Inligting

Is die Egiptiese mummifikasie afkomstig van 'n meer ou en miskien omkeerbare bewaringstegniek?


'N Sentrale konsep in die roman Die Sfinxrolle is of daar ooit 'n mummifikasietegnologie bestaan ​​het wat iemand vir 'n lang tyd kan bewaar en behou die potensiaal om hulle weer lewendig te maak. Die boek stel die hipotese bekend dat Egiptiese mummifikasie sy inspirasie put uit 'n ouer en meer gevorderde stelsel wat oor sulke vermoëns beskik. Maar hoe vergesog is die idee?

Mummifikasie in antieke Egipte, ondanks die sukses daarvan om menslike weefsel oor duisende jare te bewaar, was in wese simbolies. Neem die geloof in hul geestelike hiernamaals weg, en die mummifikasieproses was net 'n gesofistikeerde weergawe van taksidermie, wat bedoel was om die verval van velselle te stop. Daar is van interne organe ontslae geraak, aangesien daar geen mengsel van speserye en soute was wat diep genoeg kon dring om dit te red nie.

Kai-i-nefer-mummie, Egipte, laat periode, 525-332 vC.

Maar kon Egiptiese mummifikasie 'n vereenvoudigde, nie-funksionele weergawe gewees het van 'n verlore kuns van liggaamsbehoud wat 'n werklike kans op herimimasie gehad het? Hierdie idee het slegs geloofwaardigheid as daar eers aanvaar word dat die Ou Egiptenare afstam van 'n hoogs gevorderde antidiluviaanse beskawing, wat sedertdien in die geskiedenis verlore gegaan het. Hierdie kontroversiële teorie is gebaseer op talle vondste, nuuskierighede en skynbare afwykings wat die tergende idee ondersteun dat Egiptiese prestasies, in plaas van die hoogtepunt van die tegnologiese ontwikkeling van die mens, die einde van die agteruitgang van 'n nog groter samelewing aandui.

Antieke kennis en tegnologie

In 1837 het Egiptoloog kolonel Howard Vyse 'n gat in die Groot Piramide van Giza geblaas en 'n stuk ysterplaat ontdek wat tussen die binne blokke gelê het. Tog is die piramide twee millennia voor die Ystertydperk gebou. Verder het 'n metallurgiese ontleding van 1989 van die yster spore van goud op die oppervlak gevind, wat daarop dui dat dit verguld was. Dit sou kennis van elektrisiteit vereis het.

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Ander leidrade kan ook dui op 'n begrip van elektrisiteit. Die Hathor -tempel in Dendera spog met klipreliëfe wat uitbeeld wat sommige as gloeilampe geïnterpreteer het.

Die Dendera Light ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Sommige navorsers het verder bespiegel dat die afwesigheid van roet of brandmerke van vlamme in sommige Egiptiese grafte die gebruik van 'n stelsel van elektriese beligting kan aandui. Dan is daar nog die geboorde gate in die graniet van die Groot Piramide en op baie ander plekke, insluitend steengroewe. Is hierdie perfek sirkelvormige, diep gate moontlik gesny met 'n instrument wat elektriese krag benodig? Wat van die eienaardige hiërogliewe in die Tempel van Seti I by Abydos wat blykbaar 'n helikopter, 'n boot en 'n vliegtuig wys?

Die hiërogliewe in die tempel van Seti I.

'N Enkele afwykende artefak kan verklaar word as 'n toeval of 'n moderne verkeerde interpretasie. Daar word vermoed dat die sny van die helikopter die gevolg is van oorvleuelende hiërogliewe na die hergebruik van dieselfde klip. Maar moet ons, ten spyte van baie ander gevalle wat die gevestigde historiese tydlyn blyk te trotseer, ten minste die moontlikheid oorweeg dat farao -Egipte die herontdekking van die mensdom verteenwoordig van 'n fraksie van wat dit eens geweet het? Het die vermoë om die Groot Piramide van Giza met so 'n omvang en akkuraatheid te bou, relatief skielik in 'n Bronstydperk -samelewing gekom, of het die bouers daarvan kennis gebruik wat al generasies lank bewaar is?

Verlore beskawing

Die Groot Sfinx van Giza kan duisende jare ouer wees as die piramides. Sommige geoloë wat die verweringspatrone bestudeer het, beweer dat dit uit 'n tyd dateer toe die Giza -plato 'n nat klimaat gehad het - etlike millennia voor die piramidebouers. As dit waar is, kan dit die teorie van verlore beskawing ondersteun. Kon die Farao's afstam van 'n gevorderde antediluviaanse beskawing? Was eertydse Egiptenare vaagweg bewus van 'n glorie uit die verlede, van 'n tyd toe hul voorouers die potensiaal het om 'vir ewig te lewe'?

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As die teorieë dat Egiptiese tegnologie 'n oorblyfsel van iets ouer en groter is, waar is, kan die mummifikasie daarvan dan ook 'n afgewaterde weergawe wees van 'n prehistoriese tegniek wat meer komplekse chemie gebruik het? Het hulle 'n bleek herinnering gehad aan 'n prosedure wat selle in die liggaam bewaar het, nie net die vel nie, en wat selfs omkeerbaar was? Indien wel, het hulle slegs gedeeltelike kennis behou. Hulle het nie die volledige resep gehad om hul dooies te mummifiseer met die vooruitsig op ware heropbou nie.

Muurskildery van Egiptiese mummievoorbereiding by die Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum. ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

Gevorderde Cryopreservation

Die krionistiese wetenskap van vandag is daarop gemik om mense sonder verval te bewaar, sodat 'n terminale siekte op 'n toekomstige datum genees kan word en die onderwerp herleef kan word vir 'n tweede kans op lewe. Kryoniese tegnieke vermy sellulêre skade deur ys tydens die vriesproses deur kriobeskermende chemikalieë by die liggaam te voeg. Dit stel water in en om die selle in staat om solied te word sonder om yskristalle te vorm. Maar die kriobeskermingsmiddels self is skadelik, en die stelsel maak staat op die hoop dat toekomstige wetenskaplikes die nadelige gevolge van die gebruik daarvan kan omkeer. Is dit denkbaar dat die ou mense 'n sellulêre antivries kon formuleer wat yskade sonder skadelike newe-effekte kon vermy? Het hulle 'n manier gehad om die biologiese tyd te stop sonder om permanente lae temperature te veroorsaak? Is daar 'n chemiese verbinding wat, as dit deur die liggaam gepomp word om die bloed op die dood te vervang, onbepaalde bewaring sonder krag of ys moontlik maak?

Die bewaarde ou Egiptiese mummie van Seti I. ( CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 )

Dit is spekulasie, nie wetenskap nie. Hipotese, nie geskiedenis nie. Dit is maklik om verbeelding te gebruik om by die kolletjies van die geskiedenis aan te sluit om 'n samehangende tydlyn van gebeure te skep sonder veel bewyse, maar die tydlyn moet erken word vir sy spekulatiewe aard. Buitendien, as daar in die verre verlede 'n omkeerbare vorm van mummifikasie van temperatuur was, sou daar sekerlik so 'n behoue ​​liggaam gevind gewees het? Wel, nie noodwendig nie. Oorlog of natuurramp kan hul afwesigheid verklaar. Of ons soek dalk op die verkeerde plek. Gaan 'n oomblik vol fantasie en dink Plato se weergawe van Atlantis was gebaseer op 'n ware verlore beskawing met gevorderde tegnologie, elektronika, motorvlug, navigasie en gesofistikeerde medisyne. Daar word gesê dat die Atlantiërs verby ons atmosfeer gesoek het na die antwoord op ewige ultra-lae temperature wat nodig is vir die behoud van kiore. Hulle het moontlik vuurpyle gebruik om gemummifiseerde liggame na die buitenste bereik van die sonnestelsel te stuur, en dit is wat hul afstammelinge, die Egiptenare, simbolies probeer navolg het en gedink het dat hul dooies 'n reis na die sterre sou onderneem.

Dit is tans onderwerpe vir fiksie. Die Sfinxrolle sluit by die kolletjies aan om 'n samehangende, dramatiese geskiedenis te skep wat op hierdie idees gebaseer is. Dit ondersoek wat kon wees opreg. Maar die konsepte in die roman, hoe onwaarskynlik ook al, is nie onmoontlik nie. Miskien bestaan ​​die volledige resep vir 'onsterflikheid' nog steeds, bewaar in die legendariese 'rekordsaal' wat verband hou met die Sfinx? Vandag se fiksie kan nog die feit van môre word.

