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Bourbon en Moonshiners


Hierdie videogreep van "Hands on History" kyk na die produksie en geskiedenis van die bourbon in Kentucky. Kyk hoe dit bourbon volg uit die beroemde Kentucky Bourbon van die Beam -familie wat in 1795 geskep is, tot die onwettige moonshiners en agterplante van die verbodstydperk.


Bourbon maak geskiedenis – The News-Enterprise

Meester -distilleerder Brent Goodin het 'n nuwe era vir Hardin County ingelui, 'n plek in die staat se historiese bourbon -onderneming.

Goodin se familie is sedert die 1700's in die streek, spesifiek in die provinsies Hardin, LaRue en Nelson.

Toe die Goodin -gesin hulle in New Haven vestig, het hulle 'n fort langs die Rolling Forkrivier gestig en alkohol daar gedistilleer, het hy gesê.

Drank, het hy gesê, word dikwels in die grensdae as munt gebruik om dinge te ruil.

Sedertdien het die gesin boerdery en ander ondernemings aangegaan totdat sy ouma wat saam met sy ooms by distilleerderye begin werk het. Sy het 40 jaar in distilleerderye gewerk, het hy gesê.

Die gesin het moontlik nie altyd drank gemaak nie, maar was soms aktief in aspekte van die distillasiebedryf voordat Goodin aansoek gedoen het om sy federale permit om 'n vaartuigdistilleerder te word.

Goodin was 15 jaar lank by die beplanningskommissie van Hardin County en het hierdie soort ontwikkeling in ander provinsies gesien. Hy het gesê hy dink Hardin County moet deel wees van een van die staat se mees herkenbare bedrywe.

Voorheen was Goodin 27 jaar lank 'n plaaslike sakeman. Hy het 'n stuk eiendom langs Battle Training Road gehad wat hy gedink het perfek sou wees om bourbon te distilleer. Dit het 'n natuurlike waterbron op die eiendom wat oor sagte kalksteen vloei.

Sy onderneming, Boundary Oak Distillery, is vernoem na die boom naby die water.

Hy het sy vak geleer deur te leer by professionele distilleerders wat hy die beste in Kentucky noem.

'Ons woon op 'n plek met baie kennis oor die distillering van bourbon,' het hy gesê. 'Dit is 'n wonderlike onderneming om deel van te wees.'

Van die werk is probeer en fout, het hy gesê. Dit is om te leer wat jy doen en nie wil doen nie.

Volgens hom is die produksie van die produk nie regtig 'n opwindende onderneming nie. U spandeer baie tyd daaraan om te wag dat dit drup en op die stilte wag, het hy gesê, en bygevoeg dat dit die rede is waarom maanskyners geleer het om die banjo te speel om die tyd te vul terwyl hulle wag.

Omdat dit een van die kenmerkende bedrywe van Kentucky is, wil hy hê dat Hardin County in die geskiedenis erken moet word.

'Ek is so opgewonde om dit hier te kan bring en toe te laat dat Hardin County deel hiervan is,' het hy gesê.

Hy het die steun van die provinsie gevoel. As u iemand is wat drink of nie, weet almal watter impak Kentucky -bourbon wêreldwyd het, het hy gesê.

Goodin hoop dat die Kentucky Bourbon Trail binnekort in Hardin County stop. Hy het gesê dat hierdie gebied baie kan bied aan toeriste wat dit besoek.

Ambachtelike distilleerders is beperk tot die vervaardiging van 1 000 vate per jaar, het hy gesê.

'Ons wil die beste 1000 vate bourbon maak wat ooit in Kentucky gemaak is,' het hy gesê.

Hy dink dat die water en korrels van Hardin County wat plaaslik verbou word, dit sal help. Deur die gebruik van plaaslike hulpbronne maak Boundary Oak 'n produk van Hardin County, het hy gesê.

Kenny Tabb ken Goodin sedert hy 'n leerling aan die East Hardin High School was.

'Hy was destyds uitstekend en het 'n indruk op my gemaak,' het Tabb gesê. 'Ek het hom deur die jare bygehou en opgemerk dat hy 'n visioenêr is met vaardighede in openbare betrekkinge.'

Met al die onlangse roem van Goodin, het Tabb gesê dat hy steeds 'n 'aardse goeie ou' is.

Becca Owsley kan bereik word by 270-505-1741 of [email  protected]

Leer kennis maak met Brent Goodin
Gunsteling televisieprogram:
“Die Colbert -verslag”
Gunsteling boek: “Die grootste generasie”
Familie:
Vrou, Melody en drie kinders
Troeteldier:
'N Jack Russel terriër met die naam Sadie


Onwettige maanskyn

In die vroeë deel van die 19de eeu is aksynswette op die produksie van sterk drank in die Britse eilande geplaas. Dit het daartoe gelei dat distilleerders onwettige bedrywighede geskep het wat snags onder die dekmantel van die duisternis geproduseer het. Die term "maanskyn" het algemeen geword vanweë die Britse woord "moonshining", wat verwys na enige werk wat laat in die nag uitgevoer word.

Maanskyn het algemeen geword in die Verenigde State rondom die tyd van die burgeroorlog toe die regering nie-geregistreerde foto's verbied het. Onwettige operateurs het ook onder die dekmantel van die duisternis gewerk, wat sogenaamde moonshiners genoem word.

Die aantal maanskynbedrywighede het dramaties toegeneem gedurende die verbodstydperk in die Verenigde State (1920-1933), wat die produksie van alkohol heeltemal verbied het.

Die tradisie van maanskyn duur vandag voort, met baie distilleerderye in die agterplaas wat dit uitvoer om belasting of as 'n stokperdjie te vermy. Moonshine word dikwels geassosieer met dele van Kentucky en Appalachia, waar dit uiters algemeen geword het.


Waarom word moonshiners dan nie gearresteer nie?

Wat enige amptelike polisieverslae of nuusberigte betref, is daar geen bewys dat Digger ooit in verband met maanskyn in hegtenis geneem is nie. Omdat die produksie van die maanskyn diep in die Appalachiese woud plaasvind en#x2014 en Discovery airs Maanskappers maande daarna is dit onmoontlik vir wetstoepassers om te onderskei of hulle onwettige drank wil distilleer. (En ek bedoel, die polisie is in elk geval tipies besig met meer dringende kwessies.)


Oorsprong in immigrasie

In die jare net voor die rewolusie het 'n massiewe toestroming van Skotsk-Ierse migrante van die Noord-Ierse provinsies na die Engelse kolonies in Noord-Amerika verhuis. Hulle was nie die enigste immigrante nie, aangesien die Duitsers ook in groot getalle op pad was, maar daar was absoluut verskille tussen die groepe. Oor die destydse migrante het hulle gesê: 'As die Engelse in die nuwe wêreld sou aankom, was die eerste ding om 'n kerk te bou, die Duitsers 'n skuur, maar die Skotse Iere 'n whisky steeds."

Vir koloniale Amerikaners was Skots-Iers nie veel beter as om gewoon Iers te wees nie. Ja, dit is goed dat hulle protestant was, maar dit het nie te ver gegaan om hulle as 'n groep te verlos nie. Gevestigde koloniste was, om dit lig te stel, huiwerig om dit by hulle te hê. As gevolg hiervan vestig die Skotte hulle aan die rand van die Engelse kolonies in die isolasie van die Appalachiese berge. Hulle het hul lewens herbou en hul Skotse wending oor die ou Ulster -kultuur voortgesit. Gelukkig vir ons, het hierdie kultuur 'n byna hondsdol liefde vir drank ingesluit en die distillerende kundigheid om hierdie liefde te bevestig.

Hulle lewens in die Appalachiërs was meestal gebaseer op bestaansboerdery en die geld wat hulle nodig gehad het, het hulle óf gekry om hul geeste te verkoop. Of hulle het die middelman heeltemal uitgesny en whisky hul geldeenheid gemaak. Omdat hulle in isolasie geleef het en meestal aangevuur is deur tuisgemaakte whisky en emosionele onstabiliteit, het hulle 'n reputasie gekry as drinkers en bakleiers, wat baie handig sou wees kort nadat hulle in die kolonies aangekom het.

