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31 Julie 1944


31 Julie 1944

Oosfront

Die eerste Wit Russiese leër bereik die buitewyke van Warskou

Oorlog op see

Duitse duikboot U-333 het met alle hande van die Scilly-eilande gesink.

Wesfront

1ste leërtroepe vorder van Avranches af

Nieu -Guinee

Amerikaanse troepe land op Cape Sansapor

Groot Brittanje

2 441 burgerlikes is in Julie dood en 7 107 beseer



31 Julie 1944 – Hierdie dag tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog – Operation Cobra

31 Julie 1944 – Operation Cobra was die kodenaam vir 'n offensief wat sewe weke na die D-Day-landing tydens die Normandië-veldtog van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die Eerste Amerikaanse weermag geloods is. Die Amerikaanse luitenant -generaal Omar Bradley se bedoeling was om voordeel te trek uit die Duitse beheptheid met Britse en Kanadese aktiwiteite rondom die stad Caen, en onmiddellik deur die Duitse verdediging wat in sy troepe neergedaal het, deur te slaan terwyl die Duitsers afgelei en ongebalanseerd was. Sodra 'n gang geskep is, sou die Eerste Leër dan in Bretagne kon vorder, die Duitse flanke oprol en homself bevry van die beperkings wat opgelê word deur op die Normandiese bocage -platteland te werk. Na 'n stadige begin het die offensief momentum gekry, en die Duitse weerstand het in duie gestort toe verspreide oorblyfsels van gebroke eenhede geveg het om na die Seine te ontsnap. Die Duitse reaksie was gebrek aan hulpbronne om die situasie die hoof te bied, en die hele front van Normandië het spoedig in duie gestort. Operasie Cobra, tesame met gelyktydige aanvalle deur die Tweede Britse en Eerste Kanadese leërs, was deurslaggewend om 'n geallieerde oorwinning in die Normandië -veldtog te verseker. Operasie Cobra, wat verskeie kere vertraag is deur swak weer, het op 25 Julie begin met 'n gekonsentreerde lugbombardement van duisende geallieerde vliegtuie. Ondersteunende offensiewe het die grootste deel van die Duitse gepantserde reserwes na die Britse en Kanadese sektor getrek, en tesame met die algemene gebrek aan manne en materiaal wat die Duitsers beskikbaar het, was dit vir hulle onmoontlik om opeenvolgende verdedigingslinies te vorm. Eenhede van VII Corps het die aanvanklike tweedivisie-aanval gelei, terwyl ander korps van die Eerste Weermag ondersteunende aanvalle geloods het wat ontwerp was om Duitse eenhede vas te maak. Die vordering was stadig op die eerste dag, maar die opposisie het begin verkrummel sodra die verdedigende kors gebreek is. Teen 27 Julie was die meeste georganiseerde weerstand oorkom, en VII en VIII Korps het vinnig gevorder en die Cotentin -skiereiland geïsoleer. Teen 31 Julie het XIX Corps die laaste magte wat die Eerste Weermag gekant was, vernietig, en Bradley se troepe is uiteindelik bevry van die bocage. Versterkings is deur veldmaarskalk Günther von Kluge weswaarts verskuif en gebruik in verskillende teenaanvalle, waarvan die grootste (kodenaam Operation Lüttich) op 7 Augustus tussen Mortain en Avranches geloods is. Alhoewel dit tot die bloedigste fase van die geveg gelei het, is dit deur reeds uitgeputte en ondersterkte eenhede gemonteer en het dit min gevolge gehad as om die magte van Von Kluge verder uit te put. Op 8 Augustus het troepe van die nuut geaktiveerde Derde Amerikaanse weermag die stad Le Mans, voorheen die hoofkwartier van die Duitse Sewende Leër, verower. Operasie Cobra het die hoë-intensiteit infanteriegeveg van Normandië omskep in 'n vinnige maneuveroorlog en het gelei tot die skepping van die Falaise-sak en die verlies van die Duitse posisie in Noordwes-Frankryk. Na die suksesvolle geallieerde inval van Normandië op 6 Junie 1944, was die vordering in die binneland stadig. Om die opbou van die geallieerdes in Frankryk te vergemaklik en ruimte vir verdere uitbreiding te verseker, was die diepwaterhawe van Cherbourg aan die westelike flank van die Amerikaanse sektor en die historiese stad Caen in die Britse en Kanadese sektor in die ooste vroeë doelwitte. Die oorspronklike plan vir die veldtog in Normandië het sterk aanvallende pogings in beide sektore beoog, waarin luitenant-generaal Sir Miles Dempsey se Britse tweede leër Caen en die gebied suid daarvan sou beveilig, en luitenant-generaal Omar Bradley se Amerikaanse eerste weermag sou 'rondloop' na die Loire. Generaal Bernard Montgomery-bevelvoerende oor alle geallieerde grondmagte in Normandië-was van plan Caen op D-Day te neem, terwyl Cherbourg na verwagting 15 dae later sou val. Die tweede leër sou Caen in beslag neem en dan 'n front in die suidooste vorm, wat strek tot by Caumont-l'Éventé, om vliegvelde aan te skaf en die linkerflank van die Eerste leër te beskerm terwyl dit op Cherbourg beweeg. Die besit van Caen en sy omgewing - wenslik vir oop terrein wat maneuveroorlog moontlik maak - sou Tweede Weermag ook 'n geskikte opvanggebied gee om suidwaarts te stoot om Falaise te vang, wat gebruik kan word as 'n spil vir 'n swaai regs om op Argentan en dan na die Touquesrivier. Die gevangenskap van Caen is deur historikus L. F. Ellis beskryf as die belangrikste D-Day-doelwit wat aan luitenant-generaal Crockers se I Corps toegewys is. Beide Ellis en Chester Wilmot beskryf die Geallieerde plan egter as 'ambisieus' dat die Caen -sektor die sterkste verdediging in Normandië bevat. Die aanvanklike poging van I Corps om die stad op D-Day te bereik, is geblokkeer deur elemente van die 21ste Panzer-afdeling, en die Duitsers het die meeste versterkings gestuur om die stad te verdedig, en die Anglo-Kanadese front het vinnig vergroot kort van die doelwitte van die Tweede Weermag. Operation Perch in die week na D-Day en Operation Epsom (26-30 Junie) het 'n paar territoriale winste meegebring en sy verdedigers uitgeput, maar Caen het in Duitse hande gebly tot Operasie Charnwood (7-9 Julie), toe die Tweede Weermag daarin geslaag het neem die noordelike deel van die stad na 'n frontale aanval na die rivier die Orne. Die opeenvolgende Anglo-Kanadese offensiewe rondom Caen het die beste van die Duitse magte in Normandië, insluitend die meeste beskikbare wapens, na die oostelike punt van die geallieerde woning getrek. Tog het die Amerikaanse Eerste Weermag gesukkel om vordering te maak teen die Duitse verset. Gedeeltelik was die bedrywighede stadig as gevolg van die beperkinge in die bocage-landskap van digte heinings, versonke bane en klein bosse, waarvoor Amerikaanse eenhede nie opgelei het nie. Boonop moes geen versterking en hervoorsiening via die twee moerbeihawens oor die strande plaasvind nie, sonder enige hawe -fasiliteite in geallieerde hande, en was dit aan die weersomstandighede blootgestel. Op 19 Junie het 'n hewige storm op die Engelse kanaal neergedaal, wat drie dae lank geduur het en beduidende vertragings in die geallieerde opbou en die beëindiging van sommige beplande operasies veroorsaak het. Die eerste weermag se poging om vorentoe te beweeg in die westelike sektor, is uiteindelik deur Bradley voor die stad Saint-Lô gestaak om operasies wat gerig is op die beslaglegging op Cherbourg te prioritiseer. Die verdedigers van Cherbourg was nie ingestel op 'n stewige prestasie nie, grootliks uit vier slaggroepe wat bestaan ​​uit die oorblyfsels van eenhede wat op die Cotentin -skiereiland teruggetrek het, en die verdediging van die hawe was hoofsaaklik ontwerp om 'n aanval van die see af te weer. Die georganiseerde Duitse verset eindig egter eers op 27 Junie, toe die 9de Infanteriedivisie daarin slaag om die verdediging van Cap-de-la-Hague noordwes van die stad te verminder. Binne vier dae het majoor-generaal J. Lawton "Lightning Joe" Collins se VII Corps die offensief na Saint-Lô hervat, saam met XIX Corps en VIII Corps, wat veroorsaak het dat die Duitsers ekstra wapens in die Amerikaanse sektor inskuif. Om 'n goeie terrein vir Operation Cobra te bekom, het Bradley en Collins 'n plan bedink om vorentoe te stoot na die Saint-Lô-Periers-pad, waarlangs VII en VIII Corps spring-posisies verseker het. Op 18 Julie het die Amerikaanse 29ste en 35ste infanteriedivisie, ten koste van 5 000 ongevalle, daarin geslaag om die vitale hoogtes van Saint-Lô te bereik, deur die generaal der Fallschirmtruppen Eugen Meindl se II Parachute Corps terug te jaag. Meindl se valskermsoldate, tesame met die 352ste Infanteriedivisie (wat sedert sy verdediging van Omaha-strand in aksie was) was nou in puin, en die verhoog vir die hoofoffensief was opgestel. Weens die swak weerstoestande wat Goodwood en Atlantic ook belemmer het, besluit Bradley om Cobra vir 'n paar dae uit te stel-'n besluit wat Montgomery bekommer het, aangesien die Britse en Kanadese operasies begin is om 'n uitbraakpoging te ondersteun wat nie realiseer. Teen 24 Julie het die lug genoeg geword om die beginorder te gee, en 1600 geallieerde vliegtuie het na Normandië vertrek. Die weer het egter weer toegesluit oor die slagveld. Onder swak sigbaarheidstoestande is meer as 25 Amerikaners dood en 130 gewond in die bombardement voordat die lugsteunoperasie tot die volgende dag uitgestel is. Sommige woedende soldate het op hul eie vliegtuie losgebrand, 'n nie -ongewone praktyk in Normandië toe hulle aan vriendelike vuur gely het. Na die eendag uitstel, het Cobra op 25 Julie om 09:38 aan die gang gekom, toe ongeveer 600 geallieerde vegvliegtuigbomaanvallers sterkpunte en vyandelike artillerie aangeval het langs 'n strook van 300 m (270 m) in die St. . Vir die volgende uur het 1,800 swaar bomwerpers van die Amerikaanse agtste lugmag 'n gebied van 5 000 m × 2 000 m (5 000 m × 2 000 m) op die Saint-Lô – Periers-pad versadig, opgevolg deur 'n derde en laaste golf medium bomwerpers. Ongeveer 3 000 Amerikaanse vliegtuie het 'n smal gedeelte van die voorkant met 'n mat gebombardeer, met die Panzer-Lehr-afdeling wat die grootste deel van die aanval getref het. Maar weereens is nie al die slagoffers deur die Duitse Bradley spesifiek versoek dat die bomwerpers die teiken vanuit die ooste, uit die son en parallel met die Saint-Lô – Periers-pad nader