Stewart Ferris is die skrywer van Die Sfinxrolle .

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Antieke vreemdelinge en Jesus

Gee antieke vreemdelinge afstand van die afleiding van Jesus as gevolg van 'n afval van godsdienstige ekstremiste? Soos ek verstaan ​​dat dit met vuur sou speel, is ek ook geïnteresseerd in hulle mening. Iemand verlig my asseblief.

Ek het self na die teorie gekyk en moet sê dat dit 'n interessante vooruitsig is. Ek dink u het egter die reg dat AA altyd uiters versigtig was om nie met kontroversiële godsdienstige oortuigings pad te loop nie. Ek dink nie hulle sal spring om 'n episode daaroor te maak nie, alhoewel dit 'n wonderlike episode sou wees.

Hulle praat oor die Maya -gode, hoe ou mense ruimtevaarders as gode kon verwar, ens. Dit is nie presies dat hulle versigtig is vir ander godsdienstige oortuigings nie.

Ek sou kon sweer hulle het 'n segment, nie 'n volledige episode ter waarde van materiaal nie, maar slegs 'n vermelding of twee. Ek kan verkeerd wees.

Hulle het dit aangeraak, wel, hulle het die Jode in die woestyn en die manamasjien laat ronddwaal. Wat die boog van die verbond was, sê hulle alien wepon. Hulle het gepraat oor Esegiël en die wiele binne wiele. Hulle het moontlik Mohammed genoem en wat sy vlieënde perd was, maar ek onthou dit nie seker nie

Eintlik het hulle gesê die Ark is 'n holografiese kommunikasietoestel. Ek onthou die episode waarin gesê word dat die Ark 'n interaktiewe beeld van God produseer het waarmee die dissipels en 'quotholy men' gepraat het.

Jesus was koninklik. Uit 'n gesin wat verdryf is en klante -konings in hul plek gekom het. Herodes 1 en 2, naamlik perse wat hulde gebring het aan die Romeine om Judea te hê.

Jesus kom uit die geslag van Dawid en was dus die regmatige koning van die Jode soos geïdentifiseer deur Johannes die doper, Messias beteken redder ja, maar nie in die Katolieke sin nie. Dit is eerder die gesalfde (die koning) en hou sterk verband met die herstel van die vaderland aan die Jode.

Dit is hierdie eenvoudige waarheid wat die Tempeliers ontdek het en deur die Rooms -Katolieke uitgeroei is omdat hulle hierdie waarheid binne hul orde onthul het.


Antieke kennis en tegnologie

In 1837 het Egiptoloog kolonel Howard Vyse 'n gat in die Groot Piramide van Giza geblaas.

Hy het gevind dat 'n stuk ysterplaat tussen die binneste blokke vasgemaak is, alhoewel die piramide tweeduisend jaar voor die ystertydperk gebou is.

Verder het 'n metallurgiese ondersoek van 1989 van die yster spore van goud op die oppervlak onthul, wat daarop dui dat dit moontlik bedek was.

Hierdie tegniek sou die kennis van elektrisiteit nodig gehad het. Selfs vreemd is die Hathor -tempel in Dendera met klipreliëfs, wat wys wat sommige gedink het gloeilampe was.

Die “Dendera -lig ”, wat die enkele voorstelling aan die linkermuur van die regtervleuel in een van die grafkelders toon Foto -krediet

Sommige ander navorsers het verder teoretiseer dat die gebrek aan brandwonde of roet van vlamme in verskeie Egiptiese grafte die gebruik van 'n stelsel van elektriese beligting kan aandui.

Daar is nog geboorde gate in die graniet van die Groot Piramide en op verskeie ander plekke, insluitend die steengroewe.

Kon hierdie perfek sirkelvormige, diep gate gesny gewees het met 'n instrument wat elektriese krag benodig?

Nuuskierige hiërogliewe kan gevind word in die tempel van Seti I by Abydos - dit lyk asof hulle 'n vliegtuig, 'n boot en 'n helikopter vertoon.

Die hiërogliewe in die tempel van Seti I.

'N Enkele abnormale artefak kan verklaar word as 'n toevallige gebeurtenis of 'n moderne verkeerde interpretasie.

Daar word vermoed dat die helikoptergravure byvoorbeeld die gevolg was van die hiërogliewe wat oorvleuel het na die hergebruik van dieselfde klip.

Moet ons, ten spyte van verskeie ander gevalle wat blykbaar die historiese tydlyn uitdaag, ten minste die moontlikheid oorweeg dat die farao -Egipte die mensdom 'n breuk verteenwoordig het van wat dit eens geweet het?

Het die vermoë om die Groot Piramide van Giza met so 'n akkuraatheid en omvang te bou skielik in die Bronstydperk -kultuur gekom?

Of het die skeppers kennis wat vir generasies behoue ​​gebly het?


'N Egiptiese mummifikasie

Mummifikasie is die behoud van 'n liggaam, hetsy dier as mens. Sommige mummies word nat bewaar, sommige word gevries en sommige word gedroog. Dit kan 'n natuurlike proses wees, of dit kan doelbewus bereik word. Die Egiptiese mummies is doelbewus gemaak deur die liggaam te droog. Deur vog uit te skakel, het u die bron van verval uitgeskakel. Hulle het die liggaam gedroog deur 'n soutmengsel genaamd natron te gebruik. Natron is 'n natuurlike stof wat in oorvloed langs die Nyl voorkom. Natron bestaan ​​uit vier soute: natriumkarbonaat, natriumbikarbonaat, natriumchloried en natriumsulfaat. Die natriumkarbonaat werk as 'n droogmiddel en trek die water uit die liggaam. Terselfdertyd verhoog die bikarbonaat, wanneer dit aan vog blootgestel word, die pH wat 'n vyandige omgewing vir bakterieë skep. Die Egiptiese klimaat was goed vir die mummifikasieproses, omdat dit baie warm en droog was.

Waarom het die eertydse Egiptenaar hul dooies gemummifiseer?

Die Egiptenare het geglo dat daar ses belangrike aspekte is waaruit 'n mens bestaan: die fisiese liggaam, skaduwee, naam, ka (gees), ba (persoonlikheid) en die akh (onsterflikheid). Elkeen van hierdie elemente het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die welstand van 'n individu. Elkeen was nodig om wedergeboorte in die hiernamaals te bereik.

Met die uitsondering van die akh, sluit al hierdie elemente by 'n persoon by geboorte aan. 'N Persoon se skaduwee was altyd teenwoordig. 'N Persoon kan nie sonder 'n skaduwee bestaan ​​nie, en ook nie die skaduwee sonder die persoon nie. Die skaduwee word voorgestel as 'n klein menslike figuur wat heeltemal swart geverf is.

'N Persoon se naam is by geboorte aan hulle gegee en sou lewe so lank as wat die naam genoem word. Dit is waarom pogings aangewend is om die naam te beskerm. 'N Cartouche (magiese tou) is gebruik om die naam te omring en dit vir ewig te beskerm.

Die ka was 'n dubbele persoon. Dit is wat ons 'n gees of 'n siel sou noem. Die ka is op dieselfde tyd as die fisiese liggaam geskep. Die dubbelspel is op 'n pottebakkerswiel gemaak deur die god met ramkop, Khnum. Die ka bestaan ​​in die fisiese wêreld en woon in die graf. Dit het dieselfde behoeftes as wat die persoon in die lewe gehad het, naamlik om te eet, te drink, ens.

Die ba kan die beste beskryf word as iemand se persoonlikheid. Soos 'n persoon se liggaam, was elke ba 'n individu. Dit het 'n mens se liggaam binnegedring met die asem van die lewe en dit het vertrek tydens die dood. Dit het vrylik beweeg tussen die onderwêreld en die fisiese wêreld. Die ba het die vermoë om verskillende vorme aan te neem.

Die akh was die aspek van 'n persoon wat by die gode in die onderwêreld sou aansluit as onsterflik en onveranderlik. Dit is na die dood geskep deur die gebruik van begrafnisteks en spreuke, wat ontwerp is om 'n akh te bring. Sodra dit bereik is, is die individu verseker dat hy nie 'n tweede keer sou sterf nie en dat dit die einde van een bestaan ​​sou beteken.