Dit moet lank neem om te vergeet dat u die Engelse haat, want tydens die rewolusie het die afstammelinge van die vroeë immigrante hard op die indringende leër afgekom. Hulle het een van die vroegste oorwinnings van die oorlog geëis en honderde Britse troepe, waaronder 'n generaal, doodgemaak en groot lof van Washington self gewen. Hulle was 'n belangrike mag in 'n oorlog wat vroeg reeds aansienlike magte ontbreek het.

Hulle sou 'n beduidende mag bly in die beginjare van die konstitusionele Verenigde State en op ware Skotse Ierse wyse redelike groot probleme vir die jong regering veroorsaak.


Moonshine and its 'Kin' Now Part of South Carolina Tourism Scene

Suid -Carolina maanskyn is 'n waardevolle tradisie van die berge tot by die see.

Moonshine is nog altyd in Suid-Carolina vervaardig, maar eers in 2009 kan stilte uit die agterplaas kom en in die voorpunt van 'n nuwe en langverwagte nywerheids- en toeriste-aantreklikheid kom. Dit was toe die wetgewers in Suid -Carolina eenparig die mikrodistilleriewet van die staat goedgekeur het, wat 'n nuwe tydperk van distilleerders bekendstel wat gesinsresepte, tradisionele bestanddele en plaaslike geure kombineer om 'n nuwe generasie spiritualieë uit Suid -Carolina te skep.

Teen 2011 het The New York Times berig oor Greenville se Dark Corner Distillery, waarvan die operasie "volgens Reuters was. Die eerste keer dat maanskyn wettig in die staat geproduseer sal word."

Sedert die wet in werking getree het, het bykans twee dosyn klein distilleerbedrywighede regoor die staat tot stand gekom, wat geeste produseer wat hul wortels spoor na mense uit die agtertuin wat vinnige motors met onwettige, plaaslik vervaardigde alkohol langs agterpaaie gery het, alles om kliënte se blus te blus dors.

Tans produseer hierdie distilleerderye 'n verskeidenheid produkte, van bourbon, vodka, gin, rum en ander tradisionele spiritualieë tot 'n moderne weergawe van maanskyn op basis van 'mielies'. Net soos sy neef, handwerkbrouery, groei die distilleerderybedryf van Suid -Carolina namate die plaaslike bevolking en besoekers nuwe maniere ontdek om 'n skemerkelkie te geniet.

Hier is 'n blik op die mikro -distilleerderye van Suid -Carolina en die geeste wat hulle aanbied.


Inhoud

Distillering is heel waarskynlik aan die einde van die 18de eeu na die huidige Kentucky gebring deur Skotte, Skotte-Iere en ander setlaars (insluitend Engels, Iers, Wallies, Duits en Frans) wat ernstig in die gebied begin boer het. Die oorsprong van bourbon as 'n duidelike vorm van whisky is nie goed gedokumenteer nie. Daar is baie teenstrydige legendes en aansprake, sommige meer geloofwaardig as ander.

Byvoorbeeld, die uitvinding van bourbon word dikwels toegeskryf aan Elijah Craig, 'n Baptiste -predikant en distilleerder wat toegeskryf word aan baie Kentucky -eerstes (bv. Vulmeul, papierfabriek, touwandeling), wat na bewering die eerste was wat die produk in verkoolde eikehout verouder het. vate, 'n proses wat bourbon sy bruinerige kleur en kenmerkende smaak gee. [7] In Bourbon County, oorkant die graafskaplyn van Craig se distilleerdery in die destydse Fayette County, word 'n vroeë distilleerder met die naam Jacob Spears die eer toegeskryf dat hy die eerste as sy produk as Bourbon -whisky was.

Alhoewel dit steeds gewild en gereeld herhaal word, is die Craig -legende apokrief. Net so is die Spears -verhaal 'n plaaslike gunsteling, maar word selde buite die land herhaal. Daar was waarskynlik geen enkele 'uitvinder' van bourbon nie, wat in die laat 19de eeu tot sy huidige vorm ontwikkel het. In wese kan enige graansoort gebruik word om whisky te maak, en die gebruik om whisky te verouder en die vate vir 'n beter geur te verkoel, was eeue lank in Europa bekend. [8] Die laat datum van die etimologie van die Bourbon County het daartoe gelei dat die historikus van Louisville, Michael Veach, die egtheid daarvan betwis het. Hy stel voor dat die whisky vernoem is na Bourbonstraat in New Orleans, 'n belangrike hawe waar versendings van Kentucky -whisky goed verkoop is as 'n goedkoper alternatief vir Franse konjak. [1]

'N Ander voorgestelde oorsprong van die naam is die verband met die geografiese gebied, bekend as Ou Bourbon, bestaande uit die oorspronklike Bourbon County in Virginia wat in 1785 georganiseer is. Hierdie streek het 'n groot deel van die huidige oostelike Kentucky ingesluit, waaronder 34 van die moderne graafskappe. [9] Dit bevat die huidige Bourbon County in Kentucky, wat 'n graafskap geword het toe Kentucky in 1792 van Virginia as 'n nuwe staat geskei is. [10] [11] [12]

Toe Amerikaanse pioniers na die Amerikaanse rewolusie wes van die Allegheny -gebergte gestoot het, het die eerste provinsies wat hulle gestig het, groot gebiede beslaan. Een van hierdie oorspronklike, groot graafskappe was Bourbon, wat in 1785 gestig is en vernoem is na die Franse koninklike familie. Terwyl hierdie uitgestrekte land vroeg in die 19de eeu in baie kleiner gebiede ingekerf is, het baie mense die streek steeds gebel Ou Bourbon. Binne geleë Ou Bourbon was die belangrikste hawe aan die Ohio -rivier, Maysville, Kentucky, waaruit whisky en ander produkte gestuur is. 'Ou Bourbon' is op die vate gestensiliseer om die oorsprong daarvan aan te dui. Ou Bourbon whisky was anders omdat dit die eerste mielie -whisky was wat die meeste mense ooit geproe het. Betyds, bourbon het die naam geword vir enige mielie-gebaseerde whisky. [12]

Alhoewel baie distilleerderye histories in Bourbon County bedryf is, was daar geen distilleerderye daar tussen 1919, toe die verbod in Kentucky begin het en laat 2014, toe 'n klein distilleerdery oopgemaak het - 'n tydperk van 95 jaar. [13] [14] Verbod was verwoestend vir die bourbonbedryf. Met die bekragtiging van die 18de wysiging in 1919 was alle distilleerderye genoodsaak om op te hou werk, hoewel 'n paar toestemmings toegestaan ​​is om bestaande voorraad medisinale whisky te bottel. Later is 'n paar toegelaat om hul produksie te hervat toe die voorraad opraak. Onder distilleerderye wat toestemming verleen is om medisinale whisky te produseer of te bottel, is Brown-Forman, Frankfort Distillery, James Thompson en Brothers, American Medical Spirits, die Schenley Distillery (hedendaagse Buffalo Trace Distillery) en die A. Ph. Stitzel Distillery. [15]

'N Verfyning wat dikwels twyfelagtig [16] aan James C. Crow toegeskryf word, is die suurlemoenproses, wat elke nuwe fermentasie met 'n mate van uitgebrande mash toedien. Gebraaide mash staan ​​ook bekend as gebruikte bier, distilleerders se gebruikte graan, stilte en stroop- of voermos, so genoem omdat dit as veevoer gebruik word. Die suur wat by die suurpuree gebruik word, beheer die groei van bakterieë wat die whisky kan beskadig en skep 'n behoorlike pH -balans sodat die gis kan werk.