nie, om die risiko van vriendelike verliese te verminder, maar die meeste vlieëniers het in plaas daarvan uit die noorde gekom, loodreg op die voorste linie. Bradley het egter blykbaar misverstande verduidelikings van die bevelvoerders van die swaar bomwerpers dat 'n parallelle benadering onmoontlik was weens die tyd- en ruimtebeperkings wat Bradley gestel het. Boonop sou 'n parallelle benadering in elk geval nie verseker het dat alle bomme agter Duitse lyne sou val as gevolg van afbuigingsfoute of verduisterde mikpunte as gevolg van stof en rook. Ondanks pogings deur Amerikaanse eenhede om hul posisies te identifiseer, het 111 mans doodgemaak en 490 gewond deur onakkurate bombardemente deur die Agtste Lugmag. Die dooies was onder meer Bradley se vriend en mede-Wes-wyser-luitenant-generaal Lesley McNair-die hoogste Amerikaanse soldaat wat in aksie vermoor is. die Europese Operasieteater. Teen 11:00 het die infanterie vorentoe beweeg en van krater na krater gegaan, verder as wat die Duitse buiteposlyn was. Alhoewel daar geen ernstige opposisie voorspel is nie, het die oorblyfsels van Bayerlein se Panzer Lehr - bestaande uit ongeveer 2 200 man en 45 pantservoertuie - hergroepeer en was hulle bereid om die opkomende Amerikaanse troepe te ontmoet, en ten weste van Panzer Lehr die Duitse 5de Valskermafdeling het byna ongeskonde aan die bombardement ontsnap. Collins se VII -korps was baie moedeloos om die hewige vyandelike artillerievuur te ontmoet, wat hulle verwag het deur die bombardement onderdruk te word. Verskeie Amerikaanse eenhede het verstrengel geraak in gevegte teen sterkpunte wat deur 'n handjievol Duitse tenks, ondersteunende infanterie en 88 mm (3,46 in) gewere ondersteun word - VII Corps het gedurende die res van die dag slegs 2,200 m (2,200 m) gekry. As die uitslae van die eerste dag egter teleurstellend was, het generaal Collins rede tot aanmoediging gevind, alhoewel die Duitsers hul posisies sterk beklee het, blyk dit nie 'n deurlopende lyn te wees nie en was dit vatbaar vir flankeer of omseil. Selfs met vooraf waarskuwing van die Amerikaanse offensief, het die Britse en Kanadese optrede rondom Caen die Duitsers oortuig dat die werklike bedreiging daar lê en hul beskikbare magte tot so 'n mate vasgebind dat 'n opeenvolging van noukeurig voorbereide verdedigingsposisies in diepte, soos ondervind, tydens Goodwood en Atlantic, is nie geskep om Cobra te ontmoet nie. Die oggend van 26 Julie het die Amerikaanse 2de pantserdivisie en die veteraan 1ste infanteriedivisie soos beplan by die aanval aangesluit en die volgende dag een van Cobra se eerste doelwitte bereik-'n padkruising noord van Le Mesnil-Herman-. Op die 26ste het majoor -generaal Troy H. Middleton se VIII Corps die stryd aangegaan, gelei deur die 8ste en 90ste Infanteriedivisie. Ondanks duidelike paadjies van vooruitgang deur die vloede en moerasse oor hul voorkant, het beide afdelings aanvanklik die Eerste Leër teleurgestel deur nie groot veld te kry nie, maar die eerste lig die volgende oggend het onthul dat die Duitsers deur hul verkrummelende linkerflank genoodsaak was om terug te trek en slegs enorme mynvelde om die opmars van VIII Corps te vertraag. Teen die middag op 27 Julie was die 9de Infanteriedivisie van VII Corps ook vry van enige georganiseerde Duitse weerstand en het vinnig gevorder. Teen 28 Julie het die Duitse verdediging regoor die Amerikaanse front grootliks in duie gestort onder die volle gewig van VII en VIII Corps se opmars, en die weerstand was ongeorganiseerd en swak. VIII Corps se 4de pantserdivisie - wat vir die eerste keer geveg het - het Coutances verower, maar het sterk opposisie oos van die stad ontmoet, en Amerikaanse eenhede wat in die diepte van die Duitse posisies ingedring het, is verskillende teenaanvalle deur elemente van die 2de SS Panzer, 17de SS Panzergrenadier , en 353ste Infanteriedivisies, almal op soek na ontkoming. 'N Wanhopige teenaanval is deur die Duitse oorblyfsels teen die 2de Pantserdivisie uitgevoer, maar dit was 'n ramp en die Duitsers het hul voertuie verlaat en te voet gevlug. 'N Uitgeputte en gedemoraliseerde Bayerlein het berig dat sy Panzer Lehr -afdeling' uiteindelik vernietig 'is, met die wapenrusting uitgewis, sy personeel óf ongevalle óf vermis, en dat alle rekords van die hoofkwartier verlore geraak het. Intussen het marskalk von Kluge - bevelvoerder oor alle Duitse magte aan die Westelike Front (Oberbefehlshaber -Wes) - versterkings bymekaargemaak, en elemente van die 2de en 116de Panzerdivisie het die slagveld nader. Die US XIX Corps - onder leiding van generaal -majoor Charles H. Corlett - het op 28 Julie aan die linkerkant van VII Corps die stryd aangegaan en tussen 28 en 31 Julie het hierdie versterkings gewikkel geraak in die hewigste gevegte sedert Cobra begin het. Gedurende die nag van 29 Julie naby Saint-Denis-le-Gast, oos van Coutances, het elemente van die Amerikaanse 2de pantserdivisie hulself vir hul lewens beveg teen 'n Duitse kolom uit die 2de SS Panzer en 17de SS Panzergrenadier, wat het in die donker deur die Amerikaanse lyne gegaan. Ander elemente van die 2nd Armoured is aangeval naby Cambry en het ses uur lank geveg, maar Bradley en sy bevelvoerders het geweet dat hulle tans die slagveld oorheers en dat sulke desperate aanvalle geen bedreiging vir die algehele Amerikaanse posisie was nie. Toe hy beveel word om sy afdeling te konsentreer, was kolonel Heinz Günther Guderian-senior stafoffisier van die 116de afdeling-gefrustreerd oor die hoë vlak van die geallieerde vegterbomaanval. Sonder om direkte ondersteuning van die 2de Panzer -afdeling te ontvang, het Guderian gesê dat sy panzergrenadiers nie die Amerikaners suksesvol kon teenaanval nie. Op 30 Julie, om die flank van Cobra te beskerm en die ontkoppeling en verhuising van verdere Duitse magte te voorkom, het die Britse VIII Corps en XXX Corps Operation Bluecoat suid van Caumont na Vire en Mont Pinçon begin. Die Amerikaanse VIII -korps het later op die dag suidwaarts langs die kus beslag gelê op die stad Avranches - beskryf deur die historikus Andrew Williams as "die poort na Bretagne en die suide van Normandië" - en teen 31 Julie XIX het die Corps die laaste Duitse teenaanvalle teruggegooi nadat hewige gevegte wat groot verliese aan mans en tenks veroorsaak. Die Amerikaanse opmars was nou meedoënloos, en die Eerste Leër was uiteindelik vry van die bocage. Die middag op 1 Augustus is die Amerikaanse Derde Weermag geaktiveer onder bevel van luitenant -generaal George S. Patton. Luitenant -generaal Courtney Hodges het die bevel oor die Eerste Weermag aangeneem en Bradley is bevorder tot die algemene bevel van albei leërs, genaamd die U.S. 12th Army Group. Die Amerikaanse opmars na Cobra was buitengewoon vinnig. Tussen 1 Augustus en 4 Augustus het sewe afdelings van die derde leër van Patton deur Avranches en oor die brug by Pontaubault na Bretagne gevee. Die Duitse leër in Normandië is deur die Geallieerde offensiewe tot so 'n swak toestand gereduseer dat baie min Duitsers geglo het dat hulle nie 'n nederlaag kon vermy na die Sowjet -someroffensief teen die Army Group Center nie. In plaas daarvan om sy oorblywende magte te beveel om terug te trek na die Seine, het Adolf Hitler 'n opdrag aan von Kluge gestuur wat eis '' 'n onmiddellike teenaanval tussen Mortain en Avranches '' om die vyand te 'vernietig' en kontak te maak met die weskus van die Cotentin -skiereiland. Agt van die nege Panzer -afdelings in Normandië sou tydens die aanval gebruik word, maar slegs vier (een daarvan onvolledig) kon van hul verdedigingstake onthef word en betyds bymekaargemaak word. Duitse bevelvoerders het onmiddellik protes aangetoon dat so 'n operasie onmoontlik was, gegewe die oorblywende hulpbronne, maar hierdie besware is van die hand gewys en die teenoffensief, kodenaam Operasie Lüttich, het op 7 Augustus rondom Mortain begin. Die 2de, 1ste SS en 2de SS Panzer Divisions het die aanval gelei, hoewel daar slegs 75 Panzer IVs, 70 Panthers en 32 selfaangedrewe gewere tussen hulle was. Die aanvallige bedreiging was hopeloos optimisties binne 24 uur verby, hoewel gevegte tot 13 Augustus voortgeduur het. Teen 8 Augustus val die stad Le Mans - die voormalige hoofkwartier van die Duitse 7de leër - op die Amerikaners. Met die paar oorblywende strydwaardige formasies van von Kluge wat deur die Eerste Leër vernietig is, het die Geallieerde bevelvoerders besef dat die hele Duitse posisie in Normandië in duie stort. Bradley verklaar: Dit is 'n geleentheid wat nie meer as een keer in 'n eeu by 'n bevelvoerder uitkom nie. Ons is op die punt om 'n hele vyandige leër te vernietig en van hier af na die Duitse grens te gaan. "Op 14 Augustus, in samewerking met Amerikaanse bewegings noordwaarts na Chambois, het Kanadese magte Operation Tractable geloods, die bedoeling van die geallieerde was om die hele Duitse Sewende en Vyfde Panzer -leërs naby die stad Falaise. Vyf dae later was die twee arms van die omsingeling amper voltooi, toe die opkomende Amerikaanse 90ste Infanteriedivisie met die Poolse 1ste Pantserdivisie in aanraking gekom het, en die eerste geallieerde eenhede die Seine by Mantes Gassicourt oorgesteek het terwyl Duitse eenhede ooswaarts gevlug het. kon vind. Teen 22 Augustus is die Falaise Pocket - wat die Duitsers wanhopig geveg het om oop te hou om hul gevange magte te laat ontsnap - uiteindelik verseël, wat die Slag van Normandië effektief beëindig het met 'n beslissende geallieerde oorwinning. Alle Duitse magte wes van die geallieerde lyne was nou dood of in gevangenskap, en alhoewel dit moontlik was om 100 000 Duitse troepe te ontsnap, het hulle 40 000–50 000 gevangenes en meer as 10 000 dooies agtergelaat. en 252 artilleriestukke is verlate of vernietig gevind in die noordelike deel van die sak alleen. Die Geallieerdes kon vrylik deur onverdedigde gebied vorder, en teen 25 Augustus was al vier die geallieerde leërs (1ste Kanadese, 2de Britte, 1ste VSA en 3de VSA) wat by die Normandie -veldtog betrokke was, aan die rivier die Seine.