'N Ongeskonde liggaam was 'n integrale deel van 'n mens se hiernamaals. Sonder 'n fisiese liggaam was daar geen skaduwee, geen naam, geen ka, ba of akh nie. Deur mummifikasie het die Egiptenare geglo dat hulle hulself 'n suksesvolle wedergeboorte in die hiernamaals verseker.

Mumab I. 'n Moderne mamma.
Van 21 Mei tot 25 Junie 1994 nC het 'n span wetenskaplikes van The University of Maryland en die Long Island University die eerste menslike mummifikasie in byna 2000 jaar uitgevoer. Hulle gebruik replika's van ou Egiptiese balsemingsgereedskap, honderd meter fyn Egiptiese linne, meer as 600 pond natron, wierook en mirre, sederolie, palmwyn en natuurlike harsen. Die mummifikasie is voorgestel aan die University of Maryland Medical School in Baltimore, MD.

Die twee mans wat verantwoordelik was vir hierdie reuse -sprong terug in die tyd, is Ronn Wade (links), die direkteur van anatomiese dienste aan die University of Maryland Medical School in Baltimore Bob Brier (regs), 'n Egiptoloog aan die C. W. Post Campus van Long Island University. Hulle mammie word Mumab genoem. Volgens Ronn is Mumab voor en tydens die mummifikasie getoets en sal dit voortgaan om te toets in 'n poging om 'n basislyn te skep waarteen alle mummies ondersoek kan word. Anders as ou mummies, het hierdie een 'n mediese geskiedenis, verlede, hede en toekoms. Laat ons kyk na wat hulle van Mumab bereik en geleer het.

Ronn en Bob het 'n geruime tyd gesoek na 'n geskikte skenker. Hulle het 'n lys vereistes waaraan voldoen moes word. Hulle was op soek na 'n gemiddelde menslike voorbeeld, iemand wat hulle met die gemiddelde Egiptenaar kon vergelyk. Dit moes iemand wees wat hul liggaam aan die wetenskap geskenk het en beskikbaar was vir 'n baie lang langtermynprojek. Dit moes iemand wees wat nog nooit 'n ernstige siekte gehad het nie en nooit 'n operasie ondergaan het nie. Die dood moes uit natuurlike oorsake ontstaan ​​het, maar dit het nie saak gemaak of dit 'n man of 'n vrou was nie. Gelukkig was dit 'n bejaarde man uit Baltimore wat aan hartversaking gesterf het. Die antieke Egiptiese mummifikasieproses het 70 dae geneem. Daarna sou hierdie bejaarde man uit Baltimore Mumab wees.

In die lig van alles wat die Ou Egiptenare ons in ontelbare tekste en skilderye oor byna elke aspek van hul beskawing aan ons vertel het, is dit vreemd dat hulle sulke gapings in ons kennis gelaat het. Ons weet byvoorbeeld baie min van hoe die piramides gebou is, of hoe obeliske opgehef is. Soos hierdie raaisels, het die ou Egiptenare ons niks vertel van die mummifikasieproses nie. Miskien is dit as so heilig beskou dat dit slegs mondelings verby was aan diegene wat die kennis waardig geag het.

Een geskrewe verslag oor mummifikasie wat oorleef het, kom van die Griekse historikus Herodotus, wat Egipte omstreeks 450 vC besoek het. Hy beskryf hoe die Egiptenare hul dooies bewaar het. Maar selfs met die hulp van Herodotus bly daar baie vrae oor. 'N Groot deel van die proses van Herodotus is sketsmatig en kan bespiegel word. Byvoorbeeld, hoe die Egiptenare natron gebruik het om die liggaam te droog, was 'n twis sedert die vroeë Egiptoloë die teks van Herodotus vertaal het. Sommige het dit vertaal om te beteken dat die liggaam in 'n natronoplossing gepik is. Hierdie tegniek sou groot vate vereis om die lyke in te week, daar is nog nooit bewyse gevind om hierdie teorie te ondersteun nie. In plaas daarvan is daar bewyse dat groot tafels vir die droogproses gebruik word. Maar dit was nog nooit duidelik waarom hierdie tafels byna 30 meter breed is, breed genoeg om twee lyke te pas nie. Hierdie en nog vele meer vrae is beantwoord tydens die mummifikasie van Mumab.

Die eerste stap om 'n moderne mummie saam te stel, was om die gereedskap en bestanddele bymekaar te maak wat nodig sou wees vir die proses. 'N Silwersmid het replika's gemaak van Egiptiese balsemingsgereedskap (hierbo). 'N Meester timmerman is aangewys om 'n outentieke balsemingstafel te bou, soortgelyk aan die een wat in 'n Egiptiese graf gevind is. Die keramiekafdeling van die Long Island Universiteit het die opdrag gekry om al die vaartuie wat nodig is vir die proses te vervaardig. Elkeen is gemerk met hiërogliewe om die funksie daarvan aan te dui. Dié afdeling het ook die canopiese potte en 365 ushabtis (links) een geestelike werker vir elke dag van die jaar gemaak.

'N Reis na Egipte was nodig om die speserye en olies wat gebruik sou word, te versamel. Bob is na die Wadi Natrun -distrik tussen Kaïro en Alexandrië om die meer as 270 kilogram natron wat nodig sou wees, in te samel. Hier voed die Nyl verskeie mere wat in die loop van elke jaar styg en terugtrek, wat groot soutafsettings langs die oewer laat. Hierdie natron sal gebruik word om die liggaam te droog. Volgens Ronn werk Natron deur water uit die weefsel te haal, as jy nie water het nie, het jy nie verval nie. ”

Dit was tyd om te begin. Ronn en Bob het die bejaarde Baltimore -man na sy ibu gebring, die tent van suiwering, wat in hierdie geval 'n kamer by die School of Medicine in Baltimore was. Hier is die liggaam gewas met 'n oplossing van natron en water. Om die liggaam heeltemal te droog, moet die interne organe verwyder word.

Die eerste orgaan wat verwyder is, was die brein. Die Egiptenare het geglo dat die brein van min belang is en dat dit weggegooi word wanneer dit verwyder word. Weereens gebruik ons ​​Herodotus ’ -rekening vir leiding. Hy verklaar dat die brein onttrek is deur 'n gat in die dun been aan die bokant van die neusgate, die etmoïede been, te steek. 'N Groot bronsnaald met 'n haak- of spiraalpunt is gebruik om hierdie prosedure uit te voer. Dit was egter nog nooit duidelik hoe so 'n groot orgaan deur so 'n klein gaatjie verwyder is nie. Daar is bespiegel dat die Egiptenare hierdie haak deur die neus sou steek en die brein in stukke getrek kon word. Dit was baie moeilik om met hierdie metode te verwyder. Ronn en Bob geïmproviseer. Terwyl die lyk op sy rug lê, steek hulle die haak deur die neus en slaag daarin om die breinweefsel in 'n byna vloeibare toestand te verpulver. Toe draai hulle die liggaam op sy maag, en die vloeibare breinweefsel trek deur die neusgate. Palmwyn en wierook is gebruik om die skedelholte te spoel en skoon te maak.

Na die leiding van Herodotus ’, was die volgende stap om die interne organe te verwyder. Herodotus beskryf die gebruik van 'n skerp swart klip om die buik oop te sny. Daar word aanvaar dat dit gemaak is van obsidiaan, 'n swart vulkaniese glas. Daar is bespiegel dat obsidiaan vanweë ritualistiese doeleindes gebruik is. Maar dit is moontlik bloot gebruik omdat dit die beste materiaal was om deur menslike weefsel te sny. 'N Klein insnyding is aan die linkerkant gemaak waardeur die interne organe verwyder is. Die hart was die enigste orgaan wat die Egiptenare ongeskonde gelaat het, want dit is waar hulle geglo het dat die essensie van 'n persoon leef. Nadat die interne organe verwyder is, is dit gewas met wierook, mirre en palmwyn. Dan word hulle met natron gedroog. Nadat die organe individueel bewaar is, word hulle in 'n spesiale houer gebêre, 'n canopiese kruik, geberg. Die deksels van canopiese potte is gevorm soos die koppe van Egiptiese gode, die vier seuns van Horus. Hulle is die bewakers van die ingewande. Die blikkies met die inhoud daarvan word saam met die mummie in die graf geplaas.