'N Gelyktydige resolusie wat deur die Amerikaanse kongres in 1964 aangeneem is, verklaar dat bourbon 'n' kenmerkende produk van die Verenigde State 'is en' die toepaslike agentskappe van die Amerikaanse regering 'vra. whiskey aangewys as 'Bourbon Whiskey'. " [17] [18] Federale regulasie definieer nou bourbon -whisky om slegs bourbon wat in die Verenigde State geproduseer word, in te sluit. [19]

In onlangse jare het die bourbon- en Tennessee -whisky, wat soms as 'n ander soort spiritus beskou word, maar oor die algemeen aan die wetlike vereistes voldoen om bourbon genoem te word, 'n aansienlike toename in gewildheid geniet. Die nywerheidsgroep Distilled Spirits Council van die Verenigde State (DISCUS) volg die verkoop van bourbon en Tennessee whisky saam. [3]

Volgens DISCUS het die volume 9-liter-bokse whisky gedurende 2009–2014 met 28,5% toegeneem. [4] Bourbon en whisky aan die hoër kant het die grootste groei beleef. [4] Die bruto inkomste van verskaffers (insluitend federale aksynsbelasting) vir Amerikaanse bourbon- en Tennessee-whisky het met 46,7% toegeneem gedurende die periode 2009–2014, met die grootste groei uit hoogstaande produkte. [4] In 2014 is meer as 19 miljoen gevalle van bourbon en Tennessee-whisky van negeliter in die VSA verkoop, wat byna $ 2,7 miljard aan groothandelinkomste in distilleerdery genereer het. [4] Amerikaanse uitvoer van bourbon -whisky het vir die eerste keer in 2013 $ 1 miljard oorskry, wat die opkoms van 'n "goue era van Kentucky -bourbon" tot gevolg gehad het en verdere groei voorspel het. [3] In 2014 is daar beraam dat die uitvoer van Amerikaanse bourbon -whisky $ 1 miljard oorskry, wat die meerderheid van die VSA se totaal van $ 1,6 miljard in die uitvoer van sterk drank uitmaak. [3] Die belangrikste uitvoermarkte vir Amerikaanse spiritualieë is in dalende volgorde: Kanada, die Verenigde Koninkryk, Duitsland, Australië en Frankryk. [3] Die grootste persentasie stygings in Amerikaanse uitvoer was in dalende volgorde: Brasilië, die Dominikaanse Republiek, Bahamas, Israel en die Verenigde Arabiese Emirate. [3] Belangrike elemente van groei in die markte wat die grootste stygings toon, was wetswysigings, handelsooreenkomste en verlaging van tariewe, sowel as 'n groter verbruikersvraag na sterk drank in die kategorie. [20]

Die wettige definisie van Bourbon wissel ietwat van land tot land, maar baie handelsooreenkomste vereis dat die naam "bourbon" gereserveer moet word vir produkte wat in die Verenigde State gemaak word. Die Amerikaanse regulasies vir etikettering en advertering van bourbon is slegs van toepassing op produkte wat vir verbruik in die Verenigde State gemaak word; dit is nie van toepassing op gedistilleerde spiritualieë wat vir uitvoer gemaak word nie. [21] Volgens die Kanadese wet moet produkte met die bourbon -etiket in die Verenigde State gemaak word en moet voldoen aan die vereistes wat in die Verenigde State geld. Maar in ander lande as die Verenigde State en Kanada, mag produkte wat bourbon gemerk is, nie aan dieselfde standaarde voldoen nie. Byvoorbeeld, in die Europese Unie hoef produkte wat as bourbon gemerk is, nie aan al die regulasies wat in die Verenigde State van toepassing is, te voldoen nie, hoewel dit steeds in die VSA gemaak moet word

Die federale identiteitsstandaarde vir gedistilleerde geeste, gekodifiseer onder 27 CFR §5.22 (b) (1) (i), lui dat bourbon gemaak vir Amerikaanse verbruik [21] moet wees:

  • Geproduseer in die Verenigde State en gebiede (Puerto Rico) en die District of Columbia [22]
  • Gemaak van 'n graanmengsel wat ten minste 51% koring bevat [23]
  • Verouder in nuwe, verkoolde eikehouthouers [23] tot hoogstens 160 (Amerikaanse) bewys (80% alkohol in volume) [23]
  • In die houer gebring vir veroudering teen hoogstens 125 bewys (62,5% alkohol in volume) [23]
  • Gebottel (soos ander whiskys) teen 80 bewys of meer (40% alkohol in volume) [24]

Bourbon het geen minimum gespesifiseerde duur vir sy verouderingstydperk nie. [25] Produkte wat tot drie maande verouder word, word as bourbon verkoop. [26] Die uitsondering is straight bourbon, wat 'n minimum verouderingsvereiste van twee jaar het. Boonop moet 'n bourbon van minder as vier jaar 'n ouderdomsverklaring op die etiket bevat. [27] [28]

Bourbon wat aan bogenoemde vereistes voldoen, is minstens twee jaar verouder en het geen bygevoegde kleurstof, geurmiddels of ander sterk drank nie, maar kan ook nie genoem word nie - reguit bourbon. [29]

  • Bourbon wat gemerk is as reguit wat onder die ouderdom van vier jaar oud is, moet gemerk word met die duur van die veroudering. [30]
  • Bourbon met 'n ouderdom wat op die etiket aangedui word, moet gemerk word met die ouderdom van die jongste whisky in die bottel (nie die ouderdom van enige bygevoegde neutrale korrelspirits in 'n bourbon wat gemerk is as gemeng nie, aangesien neutrale korrels nie in ag geneem word nie whiskey volgens die regulasies en hoef glad nie verouder te word nie). [27]

Bourbon in bottel is 'n subkategorie van reguit bourbon en moet minstens vier jaar oud word.

Bourbon wat gemerk is vermeng (of as 'n meng) kan bygevoeg kleur, geurmiddels en ander sterk drank bevat, soos neutrale korrels, sonder veroudering, maar ten minste 51% van die produk moet reguit bourbon wees. [31] [32]

'Bourogbon' is nie 'n wetlik omskrewe term nie, maar beteken gewoonlik 'n bourbon met 20–35% rog. [33] Bourbonne met hoë koring word beskryf as sagter en gedemp in vergelyking met variëteite met hoë rye. [34]

Bourbon wat minder as drie jaar oud is, kan in die EU nie wettig as whisky (of whisky) genoem word nie. [35]

Geografiese oorsprong Redigeer

Op 4 Mei 1964 het die Amerikaanse kongres bourbon -whisky erken deur 'n gelyktydige besluit. Bourbon kan oral in die Verenigde State geproduseer word, waar dit wettig is om sterk drank te distilleer, maar die meeste handelsmerke word in Kentucky vervaardig, waar bourbon -produksie 'n sterk historiese assosiasie het. [36] Die filtrering van ystervrye water deur die hoë konsentrasies kalksteen wat uniek is vir die gebied, word dikwels deur bourbon-distilleerders in Kentucky aangewys as 'n kenmerkende stap in die proses om bourbon te maak. [37]

Op 2 Augustus 2007 neem die Amerikaanse senaat 'n resolusie aan wat geborg word deur senator Jim Bunning (R-KY) wat amptelik verklaar het dat September 2007 die nasionale Bourbon Heritage Month is, ter herdenking van die geskiedenis van bourbon whisky. [38] Die resolusie beweer veral dat die kongres in sy resolusie van 1964 die bourbon tot "America's Native Spirit" verklaar het. [38] Die resolusie van 1964 bevat egter nie so 'n verklaring nie, dit verklaar dat Bourbon 'n kenmerkende produk is wat met die Verenigde State herken kan word (op 'n soortgelyke manier as wat Scotch as identifiseerbaar met Skotland beskou word). [17] [39] Die resolusie is in 2008 weer aangeneem. [39]

Vanaf 2018 word ongeveer 95% van alle bourbon in Kentucky vervaardig, volgens die Kentucky Distillers 'Association. Sedert 2018 was daar 68 whiskydistilleerderye in Kentucky, dit was die afgelope tien jaar 250 % hoër. [40] Destyds het die staat meer as 8,1 miljoen vate bourbon gehad wat verouder het - 'n getal wat die bevolking van die staat ongeveer 4,3 miljoen oorskry. [41] [3] [42] [43]

