Inligting

Nigeriese basiese feite - geskiedenis


Bevolking 2002 ................................................ .............. 10,639,7442
BBP per capita 2001 (koopkragpariteit, VS $) ......... 820
BBP 2001 (koopkragpariteit, miljarde dollars) ................ 8.4

Gemiddelde jaarlikse groei 1991-97
Bevolking (%) ....... 3.4
Arbeidsmag (%) ....... 3.1

Totale oppervlakte................................................ ................... 489,206 vierkante myl.
Armoede (% van die bevolking onder die nasionale armoedegrens) ...... 63

Stedelike bevolking (% van die totale bevolking) ............................... 19
Lewensverwagting by geboorte (jare) ........................................... .......... 47
Kindersterftes (per 1 000 lewende geboortes) ....................................... 118
Kindervoeding (% van kinders onder 5) .............................. 43
Toegang tot veilige water (% van die bevolking) ..................................... 48
Ongeletterdheid (% van die bevolking ouderdom 15+) ....................................... 86


Niger

Ekonomiese opsomming: BBP/PPP (Raming 2013): $ 13,98 miljard per capita $ 800. Reële groeikoers: 6.2%. Inflasie: 1.9%. Werkloosheid: n.a. Bewerkbare grond: 11.79%. Landbou: beertjies, katoen, grondboontjies, gierst, sorghum, kassave (tapioka), rysbeeste, skape, bokke, kamele, donkies, perde, pluimvee. Arbeidsmag: 4,688 miljoen (geraamde 2007) landbou 90%, nywerheid en handel 6%, die regering 4%. Nywerhede: uraanmynbou, sement, baksteen, seep, tekstiele, voedselverwerking, chemikalieë, slaghuise. Natuurlike hulpbronne: uraan, steenkool, ystererts, tin, fosfate, goud, petroleum. Uitvoer: $ 1.539 miljard (2013): uraanerts, vee, beertjies, uie. Invoer: $ 2,314 miljard (2013): voedsel, masjinerie, voertuie en onderdele, petroleum, graan. Groot handelsvennote: Frankryk, Nigerië, die VSA, Frans -Polinesië, Ivoorkus, China, Togo, Ghana, Indië, Italië (2012).

Kommunikasie: Telefone: hooflyne in gebruik: 100 500 (2012) mobiele selfoon: 5,4 miljoen (2012). Uitsaai -media: staatsbeheerde TV-stasie 3 privaat TV-stasies bied 'n mengsel van plaaslike en buitelandse programme Staatsradio het slegs 'n radiostasie met 'n nasionale bereik. beskikbaar (2007). Internet gashere: 454 (2012). Internet gebruikers: 115,900 (2009).

Vervoer: Spoorweë: 0 km. Paaie: totaal: 18.949 km geplavei: 3.912 km onverharde: 15.037 km (2010). Waterweë: die Niger is van middel Desember tot Maart 300 km van Niamey na Gaya aan die Benin-grens bevaarbaar. Hawens en hawens: niks nie. Lughawens: 30 (2013).

Internasionale geskille: Libië beweer dat ongeveer 25 000 vierkante kilometer in 'n huidige sluimerende geskil in die Tommo-streek van die driepunt Benin-Niger-Nigerië onopgelos is, net Nigerië en Kameroen het gehoor gegee aan die vermaning van die Tsjad-meer-kommissie om die afbakeningsverdrag wat ook die Tsjaad-Niger en Niger insluit, te bekragtig -Nigerië grens die geskil met Burkina Faso in 2010 na die ICJ.


Niger - Geskiedenis en kultuur

Niger is 'n land in Afrika met 'n antieke geskiedenis, en die meeste van die moderne beskawing kan sy wortels na hierdie gebied terugneem. Onvoorsiene omgewingsveranderinge het die sosiale samestelling van Niger egter verander, en komplekse samelewings is geleidelik verander in nomadiese stamme wat vandag nog die landskap bevolk. Verdere indringing, hoewel hierdie keer polities van aard, het die samelewing in Niger weer verander toe die Franse die streek in die vroeë 20ste eeu koloniseer. Sedert sy onafhanklikheid het die land politieke onrus beleef en probeer hy vandag nog 'n pad vorentoe vind.

Geskiedenis

Die indringende Sahara -woestyn was nie goed vir die omgewing en die geskiedenis van Niger en sy mense nie. 5 000 jaar gelede was die noorde van die land vrugbare grasveld en is bevolk deur vroeë boere wat diere mak gemaak het en 'n komplekse samelewing geskep het. In 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as verwoestyning, het die habitat ongeveer 2000 jaar gelede verander, en die inwoners van Niger moes noodgedwonge nomadies word, 'n inheemse kultuur wat vandag nog bestaan.

Later in die geskiedenis het een van die groot ryke van Afrika, die Songhai genoem, uitgebrei tot die hedendaagse Niger, tot by Agadez, totdat dit in 1591 in duie gestort het. heers oor die grootste deel van die noorde van Niger en in dele van die huidige Nigerië. In die stad Agadez word steeds 'n sterk Tuareg -kultuur waargeneem.

Verskillende dele van die land word steeds deur verskillende stamme beheer, en teen die 19de eeu het die stad Zinder 'n belangrike spilpunt geword. Die eerste kontak met Europeërs kom in die 19de eeu, toe die eerste ontdekkingsreisigers na die bron van die Nigerrivier kom soek het. Die gebied van Nigerië was reeds die domein van die Britte, en Mungo Park het van daar af noordwaarts gereis in sy verkenning. Al die etniese groepe van Niger het in opstand gekom teen Europese indringing, en Niger is eers in 1922 uiteindelik as 'n kolonie verower, toe die Franse dit as hul eie beweer het.

Niger was eintlik een van die laaste Afrika -nasies wat deur Europeërs gekoloniseer is, maar selfs na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die tydperk van die ryk geleef en het die Franse belange gehad in die natuurlike hulpbronne wat Niger besit het. Deesdae steun die ekonomie van Niger sterk op bestaansgewasse en vee, hoewel dit ook 'n paar van die wêreld se grootste uraanafsettings bevat wat ondergronds begrawe is. Die strewe na kerntegnologiese vooruitgang teen die middel van die 20ste eeu het verseker dat Niger stewig in die kloue van die Franse gehou is.

In vergelyking met ander kolonies was die bestaan ​​van Niger as 'n kolonie egter relatief kort, aangesien die land onafhanklikheid in 1960 verkry het. Byna onmiddellik, weens die magsvakuum wat agtergebly het toe die Franse vertrek het, het Niger beswyk aan wrede militêre heerskappy vir die volgende 30 jaar tot 1991. 'n Klein terugkeer na demokrasie het hier plaasgevind, maar is gevolg deur 'n verdere militêre bewind van 1996 tot 1999. Sedertdien het Niger teruggekeer na demokrasie, in wat die 'vyfde republiek' genoem word, maar die politiek bly uiters onstabiel in die land. In 2011 het 'n militêre junta sy amp aangeneem, al was dit nie met geweld nie, en die uitgestrekte onvrugbare landskap van Niger was die afgelope paar jaar 'n brandpunt vir aktiwiteite vir internasionale Islamitiese fundamentalistiese terroriste groepe.

Die politieke situasie word nie gehelp deur die feit dat Niger sedert sy onafhanklikheid min of meer as 50 jaar gelede uiters arm gehou is nie, aangesien sy bestaansekonomie te danke is aan onvermydelike agteruitgang van die omgewing, soos droogte en woestynvorming. Dit, en ook die afname in die vraag na uraan sedert die 1960's, voordat dit 'n winsgewende uitvoer vir die land was, het Niger arm gehou.

Kultuur

Die grootste deel van Noord- en Wes -Afrika is deur Islam beïnvloed, aangesien dit weswaarts uit die Midde -Ooste versprei het. Niger is nie anders nie, met ongeveer 90 persent van die bevolking wat Moslem is. Die res van die bevolking volg die Baha'i -geloof, ook afkomstig uit die Midde -Ooste, en die Christendom, as 'n invloed van die Franse kolonisasie. 'N Verdere deel na tradisionele inheemse oortuigings, bekend as animisme ('n godsdienstige oortuiging dat diere, plante en ander lewelose voorwerpe soos gesteentes 'n geestelike wese besit en aanbid word).