M4 Sherman tenks en infanteriste van die Amerikaanse 4de pantserdivisie in Coutances


Vuur verswelg die sirkus se groot top in Hartford, en 167 sterf

In Hartford, Connecticut, ontstaan ​​daar 'n brand onder die groot bokant van die Ringling Bros. en Barnum Bailey Circus, wat 167 mense dood en 682 beseer. Twee derdes van die wat omgekom het, was kinders. Die oorsaak van die brand was onbekend, maar dit het teen ongelooflike spoed versprei en op die doek van die sirkustent gehardloop. Skaars voordat die 8 000 toeskouers in die groot bokant kon reageer, het daar kolle van brandende doek van bo af op hulle begin val en 'n stormloop vir die uitgange begin. Baie was vasgevang onder doek, maar die meeste kon daarin slaag en ontsnap. Nadat die toue van die tent gebrand het en sy pale meegegee het, het die hele brandende groot bokant neergestort en diegene wat binne gebly het verteer. Binne 10 minute was dit verby, en ongeveer 100 kinders en 60 van hul volwasse begeleiers was dood of sterwend.

'N Ondersoek het aan die lig gebring dat die tent 'n behandeling ondergaan het met ontvlambare paraffien wat met drie dele petrol verdun is om dit waterdig te maak. Ringling Bros. en Barnum & Bailey Circus het uiteindelik ingestem om $ 5 miljoen vergoeding te betaal, en verskeie van die organiseerders is skuldig bevind op aanklag van doodslag. In 1950, in 'n laat ontwikkeling in die saak, het Robert D. Segee van Circleville, Ohio, erken dat hy die Hartford -sirkusbrand gestig het. Segee beweer dat hy sedert die ouderdom van ses jaar 'n brandstigter was en dat 'n verskyning van 'n Indiër op 'n vlammende perd hom gereeld besoek het en hom aangespoor het om vuur te maak. In November 1950 is Segee tot twee agtereenvolgende terme van 22 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis, die maksimum boete in die destydse Ohio.


Deurlopende planveranderings

Miskien ironies genoeg, was Operasie Valkyrie 'n wysiging van 'n plan wat Hitler bedink het om 'n ineenstorting van wet en orde te hanteer wat veroorsaak is deur die vernietiging van die Geallieerdes of 'n opstand van dwangarbeiders. Saam met lede van die Reserwe -leër het von Stauffenberg nie net beplan om Hitler dood te maak nie, maar ook om belangrike telefoonsentrums, geboue en seinsentrums in Berlyn te beset. Die hoop was dat die dood van die Nazi -leier die meeste soldate sou oorreed om hul wapens neer te lê en 'n nuwe regering toe te laat om vrede met die Geallieerdes te sluit.