Bardstown, Kentucky, huisves die jaarlikse Bourbon -fees wat elke September gehou word. Dit is deur die Bardstown Tourism Commission [44] en die organiseerders van Kentucky Bourbon Festival [45] die 'Bourbon Capital of the World' genoem wat die frase as 'n handelsmerk geregistreer het. The Kentucky Bourbon Trail is die naam van 'n toerismebevorderingsprogram wat deur die Kentucky Distillers 'Association georganiseer word wat daarop gemik is om besoekers na die distilleerderye in Kentucky te lok, veral Four Roses (Lawrenceburg), Heaven Hill (Bardstown), Jim Beam (Clermont), Maker's Mark (Loretto), Town Branch (Lexington), Wild Turkey (Lawrenceburg) en Woodford Reserve (Versailles). [46]

Tennessee is die tuiste van ander groot bourbon -vervaardigers, hoewel die meeste verkies om hul produk eerder "Tennessee whisky" te noem, waaronder die reus Jack Daniel's. Dit word wettig omskryf in Tennessee House Bill 1084, die Noord -Amerikaanse vryhandelsooreenkoms (NAFTA) en ten minste een ander internasionale handelsooreenkoms as die erkende naam vir 'n reguit bourbon -whisky wat in Tennessee vervaardig word. [47] [48] Dit is ook nodig om te voldoen aan die wetlike definisie van bourbon onder Kanadese wetgewing. [49]

Alhoewel sommige whiskyvervaardigers in Tennessee beweer dat 'n vooraf verouderde filtrasie deur stukke esdoornskool, bekend as die Lincoln County-proses en sedert 2013 wettig gemagtig is, [A] die smaak daarvan onderskei van bourbon, vereis die Amerikaanse regulasies wat bourbon definieer dit nie die gebruik daarvan nie of verbied dit. . [25] [47] [52] [53]

Bourbon was en word ook in ander Amerikaanse state gemaak. [54] [55] [56] Die grootste bourbon -distilleerder buite Kentucky en Tennessee is MGP van Indiana, wat sy sterk drankprodukte hoofsaaklik verkoop aan bottelmaatskappye wat dit onder ongeveer 50 verskillende handelsname verkoop - in sommige gevalle misleidend bemark as " vervaardig "whisky, ondanks die vervaardiging daarvan in 'n groot groothandelaar se fabriek. [57] [58]

Om wettiglik as bourbon verkoop te word, benodig die miskasrekening van die whisky 'n minimum van 51% mielies, terwyl die res graan is. [2] 'n Voorgestelde verandering aan Amerikaanse regulasies sal toelaatbare "korrels" uitbrei om sade van pseudocereals amarant, bokwiet en quinoa in te sluit. [59] 'n Mash -rekening wat koring in plaas van rog bevat, produseer 'n koring -bourbon. [60] [61] Die graan word gemaal en met water gemeng. Gewoonlik word mash van 'n vorige distillasie bygevoeg om konsekwentheid tussen groepe te verseker, wat 'n suurlemoen vorm. Laastens word gis bygevoeg en die mash word gegis. Dit word gedistilleer tot (tipies) tussen 65% en 80% alkohol met behulp van óf 'n tradisionele alembic (of pot still) óf die veel goedkoper deurlopende stiller. Die meeste moderne bourbonne word aanvanklik met 'n kolom stilgemaak en dan herdistilleer in 'n 'verdubbelaar' (alternatiewelik bekend as '' 'n '' of 'terug'), wat eintlik 'n potstok is. [62]

Die gevolglike helder gees, 'wit hond' genoem, word in nuwe eikehouthouers gebak vir veroudering. In die praktyk is hierdie houers oor die algemeen vate gemaak van Amerikaanse wit eikehout. Die gees kry sy kleur en 'n groot deel van die geur van die gekarameliseerde suikers en vanilliene in die verkoolde hout. Die reguit bourbon moet ten minste twee jaar oud wees, en die gemengde bourbon moet ten minste 51% reguit bourbon bevat op 'n bewys -gallon -basis (dit wil sê, die meeste alkohol in die mengsel moet van reguit bourbon wees). [63] Die res van die geeste in 'n gemengde bourbon kan neutrale graanspiritus wees wat glad nie verouder word nie. As 'n produk slegs as bourbon -whisky geëtiketteer word as reguit of gemeng, word geen spesifieke minimum verouderingstydperk voorgeskryf nie - slegs dat die produk "gestoor word met nie meer as 62,5% alkohol in volume (125 bewys) in verkoolde nuwe eikehouthouers" . [63] Bourbone kry meer kleur en geur, hoe langer hulle in hout verouder. Veranderinge in die gees vind ook plaas as gevolg van verdamping en chemiese prosesse soos oksidasie. Bourbonne met 'n laer prys word gewoonlik relatief kort verouder. Selfs vir bourbons met 'n hoër prys, is 'volwassenheid' eerder as 'n spesifieke ouderdomsduur dikwels die doelwit, aangesien bourbons wat verouder word die geur van die bourbon negatief kan beïnvloed (dit kan 'n houtagtige, bitter of ongebalanseerde smaak hê).

Na rypwording word bourbon uit die vat onttrek en word dit tipies gefiltreer en met water verdun. Dit word dan gebottel teen nie minder nie as 80 Amerikaanse bewys (40% abv). [24] Alhoewel die meeste bourbon -whisky teen 80 Amerikaanse bewys verkoop word, is ander algemene bewyse 86, 90 en 100. Alle bourbon met 'bottled in bond' is 100 bewys. Sommige bottels met 'n hoër bewys word as 'vatbestand' bemark, wat beteken dat hulle nie verdun is nie of slegs liggies verdun is nadat hulle uit die vate verwyder is. Bourbon -whisky mag teen minder as 80 bewys verkoop word, maar moet as 'verdunde bourbon' gemerk word.

Na verwerking bly die vate versadig met tot 38 liter bourbon, alhoewel 2-11 liter (8-11 liter) die norm is. [64] Hulle mag nie hergebruik word vir bourbon nie, en die meeste word verkoop aan distilleerderye in Kanada, Skotland, Ierland, Mexiko en die Karibiese Eilande vir veroudering van ander geeste. Sommige werk by die vervaardiging van verskillende produkte wat op vate verouder is, waaronder amateur- en professioneel gebroude bourbonvat-verouderde bier, braaisous, wyn, warm sous en ander. Sedert 2011 het Jim Beam op groot skaal vat gespoel om bourbon uit die gebruikte vate te onttrek, en die uittreksel te meng met 'n 6-jarige Beam bourbon om 'n 90-bewys produk te skep wat dit as "Devil's Cut" verkoop. [65]

Die bottelproses vir bourbon is die proses om te filtreer, reguit whisky uit verskillende vate (soms uit verskillende distilleerderye) saam te meng, met water te verdun, met ander bestanddele te meng (indien gemengde bourbon vervaardig word) en houers te vul om die finale produk te kry aan verbruikers bemark. Op sigself beteken die frase "gebottel deur" slegs dit. Slegs as die bottelaar die distilleerdery bedryf wat die whisky vervaardig het, kan dit by die etiket "gedistilleer deur" gevoeg word. [66]

Etiketteringsvereistes vir bourbon en ander alkoholiese drank (insluitend die vereistes vir wat onder Amerikaanse wetgewing bourbon genoem mag word) word gedefinieer in die Amerikaanse kode van federale regulasies. [67] Geen whiskey wat buite die Verenigde State gemaak word, mag as bourbon in die Verenigde State gemerk word as bourbon nie (en in verskillende ander lande wat handelsooreenkomste met die Verenigde State aangegaan het om bourbon as 'n kenmerkende produk van die Verenigde State te erken).