Die moderne Niger -kultuur is vol tradisie, óf volgens die Islamitiese leer wat sedert die 10de eeu nagekom is, óf weerspieël die inheemse, tipies Afrikaanse tradisies. Die Franse kolonialisme het ook 'n invloed in die huidige Niger gehad, hoewel die land dit moeilik gevind het om by die moderne wêreldkultuur van die 21ste eeu aan te sluit. Die enigste plek waar u waarskynlik moderne kultuur sal vind, is in die land se grootste stedelike gebied, Niamey, waar moderne modes en musiek gevolg word soos in enige ander hoofstad.


Oorsig

Niger is 'n uitgestrekte land in die hartjie van die Sahel -streek. As 'n uiters lae inkomste word Niger gekonfronteer met 'n drievoudige krisis as gevolg van die land se veiligheid en humanitêre situasie, en meer onlangs 'n gesondheidsuitdaging wat verband hou met die pandemie van die coronavirus (COVID-19). Die ekonomie is nie goed gediversifiseer nie en hang hoofsaaklik af van die landbou, wat 40% van sy BBP uitmaak. Ondanks beduidende vorderinge wat Niger die afgelope dekade gemaak het, het die land se uiterste armoede in 2020 hoog gebly op 42,9%, wat meer as 10 miljoen mense geraak het.

Politieke en sekuriteitskonteks

Mohamed Bazoum, die kandidaat van die party aan bewind, is verkies tot president tydens die verkiesings wat in Desember 2020 en Februarie 2021 gehou word.

Niger het die afgelope paar jaar 'n veiligheidskrisis beleef in die gebiede wat grens aan Nigerië, Burkina Faso en Mali, waar gewapende groepe aanvalle teen die veiligheidsmagte en burgerlikes uitvoer. 'N Noodtoestand is afgekondig in die streke Diffa, Tahoua en Tillaberi. Niger het ook die afgelope paar jaar te kampe gehad met 'n toestroming van vlugtelinge wat uit die konflik vlug, veral in Nigerië en Mali. In Februarie 2021 het die Verenigde Nasies se hoë kommissaris vir vlugtelinge (UNHCR) 241 321 vlugtelinge en 300 320 ontheemdes op sy gebied gelys.

Die gesondheids- en veiligheidskrisisse dreig om die vordering van Niger met betrekking tot ekonomiese groei te ondermyn. Die werklike groei het gedaal van 5,9% in 2019 tot 0,8% in 2020, as gevolg van die pandemie en toenemend gewelddadige terreuraanvalle. Inflasie was 3,4% in 2020, aangevuur deur onderbrekings in die aanbod en spekulatiewe gedrag. Wat die vooruitsigte vir 2021, die heropening van die grens met Nigerië, die hervatting van groot beleggingsprojekte en die normalisering van voorsieningskettings voorspel, is 'n goeie ommeswaai en groei van 4,7%.

Onlangse winste in die bestryding van armoede loop gevaar om uitgewis te word, na 'n daling van 3% in die inkomste per capita in 2020. Met armoede wat met 1,3% toeneem, het 685,000 bykomende mense by die geledere van die uiterste armes aangesluit. Die COVID-19-pandemie het 'n negatiewe impak op huishoudings in Nigerië, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van verlies aan inkomste uit ontslag, 'n afname in betalings en 'n afname in menslike kapitaal. Skoolsluiting sal na verwagting lei tot hoër uitvalsyfers, veral onder meisies en die kwesbaarste. Na raming sal die aantal mense wat in uiterste armoede leef in 2021 met 300,000 toeneem, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van bevolkingsgroei. Op grond van vooruitskattings sal die land nie sy armoedesyfer tot einde 2023 kan verminder tot voor die COVID-19 nie.

In September 2017 het Niger 'n nuwe plan vir ekonomiese en sosiale ontwikkeling (PDES) aangeneem, wat die Wêreldbank gebruik het om sy landelike vennootskapsraamwerk met Niger (GPF) voor te berei vir die tydperk 2018-2022. Die Wêreldbank se strategie in Niger is gebaseer op drie pilare:

  • Verhoog produktiwiteit en inkomste in landelike gebiede
  • Ontwikkeling van mensekapitaal en sosiale beskerming en
  • Versterking van bestuur.

Die doel is om die ekonomiese en sosiale ontwikkeling in Niger te versnel deur die struikelblokke wat groei en pogings tot vermindering van armoede belemmer, aan te pak. Die Wêreldbank se strategie sal ook die risiko's van broosheid, konflik en geweld (FCV) aanspreek deur gebruik te maak van die IDA Prevention and Resilience Allocation (PRA) om Niger se reaksie op bestaande krisisse te ondersteun en die stygende spanning te verminder.

Die Wêreldbank finansier tans 22 nasionale en 10 plaaslike projekte ter waarde van $ 2,98 miljard (toelaes en lenings ingesluit). Hierdie projekte en tegniese bystandsdienste ondersteun die ontwikkeling van verskeie sektore:

  • Water en sanitasie (14%)
  • Mynbou en energie (13%)
  • Sosiale beskerming en indiensneming (10%)
  • Landbou (9%)
  • Gesondheid en voeding (8%)
  • Onderwys (8%)
  • Vervoer en infrastruktuur (2%)
  • Hulp met hervormings (8%)
  • Stedelike ontwikkeling, rampbestuur en veerkragtigheid (7%)
  • Bestuur (5%)
  • Omgewing en natuurlike hulpbronne (3%)
  • Digitale ontwikkeling (3%)
  • Finansies en mededingendheid (2%)

Die Niger Refugees and Host Communities Support Project (PARCA) is in September 2018 goedgekeur. Die doel daarvan is om toegang tot basiese dienste te verbeter en ekonomiese geleenthede vir vlugtelinge en gasheerbevolkings te verbeter. Niger trek ook voordeel uit spesiale finansieringsmeganismes van die International Development Association (IDA), wat ontwerp is om lande met 'n lae inkomste te help reageer op 'n beduidende stroom vlugtelinge, sowel as bykomende finansiering wat daarop gemik is om faktore wat tot broosheid en geweld bydra, aan te spreek.

Op 15 April 2020 het die Wêreldbank noodfinansiering van $ 13,95 miljoen verskaf om die land te help reageer op die COVID-19-pandemie.

International Finance Corporation (IFC)

In onlangse jare het IFC gefokus op die identifisering van verskillende maniere om die ontwikkeling van die privaatsektor te ondersteun.

Dit fokus op die volgende hoofareas:

  • Ondersteuning vir mikro-, klein- en mediumondernemings deur vennootskappe met nasionale finansiële instellings
  • Versterking van die landbousektor deur finansiële oplossings te ontwikkel (onder meer deur kleinboere met kopers in die konteks van die besproeiingsprojek in Niger te verbind).
  • Bevordering van deelname aan die privaatsektor aan infrastruktuurontwikkeling, veral in die produksie van sonkrag.
  • Verbetering van die besigheidsklimaat.

As deel van die Sahel -besproeiingsinisiatief het die Management Advisory Service (MAS) in 2016 'n projek geloods om private belegging in besproeiingslandbou aan te spoor. Pogings is laat in 2017 verskerp, met die organisering van die Niger Renaissance-konferensie in Parys en grootskaalse private deelname.

Op grond van hierdie momentum, het die MAS -span vroeg in 2019 konsultatiewe ondersteuning vir ongeveer 20 klein en medium ondernemings gereël om hul vermoë om fondse van plaaslike finansiële tussengangers (insluitend IFC -kliënte) te mobiliseer, te verbeter.