Die samesweerders het dit egter as onmoontlik gevind om naby genoeg aan Hitler te kom om die plan uit te voer. Daar was verskeie mislukte pogings om naby die Fuhrer te kom om hom te skiet of met granate op te blaas. Namate die situasie vir die Nazi's in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vererger het, is Hitler skaars in die openbaar gesien en het hy die grootste deel van sy tyd by Wolf & rsquos Lair deurgebring. Hy was te alle tye swaar bewaak en het selde iemand gesien wat hy nie implisiet vertrou het nie.

Met die Gestapo wat die samesweerders oënskynlik toegesluit het, het dit gelyk asof die tyd besig is om te raak. Von Stauffenberg word op 1 Julie 1944 stafhoof van generaal Fromm, wat beteken dat hy by die militêre konferensies van Hitler en rsquos sou wees. Uiteindelik was daar 'n moontlike geleentheid om op te tree. Operasie Valkyrie is teen 7 Julie volledig voorberei, en op hierdie dag was generaal Helmut Stieff veronderstel om die Nazi -leier in Salzburg te vermoor tydens 'n vertoning van nuwe uniforms. Stieff het egter aangekondig dat hy nie met die plan kon voortgaan nie, daarom het von Stauffenberg besluit om die saak in eie hande te neem.


Piepschuim, 'n praktiese en problematiese skepping

'N Vrou hou 'n Styrofoam & ldquolog & rdquo op hierdie 1949 -foto uit die Science History Institute & rsquos -versamelings.

Dow het Styrofoam in 1941 uitgevind en herontdek 'n proses wat eers deur die Sweedse uitvinder Carl Munters gepatenteer is. Dow het die regte op Munters se metode gekoop en begin met die vervaardiging van 'n ligte, waterbestande en lewendige materiaal wat perfek lyk vir die bou van dokke en watervaartuie en vir die isolering van huise, kantore en hoenderskure. Deesdae word piepschuim gebruik vir die bou van isolasie bekend as bloubord en vir handwerk, soos die groen skuimblokke wat bloemiste in blommerangskikkings gebruik.

Alhoewel Piepschuim 'n Opslagplek vir die koffiekoppies, verpakking van grondboontjies en baie ander onbeskryflike items van polistireenskuim, is die regte piepschuim 'n bietjie anders. Dit word vervaardig deur extrusie en is sterker, stywer en duurder as die goed wat gebruik word om borde en koppies te maak. Die items word gemaak deur 'n uitbreidingsproses waarin klein harsertjies verhit word en dan in die gewenste vorm saamgepers word. Hierdie neef wat op uitbreiding gebaseer is, het in die 1950's aangekom en is mettertyd vir tallose toepassings aangeneem vanweë sy eienskappe-taai, maar feitlik gewigloos, goedkoop, steriel en chemies stabiel.

Maar polistireenskuim het sy probleme. Aanvanklik is chloorfluorkoolwaterstowwe wat die osoon afbreek, gebruik om die polistireenkrale in skuim uit te brei totdat alarm oor die groeiende gat in die osoonlaag lui. Die CFK's is uiteindelik vervang met minder skadelike gasse, maar dit was nie die einde van die omgewingskwessies nie. Die basiese materiaal van die skuim, styreen monomeer, is 'n kankerverwekkende werknemer in die plastiek- en rubberbedryf wat blootgestel word aan die ongereageerde monomeer, ly aan sommige kankersoorte. Nog meer problematies, die voltooide materiaal kan duisende jare neem, en miskien meer, om biologies af te breek. Van 2002 tot 2015 is wêreldwyd ongeveer 316 miljoen ton polistireen geproduseer, met meer as die helfte binne 'n jaar. En dit sluit nie die vele ander soorte plastiek in wat weggegooi word nie - 'n geskatte 302 miljoen ton alleen in 2015 - alles 'n groot probleem met rommel wat veral die oseane, waar die materiaal ophoop, en seelewe beïnvloed verteer die drywende stukkies. In reaksie-en in die afwesigheid van 'n lewensvatbare herwinningsmetode-het New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, en baie ander munisipaliteite in die Verenigde State verbande vir eenmalige polistireenhouers verbied.

Wat al die polistireenskuim betref wat reeds ronddryf, het wetenskaplikes 'n paar nuwe oplossings ondersoek. 'N Eksperiment wat in 2006 gepubliseer is, het voorgestel dat 'n stam van, na oorverhitting van die materiaal in styreenolie Pseudomonas putida, 'n tipe grondbakterieë, kan die olie omskakel in 'n biologies afbreekbare vorm van plastiek - polyhydroxyalkanoate, of PHA. Ongelukkig verg die proses baie energie en produseer dit giftige neweprodukte, soos tolueen. Miskien belowender, in 2015 het 'n groep Chinese navorsers 'n verslag gepubliseer wat toon dat meelwurms so suksesvol kan oorleef op 'n dieet van polistireenskuim as dié wat 'n tipiese dieet van semels kry. En in 2017 het 'n span Europese wetenskaplikes bevind dat waswurms 'n soortgelyke aptyt vir plastieksakke van poliëtileen het. Is dit moontlik dat ons (of eerder ons larwevriende) ons pad uit ons vullisprobleem kan vreet?


31 Julie 1944 - Geskiedenis

Lt. Mark J. Woods, Jr.'s Diary
Navigator, 600ste eskader

Woods Mission No. 26

Datum: 31 Julie 1944
Missie nr. 26
Ligging van die teiken: München, Duitsland
Soort doelwit: Jet -aandrywing enjin fabriek

Laai: 2700 gallies gas en 10-500 lb. bomme
Hoogte: 26.500 voet
Vliegtyd: 8:30 uur

Begeleiding: P-38's, P-47's en P-51's al die pad

Force van aanval: 11 vleuels, ons was in die vyfde vleuel.
Posisie: nommer 3 van die lae lood eskader

Opposisie: Flak en vegters was in die omgewing, maar ons het niks gesien nie.

Slagbeskadiging: 2 klein gaatjies op die boonste rewolwer, een in die lugslang.

Resultate: PFF gebombardeer, probeer RR -erf. Moes visueel uitgevoer gewees het. Het nie resultate waargeneem nie.

Opmerkings: Flak baie akkuraat, en baie daarvan. Die missie het goed afgeloop, maar die hoofnavigator het natuurlik agtergelaat huis toe gekom, en ons het nog 'n bietjie geskiet.


83ste Infanteriedivisie Dokumente

Op hierdie bladsy kan dokumente wat verband hou met die 331ste Infanterieregiment in die PDF -formaat afgelaai word. Hierdie dokumente word verskaf deur Dave Curry, historikus van die 83ste Infanteriedivisievereniging.

Na aksieverslae

Die regiment -na -aksie -verslae vir die 331ste Infanterieregiment in PDF -formaat kan in die volgende tabel gevind word.

44 Junie 44 Julie 44 Aug 44 September 44 Okt 44 Nov 44 Des 45 Jan 45 Februarie 45 Maart 45 April 45 Mei

Eenheid geskiedenis

Regimentele geskiedenis vir 1943 en 1944. Hierdie geskiedenisse is met vergunning van Myra Miller, PhD, van Footsteps Researchers

Eenheidjoernale

Die eenheidsjoernaal bevat daagliks diepgaande beskrywings van die aktiwiteit van die eenheid. Daar is talle inskrywings vir elke dag se gebeure wat die tydstip van elke gebeurtenis aandui. Dit bevat inligting oor geografiese ligging en troepebeweging, weer en gevegsaktiwiteite.

    - Unit Journal 16-23 Julie 1944 - Unit Journal 26 Julie - 3 Augustus 1944 - Unit Journal 25 Julie - 3 Augustus 1944 vir 2e Bn, 331 Infanterieregiment

Na-oorlogse operasies verslae

Die naoorlogse operasionele verslae bevat inligting oor die aktiwiteite van die eenheid, soos bewegings, take en opleiding. Hierdie verslae is met vergunning van Myra Miller, PhD, van Footsteps Researchers

    - Bedryfsverslag Mei 1945 - Bedryfsverslag Junie 1945 - Bedryfsverslag Julie 1945 - Bedryfsverslag Augustus 1945 - Bedryfsverslag September 1945 - Bedryfsverslag Oktober 1945 - Bedryfsverslag November 1945

Koerante

Die TTF was die 331ste Infanterie -regimentskoerant. Hierdie koerante is met vergunning van Frank DeCarolis, 2nd Platoon, Co. E, 331ste Infanterie en Tom DePiano en is gefotografeer en nie geskandeer nie weens broosheid.