'N Eksperiment uit 2016 deur die Louisville -vaartuigdistilleerder Jefferson's Bourbon dui daarop dat Kentucky -bourbon in die era voordat whisky gereeld by die distilleerdery gebottel is, 'n uitstekende smaak ontwikkel het omdat dit in vate gestuur is, met watertransport waar dit ook al prakties was. Om hierdie teorie te toets, het Jefferson se medestigter, Trey Zoeller, twee vate van die onderneming se handtekeningproduk via 'n boot na New York gestuur, eers langs die Ohio- en Mississippirivier en dan langs die Intracoastal Waterway. As kontrole het hy 'n bondel dieselfde whisky gebring wat gedurende dieselfde tydperk in Louisville gebly het. Volgens Gewilde meganika skrywer Jacqueline Detwiler, wat die toets gedokumenteer het, die monster wat die reis op die water gemaak het "was volwasse bo sy ouderdom, ryker, met nuwe geure tabak, vanielje, karamel en heuning. Dit was van die beste bourbon wat ons nog ooit gehad het dronk. " Die teorie is dat die werking van die whisky saggies in vate gedurende 'n periode van 2 tot 4 weke tydens die bootrit gelei het tot 'n dramatiese verbetering in gladheid en smaak. Chemiese ontleding van die twee monsters het beduidende verskille in molekulêre profiele aan die lig gebring, met die monster wat deur water vervoer is, 'n groter verskeidenheid aromatiese verbindings het. [68]

Bourbon word op verskillende maniere bedien, insluitend netjies, verdun met water, oor ys ("op die rotse"), met cola of ander drankies in eenvoudige mengeldrankies en in cocktails, waaronder Manhattan, Bourbon Smash, the Old Fashioned , die whiskysuur, en die kruisementpeper. Bourbon word ook in kookkuns gebruik en is histories vir medisinale doeleindes gebruik. [2]

Bourbon kan gebruik word in 'n verskeidenheid lekkernye, soos 'n piesangbourbonstroop vir wafels, as 'n geurmiddel vir sjokoladekoek, of in vrugte-nageregte soos gegrilde perskebroodjies bedien met gesoute bourbon-karamel of bruinsuikerkoek met warm bourbon-perskes. Dit is 'n opsionele bestanddeel in verskeie tertresepte wat tradisioneel in die Amerikaanse kombuis is, insluitend pampoentert, waar dit gekombineer kan word met bruinsuiker en pekanneute om 'n soet en knapperige bolaag te maak vir die romerige pampoentertvulsel. [69] Dit kan ook gebruik word as 'n geurmiddel in souse vir hartige geregte, soos gebraaide koeke met plattelandse ham bedien met bourbon -mayonnaise, bourbon -chili uit Kentucky of gebraaide steak. [70]


Distillering van meer as 200 jaar tradisie in Tennessee

Water en korrels is die belangrikste komponente van die bereiding van goeie whisky. Ons stigters het hulle hier gevestig vir beide die waterbron en die grond om 'n meule te bou om korrels te maal, wat die grondslag gelê het vir die vervaardiging van Old Forge -geeste vandag. Ons gaan voort met die erfenis deur ons eie korrels van hoë kwaliteit te maal waar dit vroeër was, en kombineer outydse metodes van die setlaars met die hedendaagse kennis van ons Head Distiller.

(rolprente om te vergroot)

1700's

Vroeë Europese bewoners van die Great Smoky Mountains het hul koperstille oorgebring. Baie was van Skotsk-Ierse afkoms-geharde setlaars met 'n lang distilleerdery.

Gouverneur William Blount het 'n stuk grond van 151 hektaar aan Mordecai Lewis toegestaan. Die gebied is ryk aan natuurlike hulpbronne en geleë langs die oewer van die Little Pigeon River, en was ideaal vir die bou van die smee en die meule.

Ystervervaardiging was een van die eerste ware nywerhede in Tennessee. Die ystersmid is deur Isaac Love gebou.

William Love, die seun van Isaac Love, het die Ou Meule gebou. Gelys in die National Register of Historic Places, is dit voortdurend besig om mielies, koring, rog en bokwiet te maal.

'N 100 jaar oue gebou, net 'n paar meter van die ou meul af, waar die Head Miller sakke kwaliteit klipgemaalde korrels maal, vul en vasbind. Dit was eens 'n plaasvoorraadwinkel en is nou die tuiste van die Old Forge -distilleerdery.

In 2014 het Old Forge Distillery sy deure oopgemaak met sy eie reeks maanskyn wat gedistilleer is met varsgemaalde graan uit The Old Mill. Old Forge voeg vandag steeds nuwe geesaanbiedings by, soos die bekroonde Rum, Vodka, Tennessee Roots, Distiller's Select, Cream en Single-Barrel Aged Bourbon.


Whiskey + Moonshine History Walking Tour

Ek was mal oor die geskiedeniskant van die Gatlinburg Moonshine en die whiskykultuur. Hierdie selfgeleide neem u op 'n historiese reis deur die geesgeskiedenis van Tennessee. Van daar af besoek u 3 distilleerderye wat deel uitmaak van die Tennessee Whiskey Trail. Ek sal u vertel hoe u op 'n toer agter die skerms by 'n werklike stil huis kan gaan, en u sal sien hoe alles begin word.

You’ll learn all about the time before, during, and after Prohibition, the state’s history with whiskey, and why those Smoky Mountains were such an integral part of Gatlinburg Moonshine culture.

Going at your own pace, you’ll see first hand what present-day distilling looks like and get to see a real working distillery! I’ll cover stories of famous moonshiners and get to see what the history and traditions of Tennessee Whiskey look like today. You’ll spend time at some of my favorite moonshineries where you will get a taste of the mountains with some world’s finest whiskey and the nation’s most sought-after moonshine.

Law enforcement officers stand beside a captured moonshine still. Photo via NPS archives.

Moonshine v. Whiskey

In these parts, you’re going to hear the terms whiskey and moonshine tossed around interchangeably so were going to start by hopefully clearing up any confusion.

Moonshine, historically, is any untaxed liquor. So, we get together and make wine in my basement, we’re good. We make beer, we’re good! The moment we take that wine or beer and distill it, it becomes moonshine. Now when you go into some of these distilleries, they are going to be selling “moonshine” but I promise you they are paying their taxes! Nowadays, moonshine is an unaged, white corn whiskey.

Whiskey, in Tennessee, is moonshine once it hits the barrel for aging – be that five minutes, five months, or five years. Once it hits the barrel, its considered whiskey. But depending on who you ask, they might call a clear unaged spirit, whiskey. Hoekom? Well… Historians also generally state that whiskey in the United States was largely unaged. It wasn’t until trade routes and shipping grew that whiskey was aged and accidentally so! Legend has it that the unaged (clear) whiskey was put into barrels and sent down the Mississippi en route for Nola. The barrels were branded “Bourbon” for the port off of Bourbon Street they were being sent to.

There are some other specifications when you go a little deeper into the barrel – like the Lincoln County Process or the difference between Bourbon and Irish Whiskey, but that is for another tour and another day!

Starting Point: Ogle Cabin (Across the street from Landshark Bar and Grill)

The historic Ogle Cabin is our starting point for our Gatlinburg Moonshine tour mainly because it gives you a good visual of what people’s lives in the 1800s looked. The cabin is the first home built in what we know now as Gatlinburg. But it isn’t in its original location. The cabin has been moved around a few times before finally settling into its now final location.

William Ogle lived in South Carolina with his wife Martha and their children. He traveled to the Smokies, which he called “Land of Paradise” for its majestic views and wildlife, and started to build a cabin with the intent of moving his family. When he want back to South Carolina, an epidemic of Malaria broke out and William died in 1803 of a fever. As a woman and a widow, 47-year-old Martha packed up her five sons and two daughters to finish her husbands dream of living in the Great Smoky Mountains. I think we can all agree that Martha is kind of a badass! The cabin is open for visitors seasonally, Monday through Saturday 10 am – 5 pm and is furnished with period pieces, some of which are original to the Ogles.

In Martha Ogle’s time and neck of the woods in Gatlinburg moonshine and whiskey were made at home. It was made in small batches and for internal family use either medicinally or recreationally. Back then, if you didn’t have it you most likely had to make it. Whiskey was no exception.