Die volgende is 'n paar voorbeelde van vordering wat moontlik gemaak is deur finansiering van die Wêreldbank:

Die Wêreldbank help Niger om sy elektrisiteitsektor te transformeer met die oog daarop om toegang tot elektrisiteit vir al sy mense op 'n volhoubare basis te verhoog. Die Wêreldbank bied finansiële en tegniese ondersteuning deur twee groot projekte, naamlik die Niger Electricity Access Expansion Project (NELACEP) en die Niger Solar Electricity Access Project (NESAP). Hierdie projekte het reeds toegang tot elektrisiteit vir meer as 290,000 persone vergemaklik uit 'n mikpunt van byna een miljoen teen einde 2023. Die NESAP -projek het ook nuwe dinamika in die mark vir sontoerusting gebring, met die beskikbaarheid van 'n kredietkaart en tegniese hulp aan private ondernemings.

Deur tegniese bystand en begrotingsondersteuning aan die regering van Niger te verleen, het die Wêreldbank ook bygedra tot die aanneming van die National Strategy for Access to Electricity (SNAE), wat daarop gemik is om die koers van toegang tot elektrisiteit teen 2035 tot 80% te verhoog. Die Bank ondersteun ook die voorbereiding van regulerende instrumente wat gehelp het om Niger se elektrisiteitsektor een van die beste ekonomiese presteerders in die subgebied te maak. Die hervormings wat geïmplementeer word, het die land in 'n goeie posisie geplaas om sonenergie te benut en private beleggings te lok.

Die Wêreldbank verleen al amper 10 jaar ondersteuning aan die regering van Niger vir die ontwikkeling van 'n effektiewe stelsel vir sosiale beskerming. Die doel is om die armste huishoudings te ondersteun deur maandelikse kontantoorplasings te verskaf, tesame met ander maatreëls om mensekapitaal te versterk en produktiewe aktiwiteite te bevorder. Hierdie program help ook huishoudings om veerkragtigheid te verbeter en onverwagte skokke, soos klimaatsverandering, die hoof te bied.

Die Adaptive Safety Net Project 2 & quot; Waadata Talaka & quot

  • 30 000 huishoudings (ongeveer 210 000 mense) het voordeel getrek uit maandelikse oordragte van 15 000 CFAF oor 24 maande as deel van die program vir kontantoorplasings om veerkragtigheid te verbeter.
  • 13 200 huishoudings (ongeveer 92 000 mense) het baat gevind by die oprigting van 'quotashash for work' -aktiwiteite.
  • Kontantoordragte in reaksie op die sosio-ekonomiese impak van COVID-19: 400 000 stedelike en plattelandse huishoudings (ongeveer 2 800 000 mense) het 'n eenmalige kontantoordrag van 45,000 CFAF per huishouding ontvang, met 'n totale waarde van $ 36 miljoen.
  • 30 000 huishoudings wat aan die geldoordragprogram deelneem, het baat gevind by die implementering van ondersteunings- en bewusmakingsmaatreëls wat bedoel is om gedragsverandering aan te moedig om hul veerkragtigheid te versterk en die menslike kapitaal van hul kinders te versterk.

Die Wêreldbank werk saam met verskeie multilaterale agentskappe en donateurs, soos die Agence Française de Développement, die African Development Bank en die Europese Unie, om sy steun vir Niger se ontwikkeling te koördineer.

In Julie 2017 het Duitsland, die African Development Bank, die Wêreldbank, Frankryk, die Europese Unie en die Verenigde Nasies se ontwikkelingsprogram die Sahel -alliansie geloods met die doel om 'n gekoördineerde en aangepaste reaksie te bied op die uitdagings wat die G5 Sahel -lid in die gesig staar. lande (Burkina Faso, Tsjaad, Mali, Mauritanië en Niger). Sedertdien het Denemarke, Italië, Luxemburg, Nederland, Spanje en die Verenigde Koninkryk by die Alliansie aangesluit.


Streke van Niger -kaart

Niger het sewe groot administratiewe afdelings, streke genoem. Hulle is Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Tahoua, Tillaberi en Zinder. Die land het ook 'n hoofstad distrik genaamd Niamey, wat dien as die nasionale hoofstad.

Die streke van Niger word verder onderverdeel in departemente en gemeentes. Verskeie ander kleiner afdelings maak bestuur makliker.

Met 'n oppervlakte van 667,799 vierkante km, is Agadez per gebied die grootste gebied van Niger, terwyl Zinder die grootste een is.


Inhoud

Die naam van die land kom van die Nigerrivier wat deur die weste van die land vloei, maar die oorsprong van die naam van die rivier is onseker, hoewel 'n gewilde teorie is dat dit uit die Tuareg kom n'eghirren, wat 'vloeiende water' beteken. [20] Die mees algemene uitspraak is die Franse uitspraak van / n iː ˈ ʒ ɛər /, hoewel in Engels -media / ˈ n aɪ dʒ ər / ook soms gebruik word.

Voorgeskiedenis

Mense het millennia lank op die gebied van die moderne Niger bewoon, sommige is tot 280 000 v.C. gevind in Adrar Bous, Bilma en Djado in die noordelike Agadez -streek. [21] Sommige van hierdie vondste is verbind met die Ateriaanse en Mousteriaanse werktuigkulture van die Middelpaleolitiese tydperk, wat in Noord-Afrika ongeveer 90 000 vC-20 000 vC floreer het. [22] [21] Daar word vermoed dat hierdie vroeë mense 'n jagter-versamelaarstyl leef. [21] In die prehistoriese tyd was die klimaat van die Sahara -woestyn baie natter en vrugbaarder as vandag, 'n verskynsel wat argeoloë die 'Groen Sahara' noem, wat gunstige toestande bied vir jag en later landbou en veeteelt. [23] [24]

Die Neolitiese era het omstreeks 10 000 vC gedurende hierdie tydperk begin, en daar was 'n aantal belangrike veranderings, soos die bekendstelling van erdewerk (soos getoon in Tagalagal, Temet en Tin Ouffadene), die verspreiding van veeteelt en die begrawe van dooies in kliptumels. [21] Namate die klimaat verander het in die periode 4000–2800 vC, het die Sahara geleidelik begin uitdroog, wat 'n verandering in die nedersettingspatrone in die suide en ooste genoodsaak het. [25] Landbou het wydverspreid geraak, veral die aanplant van gierst en sorghum, asook die vervaardiging van erdewerk. [21] Yster- en koperartikels verskyn die eerste keer in hierdie era, met vroeë vonds, insluitend dié by Azawagh, Takedda, Marendet en die Termit Massif. [26] [27] [28] Die Kiffian -kulture (ongeveer 8000–6000 v.C.) en later Teneriaanse (ongeveer 5000–2500 v.C.) kulture, gesentreer op Adrar Bous en Gobero, waar talle geraamtes ontbloot is, het gedurende hierdie tydperk floreer. [29] [30] [31] [32] [33]

Teen die einde van hierdie tydperk, tot in die eerste eeue nC, het gemeenskappe steeds gegroei en meer kompleks geword, met streeksdifferensiasie in landbou- en begrafnispraktyke. 'N Opvallende kultuur van hierdie laat periode is die Bura -kultuur (ongeveer 200–1300 nC), vernoem na die Bura -argeologiese terrein. waar 'n begrafnis vol is met baie yster- en keramiekbeeldjies. [34] Die neolitiese era het ook floreer in rotskuns uit die Sahara, veral in die Aïrberge, Termit Massif, Djado Plateau, Iwelene, Arakao, Tamakon, Tzerzait, Iferouane, Mammanet en Dabous, die kuns strek oor die tydperk van 10 000 vC tot 100AD en beeld 'n verskeidenheid onderwerpe af, van die gevarieerde fauna van die landskap tot uitbeeldings van spiesdraende figure wat 'Libiese krygers' genoem word. [35] [36] [37]

Ryke en koninkryke in die pre-koloniale Niger

Ons kennis van die vroeë geskiedenis van Nigerië word beperk deur die gebrek aan geskrewe bronne, hoewel dit bekend is dat die gebied van die moderne Niger ten minste in die 5de eeu v.C. 'n gebied geword het van trans-Sahara handel. Onder leiding van Tuareg-stamme uit die noorde was kamele 'n goed aangepaste vervoermiddel deur die huidige woestyn. [38] [39] Hierdie mobiliteit, wat etlike eeue lank in golwe sou voortduur, het gepaard gegaan met verdere migrasie na die suide en vermenging tussen die bevolking van Afrika en Noord-Afrika suid van die Sahara, asook die geleidelike verspreiding van Islam. [40] Dit is ook aangehelp deur die Arabiese inval in Noord -Afrika aan die einde van die 7de eeu, wat bevolkingsbewegings na die suide tot gevolg gehad het. [25] Verskeie ryke en koninkryke het gedurende hierdie era in die Sahel floreer. Hulle geskiedenis pas nie maklik binne die moderne grense van Niger nie, wat tydens die periode van Europese kolonialisme geskep is, en die volgende neem 'n rofweg chronologiese weergawe van die belangrikste ryke aan.