Nadat die interne organe verwyder is, spoel Ronn en Bob sy buik- en torakale holtes met palmwyn en mirre. Hierdie ritueel het waarskynlik praktiese wortels gehad, aangesien dit 'n aangenamer geur verskaf as dit wat gewoonlik uit 'n dooie liggaam spruit. Hierdie holtes is daarna gevul met klein sakkies natron om die lyk van binne na buite te droog.

Die balsemingstafel is opgestel volgens die spesifikasies van dié wat in Egiptiese grafte gevind is. Die vrae waarom hierdie tafel so wyd was, sal binnekort beantwoord word? Terwyl natron eers op die tafel gegooi is en daarna oor die liggaam, het dit duidelik geword dat hulle die breedte nodig sou hê om die liggaam heeltemal omring te hou met die 600 pond natron. Die temperatuur is gehandhaaf op ongeveer 115 ’F (46 ’C). Die humiditeit is onder 30 persent gehou. Dieselfde toestande as in antieke Egipte. Na 35 dae begrawe in natron, was Mumab heeltemal uitgedroog. Die vog wat hy verloor het, beloop 100 van sy oorspronklike 160 pond.

Die droogproses van mummifikasie het slegs 35 dae geneem. Waarom het 'n Egiptiese mummifikasie -ritueel dan 70 dae geneem? Die antwoord lê moontlik in die bewegings van die ster Sirius. Sirius was 'n belangrike ster vir die Egiptenare en ons weet dat hulle sy bewegings baie noukeurig gevolg het. Die opkoms van die hondster, Sirius, was die Egiptiese Nuwejaar, die begin van die seisoen van oorstroming. Die tyd toe Sirius in die lug verdwyn het tot die tyd dat dit terugkeer (Egiptiese Nuwejaar) was 70 dae, miskien het die Egiptenare hierdie astronomiese verskynsels gelykgestel aan die tyd wat nodig was van die dood in die fisiese wêreld tot die wedergeboorte in die hiernamaals.

Noudat die droogproses voltooi was, kon die sakke natron wat in die liggaam geplaas is, verwyder word. Die leë holte is bedek met palmwyn en vol speserye, mirre en mousseline -pakkies houtskaafsels. Die liggaam is gevryf met 'n mengsel van vyf olies: wierook, mirre, palm, lotus en sederhout. Die wetenskaplikes het weefselmonsters verwyder vir biopsie, en die mummie is heeltemal nagegaan op die teenwoordigheid van bakterieë. Opmerklik, drie maande nadat hierdie man gesterf het, het al die kulture aangedui dat daar geen bakterieë was nie. Dit was die punt waarop die mummifikasie as 'n sukses beskou is.

Die proses is nie voltooi nie, want die mummie moes nog toegedraai word. Foto's van die mummie van Tuthmosis III sou as riglyn gebruik word. Die verpakking is vooraf gevorm met lang repe linneverbande en doeke wat uit Egipte ingevoer is. Elke strook linne was volledig met gepaste hiërogliewe inskripsies. Hulle is met 'n natuurlike hars vasgemaak. By sommige ou Egiptiese mummies blyk dit dat die hars die hele liggaam bedek is. Waarnemings van hierdie teeragtige stof is hoe mummies hul naam gekry het. Vroeë waarnemers het geglo dat hierdie hars bitumen (teer) is, die Persiese woord vir bitumen is moumia. Die hele inpakproses het etlike dae geduur en meer as 6 lae of 9 kilogram linne benodig. In ooreenstemming met die ou praktyk, is 'n hartamulet oor die hart van Mumab geplaas.

Op hierdie punt, as Mumab werklik 'n ou Egiptiese mummie was, sou hy begrafnisrituele ondergaan wat handel oor suiwering en voorbereiding vir die hiernamaals, soos die opening van die mondseremonie. Die liggaam van Mumab is nie bestem vir die hiernamaals nie. Hy rus nou in die Museum of Man in San Diego, CA. Hy sal voortgaan om bestudeer te word deur Ronn Wade, Bob Brier, en wetenskaplikes hiervan, en toekomstige geslagte.


Laaste deel van die legkaart

'N Mummie se oorskot dateer uit die Bronstydperk © Laastens het daaropvolgende forensiese toetse 'n derde en laaste bewys vir mummifikasie onthul.

Die tegniek wat gebruik word om dit te onthul, is gebaseer op die feit dat die bakterieë in die ingewande na die dood die liggaam begin verslind en die skelet aanval. Die bakteriese aanslag verander die been deur dit met klein gaatjies te besaai. Die graad van bakteriese skade kan dan met 'n hoë akkuraatheid getoets word deur 'n forensiese prosedure wat deur wetenskaplikes bekend staan ​​as kwikporosimetrie.

Die lyke is nie lank toegelaat om te ontbind nie

'N Stukkie been, waarvan die volume baie akkuraat gemeet is, word in 'n houer met 'n bekende volume geplaas. Kwik word dan onder druk in die houer gedwing. Sommige van die kwik kom in die klein gaatjies wat die bakterieë maak - en die wetenskaplikes kan dan meet hoeveel kwik in die been ingedring het en dus hoeveel bakteriese aanvalle plaasgevind het. In die geval van die twee South Uist -geraamtes het die toets 'n baie lae bakteriële aanval getoon - 'n vlak wat ooreenstem met die liggaam wat 'n dag of twee na die dood in 'n veenmoer geplaas word.

Die toets dui sterk daarop dat die lyke nie lank mag ontbind nie. Dit het aangedui dat die ontbindingsproses in 'n vroeë stadium gestaak is - vermoedelik toe die lyk in die veenvleis geplaas is, of miskien as dit uitgevee is voordat dit in die moeras gedompel is.


Die nalatenskap van Golems

In die meeste verhale word Golems as 'n manlike voorkoms beskryf en is dit bedoel om Joodse mense te red (selfs al was daar 'n ongelukkige einde aan die verhaal. Daar is egter 'n paar noemenswaardige legendes ook oor vroulike golems. Byvoorbeeld, 'n rabbi Horowitz sou na bewering 'n 'pragtig stil' golem vir hom gehad het om seks mee te maak.

Golems is so prominente figure in die Joodse legende dat hulle tot vandag toe kunstenaars en skrywers inspireer. Hierdie wesens het ten minste die afgelope tweehonderd jaar hul weg geskep na skildery, beeldhouwerk, illustrasies en meer onlangs video- en digitale kunswerke. Hulle het nog steeds 'n gevoel van bekoring en magie, maar herinner ons ook daaraan om te bevraagteken wat dit werklik beteken om 'n mens te wees.

Bo -prent: "The Golem en Rabbi Loew." Bron: CC BY SA


Inhoud

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat alhoewel die term balseming gebruik word vir antieke sowel as moderne metodes om 'n oorledene te bewaar, daar 'n baie min verband is tussen werklike praktyke of finale estetiese resultate.

Die Chinchorro-kultuur in die Atacama-woestyn van die huidige Chili en Peru is een van die vroegste kulture wat reeds 5000 tot –6000 v.C. [1]

Miskien was Egipte die antieke kultuur wat die grootste balseming ontwikkel het. Reeds in die Eerste Dinastie (3200 v.C.) was gespesialiseerde priesters in beheer van balseming en mummifikasie. Hulle het dit gedoen deur organe te verwyder, die liggaam van vog te verwyder en die liggaam met natron te bedek. [2] Die ou Egiptenare het geglo dat mummifikasie die siel in staat stel om na die dood terug te keer na die bewaarde lyk.