First Distillery: Doc Collier Moonshine, 519 Parkway, Gatlinburg, TN

At Doc Collier’s you’ll want to ask one of the employees for a Tennessee Whiskey Trail Passport. All the distilleries you visit on this tour are stops on the Whiskey Trail, so grab your passport and don’t forget to get yours stamped! Are you ready to start your Gatlinburg Moonshine adventure?

Doc Collier was a real man. He was born in 1878 and lived on English Mountain, about an hour and a half from where the distillery is today. Doc got his nickname because he made his living selling moonshine to friends and neighbors for medicinal purposes. And even though that was the respectable way to use moonshine and whiskey, he wasn’t one to discriminate – if you wanted to party and were willing to pay, he was willing to sell. He is rumored to have been a moonshiner before it was a thing and known for having one of the best liquors in the mountains. What made him, and makes the distillery, different is their use of English Mountain spring water. Doc’s moonshine from his days and the bottles you can buy today all start from the same mountain spring water source which his family still owns the water rights to!

Doc’s is a boutique distillery so they don’t ship which means the only place you can buy Doc Collier products is in Gatlinburg! So go ahead, buy a sample round and take notes in your passport. Trust me, by the end of this they will all sound the same and you be asking yourself “What was the one I liked at the place in that bottle?”

Alright, so we’ve got some Gatlinburg moonshine and whiskey in y’all. Which means, right around this time you are asking yourself if moonshiners and rum runners were all Bonnie and Clyde like. You’re thinking about all those Dukes of Hazzard reruns you’ve watched. You’re thinking about police shoot outs and out running the cops. So, why don’t we walk across the street?

To The General, General Lee that is!Cooter’s Place, 542 Parkway, Gatlinburg, TN

If we’re going to talk about pop culture, whiskey, and Gatlinburg moonshine we might as well do it within earshot of The General! At Cooter’s Place, you will find one Dukes of Hazzard Museum (which is free!) filled with memorabilia from the show.

Moonshine money and moonshining were pretty civil. If you got caught, you did your time and kept on keeping on. The sheriff realized that you (the moonshiner) were just trying to feed your family by making shine, and you understood he was just doing his job to do the same thing. It wasn’t until the prohibition that you see the shoot outs and danger factor come into play because that is when men like Al Capone got into the shine business.

Al Capone. Publieke domein foto

Rumor has it that he hid his moonshine in the Smoky Mountains… and while a lot of things in Moonshine culture are often exaggerated this one doesn’t seem so farfetched! Tennessee has long been a leader in producing distilled spirits. When the Irish and Scottish settled the area they brought with them the tradition of spirit making. In fact, Cocke County (which is the next country over from Sevier County) was known as the moonshine capital of the world. During the prohibition, no matter what part of the country you were in there was a really good chance that what you were drinking came from Cocke County – one county in Tennessee was supplying about 80% of the country’s illegal booze. From NYC to Chicago to LA, Cocke County spirits were being shipped all over the country. The best moonshiners and whiskey makers were in Tennessee so it would make sense, from a business and quality stand point, that Capone would seek out moonshiners in the state to supply his growing demand for illegal spirits.

Photo of RyeMabee by Skye Marthaler, All CC

Al Capone was a frequent visitor to RyeMabee in Monteagle, Tennessee (near Chattanooga) when he was traveling between his home in Chicago and his Florida estate in Miami. It is said that the house was owned by his favorite mistress too! Add into the mix that the railroad in Johnson City was only a hop and a skip away for easy shipping and it really isn’t as farfetched.

Next stop, the Gazebo on River Road by the Ripley’s Aquarium of the Smokies

I briefly touched on the Irish and Scottish immigrants that made a home in the Smokies but we didn’t really get into how that translated into whiskey making. Soft water is vital in making any spirit and if you look around you’ll see that Tennessee has creeks, rivers, and brooks all over the state. Geographically, the state has the perfect climate and humidity for whiskey making so it was easy for the families that settled the area to bring their love of whiskey and whiskey making with them when the settled in these mountains.

Any time you have an illegal activity, I think it is pretty safe to say that the police tend to be a few steps behind. Moonshiners in these mountains learned how to find good water sources by looking at the plants that grew near the banks. They came up with ways to let each other know if cops were headed your way and even if you weren’t the one making it, in some way, you were a part of moonshine culture. For the most part, whiskey making was a way of making ends meet. It created cash flow in cash-poor societies that depended heavily on bartering at the local general store.

Mountain Mall, Site of the Ogle’s General Store611 Parkway, Gatlinburg

The Ogle family was one of the first to settle in the backwoods community of White Oak Flats (now Gatlinburg), Tennessee in the early years of the nineteenth century. The Ogles were, and still are, a prominent force in all phases of local life. Back then most of them were farmers and they were active in the politics, education, economics, and religion of Sevier County. Noah W. “Bud” Ogle was descendent of Martha Ogle and lived from 1863 to 1913. He was the town’s first merchant and established the Ogle General Store where the Mountain Mall sits today.

Noah Ogle’s house and outbuildings are still standing today. They reflect the way of life in this vicinity around the turn of this century, almost a hundred years after Martha came with her children. You can see Noah’s cabin by driving along the Roaring Fork Motor Trail – something both Tim and I did often while we lived in the Smokies!

Second Distillery Ole Smoky Barrelhouse, 650 Parkway, Gatlinburg

The Jack Daniel Distillery reopened soon after law allowed in 1940 and George Dickel followed suit in the 1950s. The two were the only legal distilleries in the state and together began rebuilding the legal distilled spirits industry. It would take Tennessee almost 60 years before any real change was made even though in the mid-1990s a craft distillery opened but this is where progress stalled.

In 2009, Tennessee began reforming its prohibition-era laws. Inspired by the craft beer movement that was rewriting growler laws in states like Florida and brewing regulations across the country, a group of individuals saw the potential for tourism. Together, they worked to eliminate many of the legal barriers distilleries faced. One of the first distilleries to pop was Ole Smoky. They were able to dive into the industry head first, getting a head start which is why you can find them in every state and a number of countries today.

Ole Smoky has 3 locations in Sevier County, 2 in Gatlinburg (The Barrel House and The Holler) and a location on The Island in Pigeon Forge. The Barrel House is where you will find mostly their whiskeys. They do sample and carry a few shines but they won’t have their full shine product line up. For that, you can go up the road to the Holler, but more on that later!
Out front of the Barrelhouse location, you’ll see how the distillation process works and depending on when you visit they might have it running! You’ll notice, too, when you walk up to the distillery that there is a smell of freshly baked bread in the air. That, ladies and gentlemen, is the mash! The money maker! The start of a beautiful thing.

Mash is at its simplest terms, a really basic beer made of sugar, corn, yeast, and water. The easiest way to think about the science behind fermentation is based all on Mrs. Pac Man. Think of the yeast as Mrs. Pac Man, they eat the sugar which fuels them and as a by-product (or as a 12-year-old said on my tour once “they fart out”) you get the alcohol and carbonation. I promise you will never forget this. And someday when you win Jeopardy to Cash Cab, I don’t expect a share of the winnings, just a shout out. Once the Mrs. Pac Man process has had 5-8 days to do its thing, you have a super simple beer. That brewer’s beer as it is called is the distilled down to make liquor. Since alcohol evaporates at a lower temperate than water, you are quite literally pulling the alcohol out. That’s how you can take something that is 8-10% AVC and turn it into a 180 proof moonshine!

Over recent years, the number of Tennessee distilleries has grown from the original two to the now thirty distilleries Tennessee host’s across the state. These distilleries range from Doc Collier-like small, boutique-style operations making traditional and small-batch spirits to well-known distilleries like Daniel and Dickel that have been making legendary Tennessee Whiskey for as long as the state has allowed.

Gatlinburg Inn, the birthplace of “Rocky Top� Parkway, Gatlinburg

Of all the hotels you’ll walk by in Gatlinburg, The Historic Gatlinburg Inn has one of the richest and most intriguing histories. The hotel was built in 1937 as the Great Smoky Mountains National Park was being created and was the home to many firsts – the chamber of commerce, the local newspaper, the town’s first bank, its first dentist, and the offices of the City of Gatlinburg.