Mali -ryk (1200–1400’s)

Die Mali -ryk was 'n Mandinka -ryk wat omstreeks 1230 deur Sundiata Keita (r. 1230–1255) gestig is en tot 1600 bestaan ​​het. Soos uiteengesit in die Epos van Sundiata, Het Mali voorgekom as 'n wegbreekgebied van die Sosso -ryk, wat self van die vroeëre Ghana -ryk geskei het. Daarna verslaan Mali die Sosso in die Slag van Kirina in 1235 en dan Ghana in 1240. [41] [42] [43] Uit sy hartland rondom die moderne grensgebied van Guinee-Mali het die ryk aansienlik uitgebrei onder opeenvolgende konings en het dit oorheers die handelsroetes oor die Sahara, wat die grootste omvang bereik het tydens die bewind van Mansa Musa (r. 1312–1337). [42] Op hierdie stadium het dele van die huidige Tillabéri -gebied in Niger onder die Maliese heerskappy geval. [41] 'n Moslem, Mansa Musa het die hajj in 1324–25 en het die verspreiding van Islam in die ryk aangemoedig, hoewel dit blyk dat die meeste gewone burgers hul tradisionele animistiese oortuigings bly handhaaf in plaas van of saam met die nuwe godsdiens. [41] [44] Die ryk het in die 15de eeu begin afneem as gevolg van 'n kombinasie van onderlinge onenigheid oor die koninklike opvolging, swak konings, die verskuiwing van Europese handelsroetes na die kus en opstand in die periferie van die ryk deur Mossi, Wolof, Tuareg en Songhai mense. [44] 'n Mali -koninkryk het egter tot laat in die 1600's bestaan. [42]

Songhai -ryk (1000s – 1591)

Die Songhai -ryk is vernoem na sy belangrikste etniese groep, die Songhai of Sonrai, en was gesentreer op die draai van die Nigerrivier in die moderne Mali. Songhai het hierdie streek vanaf die 7de tot die 9de eeu [45] begin vestig, teen die vroeë 11de eeu het Gao (hoofstad van die voormalige Koninkryk Gao) die hoofstad van die ryk geword. [45] [46] [47] Van 1000 tot 1325 het die Songhai -ryk floreer en daarin geslaag om vrede te handhaaf met die Mali -ryk, sy magtige buurman in die weste. In 1325 word Songhai deur Mali verower totdat hy in 1375 sy onafhanklikheid herwin het. [45] Onder koning Sonni Ali (r. 1464–1492) het Songhai 'n ekspansionistiese beleid aangeneem wat sy hoogtepunt bereik het tydens die bewind van Askia Mohammad I (r. 1493-1528) ) op hierdie stadium het die ryk aansienlik uitgebrei vanaf die hartland van die Niger-buiging, insluitend na die ooste, waar 'n groot deel van die moderne westelike Niger onder sy heerskappy val, waaronder Agadez, wat in 1496 verower is. [21] [48] [49] die ryk was nie in staat om herhaaldelike aanvalle van die Saadi -dinastie van Marokko te weerstaan ​​nie en is beslis in die Slag van Tondibi in 1591 verslaan, toe stort die ryk in 'n aantal kleiner koninkryke in. [45] [47]

Sultanaat van Aïr (1400-1906)

In c. 1449 in die noorde van die huidige Niger, is die Sultanaat Aïr gestig deur Sultan Ilisawan, gebaseer in Agadez. [21] Voorheen 'n klein handelspos bewoon deur 'n mengsel van Hausa en Tuaregs, het die sultanaat ryk geword vanweë sy strategiese posisie op die handelsroetes Trans-Sahara. In 1515 word Aïr verower deur Songhai, en bly 'n deel van daardie ryk tot sy ineenstorting in 1591. [21] [40] Die daaropvolgende eeue bied 'n ietwat verwarde prentjie, hoewel dit lyk asof die sultanaat 'n agteruitgang beleef wat gekenmerk is deur onderlinge oorloë en geslagte konflikte. [40] Toe die Europeërs die streek in die 19de eeu begin verken, lê baie van Agadez in puin, en dit is, hoewel moeilik, deur die Franse oorgeneem (sien onder). [21] [40]

Kanem-Bornu-ryk (700s-1700s)

In die ooste oorheers die Kanem-Bornu-ryk die gebied rondom die Tsjaadmeer vir 'n groot deel van hierdie tydperk. [47] Dit is gestig deur die Zaghawa in die 8ste eeu en is gevestig in Njimi, noord-oos van die meer. Die koninkryk het geleidelik uitgebrei, veral tydens die bewind van die Sayfawa -dinastie wat begin het in ongeveer. 1075 onder Mei (koning) Hummay. [50] [51] Die koninkryk bereik sy grootste omvang in die 1200's, grootliks danksy die moeite van Mei Dunama Dibbalemi (r. 1210–1259), en het ryk geword uit sy beheer oor baie handelsroetes in die oostelike en suidooste van Niger, veral Bilma en Kaouar, was in hierdie tydperk onder beheer van Kanem. [52] Islam is deur die Arabiese handelaars uit die 11de eeu aan die koninkryk voorgestel, en geleidelik het meer bekeerlinge oor die daaropvolgende eeue gelei. [50] Aanvalle deur die Bulala-mense aan die einde van die 14de eeu het Kanem gedwing om weswaarts van die Tsjaadmeer te skuif, waar dit bekend geword het as die Bornu-ryk, regeer vanuit sy hoofstad Ngazargamu aan die moderne grens tussen Niger en Nigerië. [53] [50] [54] Bornu het floreer tydens die bewind van Mei Idris Alooma (ongeveer 1575–1610) en verower baie van die tradisionele lande van Kanem, vandaar die benaming 'Kanem-Bornu' vir die ryk. Teen die laat 17de eeu en in die 18de het die koninkryk van Bornu 'n lang tydperk van agteruitgang beleef, wat geleidelik teruggekeer het na die hartjie van die Tsjadmeer, hoewel dit 'n belangrike speler in die streek was. [47] [50]

Omstreeks 1730–40 het 'n groep Kanuri -setlaars onder leiding van Mallam Yunus Kanem verlaat en die Sultanaat van Damagaram gestig, gesentreer in die stad Zinder. [40] Die sultanaat was nominaal onderhewig aan die Borno-ryk tot die bewind van sultan Tanimoune Dan Souleymane in die middel tot laat 19de eeu, wat onafhanklikheid verklaar het en 'n fase van kragtige uitbreiding begin het. [21] Die sultanaat het daarin geslaag om die opmars van die Sokoto -kalifaat te weerstaan ​​(sien onder), maar is later in 1899 deur die Franse gevange geneem. [21]

Die Hausa -state en ander kleiner koninkryke (1400-1800's)