Ander kulture wat bekend is dat hulle balsemingstegnieke in die oudheid gebruik het, sluit in die Meroïete, Guanches, Peruane, Jivaro -Indiane, Asteke, Tolteke, Maya's en Tibetaanse en suidelike Nigeriese stamme. [1]

Die vroegste bewyse van kunsmatige bewaring in Europa is in Osorno (Spanje) gevind en is ongeveer 5000 jaar oud menslike bene bedek met kaneel vir bewaring, maar balseming bly ongewoon in Europa tot in die tyd van die Romeinse Ryk. [1]

In China is kunsmatig bewaarde oorblyfsels uit die tydperk van die Han -dinastie (206 v.C. - 220 n.C.) herwin, met die belangrikste voorbeelde dié van Xin Zhui en die grafte van Mawangdui Han. Alhoewel hierdie oorblyfsels buitengewoon goed bewaar gebly het, is die balsemingsvloeistowwe en die gebruikte metodes onbekend. [1]

In Europa het die ou praktyk van kunsmatige bewaring teen ongeveer 500 nC wydverspreid geword. Die periode van die Middeleeue en die Renaissance staan ​​bekend as die anatomiste se periode van balseming en word gekenmerk deur 'n groter invloed van wetenskaplike ontwikkelings in die geneeskunde en die behoefte aan liggame vir disseksiedoeleindes. Vroeë gebruikte metodes word gedokumenteer deur hedendaagse dokters soos Peter Forestus (1522–1597) en Ambroise Pare (1510-1590). Die eerste pogings om die vaskulêre stelsel te spuit, is gedoen deur Alessandra Giliani, wat in 1326 oorlede is. Verskeie pogings en prosedures is aangemeld deur Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Jacobus Berengar (1470-1550), Bartholomeo Eustachius (1520-1574) ), Reinier de Graaf (1641–1673), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), en Frederik Ruysch (1638–1731). [1]

Moderne metodes Redigeer

Die moderne balsemingsmetode behels die inspuiting van verskillende chemiese oplossings in die arteriële netwerk van die liggaam om die ontbindingsproses hoofsaaklik te ontsmet en te vertraag. William Harvey, die Engelse geneesheer uit die 17de eeu wat die eerste keer die bloedsomloopstelsel beskryf het, het sy ontdekkings gemaak deur gekleurde oplossings in lyke te spuit. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Skotse chirurg William Hunter was die eerste om hierdie metodes toe te pas op die kuns van balseming as deel van lykshuispraktyk. Hy het 'n wydverspreide verslag geskryf oor die geskikte metodes vir arteriële en holtebalseming om liggame vir begrawe te bewaar. His brother, John Hunter, applied these methods and advertised his embalming services to the general public from the mid-18th century. [ aanhaling nodig ]

One of his more notorious clients was dentist Martin Van Butchell. When his wife Mary died on 14 January 1775, he had her embalmed as an attraction to draw more customers. Hunter injected the body with preservatives and color additives that gave a glow to the corpse's cheeks, replaced her eyes with glass eyes, and dressed her in a fine lace dress. The body was embedded in a layer of plaster of Paris in a glass-topped coffin. [4] Butchell exhibited the body in the window of his home and many Londoners came to see it but Butchell drew criticism for the display. A rumor, possibly started by Butchell himself, claimed that his wife's marriage certificate had specified that her husband would only have control over her estate after her death for as long as her body was kept unburied. [5]

Interest in, and demand for, embalming grew steadily in the 19th century largely for sentimental reasons. People sometimes wished to be buried at far-off locations which became possible with the advent of the railways, and mourners wanted the chance to pay their last respects beside the displayed body. Other motives behind embalming were prevention of disease and the wish to prepare funerals and burials, which were becoming more elaborate, without undue haste. After Lord Nelson was killed in the Battle of Trafalgar, his body was preserved in brandy and spirits of wine mixed with camphor and myrrh for over two months. At the time of his state funeral in 1805, his body was found to still be in excellent condition and completely plastic. [6]

Alternative methods of preservation, such as ice packing or laying the body on so called 'cooling boards', gradually lost ground to the increasingly popular and effective methods of embalming. By the mid 19th century, the newly emerging profession of businessmen-undertakers - who provided funeral and burial services - began adopting embalming methods as standard. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Embalming became more common in the United States during the American Civil War, when servicemen often died far from home. The wish of families for their remains to be returned home for local burial and lengthy transport from the battlefield meant it became common in the United States. [7]

The period from about 1861 is sometimes known as the funeral period of embalming and is marked by a separation of the fields of embalming by undertakers and embalming (anatomical wetting) for medical and scientific purposes. [1] Dr. Thomas Holmes received a commission from the Army Medical Corps to embalm the corpses of dead Union officers to return to their families. Military authorities also permitted private embalmers to work in military-controlled areas. The passage of Abraham Lincoln's body home for burial was made possible by embalming, and it brought the possibilities and potential of embalming to wider public notice. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Until the early 20th century, embalming fluids often contained arsenic until it was supplanted by more effective and less toxic chemicals. There was concern about the possibility of arsenic from embalmed bodies contaminating ground water supplies and legal concerns that people suspected of murder by arsenic poisoning might claim in defense that levels of poison in the deceased's body were the result of post-mortem embalming not homicide. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 1867, the German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann discovered formaldehyde, whose preservative properties were soon noted, and it became the foundation for modern methods of embalming. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Dr. Frederic Ryusch was the first one to have used the arterial injection method for embalming. His work of embalming was so nearly perfect that people thought the dead body was actually alive however, he only used it to prepare specimens for his anatomical work. [8]

Today Edit

Modern embalming is most often performed to ensure a better presentation of the deceased for viewing by friends and relatives. It is also used for medical research or training.

A successful viewing of the body is considered to be helpful in the grieving process. [9] [10] Embalming has the potential to prevent mourners from having to deal with the rotting and eventual putrescence of the corpse. [11] It is a general legal requirement for international repatriation of human remains (although exceptions do occur) [ aanhaling nodig ] and is required by a variety of laws depending on locality and circumstance, such as for extended time between death and final disposition or above-ground entombment.

A new embalming technique developed gradually since the 1960s by anatomist Walter Thiel at the Graz Anatomy Institute in Austria has been the subject of various academic papers, as the cadaver retains the body's natural color, texture and plasticity after the process. [12] The method uses 4-chloro-3-methylphenol and various salts for fixation, boric acid for disinfection, and ethylene glycol for the preservation of tissue plasticity. [13] Thiel embalmed cadavers are used in anatomical research, surgical and anaesthesia training, preoperative test procedures, CT image quality studies. [14]

Jessica Mitford and the Revisionist Position Edit

This beneficial perception of the viewing of a properly embalmed deceased person has been challenged, however, by authors such as Jessica Mitford, who point out that there is no general consensus that viewing an embalmed corpse is somehow "therapeutic" to the bereaved, and that terms such as "memory picture" were invented by the undertakers themselves, who have a financial interest in selling the costly process of embalming to the public. This argument ignores the fact that there is no general consensus for any funeral practice, and the indisputable fact that, ceteris paribus, an embalmed body will look better than an unembalmed one, which is still actively decomposing. Mitford also points out that, in many countries, embalming is rare, and the populace of such countries are still able to grieve normally, [15] although this argument would be of equal validity about any number of technologies or knowledges common in one place but lacking in another that thus manages without them.

An embalmer is someone who has been trained and qualified in the art and science of sanitization, presentation, and preservation of the human deceased. The term mortician is far more more generic it may refer to someone who is a funeral director, an embalmer, or just a person prepares the deceased, with or without the formal qualification of an embalmer. Thus whilst all embalmers are morticians, many morticians are not embalmers and the terms are not synonymous. Embalming training commonly involves formal study in anatomy, thanatology, chemistry, and specific embalming theory (to widely varied levels depending on the region of the world one lives in) combined with practical instruction in a mortuary with a resultant formal qualification granted after the passing of a final practical examination and acceptance into a recognized society of professional embalmers. The roles of a funeral director and embalmer are different, depending on the locals custom and licensing body for a region in which the funeral director and/or embalmer operate. A funeral director arranges for the final disposition of the deceased, and may or may not prepare the deceased, including embalming, for viewing (or other legal requirements).

Legal requirements over who can practice vary geographically. Some regions or countries do not have specific requirements, whilst others have clear prohibitions. In the United States, the title of an embalmer is largely based on the state in which they are licensed. Additionally, in many places, embalming is not done by specialist embalmers, but rather by doctors, medical technicians or laboratory technicians who, while they have the required anatomical or chemical knowledge, are not trained specialists in this field. [16] Today, embalming is a common practice in North America, Australia, New Zealand, Britain and Ireland, while it is much less frequent in many parts of Europe most modern countries have embalming available in some manner.

As practiced in the funeral home embalming involves several distinct steps. Modern embalming techniques are not the result of a single practitioner, but rather the accumulation of many decades, even centuries, of research, trial and error, and invention. A standardized version follows below, but variation in techniques are common.

