Also included are Shaw and Faison family history materials, financial and legal documents dating from 1919 to 1968, articles and other writings by or about Shaw or her areas of interest, printed materials, and clippings. Subject files compiled by Shaw reflect her interests especially finger painting, hospitals, and psychiatric treatment. Photographs depict Shaw family members, Shaw demonstrating fingerpainting techniques, and Shaw's finger paintings. Photograph albums document Shaw's travels in France and the Middle East immediately after World War I and her years spent in Rome and in New York.

Note that because the original order as received has, for the most part, been retained, there is some subject and form of materials overlap among the series.


Kyk die video: Wrecked USS Shaw and airplanes at a damaged hangar at Pearl Harbor after the Japa..HD Stock Footage (Januarie 2022).