Tussen die Nigerrivier en die Tsjadmeer lê verskillende koninkryke van die Hausa-koninkryke, wat die kultuur-taalkundige gebied, Hausaland, omvat wat oor die moderne grens tussen Niger en Nigerië strek. [55] Die oorsprong van die Hausa is onduidelik, alhoewel hulle vermoedelik 'n mengsel is van outogtoniese volke en trekmense uit die noorde en/of ooste, wat in die jare 900 tot 1400 as 'n duidelike volk ontstaan ​​het toe die koninkryke gestig is. [55] [21] [56] Hulle het Islam geleidelik vanaf die 14de eeu aangeneem, hoewel dit dikwels saam met tradisionele godsdienste bestaan ​​het, en dit ontwikkel tot unieke sinkretiese vorme, sommige Hausa -groepe, soos die Azna, het Islam heeltemal weerstaan ​​(die gebied Dogondoutchi bly 'n animistiese vesting tot vandag toe). [21] [47] Die Hausa -koninkryke was nie 'n kompakte entiteit nie, maar verskeie federasies van koninkryke wat min of meer onafhanklik van mekaar was. Hulle organisasie was hiërargies, maar ook ietwat demokraties: die Hausa -konings is deur die bekendes van die land verkies en kon deur hulle verwyder word. [46] Die Hausa -koninkryke het begin toe sewe state, volgens die Bayajidda -legende, gestig is deur die ses seuns van Bawo. [55] [47] Bawo was die enigste seun van die Hausa -koningin Daurama en Bayajidda of (Abu Yazid volgens sekere Nigeriese historici) wat uit Bagdad gekom het. Die sewe oorspronklike Hausa -state (dikwels na verwys as die 'Hausa bakwai') was: Daura (staat van koningin Daurama), Kano, Rano, Zaria, Gobir, Katsina en Biram. [46] [21] [56] In 'n uitbreiding van die legende word gesê dat Bawo nog sewe seuns met 'n byvrou gehad het, wat die sogenaamde 'Banza (onwettig) Bakwai ': Zamfara, Kebbi, Nupe, Gwari, Yauri, Ilorin en Kwararafa. [56] 'n Kleiner staat wat nie by hierdie plan pas nie, was Konni, gerig op Birni-N'Konni. [40]

Die Fulani (ook genoem Peul, Fulbe ens.), 'N pastorale volk wat deur die Sahel aangetref is, het gedurende die 1200s - 1500s na Hausaland begin migreer. [47] [55] Gedurende die latere 18de eeu was baie Fulani ontevrede met die sinkretiese vorm van Islam wat daar beoefen word, en gebruik ook die minagting van die bevolking met korrupsie onder die Hausa -elite, die Fulani -geleerde Usman Dan Fodio (van Gobir) verklaar in 1804 'n jihad . [40] [21] [57] Nadat hy die grootste deel van Hausaland verower het (hoewel nie die Bornu -koninkryk nie, wat onafhanklik gebly het) verklaar hy die Sokoto -kalifaat in 1809. [55] Sommige van die Hausa -state het oorleef deur na die suide te vlug, soos die Katsina wat verhuis het na Maradi in die suide van die moderne Niger. [47] Baie van hierdie oorlewende state het die Kalifaat geteister en 'n lang tydperk van kleinskaalse oorloë en skermutselings het begin, terwyl sommige state (soos Katsina en Gobir) onafhanklikheid behou het, terwyl elders nuwes gevorm is (soos die Sultanaat van Tessaoua ). Die kalifaat kon daarin slaag om te oorleef totdat dit in 1903 noodlottig verswak is deur die invalle van die Tsjad-gebaseerde krygsheer Rabih az-Zubayr, terwyl die lande later tussen Brittanje en Frankryk verdeel is. [58]

Ander kleiner koninkryke van die tydperk sluit in die Dosso -koninkryk, 'n Zarma -regering wat in 1750 gestig is en wat die heerskappy van die Hausa- en Sokoto -state weerstaan. [40]

Frans Niger (1900–58)

In die 19de eeu het Europeërs 'n groter belangstelling in Afrika begin neem, en verskeie Europese ontdekkingsreisigers het in die omgewing van die moderne Niger gereis, soos Mungo Park (in 1805-06), die Oudney-Denham-Clapperton-ekspedisie (1822-25), Heinrich Barth (1850–55 met James Richardson en Adolf Overweg), Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs (1865–67), Gustav Nachtigal (1869–74) en Parfait-Louis Monteil (1890–92). [21]

Verskeie Europese lande het reeds kuskolonies in Afrika gehad, en in die laaste helfte van die eeu het hulle hul oë na die binneland van die kontinent begin draai. Hierdie proses, bekend as die 'Scramble for Africa', bereik 'n hoogtepunt in die Berlynse konferensie in 1885, waarin die koloniale moondhede die verdeling van Afrika in invloedsfere uiteensit. As gevolg hiervan het Frankryk beheer oor die boonste vallei van die Nigerrivier verkry (ongeveer gelykstaande aan die gebiede van die moderne Mali en Niger). [59] Frankryk het toe begin om hul heerskappy ter plaatse te verwesenlik. In 1897 word die Franse offisier Marius Gabriel Cazemajou na Niger gestuur, hy bereik die Sultanaat van Damagaram in 1898 en bly in Zinder by die hof van Sultan Amadou Kouran Daga-maar hy word later vermoor omdat Daga gevrees het dat hy 'n bondgenoot sou hê met die krygsheer van Tsjaad Rabih az-Zubayr. [40] In 1899–1900 het Frankryk drie ekspedisies gekoördineer-die Gentil-sending uit Frans-Kongo, die Foureau-Lamy-sending uit Algerië en die Voulet-Chanoine-sending uit Timboektoe-met die doel om Frankryk se besittings in Afrika te verbind. [59] The three eventually met at Kousséri (in the far north of Cameroon) and defeated Rabih az-Zubayr's forces at the Battle of Kousséri. The Voulet-Chanoine Mission was marred by numerous atrocities, and became notorious for pillaging, looting, raping and killing many local civilians on its passage throughout southern Niger. [40] [21] On 8 May 1899, in retaliation for the resistance of queen Sarraounia, captain Voulet and his men murdered all the inhabitants of the village of Birni-N'Konni in what is regarded as one of the worst massacres in French colonial history. [40] The brutal methods of Voulet and Chanoine caused a scandal and Paris was forced to intervene however when Lieutenant-Colonel Jean-François Klobb caught up with the mission near Tessaoua to relieve them of command he was killed. Lt. Paul Joalland, Klobb's former officer, and Lt. Octave Meynier eventually took over the mission following a mutiny in which Voulet and Chanoine were killed. [21]

The Military Territory of Niger was subsequently created within the Upper Senegal and Niger colony (modern Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger) in December 1904 with its capital at Niamey, then little more than a large village. [21] The border with Britain's colony of Nigeria to the south was finalised in 1910, a rough delimitation having already been agreed by the two powers via several treaties during the period 1898–1906. [59] The capital of the territory was moved to Zinder in 1912 when the Niger Military Territory was split off from Upper Senegal and Niger, before being moved back to Niamey in 1922 when Niger became a fully-fledged colony within French West Africa. [21] [40] The borders of Niger were drawn up in various stages and had been fixed at their current position by the late 1930s. Various territorial adjustments took place in this period: the areas west of the Niger river were only attached to Niger in 1926–27, and during the dissolution of Upper Volta (modern Burkina Faso) in 1932–47 much of the east of that territory was added to Niger [60] [40] and in the east the Tibesti Mountains were transferred to Chad in 1931. [61]

The French generally adopted a form of indirect rule, allowing existing native structures to continue to exist within the colonial framework of governance providing that they acknowledged French supremacy. [21] The Zarma of the Dosso Kingdom in particular proved amenable to French rule, using them as allies against the encroachments of Hausa and other nearby states over time the Zarma thus became one of the more educated and westernised groups in Niger. [40] However, perceived threats to French rule, such as the Kobkitanda rebellion in Dosso Region (1905–06), led by the blind cleric Alfa Saibou, and the Karma revolt in the Niger valley (December 1905–March 1906) led by Oumarou Karma were suppressed with force, as were the latter Hamallayya and Hauka religious movements. [21] [40] [62] Though largely successful in subduing the sedentary populations of the south, the French faced considerably more difficulty with the Tuareg in the north (centered on the Sultanate of Aïr in Agadez), and France was unable to occupy Agadez until 1906. [21] Tuareg resistance continued however, culminating in the Kaocen revolt of 1916–17, led by Ag Mohammed Wau Teguidda Kaocen, with backing from the Senussi in Fezzan the revolt was violently suppressed and Kaocen fled to Fezzan, where he was later killed. [40] A puppet sultan was set up by the French and the decline and marginalisation of the north of the colony continued, exacerbated by a series of droughts. [40] Though it remained something of a backwater, some limited economic development took place in Niger during the colonial years, such as the introduction of groundnut cultivation. [21] Various measures to improve food security following a series of devastating famines in 1913, 1920 and 1931 were also introduced. [21] [40]