    - The TTF Vol 2, No 1, 13 May 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 3, 17 June 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 8, 22 July 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 9, 29 July , 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 10, 5 August 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 11, 12 August 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 12, 19 August 1945 - The TTF Vol 2, No 13, 25 Augustus 1945

Spesiale bestellings

Spesiale bestellings bevat promosies op ondernemingsvlakke. Geskenk deur Greg Chipps, seun van Sgt. Richard E. Chipps.


31 Julie 1944 - Geskiedenis

Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis

Opsomming van gebeure vir nr. 439 (CAN) eskader

soos aangeteken in die 439 Squadron Operations Record Book

R.C.A.F. Lantheuil

Die hele dag redelik goeie weer. Drie operasies is vandag voltooi wat die eentonigheid verbreek het. Swem was vanmiddag op die agenda en verskeie van die vlieënde soorte het na die plaaslike stroom gegaan en hulself verfris tot 'n einde.

Operasionele soorte: 272

Plasings: J20602 F/O R.H. Laurence gepos vanaf 83 G.S.U. w.e.f. 20.7.44

J27992 F/O R.V. Smith gepos vanaf 83 G.S.U. w.e.f. 20.7.44

J14315 A/F/L T.A. Dadson gepos op nr. 13 P.T.C.

Vliegtuie op laai: Typhoon 1B - 18

Auster V - 1

Lugbemanning - Beamptes 25

Grondbemanning - Beamptes 2

Vliegtuigmanne 28

Vliegtye: Operasioneel: Typhoon 1B - 180: 25

Nie -operasioneel: & quot - 29:40

& quot & quot Auster V - 7:35

(Geteken)

H.H. Norsworthy

Eskaderleier bevelvoerder

439 R.C.A.F. Eskader

Detail van werk uitgevoer deur nr. 439 RCAF -eskader

soos saamgestel deur die 439 Squadron Operations Record Book Form 541

A/C tipe en amp nommer Bemanning Plig Op Af
JR500

Besonderhede van Sortie of Flight

Die bomme wat vanoggend in die lug gedra word, was bestem om op die vierkantige koppe in 'n groep Duitse hoofkwartiergeboue in die dorp Montvarel (T8454) te laat val. Sestien van die agtien duisend pond bomme wat omhoog gebring is, het hul lot vervul. F/O Bernhart het twee hang-ups gehad en kon hulle later in die kanaal afskakel. F/L Scharff het 'n hang-up gehad wat hy in 'n tweede duik oor die teiken kon loslaat. Die teiken is aangeval tydens 'n goeie duik van suid na noord vanaf 8000 voet en die vrystelling van bomme op 3000 voet. Bomuitbarstings is reg in die middel van die teikenarea gesien en 'n aantal geboue is heeltemal gesloop. Geen ligte vlak is tydens die missie gesien nie, en slegs 'n salvo van swaar goed is op die indringers oor die teiken afgevuur. Alle vliegtuie keer terug na die basis om die sukses van hul missie te rapporteer.

Details of Sortie or Flight

This Squadron took-off as part of a Wing Show with the intention of bombing a concentration of enemy strength in the village of Parquet (just southeast of Caumont). Our own artillery was to lay smoke on the target as the signal for attack due to the proximity of our own forward troops. The target was found, despite the thick summer haze and a seven tenths layer of cumulus cloud at 5000 ft., but the expected red smoke failed to materialize. After the Wing orbitted the target, a number of times, enough so that the chase developed into a grim battle of formation keeping, the squadrons separated and bombed alternative targets. Our Squadron cut in well south of our forward line and bombed the wood at map reference T.8721. The attack was made in a 40 degree dive from North to South and a line of flight (stick bombing). The return trip was made at cloud top level with many an anxious eye on the fuel gauge. A number of enemy aircraft were once reported 15,000 ft above us, but could not be spotted by our pilots. All our aircraft returned safely to base, no flak was seen throughout the entire circus. Pilots returned with the annoying sensation of helpless frustration in their hearts, mission unsuccessful.

F/O Rassenti

Details of Sortie or Flight

F/L Fiset led nine aircraft of this Squadron in a damaging attack against a concentration of enemy troops in the woods just south of the railway track at T.7452 (south of Caumont). The target was attacked in a 70 degree dive from 7000 down to 1500 ft. Bomb bursts were grouped well within the target area and the 16 x 1000 lb bombs in that area must have created havoc with more than the morale of the enemy troops. No flak was seen throughout the mission. Two hang-ups on one aircraft piloted by Johnny Stitt were jettisoned south of Villers-Bocage. All aircraft returned safely to base in the fast gathering dusk.

H.H. Norsworthy,

Squadron Leader,

Commanding,

No. 439 R.C.A.F. Squadron.

Note: Show type of bomb used. Show target. Show results of Operation. If in co-operation with other squadrons, or just a squadron operation. New tactics adopted. Damage to aircraft either by flak or enemy aircraft. Engine failure, and if possible reason for failure. (1)

Webmaster's Notes:

(1) The above mission note was recorded on a "Sub Form 541 (Appendix No. 7 , Page 8) and was an advisory to the scribes of the day to record every aspect of every mission probably for future historical purposes.

the unofficial homepage of Tiger Squadron


Search Term Record

Naamgenoot:
Ivan Wilson, a native of Hazel, Kentucky, came to Western in 1920 and served 25 years was the first head for the Department of Art. He was employed by Western for a total of four decades. Some of his works have been shown in New York, New Orleans, Kansas City, and even Paris. He retired in 1958. He received his Bachelors from Western and got his Master's from George Peabody College.

The theater was named for Russell Miller, born in Water Valley, Mississippi and died at the age of 63 in 1968. He was a professor for speech and dramatic arts. He received his Bachelor's and Masters from the University of Mississippi. He came to Western in 1947 after being employed by the Bowling Green College of Commerce and Business University.

Geskiedenis:
The Fine Arts Center has provided housing for the Departments of Art, Foreign Language, Music, History, English and Speech and Theatre. The 174,000 square feet building includes a 4 story central portion, 41 class and lecture rooms, an art gallery, 85 faculty offices, 30 studio offices, 5 seminar rooms, art studios, language and music labs, and music practice rooms. The 2-story east wing contains a 320 seat Russell Miller Theatre. The 1 story west wing contains includes a 230 seat recital hall and a band rehearsal room. FAC was built on the site of the old stadium. The building was dedicated on Oct. 13, 1973.

A fire in 1978 caused an estimated $30,000 in damage to a room on the fourth floor. The cause of the fire was undetermined. In 1984 an arsonist set fires on the third and fourth floors of Ivan Wilson Hall. The two fires caused an estimated $325,000 in damages.

Bronne:
College Heights Herald

Bronze Bust of Former Art Teacher on Display in Fine Arts Center, Mar. 6, 1980

Former Art Department Head Dies, Feb. 2, 1981

Ivan the Terrible Makes Trouble . . . But Masters Art, Oct. 30, 1942

Ivan Wilson Has Exhibition in Kentucky Building, Nov. 18, 1955

Ivan Wilson Has New Exhibition, Oct. 7, 1955

Ivan Wilson Has Works Displayed at Peabody, Mar. 19, 1954

Ivan Wilson Possesses Great Love of Painting, Apr. 18, 1958

Ivan Wilson to Exhibit Work at Nelson Institute, Nov. 24, 1944

Ivan Wilson's Work on Display, Feb. 2, 1945

Mr. Ivan Wilson Has Water Colors on Exhibition, Nov. 5, 1943

Mr. Ivan Wilson Receives International Recognition, Mar. 31, 1961

Mr. Ivan Wilson Speaks at Amigo Club Meeting, Mar. 20, 1953

Mr. Wilson Does Sketches While Visiting Rockies, Nov. 3, 1950

Mr. Wilson Sees Art Exhibition, Apr. 6, 1956

Museum Exhibits Works of Wilson, Oct. 28, 1967

The Ivan Wilsons Are Featured in L&N Magazine, Nov. 22, 1957

Water Colors Being Displayed by Ivan Wilson, July 1, 1955

Watercolor Exhibit Begins Next Week, Oct. 8, 1954

What's in a Name? Ivan Wilson is Much More than Glass, Steel and Concrete, Oct. 12, 1973