The first step in embalming is to verify the permissions and requests of the family followed by a careful plan for the deceased's preparation, including reviewing the medical certificate of death. The deceased is placed on the mortuary table in the supine anatomical position with the head elevated by a head rest. Before commencing any preparation the embalmer will verify the identity of the body (normally via wrist or leg bracelets or tags). At this point, embalmers commonly perform an initial evaluation of the deceased's condition, noting things such as lividity, rigor mortis, skin condition, edema, intravenous injection sites, presence of fecal matter, tissue gas and numerous other factors which may affect the procedure and final outcome. The embalming procedure is a surgical one, albeit rather minimally invasive. The process requires significant effort over the course of multiple hours, including intensive planning, evaluation, and chemical selection.

Any clothing on the body is removed and set aside, and any personal effects such as jewelry are inventoried. A modesty cloth is commonly placed over the genitalia. The body is washed in a germicidal soap. During this process the embalmer bends, flexes, and massages the arms and legs to relieve rigor mortis. The eyes are posed using an eye cap that keeps them shut and in the proper expression. The mouth may be closed via suturing with a needle and ligature, using an adhesive, or by setting a wire into the maxilla and mandible with a needle injector, a specialized device most commonly used in North America and unique to mortuary practice. Care is taken to make the expression look as relaxed and natural as possible, and ideally, a recent photograph of the deceased in good health is used as a reference. The process of closing the mouth and eyes, shaving, etc. is collectively known as setting the features. Features may also be set after the completion of the arterial embalming process, which allows the embalmer to clean and remove any purge that occurs during the embalming process.

The actual embalming process usually involves four parts:

    embalming, which involves the injection of embalming chemicals into the blood vessels, usually via the right common carotid artery. Blood and interstitial fluids are displaced by this injection and, along with excess arterial solution, are expelled from the right jugular vein and collectively referred to as drainage. The embalming solution is injected with a centrifugal pump, and the embalmer massages the body to break up circulatory clots so as to ensure the proper distribution of the embalming fluid. This process of raising vessels with injection and drainage from a solitary location is known as a single-point injection. In cases of poor circulation of the arterial solution, additional injection points (commonly the axillary, brachial, or femoral arteries, with the ulnar, radial, and tibial vessels if necessary) are used. The corresponding veins are commonly also raised and utilized for drainage. Cases where more than one vessel is raised are referred to as multiple-point injection, with a reference to the number of vessels raised (i.e. a six-point injection or six-pointer). As a general rule, the more points needing to be raised, the greater the difficulty of the case. In some cases draining from a different site from injection (i.e. injecting arterial fluid into the right common carotid artery and draining from the right femoral vein) is referred to as a split (or sometimes cut) injection. In certain cases the embalmer may deem it necessary to perform a restricted cervical injection, which involves injecting the head of the deceased separately from the rest of body. This is done in cases where distention (swelling) has a greater chance of occurring. In many cases, an embalmer may select to perform what is known as a pre-injection. A pre-injection is a solution of chemicals that do not contain any preservative chemicals, but rather chemicals that encourage vasodilation, help disperse blood clots, and act as chelating agents. The focus of this "pre-injection" is to allow for a more complete drainage and better distribution of the arterial embalming solution.
  1. Cavity treatment/embalming refers to the removal of internal fluids inside body cavities via the use of an aspirator and trocar. The embalmer makes a small incision just above the navel (two inches superior and two inches to the right) and pushes the trocar into the abdominal and chest cavities. This first punctures the hollow organs and aspirates their contents. The embalmer then fills the cavities with concentrated chemicals (known as Cavity Chemicals) that contain formaldehyde, which are delivered to the chest cavity via the trocar inserted through the diaphragm. [17] The incision is either sutured closed (commonly using the purse-string or 'N' suture methods) or a "trocar button" is secured into place. embalming is a supplemental method which refers to the injection of embalming chemicals into tissue with a hypodermic needle and syringe, which is generally used as needed on a case-by-case basis to treat areas where arterial fluid has not been successfully distributed during the main arterial injection.
  2. Surface embalming, another supplemental method, utilizes embalming chemicals to preserve and restore areas directly on the skin's surface and other superficial areas as well as areas of damage such as from accident, decomposition, cancerous growths, or skin donation.

The duration of an embalming can vary greatly, but a common approximate time of between two and four hours to complete an embalming is typical. However, an embalming case that presents excessive complications could require substantially longer. The treatment of someone who has undergone an autopsy, cases of extreme trauma, or the restoration of a long-bone donor are a few such examples, and embalmings which require multiple days to complete are known.

Embalming is meant to temporarily preserve the body of a deceased person. Regardless of whether embalming is performed, the type of burial or entombment, and the materials used – such as wood or metal coffins and vaults – the body of the deceased will, under most circumstances, eventually decompose. Modern embalming is done to delay decomposition so that funeral services may take place or for the purpose of shipping the remains to a distant place for disposition.

After the body is rewashed and dried, a moisturizing cream is applied to the face, hands and arms. Ideally the deceased will usually sit for as long as possible for observation by the embalmer. After being dressed for visitation or funeral services, cosmetics are commonly, but not universally, applied to make the body appear more lifelike and to create a "memory picture" for the deceased's friends and relatives. For babies who have died, the embalmer may apply a light cosmetic massage cream after embalming to provide a natural appearance massage cream is also used on the face to prevent it from dehydrating, and the infant's mouth is often kept slightly open for a more natural expression. If possible, the funeral director uses a light, translucent cosmetic sometimes, heavier, opaque cosmetics are used to hide bruises, cuts, or discolored areas. Makeup is applied to the lips to mimic their natural color. Sometimes a very pale or light pink lipstick is applied on males, while brighter colored lipstick is applied to females. Hair gel or baby oil is applied to style short hair while hairspray is applied to style long hair. Powders (especially baby powder) are applied to the body to eliminate odors, and it is also applied to the face to achieve a matte and fresh effect to prevent oiliness of the corpse. Mortuary cosmeticizing is not done for the same reason as make-up for living people rather, it is designed to add depth and dimension to a person's features that lack of blood circulation has removed. Warm areas – where blood vessels in living people are superficial, such as the cheeks, chin, and knuckles – have subtle reds added to recreate this effect, while browns are added to the palpebrae (eyelids) to add depth, especially important as viewing in a coffin creates an unusual perspective rarely seen in everyday life. During the viewing, pink-colored lighting is sometimes used near the body to lend a warmer tone to the deceased's complexion.

A photograph of the deceased in good health is often sought to guide the embalmer's hand in restoring the body to a more lifelike appearance. Blemishes and discolorations (such as bruises, in which the discoloration is not in the circulatory system, and cannot be removed by arterial injection) occasioned by the last illness, the settling of blood, or the embalming process itself are also dealt with at this time (although some embalmers utilize hypodermic bleaching agents, such as phenol-based cauterants, during injection to lighten discoloration and allow easier cosmeticizing). It is also common for the embalmer to perform minor restoration of the deceased's appearance with tissue building chemicals and a hypodermic syringe. Tissue building chemicals (Tissue Builders) become solid with the introduction of liquids such as water or interstitial fluids. Commonly the area where the sphenoid and temporal bones meet this can also be referred to the temples. In the event of trauma or natural depressions on the face or hands, tissue builder can also be utilised to return those regions of the face to the expectations of the family.

As with all funeral practises local custom, culture, religion and family request are the key determiners of clothing for the deceased. In the Western world, men are usually buried in business attire, such as a suit or coat and tie, and women in semi-formal dresses or pant suits. In recent years, a change has occurred, and many individuals are now buried in less formal clothing, such as what they would have worn on a daily basis, or other favorite attire. The clothing used can also reflect the deceased person's profession or vocation: priests and ministers are often dressed in their liturgical vestments, and military and law enforcement personnel often wear their uniform. Underwear, singlets, bras, briefs, and hosiery are all used if the family so desires, and the deceased is dressed in them as they would be in life.

In certain instances a funeral director will request a specific style of clothing, such as a collared shirt or blouse, to cover traumatic marks or autopsy incisions. In other cases clothing may be cut down the back and placed on the deceased from the front to ensure a proper fit. In many areas of Asia and Europe, the custom of dressing the body in a specially designed shroud or burial cloth, rather than in clothing used by the living, is preferred.