During the Second World War, during which time mainland France was occupied by Nazi Germany, Charles de Gaulle issued the Brazzaville Declaration, declaring that the French colonial empire would be replaced post-war with a less centralised French Union. [63] The French Union, which lasted from 1946 to 1958, conferred a limited form of French citizenship on the inhabitants of the colonies, with some decentralisation of power and limited participation in political life for local advisory assemblies. It was during this period that the Nigerien Progressive Party (Parti Progressiste Nigérien, or PPN, originally a branch of the African Democratic Rally, or Rassemblement Démocratique Africain – RDA) was formed under the leadership of former teacher Hamani Diori, as well as the left-wing Mouvement Socialiste Africain-Sawaba (MSA) led by Djibo Bakary. Following the Overseas Reform Act (Loi Cadre) of 23 July 1956 and the establishment of the Fifth French Republic on 4 December 1958, Niger became an autonomous state within the French Community. On 18 December 1958, an autonomous Republic of Niger was officially created under the leadership of Hamani Diori. The MSA was banned in 1959 for its perceived excessive anti-French stance. [64] On 11 July 1960, Niger decided to leave the French Community and acquired full independence on 3 August 1960 Diori thus became the first president of the country.

Independent Niger (1960–present)

Diori years (1960–74)

For its first 14 years as an independent state Niger was run by a single-party civilian regime under the presidency of Hamani Diori. [65] The 1960s were largely peaceful, and saw a large expansion of the education system and some limited economic development and industrialisation. [40] Links with France remained deep, with Diori allowing the development of French-led uranium mining in Arlit and supporting France in the Algerian War. [40] Relations with other African states were mostly positive, with the exception of Dahomey (Benin), owing to an ongoing border dispute. Niger remained a one-party state throughout this period, with Diori surviving a planned coup in 1963 and an assassination attempt in 1965 much of this activity was masterminded by Djibo Bakary's MSA-Sawaba group, which had launched an abortive rebellion in 1964. [40] [66] In the early 1970s, a combination of economic difficulties, devastating droughts and accusations of rampant corruption and mismanagement of food supplies resulted in a coup d'état that overthrew the Diori regime.

First military regime (1974–1991)

The coup had been masterminded by Col. Seyni Kountché and a small military group under the name of the Conseil Militaire Supreme, with Kountché going on to rule the country until his death in 1987. [40] The first action of the military government was to address the food crisis. [67] Whilst political prisoners of the Diori regime were released after the coup and the country was stabilised, political and individual freedoms in general deteriorated during this period. There were several attempted coups (in 1975, 1976 and 1984) which were thwarted, their instigators being severely punished. [40]

Despite the restriction in freedom, the country enjoyed improved economic development as Kountché sought to create a 'development society', funded largely by the uranium mines in Agadez Region. [40] Several parastatal companies were created, major infrastructure (building and new roads, schools, health centres) constructed, and there was minimal corruption in government agencies, which Kountché did not hesitate to punish severely. [68] In the 1980s Kountché began cautiously loosening the grip of the military, with some relaxation of state censorship and attempts made to 'civilianise' the regime. [40] However the economic boom ended following the collapse in uranium prices, and IMF-led austerity and privatisation measures provoked opposition by many Nigeriens. [40] In 1985 a small Tuareg revolt in Tchintabaraden was suppressed. [40] Kountché died in November 1987 from a brain tumour, and was succeeded by his chief of staff, Col. Ali Saibou, who was confirmed as Chief of the Supreme Military Council four days later. [40]

Saibou significantly curtailed the most repressive aspects of the Kountché era (such as the secret police and media censorship), and set about introducing a process of political reform under the overall direction of a single party (the Mouvement National pour la Société du Développement, or MNSD). [40] A Second Republic was declared and a new constitution was drawn up, which was adopted following a referendum in 1989. [40] General Saibou became the first president of the Second Republic after winning the presidential election on 10 December 1989. [69]

President Saibou's efforts to control political reforms failed in the face of trade union and student demands to institute a multi-party democratic system. On 9 February 1990, a violently repressed student march in Niamey led to the death of three students, which led to increased national and international pressure for further democratic reform. [40] The Saibou regime acquiesced to these demands by the end of 1990. [40] Meanwhile, trouble re-emerged in Agadez Region when a group of armed Tuaregs attacked the town of Tchintabaraden (generally seen as the start of the first Tuareg Rebellion), prompting a severe military crackdown which led to many deaths (the precise numbers are disputed, with estimates ranging from 70 to up to 1,000). [40]

National Conference and Third Republic (1991–1996)

The National Sovereign Conference of 1991 marked a turning point in the post-independence history of Niger and brought about multi-party democracy. From 29 July to 3 November, a national conference gathered together all elements of society to make recommendations for the future direction of the country. The conference was presided over by Prof. André Salifou and developed a plan for a transitional government this was then installed in November 1991 to manage the affairs of state until the institutions of the Third Republic were put into place in April 1993. After the National Sovereign Conference, the transitional government drafted a new constitution that eliminated the previous single-party system of the 1989 Constitution and guaranteed more freedoms. The new constitution was adopted by a referendum on 26 December 1992. [70] Following this, presidential elections were held and Mahamane Ousmane became the first president of the Third Republic on 27 March 1993. [40] [69] Ousmane's presidency was characterised by political turbulence, with four government changes and early legislative elections in 1995, as well a severe economic slump which the coalition government proved unable to effectively address. [40]

The violence in Agadez Region continued during this period, prompting the Nigerien government to sign a truce with Tuareg rebels in 1992 which was however ineffective owing to internal dissension within the Tuareg ranks. [40] Another rebellion, led by dissatisfied Toubou peoples claiming that, like the Tuareg, the Nigerien government had neglected their region, broke out in the east of the country. [40] In April 1995 a peace deal with the main Tuareg rebel group was signed, with the government agreeing to absorb some former rebels into the military and, with French assistance, help others return to a productive civilian life. [71]

Second military regime and third military regime (1996–1999)

The governmental paralysis prompted the military to intervene on 27 January 1996, Col. Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara led a coup that deposed President Ousmane and ended the Third Republic. [72] [73] Maïnassara headed a Conseil de Salut National (National Salvation Council) composed of military official which carried out a six-month transition period, during which a new constitution was drafted and adopted on 12 May 1996. [40]

Presidential campaigns were organised in the months that followed. Maïnassara entered the campaign as an independent candidate and won the election on 8 July 1996, however the elections were viewed nationally and internationally as irregular, as the electoral commission was replaced during the campaign. [40] Meanwhile, Maïnassara instigated an IMF and World Bank-approved privatisation programme which enriched many of his supporters but were opposed by the trade unions. [40] Following fraudulent local elections in 1999 the opposition ceased any cooperation with the Maïnassara regime. [40] In unclear circumstance (possibly attempting to flee the country), Maïnassara was assassinated at Niamey Airport on 9 April 1999. [74] [75]

Maj. Daouda Malam Wanké then took over, establishing a transitional National Reconciliation Council to oversee the drafting of a constitution with a French-style semi-presidential system. This was adopted on 9 August 1999 and was followed by presidential and legislative elections in October and November of the same year. [76] The elections were generally found to be free and fair by international observers. Wanké then withdrew from governmental affairs. [40]

Fifth Republic (1999–2009)

After winning the election in November 1999, President Tandja Mamadou was sworn in office on 22 December 1999 as the first president of the Fifth Republic. Mamadou brought about many administrative and economic reforms that had been halted due to the military coups since the Third Republic, as well as helped peacefully resolve a decades-long boundary dispute with Benin. [77] [78] In August 2002, serious unrest within military camps occurred in Niamey, Diffa, and Nguigmi, but the government was able to restore order within several days. On 24 July 2004, the first municipal elections in the history of Niger were held to elect local representatives, previously appointed by the government. These elections were followed by presidential elections, in which Mamadou was re-elected for a second term, thus becoming the first president of the republic to win consecutive elections without being deposed by military coups. [40] [79] The legislative and executive configuration remained quite similar to that of the first term of the president: Hama Amadou was reappointed as prime minister and Mahamane Ousmane, the head of the CDS party, was re-elected as the president of the National Assembly (parliament) by his peers.