The hotel boasts a long list of interesting visitors. If you’ve ever wondered what Liberace to Lady Bird Johnson have in common, well, it’s the Gatlinburg Inn! Other famous guests include J.C. Penney, Dinah Shore, and Tennessee Ernie Ford.

The Gatlinburg Inn appeared in the movie, “A Walk in the Spring Rain,” starring Ingrid Bergman and Anthony Quinn. But its strongest connection to pop culture is by way of Hall of Fame songwriters Boudleaux and Felice Bryant, whose catalog includes more than 1,500 published songs, among those the famous “Rocky Top,” which was written in Room 388. And if you think that this is just another random trivia stop on the tour, think again and give the lyrics a listen. There is more than one reference to moonshine in the song!

Third Distillery: Sugarlands Distilling Company, 805 Parkway, Gatlinburg

Of all the distilleries, off all the Gatlinburg moonshine there is one that is my favorite. Each one of the stops on the Tennessee Whiskey Trail will have a different feel. But to me, Sugarlands Distilling is the best. If you plan on visiting I HIGHLY suggest you reserve a still house tour (you can do that here) so you can go behind the scenes. You’ll get to see, first hand, what modern distilling looks like and how the team at Sugarlands are keeping moonshine history alive! If you’re lucky enough to have Connie or Kevin as your guide, you’ll come out ready to start making your own moonshine. Both of them are incredibly knowledgeable and of the hundreds of guests that I brought in with my Airbnb experience, I don’t think there was ever a question they couldn’t answer!

I love Sugarlands’ commitment to keeping true to their Gatlinburg moonshine roots. They follow 2 traditional heritage recipes that date back to prime moonshine days and are from Cocke County. One is even rumored to be the same recipe George Washington used at Mount Vernon… I won’t give away too many of their secrets because the tour is totally worth it, so how about some recommendations?

If you can get your hands on a bottle, Roaming Man. All. Dag. Lank. Butter Pecan Sippin’ Cream is where it is at! I know its an old lady flavor but hear me out. It is delicious. And when it comes to buying a gift for someone back home you can never go wrong with their Appalachian Apple Pie! Unlike other apple pie shines that use red apple and allspice, Sugarlands throws you a delicious curve ball of green apples and caramel. Pay attention when you’re doing your tasting, this one does a magic trick!

Now, don’t forget to check out the back patio and their cocktail bar. Believe them when they say they have the best Bloody Mary in town! But if vegetables in your cup aren’t your style you can always go with the Purple Rain (Tim’s favorite), a Cheershine (my favorite!), or the Hot Toddy on colder evenings. We love the patio so much that we usually entertain with recipes inspired by the Whiskey Trail.

You never know who you might run into on that back patio either! If you’ve watched the Moonshiners show on Discovery Chanel, there might be a familiar face from time to time.

Optional Distillery StopOle Smoky Holler, 903 Parkway Suite 128, Gatlinburg

Generally, our Gatlinburg Moonshine tours ended at Sugarlands because I saved the best for last. But if you are looking to feel saucy, head on up the road a little to Ole Smoky’s second Gatlinburg location. Here you will find all of their moonshines and they usually have live music!

Gatlinburg Walking Tour Map

I’ve marked all the stops, interesting points for tidbits of history, and cool things to see so that they correspond with this post. Just click it and follow along, and shine on!

If you are up to visiting some other distilleries while you are in town, here are some others in East Tennessee worth checking out!


Moonshine Facts

1. There Are No Rules When Making Moonshine

Spirits like Scotch Whisky, Irish whiskey, Gin, and Saki have certain rules which dictate the ingredients, equipment, and processes that must be used to create them.

Scotch Whisky, for example, must be made in Scotland, distilled twice, matured in oak casks for 3 years or more, made from water and malted barley (with other whole grains), and have a minimum alcoholic strength of 40% ABV. The Scotts are so strict on these rules that they have legislated them.

When it comes to moonshine, anything goes. You can use a mash made from corn, malted barley, rye, wheat or any other grain that can provide soluble sugar. It doesn’t need to be aged in oak or any specific wood. In fact, it doesn’t need to be aged at all.

There is no strict rules in terms of the ABV of the finished product and many other ingredients can be added, like fruit, herbs, and spices.

This level of freedom is what attracts many distillers to moonshine. They can experiment with their moonshine and concoct delicious spirits with interesting flavors.

2. The Term “Moonshine” Refers To Illegal Activities

“Moonshine” is a slang term that describes any illicit activity that occurs at night (under the light of the moon). These types of activities would be performed at night to avoid detection by law enforcement. Because most illegal stills also operated at night, the spirits they produced were eventually nicknamed moonshine.

Contrary to popular belief, the term wasn’t coined in the United States. It was first used in Britain, where the first moonshiners operated their stills under the cover of darkness. These distillers produced whiskey, gin, and other kinds of spirits illicitly to avoid taxation by the British government (more on British moonshining later on).

3. There Are Dozens Of Slang Words To Describe Moonshine

Moonshine has its own vocabulary with dozens of unique terms being used to describe the finished product and the tools used to make it.

Some of the many English words used to describe moonshine include Hooch, White Lightning, White liquor, Mountain Dew, Choop, Homebrew, Shiney, Hooch, White Whiskey, Stump Whiskey, and Mash Liquor.

There are different names for moonshine overseas. In Poland they call it Palinka, in Armenia it is Oghi, in Bulgaria it is Rakia, in Cuba it is Gualfara, in Columbia it is Chirrinchi, while in Argentina it is Chicha. Check out this extensive list to learn all of the names of moonshine in foreign countries if you are interested.

Even the processes, equipment, and outcomes associated with the moonshine making process have unique names. Here are a few of the most interesting terms:

  • Backins is the weak whiskey that is created at the end of a double run.
  • Puke is the boiling over of a hot still
  • Granny Fees are bribes paid to law enforcement
  • Blackport is a mash which ferments directly in the still instead of a tub
  • A Runner is a person who moves moonshine while evading the law (also called bootleggers) to give the moonshine a second distillation during a single run

4. A Basic Moonshine Only Needs Four Ingredients

Moonshine can be a complex spirit involving all kinds of ingredients. However, in its simplest form, it will be made with cornmeal, sugar, water, and yeast. The simplicity of moonshine is one of the reasons why it was a popular choice amongst backwoods distillers.

5. Moonshine Had A Bad Reputation For Causing Health Problems

As you might have expected, many of the prohibition moonshiners weren’t concerned about product safety standards. They would use dirty equipment and often wouldn’t check the quality of their product before selling it.

Some prohibition moonshiners would even use old car radiators as condensers when creating their white lightning, simply because nothing else was available. Unfortunately, radiators would often contain rust, lead, and other dangerous chemicals. This could contaminate batches of moonshine, causing lead poisoning and other illnesses.

Unscrupulous moonshiners would add methanol to their product to give it a stronger kick and to improve its flavor. While this sometimes made for a sweeter hooch, it could also make a drink toxic. Methanol consumption can cause systemic acidosis, central nervous system problems, and in some cases, blindness.

Modern moonshines aren’t made using radiators or methanol, so are perfectly safe to consume (as always, in moderation).

6. The First Moonshiners Were British

Although most people associate moonshine with the backwoods distillers in the Appalachians, it is actually a British invention. The first moonshiners began operating in Britain in the late 15 th century.

They initially began distilling spirits illegally to avoid new excise taxes. Although they were moonshiners, they didn’t use the term to describe the spirits they were making until the 18 th Century.

7. Making Moonshine Is A Remarkably Simple Process

When the average person looks at a still, they might think it resembles a mad scientist’s laboratory. Despite this, the science behind creating moonshine is very straightforward.

  1. Corn is ground into a meal (other grains can also be used)
  2. The cornmeal is soaked in hot water to extract sugars. Sugar can also be added.
  3. Yeast is added and the fermentation process starts
  4. After some time, the fermented solution (called a mash) is placed in the still and heated to about 172 degrees Fahrenheit (78 C)
  5. As it heats, the alcohol vapors rise to the top of the still and are captured by the swan neck (a copper tube).
  6. The vapors then go into a condenser coil, where they cool and turn back into alcohol.