Wilson Exhibit Now on Display, Nov. 22, 1940

Wilson Holds Exhibition, May 11, 1954

Wilson Will Present Demonstration, Mar. 11, 1955

1970 July 1
1972 Sep. 24
1973 Feb. 15 Sep. 10 Oct. 10, 12, 14
1984 March 25, 27, 28, 29, 30 April 6, 15, 16 May 24, 30 July 25, 26, 28, 30 Sep. 6
2003 July 7
2005 Feb. 6

Louisville Courier-Journal:

1970 July 18
1973 Sep. 23 Oct. 14


. of famous people, actors, celebrities and stars born in 1940

81
Lorns Skjemstad

Norwegian cross-country skier

40
John Lennon

English singer and songwriter, founding member of The Beatles (1940-1980)

*October 9th, 1940, Liverpool December 8th, 1980, New York City

Jeannie Seely

*July 6th, 1940, Titusville

76
Al Jarreau

American jazz and pop musician

*March 12th, 1940, Milwaukee February 12th, 2017, Los Angeles

Jon Skolmen

Norwegian actor and TV host

*November 1st, 1940, Oslo March 28th, 2019, Oslo

76
Manfred Jung

German singer and operatic tenor

*July 9th, 1940, Oberhausen April 14th, 2017, Essen

77
Michael Parks

*April 24th, 1940, Corona May 9th, 2017, Los Angeles

Jana Brejchová
Herbert Thaler
55
Joseph Brodsky

*May 24th, 1940, Saint Petersburg January 28th, 1996, Brooklyn

80
Wolfgang Clement

*July 7th, 1940, Bochum September 27th, 2020, Bonn

80
Patrick Stewart
80

Brazilian association football player

*October 23rd, 1940, Três Corações

76
Dawson Mathis

American politician (1940-2017)

*November 30th, 1940, Nashville April 17th, 2017, Tifton

81
Nancy Pelosi

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

*March 26th, 1940, Baltimore

32
Bruce Lee

Hong Kong-American actor, martial artist (1940-1973)

*September 23rd, 1940, San Francisco Chinese Hospital July 20th, 1973, Kowloon Tong

81
Al Pacino

American stage and film actor and director

*April 25th, 1940, Manhattan

Rolf Sagen

*December 21st, 1940, Vadheim April 6th, 2017

Leon Ware

American recording artist, songwriter and composer

*February 16th, 1940, Detroit February 23rd, 2017, Marina del Rey

77
John Hurt

*January 22nd, 1940, Chesterfield January 25th, 2017, Norfolk


Facebook

Peamb1e:
In dealing with the history of the Rivers State under the circumstances of this lecture, one can only reasonably concern himself mainly with the movements culminating in the creation of the State, and not necessarily with detailed facts of history of each ethnic group constituting the Rivers State. In any case, a cursory glance at the scope of the Rivers State, its topography and the characteristics of its peoples, would appear requisite, in order to give a clearer view on the subject matter.

1. Scope of the Rivers State: The Rivers State, before 1973, comprised five administrative Divisions, namely, Ahoada, Brass, Degema, Ogoni and Port Harcourt Divisions, The Andonis, the Opobos and the Western Ijaws, should rightly have come within the ambit of the Rivers State, being purely riverine peoples, and mostly of the Ijaw tribe, but they were excluded for the following reasons: –
The Western Ijaws were excluded on the pretext that the Rivers Province including them would prove too unwieldy to administer then. The Opobos, with the Andonis already in the Opobo Division, opted out of the Rivers Province when it was created, for fear of losing prestige as a divisional headquarters.

2. Topography of the Rivers State: The Ahoada and Ogoni Divisions of the Rivers State consist more of compact land mass suited for agrarian pursuits, although small scale fishing is carried out: whereas the Brass and Degema Divisions consist of land interspersed by a labyrinth of innumerable creeks and channels. The Degema Division as well as the southern portions of the Brass Division, consists mainly of mangrove forests and swamps, suited for piscatory pursuits. Communication in the two latter Divisions is an herculean task, thus retarding the requisite rapid and contemporaneous progress and development of the people, who, by nature, are hardy and most enterprising. The Port Harcourt Division forms the capital area of the State, the inhabitants of which are mainly civil servants, traders, contractors, artisans, technicians, businessmen, and free women, excepting the Diobu people who engage mainly in farming, trading and fishing on a small scale.

3. Characteristics of the Rivers People: The Rivers peoples are by nature most accommodating, friendly and hospitable, sustaining an open door policy towards all corners from other ethnic groups. On the return home of most of them after their gruesome battle against the waves, fishing, and from their farms, they recline in various cultural displays and amusement, devoid of malice against anybody. They sing and dance in great merriment for most part of the day. They are known to protect the cause of strangers in their midst more than they do for their compatriots. They arc great mixers, and their anger is comparatively short lived. Their very nature is thus conducive to the much desired unity in Nigeria. Thus, when the Rivers State Government makes friendly approaches to other States in the Federation, they are not exhibiting an unaccustomed effort to catch flies as with honey, but rather, they are expressing in concrete form, their true nature. But if their beneficiaries by any means bite the finger that feeds them, they can plunge into dreadful, frantic, and devastating rage, which cools off in comparatively short period.

4. Origins of, and Trends Towards, the Creating of the Rivers State: This period may aptly be described as a period of pregnancy, consisting of the motivations which urged the people to clamour for a Rivers State. The people of the Rivers State (particularly in the riverine areas, such as Bonny and Brass,) had, from the advent of Missionaries and European traders in the 15th century, exhibited the inherent desire for self determination. This is borne out by the facts of the Akassa raid, and the opposition of King Jaja of Opobo against European intrusion into the trade and affairs of the people, as well as the importation of European workers to Bonny by King Pepple of Bonny, under his employment to build up Bonny to become as respectable as England. The people then were compelled to submit to European hegemony by sheer force of superior arms. From this period of smothered resistance, the people became pregnant with a fervent zeal for self determination. The British realising this attitude of mind of the Rivers people, undertook, in the reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, in the 19th Century to conclude treaties of friendship and mutual protection with several maritime clans such as Bonny, Kalabari, Brass and Okrika.

5. Motivations in Broad Outline These were: –
(i) The desire for equality of opportunity to all Nigerians at all levels.
(ii) The desire for special treatment of the physical handicaps of the Niger Delta area and
(iii) The desire for continuity of the cultural traits and history of the Rivers
mense.

6. Inequality, of Opportunity at all levels
(i) The trend of nationalism in Nigeria in the thirties of this century as well as constitutional structures tended to fuse minority elements, in spite of their age and pronounced identity, into majority neighbours-e.g. Billes fused into Kalabari at the clan level Elemes into Ahoada at the Divisional level, Ijaws, Ogonis and Ikwcrres into Ibo at the Provincial level, and the bottle-necks at Enugu, Ibadan and Kaduna, for groups of Provinces where all minorities were completely emasculated.
(ii) Priorities for determining the distribution of national and public facilities took cognizance more of the needs of majority groups than minorities, in regard to structures and systems in operation.
(iii) Political slogans, thinking, and formations tended to follow and justify the imbalance indicated above—and all in the name of democracy!
(iv) Journalism found ready market among the majority groups in Nigeria for championing their cause.
(v) Religion cashed in on this imbalance in favour of majority groups, thus back-pedalling from the rightful cause of justice and equity for which the church is an advocate.

7. Niger Delta Physical Handicaps:
(i) Facilities for human services in maritime areas of the Niger Delta – by Government officials and private functionaries alike – were virtually not provided.
(ii) Scientific studies and reports about the difference in the physical configuration of the Niger Delta from the rest of the country were not undertaken since these did not concern majority groups in the country.
(iii). The result from the handicaps above was utter neglect, backwardness, and’ poverty of the Riversman.
(iv) This condition was worsened by international traders based in the riverine areas, by shifting economic middlemanship from the Riversman to majority groups in the hinterland where physical facilities, studies and thriving populations created great outlets and markets for imported goods.
(v) The above occasioned drift of populations from the coastal areas to the hinterland, thus causing great physical handicap to the Rivers people.