By 2007, the relationship between President Tandja Mamadou and his prime minister had deteriorated, leading to the replacement of the latter in June 2007 by Seyni Oumarou following a successful vote of no confidence at the Assembly. [40] The political environment worsened in the following year as President Tandja Mamadou sought out to extend his presidency by modifying the constitution which limited presidential terms in Niger. Proponents of the extended presidency, rallied behind the 'Tazartche' (Hausa for 'overstay') movement, were countered by opponents ('anti-Tazartche') composed of opposition party militants and civil society activists. [40]

The situation in the north also deteriorated significantly in this period, resulting in the outbreak of a Second Tuareg Rebellion in 2007 led by the Mouvement des Nigériens pour la justice (MNJ). Despite a number of high-profile kidnappings the rebellion had largely fizzled out inconclusively by 2009. [40] However the poor security situation in the region is thought to have allowed elements of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) to gain a foothold in the country. [40]

Fourth military regime (2009–2010)

In 2009, President Tandja Mamadou decided to organize a constitutional referendum seeking to extend his presidency, which was opposed by other political parties, as well as being against the decision of the Constitutional Court which had ruled that the referendum would be unconstitutional. Mamadou then modified and adopted a new constitution by referendum, which was declared illegal by the Constitutional Court, prompting Mamadou to dissolve the Court and assume emergency powers. [80] [81] The opposition boycotted the referendum and the new constitution was adopted with 92.5% of voters and a 68% turnout, according to official results. The adoption of the new constitution created a Sixth Republic, with a presidential system, as well as the suspension of the 1999 Constitution and a three-year interim government with Tandja Mamadou as president. The events generated severe political and social unrest throughout the country. [40]

In a coup d'état in February 2010, a military junta led by captain Salou Djibo was established in response to Tandja's attempted extension of his political term by modifying the constitution. [82] The Supreme Council for the Restoration of Democracy, led by General Salou Djibo, carried out a one-year transition plan, drafted a new constitution and held elections in 2011 that were judged internationally as free and fair.

Seventh Republic (2010–present)

Following the adoption of a new constitution in 2010 and presidential elections a year later, Mahamadou Issoufou was elected as the first president of the Seventh Republic he was then re-elected in 2016. [83] [40] The constitution also restored the semi-presidential system which had been abolished a year earlier. An attempted coup against him in 2011 was thwarted and its ringleaders arrested. [84] Issoufou's time in office has been marked by numerous threats to the country's security, stemming from the fallout from the Libyan Civil War and Northern Mali conflict, a rise in attacks by AQIM, the use of Niger as a transit country for migrants (often organised by criminal gangs), and the spillover of Nigeria's Boko Haram insurgency into south-eastern Niger. [85] French and American forces are currently assisting Niger in countering these threats. [86]

On 27 December 2020, Nigeriens went to the polls after Issoufou announced he would step down, paving the way to Niger's first ever peaceful transition of power. [87] However, no candidate won an absolute majority in the vote: Mohamed Bazoum came closest with 39.33%. As per the constitution, a run-off election was held on 20 February 2021, with Bazoum taking 55.75% of the vote and opposition candidate (and former president) Mahamane Ousmane taking 44.25%, according to the electoral commission. [88]

On 31 March 2021, Niger's security forces thwarted an attempted coup by a military unit in the capital, Niamey. Heavy gunfire was heard in the early hours near the country's presidential palace. The attack took place just two days before newly elected president, Mohamed Bazoum, was due to be sworn into office. The Presidential Guard arrested several people during the incident. [89]


10 Fun And Interesting Facts About Nigeria

Nigeria is a country in West Africa having boundaries with Niger and the Chad Republic in the north, Cameroon on the eastern part, the Benin Republic on the western border and the Atlantic ocean at the southern end. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with more than 170 million people living there. What this means is that one in every 7 Africans is a Nigerian. Geographically, Nigerian terrain changes from the high savanna-covered plateaus in the north to the oil-rich Niger Delta in the southern part down to the rainforest belt region towards the coast. Despite the insecurity and some slight political instabilities facing the country, there are some interesting facts about Nigeria that are worth noting. AnswersAfrica brings you the most interesting and fun Nigeria facts.

10. Most Populous Country in Africa

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the 8th most populous in the world with a population of more than 160 million people. The next African country to come close is Ethiopia with a population count of 84 million. That is just about half of the Nigerian population.

9. More Than 250 Ethnic Groups

Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, however, there are 3 dominant tribes: the Ibo (Igbo), Hausa- Fulani, and Yoruba which make up 18%, 29%, and 21% respectively.

8. Christianity and Islam Are The 2 Major Religions

The major religions in Nigeria are Christianity and Islam. About half of the Yorubas are Christians and half Muslim, though many maintain traditional beliefs. The Igbos in the southeast are mostly Christian The Hausa/Fulani in northern Nigeria are mostly Islamic and dominated by the Hausa-Fulani ethnic group. Southern Nigeria is more westernized and urbanized than the north, with the Yoruba in the southwest and the Igbo in the southeast.

7. Niger River: West Africa’s Largest River.

The longest and largest river in West Africa is the river Niger from where Nigeria derives her name. River Niger spans about 4,180 km (2,600 mi) from its source is in the Highlands of Guinea in southeastern Guinea. It courses in a crescent through Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, and eventually emptying into the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean after passing through a massive delta, known as the Niger Delta or the Oil Rivers.

6. One of the Oldest Locations of Human Existence

Evidence from archaeological discoveries has shown that there was a history of human existence in Nigeria which has been dated to as far back as 9000 BC. The Nok civilization (around 500 BC-200 AD) is the earliest known civilization here.

5. Home Of Nollywood

Nollywood is the name given to the Nigerian movie industry and it has recently been ranked the second largest producers of movies in the world just trailing behind Bollywood the Indian film industry and ahead of America’s Hollywood. Nollywood produces up to 200 movies every single week and her movies have won half of the yearly awards for best picture since 2005.

4. Largest Diversity of Butterfly

Nigeria boasts in being the most suitable habitat for the worlds largest diversity of the most colorful creatures – the butterflies. It is widely believed that the areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State in the southern part of the country harbors the world’s largest diversity of butterflies.

3. Ogun State Has The Highest Number of Universities in Nigeria

Ogun State is one of the states in the western part of the country and it has a total of nine registered universities, making it the state with the highest number of Universities in Nigeria

2. The Longest Bridge in Africa

The Third Mainland Bridge (in Lagos State) connecting Lagos Island to the mainland is the longest bridge in Africa—it measures about 11.8km. The bridge starts from Oworonshoki which is linked to the Apapa-Oshodi expressway and Lagos-Ibadan expressway and ends at the Adeniji Adele Interchange on Lagos Island. There is also a link midway through the bridge that leads to the Herbert Macaulay Way, Yaba. The bridge was built by Julius Berger Nigeria PLC and opened by President Ibrahim Babangida in 1990

1. Largest Producers of Crude Oil

Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of crude oil in the world (averaging 2,525,000 barrels per day) and the 8th largest exporter. Nigeria has the 10th largest proven reserves of petroleum worldwide. Petroleum plays an important role in the country’s economy and contributes to more than 85% of the total government’s revenue.


Interesting facts about Niger

Niger is a landlocked country in Western Africa.