The distillation process is usually run several times to create a stronger, smoother spirit. A device called a thumper keg can also be used. It sits between the boiler and the condenser. It is used to distill the alcohol vapors from the boiler a second time before they are condensed.

8. The Earliest American Moonshine Was Not Always Made From Corn

The original Appalachian moonshiners would use cornmeal to make moonshine, simply because it was readily available. However, the earliest moonshiners would use rye or barley as they were usually growing those crops. Today, virtually all moonshine producers will use cornmeal.

9. Moonshine Is Gradually Being Legalized

For many years, it has been illegal to use a still to produce alcohol for consumption. However, that is gradually changing, at the state level at least.

Many states now offer licenses to ‘craft distillers’ which let individuals make a small amount of moonshine for private consumption. However, most states do require moonshiners to also obtain a commercial distiller’s permit or a fuel alcohol permit from the federal government. It’s worth noting that these licenses do not allow for the commercial sale of moonshine.

Some states do allow commercial moonshine distilleries, like North Carolina, where the first legal moonshine distillery opened its doors in 2005 (Piedmont Distillers).

After the financial crisis of 2009, other states relaxed laws on commercial moonshine production in an effort to stimulate their economies. So you can now operate a commercial moonshine distillery in Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

It’s now relatively easy to track down a bottle of moonshine in a liquor store and sample this delicious spirit.

10. Moonshine Has Experienced A Rapid Growth In Popularity

For several decades after prohibition ended, moonshine had a bad reputation due to the substandard and sometimes dangerous beverages that were being produced. After all, no one wanted to risk going blind by ingesting a few glasses of White Lightning spiked with methanol.

However, it has seen a resurgence in popularity in recent years, largely thanks to the legalization of commercial moonshine production in several states. Consumers now know that the product is now safe and are interested in trying moonshine.

11. American Moonshiners Went To War To Avoid Taxation

In the early days of American colonization, there were very few rules about the production and consumption of alcohol. Industrious farmers and entrepreneurs would use stills to turn their corn, rye, and barley crops into beer or spirits. They would drink what they created, give it away to friends or family, or sell it locally.

That all changed in 1791 when President George Washington’s newly established congress imposed a liquor tax to help pay war debts. As you might imagine, distillers weren’t too happy about it and many of them established moonshine distilleries in secluded locations (America’s first moonshine operations).

The distillers and their supporters had several run-ins with tax collectors, particularly in Western Pennsylvanian counties. These conflicts escalated and eventually led to the Whiskey Rebellion (1791 – 1794).

The government eventually beat the rebels back with a large militia. However, the suppression of the rebellion was very unpopular and damaged the Federalist Party. This led to the whisky tax being repealed in 1803.

12. The American Civil War Created More Moonshiners

Everyone knows that going to war is an expensive business. So, when the federal government began to fight the civil war, they immediately turned to distillers and demanded that they pay another whiskey tax.

This time, the tax was extremely high — in some cases eight times higher than the cost of the actual whiskey. This prompted many distillers to hide in the backwoods and produce spirits illicitly.

13. Prohibition Helped Moonshiners Turn a Profit

The next major change for moonshiners was the introduction of prohibition in 1920. It banned the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages across the United States.

Before prohibition, many backwoods moonshiners would make liquor for the fun of it. It was a hobby or a part-time business. After prohibition, the moonshine they produced was worth a lot more money. Many moonshiners became full-time bootleggers, selling their hooch for substantial profits. It was how they made a living and fed their families.

It was just as well, because this period was very difficult, economically. By 1929, the nation was in a full-blown great depression. By the end of 1933, both the Great Depression and Prohibition had ended. Most drinkers turned away from illicitly produced moonshine and switched to drinks like gin and Scotch whiskey.

14. Moonshine Is Clear Because They Don’t Mature It

Spirits like Scotch whisky and Bourbon whiskey have a distinctive brown color. This comes from the time that the spirit spends maturing in charred oak casks. These spirits also take on aromas and flavors from the wood as they mature. Because moonshine isn’t aged in a cask it remains crystal clear.

15. Distillers Used XXX To Label Moonshine

Have you ever seen an old cartoon or caricature with a jug of booze inscribed with XXX? It turns out that moonshiners used to draw X’s on their bottles to show how many times it had been distilled. A single X meant that the spirit had been distilled one, two X’s indicated it has been distilled twice, and so on. Seeing XXX or XXXX on a bottle of moonshine meant it had been concentrated a few times and was probably quite strong.

16. Mountain Dew Soda Was Developed To Be A Moonshine Mixer

Eagle-eyed readers may have noticed earlier that one of the slang terms for moonshine mentioned earlier was ‘Mountain Dew’. You may have wondered if there is some kind of link between moonshine and the popular soda.

It turns out there is. The original Mountain Dew soda was developed to be a mixer for moonshine and other spirits. In fact, the original mascot was named Willy The Hillbilly, in a clear reference to the intended use of the drink.

17. There Is A Connection Between Bootlegging And NASCAR

Bootleggers were the men and women who smuggled moonshine from the distillery to another location. It was dangerous work as you could be pulled over by the police or robbed by criminals at any moment. The term ‘bootleggers’ comes from the fact that hooch smugglers used to hide flasks in their boots.

After WWII, some of the soldiers returning home from war would ended up becoming bootleggers. They used the mechanical skills that the military gave them to modify vehicles so they could hide moonshine. They would also add better shocks to safeguard their hooch on bumpy roads, along with faster engines for a quick getaway.

These hot rod bootleggers would sometimes race their modified vehicles on their days off. This tradition became the foundation of NASCAR. Not surprisingly, the person who stumped up the money to start the NASCAR sporting foundation was a former bootlegger himself, named Big Bill France.

18. Modern Moonshines Are Often Flavored

Traditionally, moonshine would be consumed straight. However, many people find that the flavor is a little too strong, particularly if the hooch in question has a high proof. As a result, many of the commercial moonshines on sale are flavored spirits and have a lower proof. The takes the edge off slightly and makes it easier to drink.

The most popular flavors at the moment include blueberry, pineapple, raspberry, and apple pie. These flavored moonshines can be enjoyed on their own or mixed with soda water for a refreshing drink.

19. Moonshine Is Less Safe In Other Countries

American moonshine makers are creating delicious moonshines which are completely safe to consume. Unfortunately, this is not always the case in other countries. In 2019, at least 154 people died in India, after consuming a bad batch of homemade moonshine. Authorities suspect that methanol was added to the moonshine. Worth remembering if you intend on traveling overseas and are offered moonshine.

20. Moonshine Stills Can Blow Up

It’s not a myth! If a blockage occurs in the swan’s neck, the alcohol vapors which should have exhausted into the condenser can begin to build up to dangerous levels. If exposed to a spark or open flame, they can combust, causing a pretty large explosion. This myth was tested by the team at MythBusters a few years ago.

21. Moonshine Is Essentially The Same As Corn Whiskey

In terms of how they are made, the only difference between corn whiskey and moonshine is that corn whiskey is matured in a wooden cask. Moonshine can be consumed without maturation. If you like corn whiskey, chances are you will like the taste of moonshine, and vice versa.

22. Hooch Wasn’t Just For Drinking: alternative Moonshine uses

The original settlers of the Appalachians were tough folk living in harsh conditions. They were also very practical, knowledgeable, and industrious.

When they produced moonshine, it wasn’t just for getting drunk. It had several practical applications around the home, including as a disinfectant, tranquilizer, solvent, and anesthetic.

Moonshine was also used as currency, so they could trade moonshine for food, medicine, seeds, tools, livestock, and other things they needed to survive. Moonshine wasn’t just a drink, it was an essential asset that made life in the Appalachians easier.

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Kyk die video: How To Make Moonshine - UJSSM Style Sour Mash Sugar Wash Bourbon (Januarie 2022).