After the deceased has been dressed, they are generally placed in their coffin or casket. In American English, the word kis is used to refer to an anthropoid (stretched hexagonal) form, whereas casket refers specifically to a rectangular coffin. It is common for photographs, notes, cards, and favourite personal items to be placed in the coffin with the deceased. Bulky and expensive items, such as electric guitars, are occasionally interred with a body. In some ways this mirrors the ancient practice of placing grave goods with a person for their use or enjoyment in the afterlife. In traditional Chinese culture, paper substitutes of the goods are buried or cremated with the deceased instead, as well as paper money specifically purchased for the occasion.

Embalming chemicals are a variety of preservatives, sanitizers, disinfectant agents, and additives used in modern embalming to temporarily delay decomposition and restore a natural appearance for viewing a body after death. A mixture of these chemicals is known as embalming fluid, and is used to preserve deceased individuals, sometimes only until the funeral, other times indefinitely.

Typical embalming fluid contains a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, methanol, humectants and wetting agents, and other solvents that can be used. The formaldehyde content generally ranges from 5-35%, and the methanol content may range from 9-56%.

Environmentalists sometimes have concerns about embalming because of the harmful chemicals involved and their potential interactions with the environment, despite the fact that formaldehyde is a naturally occurring substance and does not bioaccumulate in plants or animals. Recently, more eco-friendly embalming methods have become available, including formaldehyde-free mixtures of chemicals. [18]

Badly decomposing bodies, trauma cases, frozen, or drowned bodies, and those to be transported over long distances also require special treatment beyond that for the "normal" case. The restoration of bodies and features damaged by accident or disease is commonly called restorative art or demisurgery, and all qualified embalmers have some degree of training and practice in it. For such cases, the benefit of embalming is startlingly apparent. In contrast, many people have unrealistic expectations of what a dead body should look like, due to the near-universal portrayal of dead bodies by live actors in movies and television shows. Ironically, the work of a skilled embalmer often results in the deceased appearing natural enough that the embalmer appears to have done nothing at all. Normally, a better result can be achieved when a photograph and the decedent's regular make-up (if worn) are available to help make the deceased appear more as they did when alive.

Embalming autopsy cases differs from standard embalming because the nature of the post mortem examination irrevocably disrupts the circulatory system, due to the removal of the organs and viscera. In these cases, a six-point injection is made through the two iliac or femoral arteries, subclavian or axillary vessels, and common carotids, with the viscera treated separately with cavity fluid or a special embalming powder in a viscera bag.

Long-term preservation requires different techniques, such as using stronger preservatives and multiple injection sites to ensure thorough saturation of body tissues.

A rather different process is used for cadavers embalmed for dissection by medical professionals, students, and researchers. Here, the first priority is for long-term preservation, not presentation. As such, medical embalmers use anatomical wetting fluids that contain concentrated formaldehyde (37–40%, known as formalin) or glutaraldehyde and phenol, and are made without dyes or perfumes. Many embalming chemical companies make specialized anatomical embalming fluids.

Anatomical embalming is performed into a closed circulatory system. The fluid is usually injected with an embalming machine into an artery under high pressure and flow, and allowed to swell and saturate the tissues. After the deceased is left to sit for a number of hours, the venous system is generally opened and the fluid allowed to drain out, although many anatomical embalmers do not use any drainage technique.

Anatomical embalmers may choose to use gravity-feed embalming, where the container dispensing the embalming fluid is elevated above the body's level, and fluid is slowly introduced over an extended time, sometimes as long as several days. Unlike standard arterial embalming, no drainage occurs, and the body distends extensively with fluid. The distension eventually reduces, often under extended (up to six months) refrigeration, leaving a fairly normal appearance. No separate cavity treatment of the internal organs is given. Anatomically embalmed cadavers have a typically uniform grey colouration, due both to the high formaldehyde concentration mixed with the blood and the lack of red colouration agents commonly added to standard, nonmedical, embalming fluids. Formaldehyde mixed with blood causes the grey discoloration also known as "formaldehyde grey" or "embalmer's grey".

Opinions differ among different faiths as to the permissibility of embalming. A brief overview of some of the larger faiths positions are:


A recipe for preservation

In 2014, a research grant from Macquarie University afforded a unique opportunity to forensically examine this Turin mummy.

Working with an international team, we took minute samples of textile and skin for biochemical analysis, radiocarbon dating, textile analysis and DNA analysis of pathogenic bacteria.

The mummy had not undergone conservation in the museum which meant that contamination was minimal, making him an ideal subject for scientific investigation. The downside of not having been conserved and consolidated is that he is extremely fragile and damaged.

A close-up of linen fibres the Turin mummy was wrapped in for burial. Ron Oldfield, Author provided

Chemical analysis of the residues on the textile wrappings from the torso and wrist using a technique known as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of a plant oil or animal fat, a sugar/gum, a conifer resin and an aromatic plant extract.

The resin and aromatic plant extracts are the two main antibacterial components that would have repelled insects and preserved the soft tissue underneath. Chemical signatures indicate gentle heating, so it was indeed a “recipe” that was probably applied by dipping the linen into the melted mixture and then wrapping.


New Kingdom

The Eighteenth Dynasty marks the beginning of the New Kingdom. Various pharaohs extended the control of Egypt further than ever before, retaking control of Nubia and extending power northwards into the Upper Euphrates, the lands of the Hittites, and Mitanni.

Eighteenth Dynasty

Golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun

This was a time of great wealth and power for Egypt. Hatshepsut was a pharaoh at this time. Hatshepsut is unusual as she was a female pharaoh, a rare occurrence in Egyptian history. She was an ambitous and competent leader, extending Egyptian trade south into present-day Somalia and north into the Mediterranean. She ruled for twenty years through a combination of widespread propaganda and deft political skill. By the time of Amenhotep III (1417 BC� BC), Egypt had become so wealthy that he did nothing to further extend its powers and instead rested upon his throne gilded with Nubian gold. He was succeeded by his son Amenophis IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten. He moved the capital to a new city he built and called it Akhetaten. Here with his new wife Nefertiti, he concentrated on building his new religion and ignored the world outside of Egypt. This allowed various underground factions to build that were not happy with his new world. The new religion was something that had never happened before in Egypt. Previously, new gods came along and were absorbed into the culture, but no god was allowed to push out any old ones. Akhenaten, however, formed a monotheistic religion around Aten, the sun disc. Worship of all other gods was banned, and this move is what caused the majority of the internal unrest. The relationship between Akhenaten's introduction of monotheism, and the biblical character of Moses, who is located in Egypt at a similar (although not necessarily simultaneous) period, is both unclear and controversial.

A new culture of art was introduced during this time that was more naturalistic and a complete turnabout from the stylised frieze that had ruled Egyptian art for the last 1700 years. Concerning art and Akhenaten, an area of interest to many Egyptologists is the peculiarity of Akhenaten's physical features. Many pharaohs are portrayed in a stylized manner however, Akhenaten is shown in paintings and carvings with unusually feminine features, specifically wide hips and elongated, delicate facial features. Some theories assume that the depiction is accurate and not stylized, suggesting that Akhenaten suffered from birth defects which were common among the royal families.

Towards the end of his 17-year reign, Akhenaten took a co-regent, Smenkhkare, who is sometimes considered to be his brother. Their co-reign lasted only 2 years. When Akhenaten died, worship of the old gods was revived. In truth, their worship had never ended, but had instead gone underground. Smenkhkare died after a few months of sole reign, and in his place was crowned a young boy. He was not ready for the pressure of ruling this great country, and the advisors that surrounded him made the decisions for him. His given name was Tutankhaton, but with the resurgence of Amun, he was re-named Tutankhamun. One of the most influential advisors was General Horemheb. Tutankhamun died while he was still a teenager and was succeeded by Ay, who probably married Tutankhamun's widow to strengthen his claim to the throne. It is possible that Horemheb made Ay a monarch to act as a transitional king until he was ready to take over. In any case, when Ay died, Horemheb became ruler, and a new period of positive rule began. He set about securing internal stability and re-establishing the prestige that the country had before the reign of Akhenaten.