Die amptelike naam van die land is die Republic of the Niger.

dit is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.

Die official language is Frans.

Vanaf 1 Januarie 2017 het die bevolking of Niger was estimated to be 21,092,468 people.

Dit is die 21st largest country in the world in terms of land area met 1,267,000 square kilometers (489,000 square miles).

Niamey is the capital and largest city of Niger. Niamey lies on the Niger River, primarily situated on the east bank. It is an administrative, cultural and economic centre.

Niger located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions.

Die terrain there is predominantly desert plains and sand dunes. There are also large plains in the south and hills in the north.

Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès ook bekend as Mont Bagzane en Mont Bagzan is the highest mountain in Niger rising to a height of 2,022 meters (6,634 feet) bo seevlak.

The network of protected areas in Niger covers about 17% of the national territory. It is made up of 1 national park, 2 national nature reserve, 1 nature reserve, plus other types of protected areas.

Die W National Park is a major national park in West Africa around a meander in the River Niger shaped like a “W”. The park includes areas of the three countries Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and is governed by the three governments. The park is known for its large mammals, including aardvarks, baboons, buffalo, caracal, cheetahs, elephants, hippopotami, African leopards, West African lions, serval and warthogs. The W National Park of Niger was created by decree on 4 August 1954, and since 1996 has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Die Aïr and Ténéré National Nature Reserve is a national nature reserve in Niger. It includes several overlapping reserve designations, and covers both the eastern half of the Aïr Mountains and the western sections of the Ténéré desert. The reserves boast an outstanding variety of landscapes, plant species and wild animals. The Aïr and Ténéré UNESCO World Heritage Site was established in 1991, and marked as endangered 1992. The entire reserver covers 77,360 square kilometers (29,870 square miles), which made it the second largest nature reserve in Africa, and the fourth largest in the world.

Niger has 3 UNESCO world heritage sites.

Known as the gateway to the desert, Agadez, on the southern edge of the Sahara desert, developed in the 15th and 16th centuries when the Sultanate of Aïr was established and Touareg tribes were sedentarized in the city, respecting the boundaries of old encampments, which gave rise to a street pattern still in place today. The historic centre of the city, an important crossroads of the caravan trade, is divided into 11 quarters with irregular shapes. They contain numerous earthen dwellings and a well-preserved group of palatial and religious buildings including a 27 meters (88.5 feet) high minaret made entirely of mud brick, the highest such structure in the world. Historic Centre of Agadez was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008.

Die Grand Mosque of Niamey is an Islamic mosque located in Niamey. It was built in the 1970s. The largest mosque in the city, it is located along Islam Avenue. Funded with money from Libya, the mosque features a minaret with 171 steps from top to bottom.

Die Dabous Giraffes are a neolithic petroglyph by an unknown artist. Completed between 9000 BC and 5000 BC, the giraffe carvings were first documented by David Coulson in 1997 while on a photographic expedition at a site in Niger. The carving is (6 meters) 20 feet in height and consists of two giraffes carved into the Dabous Rock with a great amount of detail. The Bradshaw Foundation is an organization dedicated to the protection and preservation of this petroglyph.

Humans have lived in what is now Niger from the earliest times.

Through extensive archaeological research, much evidence has been uncovered indicating that man has been present in northern Niger for over 600,000 years.

By at least the 5th century B.C., Niger became an area of trans-Saharan trade, led by the Berber tribes from the north, using camels as an adapted means of transportation through the desert.

One of the great empires of Africa called the Songhai expanded into modern day Niger until its collapse in 1591.

In the 19th century, contact with Europe began when the first European explorers explored the area searching for the mouth of the Niger River.

Alhoewel die Franse pogings tot pasifikasie voor 1900 begin het, was dissidente etniese groepe, veral die woestyn Tuareg, eers in 1922 onderdanig toe Niger 'n Franse kolonie geword het.

On 11 July 1960, agreements on national sovereignty were signed by Niger and France, and on 3 August 1960, the Republic of the Niger proclaimed its independence.

The country is named after the Niger River.

Die economy of Niger is based largely upon internal markets, subsistence agriculture, and the export of raw commodities: foodstuffs to neighbors and raw minerals to world markets.

Niger has some of the world’s largest uranium deposits.

Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world and is rated by the UN as one of the world’s least-developed nations.

Niger has a wide variety of ethnic groups as in most West African countries. The ethnic makeup of Niger is as follows: Hausa (53.0%), Zarma-Sonrai (21.2%), Tuareg (10.4%), Fula (French: Peuls or Peulhs Fula: Fulɓe) (9.9%), Kanuri Manga (4.4%), Tubu (0.4%), Arab (0.3%), Gourmantche (0.3%), other (0.2%).

Islam is the most dominant religion, practiced by 80% of the population. The second most practiced religion is Christianity this by less than 20% of the population.

Die cuisine of Niger takes after many traditional African cuisines, and a significant amount of spices are used in dishes. Grilled meat, seasonal vegetables, salads and various sauces are some of the foods consumed.

Horse racing, camel racing en sorro wrestling are some of the traditional sports in Niger that were firmly entrenched in their culture. Sorro Wrestling is known as the “King of Sports” in the country.


Food in Nigeria | Nigeria Facts

Corn, rice, cocoa, yams, palm oil and peanuts (groundnuts) are the main agricultural products in Nigeria. Nigerian main dishes usually contain corn, rice, yams, plantains, beans, peppers and tomatoes as well as beef, sheep and fish.

Accordi ng to OghenekevweOnu: "If you want to take your taste buds on a spectacular journey, then you have to try out Nigerian foods. These includes the Nigerian Jollof rice, Suya, Akara, Pounded Yam and Garri. We have soups like Egusi, Ewedu or Afangਊnd a host of others. "

Jollof Rice
  • Jollof rice: the tomato-coloured one-pot rice dish is popular throughout Western Africa and in Nigeria usually is served with fried plantains, and moi-moi.
  • Suya: grilled meat skewers with spicy coating often made with beef and chicken - this is a popular street food
  • Garri: cassava flour
  • Ewedu en Afang: spinach-like green leaves used in Nigerian soups

Nigeria Facts: Some other typical Nigerian dishes are:

  • Moi moi: savoury steamed pudding with black-eyed peas, onions and peppers 
  • Dodofried plantains, a popular side dish which accompanies many main dishes.

Dodo - Chicken with Plantains
  • Maafe: groundnut stew with tomatoes and meat. The name means actually 'peanut butter sauce').
  • Ofada rice: brown rice dish or stew made with tomatoes and beef. It is commonly served on a leaf to give it a distinctive taste.

Bibliografie

Charlick, Robert. Niger: Personal Rule and Survival in the Sahel , 1991.

Decalo, Samuel. Historical Dictionary of Niger , 3rd ed., 1997.

Fuglestad, Finn. A History of Niger 1850–1960 , 1983.

Human Rights Watch. Niger: Human Rights Report , 1993.

Masquelier, Adeline. "Narratives of Power, Images of Wealth: The Ritual Economy of Bori in the Market." In Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff, eds., Modernity and Its Malcontents , 1993.

Rasmussen, Susan. Spirit Possession and Personhood among the Kel Ewey Tuareg , 1995.

——. The Poetics and Politics of Tuareg Aging: Life Course and Personal Destiny in Niger , 1997.

Schmoll, Pamela. "Black Stomachs, Beautiful Stones: Soul-Eating among Haussa in Niger." In Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff, eds., Modernity and Its Malcontents , 1993.

Stoller, Paul. Fusion of the Worlds: An Ethnography of Possession among the Songhay of Niger , 1989.

——. Embodying Cultural Memories: Spirit Possession, Power, and the Hauka in West Africa , 1995.

——, and Cheryl Olkes. In Sorcery's Shadow , 1987.

U. S. Department of State, Bureau of African Affairs. Niger: Background Notes , 1994.

Weaver, Marcia, Holly Wong, Amadou Sekou Sako, Robert Simon, and Felix Lee. "Patient Fees in the Niamey Hospital." Social Science and Medicine 38: 563–574, 1994.


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