8. Cultural and Historical Problems:
(1) New fortunes and improved political status of the majority groups attracted the association of separate Rivers Groups to them, and this aggravated the inherent lack of cohesion among Rivers elements, and threatened their culture.
(ii) Lack of comparable honourable history among some groups excited envy which threatened the existence of many traditional relics in the Rivers area by way of reprisals by nearest majority neighbours.
(iii) Dearth of organisations beyond the clan level enhanced the natural isolationist tendency among Rivers people and prevented collective bargaining among them.
(iv) Lack of recognition of common purpose among Rivers people thwarted the evolution of common platforms for thinking together and acting together.
(v) Education for food being the prime ambition of Riversmen, people addicted to enslaving themselves to paymasters were produced instead of, lake their forbears, self-employed persons who would serve God and humanity with unfettered will.

9. Period of Travail:
The Rivers people had long been pregnant with the urge to assert themselves as a people capable of administering their own affairs in the way best suited to them, as has already been indicated above. The forties of this century constituted a period of travail, preparatory to the birth of the child conceived in the womb. A number of leading personalities of Rivers origin played their part on the stage of the ensuing drama, and certain circumstances gave the impetus to the activities of the personalities concerned.
It was known that in 1941, Mr. Harold J. R. Wilcox (now Chief Biriye), fresh from King’s College, Lagos, drove into his father, late Mr. R. T. E. Wilcox (later Chief and Magistrate) the reality of the fact that only a separate province for the various communities traditionally styled by our Ibo neighbours as Rivers people, would induce a government based in Lagos to provide relevant facilities for the people. He also suggested to his father the need for the organisation of a body for these communities to press for creation of a Rivers Province.
Meanwhile, the Ibo and the Ibibio State Unions had been formed to cater for the well being of their peoples their returnee graduates from the United States of America made an irresistible impact upon their peop1e. That was the era of tribal irredentism. Thus in 1942, at Aba, a giant and a highly educated political leader from a neighbouring majority tribe addressed a mass rally of his people, infusing into their minds the ambition to dominate other ethnic groups, and outlined plans for the achievement of this ambition. Some Rivers elements present at that rally caught the hint and became gauled forthwith. All these served as impetus to prop up initiatives to form an organised body to fight for the rights of the Rivers people.
Thus on the 18th November, 1943, late Chief R. T. E. Wilcox, then a Government Supervising Teacher, with other Rivers indigenes invited Chiefs and people of the Rivers area to a meeting at the old Enitonna High School Hall, Port Harcourt at which he briefed the gathering on the issues involved. There and then the house resolved on the formation of the Ijaw Rivers Peoples’ League. The communities initially concerned with this movement were those of the Brass and Degema Divisions as well as Western Ijaws and those of Opobo town. The Ndokis enlisted as members of the League later. The designation of the League was adopted to afford the communities in Ahoada and Ogoni Divisions an open door to come in when they chose to do so.
Mr. (later Chief and Magistrate) R. T. E. Wilcox, President-General Mr. E. D. Wolsele (now Chief Opu-Ogulaya), Deputy President Messrs B. M. T. Epelle, and Abassa from Western Ijaw, Vice-Presidents Messrs S. D. Akanibo, Principal Secretary and Andrew Ogudire his assistant D. B. Iwarimie Jaja, Organizing Secretary C. Egi of Brass, as Field Secretary Hamilton B. Thom-Manuel, as Treasurer late Mr. D. Achebbs (later Chief), as Financial Secretary and Mr. W. W. Peters (now Chief Inyeinengi Daka), as Publicity Secretary.
In March, 1944, barely four months after the birth of the League, our Colonial paymasters transferred the President-General to Ijebu in the West, in order to cripple the movement. In April, 1944, Mr. E. D. Wolseley (Chief Opu-Ogulaya), was elected President-General, with the addition of Bishop Davies Manuel and one Mr. Hart of Bonny as Vice Presidents. Delegations of the League, led by influential members toured the maritime areas of the State stimulating the consciousness of the masses towards self determination. The League was financed from contributions by Clan Unions which constituted the membership of the League, as well as donations by individual members of the League and well-wishers. Prominent citizens of the Rivers area, such as Chief the Hon. Henry Buowari Brown of Bonny, later member of the Legislative Council of Nigeria, and Mr. Francis Alagoa later His Highness Chief F. Alagoa the Mingi X of Nembe, were inducted as Patrons, on payment of a hundred Naira or part thereof, and given special honoured seats on the dais during conference meetings of the League.

10. Parliamentary, Pressure: Pressure for a Rivers Province was generated in the old Legislative Council in Lagos by the late Rt. Rev. B. T. Dimieari, member in the Legislative Council from 1944 to 1946. He was supported by Chief the Hon. Obaseki, Prime Minister of Benin. The Hansards of 1946 are replete with speeches of these two legislators on the issue. The Ijaw State Union in Lagos also sustained pressure for a Rivers State. In 1947, the President-General, Mr. B. D. Wolseley (Chief Opu-Ogulaya) led a delegation of the League, including a traditional ruler, Chief S. I. Adoki of Okrika, which interviewed the Chief Secretary to the Colonial Government of Nigeria, pressing for the creation of the Rivers Province.
As a result of these pressures, the Governor of Nigeria, Sir Arthur Richards, toured the old Owerri Province, visiting some of the places proposed for the Rivers Province, in 1947. Subsequently the Rivers Province was constituted with Head quarters at Port Harcourt, with effect from April, 1947, sending the Headquarters of Owerri Province to Umuahia. The first Resident of the Province was Mr. Chubb who could from then make his representations to the Legislative Council in Lagos for attention to the maritime and amphibious problems of the new Province. This was the first capital success achieved by the League and its assessors.

11 Period of Victimization: The next period was that of a chain of victimisation strung around the neck of the new President-General by the Colonial Masters. The Government became highly apprehensive of the growing influence of the League and so resorted to debased tactics once more. In 1949, Mr. H. W. Newington, then of Chiefs District Officer, Degema, made an unproductive attempt to placate the President- General at Okrika with offer of an appointment as Sole Judge in Okrika, if he would abandon the cause of the League. In August of the same year, at the instance of the Resident of the Rivers Province, Messrs Newington and H. N. Harcourt, then District Officer, Port Harcourt came to the hall of the old Enitonna High School, Port Harcourt, and watched the Presidential address delivered to the Conference of the League, seeking for pretext to entangle the President-General.
Later in the year, the President-General was caused to be arrested by a police constable from Degema under a most flimsy excuse, but later released at the intervention of Barrister O. C. Nonyelu, Counsel for the Okrika Progress Union.
In December, 1949, after the usual Niger Delta Archdeaconry transfer of teachers had been concluded, the expatriate Diocesan Bishop of the Niger Diocese at Onitsha was acquainted with the activities of the President-General, and so, like his predecessor, he was ordered to be transferred to Okigwe Division in 1950. Thus after presiding over a meeting of the League in May, 1950, while on holiday, no other President-General was appointed, and the League consequently dosed off for a period, only to emerge subsequently as the Rivers Chiefs and Peoples Conference.
Before this, in 1951, a new body called the Ijaw Union was formed with Mr. Harold J. R. Wilcox (now Chief Biriye) as Secretary, and late Mr H. B. Thom-Manuel as President. This body kept the Ijaw elements in Port Harcourt together, and sought for fair representation for them in the Port Harcourt Municipal Council.
This union divided and died out when its members, owing to growing party loyalties declined to claim direct representation on the delegations going to the 1953 London Conference called by the Colonial Secretary to review the Macpherson Constitution. The leaders of this defunct body assumed another name and petitioned Sir John Macpherson, through Major J. C. C. Allen, then Resident of the Rivers Province, calling for a direct seat at the 1953 London Conference to press for a separate Rivers State. Nine people signed the petition including Mr H. J. R. Wilcox (now Chief Biriye), Mr Mac Karibo and Chief A. P. Asisi-Abbey. At the call of the Lt.-Governor at Enugu, Mr H. J. R. Wilcox (Chief Biriye) and Chief A. P. Asisi-Abbey went to Enugu and defended their petition before Sir Clement Pleace, the Lt. -Governor who communicated their deliberations to Sir. John in Lagos. The outcome of this pressure on Government by this non-descript group was that Government arranged for Chief D. Davis-Manuel of Abonnema nominated by that body to go to London and join the Nigerian team as adviser to the Eyo Ita’s Government bench delegation.
About July, 1953, a new body made its debut in Roxy Hall, Port Harcourt, which was called the Council of Rivers Chiefs, with Chief Ben-Wari of Bassambiri, Nembe, as first President, and Chief D. Davis-Manuel as his Vice President.
Mr. Isaac T. T. Pepple was a paid Secretary. Mr. H. J. R. Wilcox (Chief Biriye) was in the working committee. The petition carried to London by Chief Davis- Manuel called for a Rivers State. For the resumed conference of 1954, the Council of Rivers Chiefs delegated Chief Asisi-Abbey and Mr. H. J. R. Wicox to Sir John
Macpherson in-Lagos with a petition urging the issue of a separate Rivers State to be scheduled on the agenda of the resumed conference in 1954.