Nineteenth Dynasty

The Nineteenth Dynasty was founded by general Ramesses I, appointed heir by Horemhab. He only reigned for about a year and was followed by his son Seti I (or Sethos I). Sethos I carried on the good work of Horemheb in restoring power, control, and respect to Egypt. He also was responsible for creating the fantastic temple at Abydos. Seti I and his son Ramesses II are the only two pharaohs known to have been circumscribed, although quite why they had this performed is somewhat of a mystery. Ramesses II, his son and successor, reigned for 67 years from the age of 18 and carried on his father's work and created many more splendid temples, such as that of Abu Simbel. Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote a poem about him called Ozymandias.

The time frame for the reign of Ramesses II is often believed to have coincided with the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt, as Rameses II built his capital Per-Ramses, on the site of Hyksos Avaris, shifting the capital of Egypt to the Delta (the land of Goshen). Others dispute this claim, setting exodus as an earlier or later event, or disputing whether Exodus was a historical event at all. There are no records in Egyptian history of any of the events described in the Bible, nor any archaeological evidence. Indeed, even though there are records so detailed as to describe the escape of a pair of minor convicts from Egyptian territory, there is no such record for hundreds of thousands of Israelite slaves. Linguistic studies have drawn certain potential origins for elements of biblical history, although they do conflict substantially with the biblical accounts - for example, records about the Sea Peoples may indicate that the Israelite tribe of Dana and possibly Asher attacked Egypt during the later 19th and early 20th Dynasty, although they also indicate that these tribes were allied met the Philistines rather than against them.

Ramesses II was succeeded by his son Merneptah and then by Merenptah's son Seti II. Seti II's throne seems to have been disputed by his half-brother Amenmesse, who may have temporarily ruled from Thebes. Upon his death, Seti II's polio afflicted son, Siptah, was appointed to the throne by Chancellor Bay, an Asiatic commoner who served as vizier behind the scenes. On Siptah's early death, the throne was assumed by Twosret dowager queen of Seti II (and possibly Amenmesses's sister). A period of anarchy at the end of Twosret's short reign, saw a native reaction to foreign control, led by Setnakhte who reigned for less than 12 months before passing the throne to his mature son, Ramesses III. These last two kings were pharaohs of the Twentieth Dynasty. Rameses III, after saving Egypt through a number of battles, with Libyans and Sea Peoples, was followed by a number of short-lived reigns by pharaohs all called Ramesses.

New Kingdom mummies

In this New Kingdom, coffins changed shape from the Middle Kingdom rectangle to the familiar mummy-shape with a head and rounded shoulders. At first these were decorated with carved or painted feathers, but later were painted with a representation of the deceased. They were also put together like Russian Matryoshka dolls in that a large outer coffin would contain a smaller one, which contained one that was almost moulded to the body. Each one was more elaborately decorated than the one larger than it.

It is from this time that most mummies have survived. The soft tissues like the brain and internal organs were removed. The cavities were washed and then packed with natron, and the body buried in a pile of natron. The intestines, lungs, liver and stomach were preserved separately and stored in Canopic Jar protected by the Four Sons of Horus. Such was the perceived power of these jars that even when the Twenty-First Dynasty started to return the organs to the body after preservation instead of using the jars, the jars continued to be included in the tombs.


Verwante

The Culture of Freshwater Pearls

The Sacrificial Ceremony

Ice Mummies of the Inca

Mountain Worship

The Incas worshipped the high peaks that pierce the South American skies. These rugged summits represented a means of approaching the Sun God, Inti, the center of their religion, and many sacrifices were made atop these cold and unpredictable pinnacles. Mountain deities were seen as lords of the forces of nature who presided over crops and livestock. In essence they were the protectors of the Inca people, the keepers of life who reached up toward the skies where the sacred condor soared.

Many theories exist about why the Incas performed ritual ceremonies, which sometimes included human sacrifices, at elevations approaching 23,000 feet. Most scholars agree that the purpose of the sacrifice, known as "capacocha," was to appease the mountain gods and to assure rain, abundant crops, protection, and order for the Inca people. Sacrifices often coincided with remarkable occasions: earthquakes, eclipses, droughts. On these occasions the Incas were required to offer valuables from the highest regions they could reach—the ice-clad summits of Andean peaks. Truly auspicious events, such as the death of an emperor, prompted human sacrifices, perhaps to provide an escort for the emperor on his journey to the Other World.

The frigid and dry mountain air kept the microbes that normally decay corpses at bay, preserving soft tissues like skin and hair.

The fact that many high elevation sacrificial sites are located near trans-mountain roads suggests that sacrifices were also made in conjunction with the expansion of the Inca civilization itself. The extensive roads in the southernmost regions were integral to the expansion of the empire southward. Especially important were the trans-mountain, or east-west, roads, which linked north-south running ranges and valleys over high-mountain passes. Near such routes, the Incas chose high peaks, climbed them, built their platforms, and made sacrifices, sometimes human, to assure safe continued passage and to bless the roads. The mummy of a young boy on Mount Aconcagua, discovered in 1985, could be one such sacrifice. His tomb is near one of the most important trans-mountain paths which today is virtually the same route as the major international highway linking Argentina and Chile.

Remarkable Discoveries

The first frozen high mountain Inca human sacrifice was found atop a peak in Chile in 1954. "La Momia del Cerro El Plomo," the Mummy of El Plomo Peak became its name, and until Juanita, it was heralded as the best preserved. Scientists were able to establish many of the El Plomo mummy's vital statistics: he was male, 8 or 9 years old, type O blood, and presumably from a wealthy family due to his portly physique.

A unique set of circumstances made the discovery of Juanita possible. The eruption of a nearby volcano, Mt. Sabancaya, produced hot ash, which slowly melted away the 500 years of accumulated ice and snow encasing the mummy. A brightly-colored burial tapestry, or "aksu" was revealed, the fresh hues remarkably preserved. Since the heavy winter storms had not yet covered the body, Dr. Reinhard was able to recover the mummy.

The fact that ice preserved the body makes Juanita a substantial scientific find. All other high-altitude Inca mummies have been completely desiccated—freeze-dried in a way—much like mummies found elsewhere in the world. Juanita, however, is almost entirely frozen, preserving her skin, internal organs, hair, blood, even the contents of her stomach. This offers scientists a rare glimpse into the life of these pre-Columbian people. DNA makeup can be studied, revealing where Juanita came from, perhaps even linking her to her living relatives. Stomach contents can be analyzed to reveal more about the Inca diet. Juanita is the closest sacrifice to Cuzco, the Inca capital. This, in addition to the fact that the clothing she was wearing resembles the finest textiles from that great city, suggests she may have come from a noble Cuzco family. The almost perfectly preserved clothing offer a storehouse of information, giving insight into sacred Inca textiles, as well as how the Inca nobility dressed.

It took incredible effort to hold sacrificial rituals in the thin air and life-threatening cold of the high Andes. At 20,000 feet, near the summit of Mt. Ampato where Juanita was found, Johan Reinhard discovered extensive camps or "rest stops" on the route to the ritual site at the summit. Evidence of Inca camp sites atop Ampato include remains of wooden posts for large, blanket-covered tents, stones used for tent platform floors, and an abundance of dried grass used for walkways and to insulate tent floors. These are heavy materials that must have been hauled many miles up the barren mountainside. The trek itself to the sacrificial site was a remarkable undertaking, involving whole entourages of priests and villagers, provisions, water, as well as symbolic items used in the ritual, all carried on the backs of hundreds of llamas and porters.

Johan Reinhard's climbing partner, Miguel Zí¡rate, on the slopes of Mt. Ampato

A Mummy Pair

A month after Reinhard's amazing discovery of Juanita, he returned to Ampato with a full archaeological team to explore Ampato further. This time, several thousand feet below the summit, they found two more mummy children, a girl and a boy. It is believed these may have been companion sacrifices to the more important sacrifice of Juanita on Ampato's summit. These children may have also been buried as a pair in a symbolic marriage. A Spanish soldier who witnessed such sacrifices wrote in 1551: "Many boys and girls were sacrificed in pairs, being buried alive and well dressed and adorned. items that a married Indian would possess." Buried with them were cloth-covered offering bundles, nearly 40 pieces of pottery, decorated wooden utensils, weaving tools, and even a pair of delicately woven sandals. At an elevation equal to that of Mount McKinley, the highest peak in North America, these sacrificial burial sites have preserved the Inca past more vividly than any other discovery, adding a deeper understanding of one of the world's great civilizations.


Kyk die video: Hébreux chapitre 1 ; Le Trône de Jésus ou le trône de Osiris! 12 (Januarie 2022).