12. Constitutional Changes:
(1) The Ibadan conference of 1950 ushered in the Macpherson Constitution of 1951, which created regional bottlenecks for groups of Provinces. The new Rivers Province thus had to process its programmes through Enugu, a process which made it virtually difficult for the Rivers people to get attention for their priorities, vis-a-vis the problems of majority groups
(ii) Rivers people were in no control of the Rivers Province, politically, economically and socially. Port Harcourt, the only developing town in the new province was populated predominantly by a majority tribal group.
(iii) By this time the Ijaw Rivers Peoples League was phasing out, since its original leaders had been removed from the sphere. of operations, by their paymasters.

13. Action Group and Rivers State Issue: On Easter Monday in 1954, Mr. Harold J. R. Wilcox held a meeting with Mr. Alfred Rewane, Political Secretary to Chief Obafemi Awolowo, President and Leader of the Action Group, at Mr. F. D. Stowe’s house, Port Harcourt, and the matter of proffering Action Group support for the Rivers State issue was thrashed out. As a result, the Action Group was introduced in the Rivers Province with Mr. Harold Wilcox as Principal Organising Secretary, and Mr. Kenneth Dappa of Bakana as Organising Secretary in the Federal Election of 1954, Chief N. G. Yellowe, one of the members, succeeded as an Action Group candidate for Degema Division. The Rivers State was the election issue for the Action Group in the Rivers Province.
Subsequently, the Action Group extended the Rivers State boundary to include the old Calabar and the old Ogoja Provinces to constitute a COR State. This created a rift in the rank of the members, and Mr. H. Wilcox resigned from the party in January, 1955, but took to organizing Rivers people in support of a Rivers State. Other party members from Degema Division openly supported the C.O.R. State concept.

14. Other Bodies which supported the Rivers State:
Some Rivers University Student Bodies from the University of Ibadan in 1954 and those in the United Kingdom, among whom were Mr. S. F. Kombo, (now Chief Igbeta), and Mr. Reginald Kemmer (now Chief Agiobu Kemmer) played prominent part in their various locations in favour of a Rivers State. N.C.N.C. members of Rivers origin in Lagos, led by Mr. Eric Bob Manuel started off a Rivers State movement in Lagos.

15. Rivers State Congress:
A Rivers State Congress was formed in 1955 with Mr. (later Chief) John A. Nsirim of Isiokpo as President, and Mr. H. J. R. Wilcox as Secretary. –Barrister (later Chief) Inko-Tariah later succeeded Mr. Nsirim as President. This body succeeded in preventing the Eastern Regional Government from abolishing Comey Subsidy grants in 1955, thus preserving a traditional relic of Rivers Chieftaincy and history. This body retained the services of Sir Dinglc Foot, Mr R. K. Handoo, and Mr Graham Page, a British Member of Parliament in that encounter. The Congress was granted a direct seat at the Eastern Nigeria Summit Conference at Enugu in 1956, where the matter for a Rivers State was pressed. This conference was called to sift matters for the agenda of the Eastern delegation for the Nigerian Constitutional Conference to be held in London later that year.

16. Rivers Chiefs and Peoples Conference:
On July 4, 1956, a common urge for a Rivers State caused chiefs and people, irrespective- of partisanship to get together and form the Rivers Chiefs and Peoples Conference. The motion was moved by Mr P. G. Warmate (now Chief), Francis Alagoa of Nembe and Mr H. J. R. Biriye (formerly Wilcox) were elected Chairman and Principal Secretary respectively. Mr. J. O. Barnes was appointed Secretary. In 1957, this body was permitted by the Colonial Office to send a delegation of Rivers Chiefs to London to discuss the treaties between the British Crown and Rivers Communities. The three eminent lawyers for the Corney Subsidy tussle were still retained throughout the Constitutional battles. The Rivers Chiefs and Peoples Conference was also accorded a distinct seat out of two seats intended for Chiefs of former Eastern Nigeria at the Constitutional Conference held in London in 1957. Mr Harold J. R. Dappa-Biriye was appointed by the Conference to represent them for these two separate seats. The principal theme of his mandate was pressure for a Rivers State.
One direct outcome of the delegate’s performance was the high-lighting of permanent minority problems in Nigeria, and consequent appointment in 1957 of the Henry Willink Commission of Enquiry into Nigerian Minority Problems.
An outcome of this commission was the constitutional provision for a Niger Delta Special Area and the setting up of a Development Board for the area.
Another result was participation in creating a House of Chiefs in former Eastern Nigeria, and the attainment of five out of the eight traditional First Class Chieftaincies in that territory in favour of minority groups of the Region On September 1,1965. a conference of this body was held, presided over by Chief E. D. W. Opu-Ogulaya at which a resolution calling for creation of a Rivers State was passed and signed by the Chairman and forwarded to the Federal Parliament.

17. Niger Delta Congress:
As the Rivers Chiefs and Peoples Conference, being a non-partisan umbrella, could not field candidates for the 1959 Federal election that preceded Nigeria’s Independence, the body authorised the formation of a political party to contest the issue of a Rivers State at that election. Thus the N. D. C. was born. Mr. Harold J. R. Biriye was appointed President and Leader of the party. Mr. J. A. Jamabo was appointed Secretary, and Mr F. F. Alaputa its Treasurer. The leaders went up to Kaduna in August, 1959, and contracted an alliance with the Northern Peoples Congress in the ensuing election, Mr. M. O. Okilo was returned as its successful candidate for Brass Division. He soon became the Parliamentary Secretary to the Prime Minister. -

18 The Niger Delta Development Board:
The late Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa brought in Nedeco experts to study and report on possibilities for physical development of the Niger Delta Special Area in 1959/60.
The board was set up in 1961 for an initial period of ten years, Chief I. S. Anthony was its Chairman and Mr. A. Zuofa its Secretary. It produced some reports before the Nigerian crisis.
During 1963 Constitutional Conference in Lagos for a Republican Status N. D. C. delegates prevented the abolition of the Niger Delta Development Board.
Those who attended were Messrs Harold J. R. Biriye, C. D. Clement and S. A. Opusunju of Opobo.

19. The Boro Episode:
Early in the Military regime, late Mr Isaac Boro declared a Niger Delta State, which incident was contained by the Nigeria Police and the culprits brought to book. Some Rivers Leaders like Chief Harold I. R. Dappa Biriye who had assumed the Chieftaincy title of his late father, and Dr I. J. Fiberesima (later Chief) were questioned by the police for the incident, and the former kept under house arrest from February, 1966 till the first military regime faded out.

20. Second Military, Regime:
Rivers delegates to the Enugu Consultative Assembly in August, 1966, reopened the cry for a Rivers State and for other States as a basis for further association in Nigeria. The delegates included Chief H. Dappa-Biriye, Mr W. O. Briggs and Dr W. T. Wakama. On September, 10, 1966, Rivers Leaders of Thought delegated Chiefs H. J. R. Biriye, B. J. Oriji and Mr. Wenike Briggs to the Head of State General Yakubu Gowon in Lagos to press for States in Nigeria, the Rivers State being one. Signatories to the petition carried along included Mr. I. Nwanodi, Mr. Edward Kobani, Dr Fiberesima and Mr. Graham Otoko of Andoni.
The delegates applied mature diplomacy, artifice and strategy. Chief Oriji was deployed back to console the home front. Mr. Wenike Briggs stood firmer with the Corists. Chief H. I. R. Dappa-Biriye dug into military and civilian entrenchments in Lagos. The West and the North, and surfaced with the Rivers State flag.

21. Birth of the Rivers State:
On May 27, 1967, General Gowon announced the creation of twelve States in Nigeria including the Rivers State. In his relevant speech he paid glowing tributes to minority pressure for creation of States in Nigeria.
In June, 1967, the first Nigerian mission to the United Nations Assembly in New York on the Middle-East crisis was a five-man delegation which consisted of three Nigerians from former Minority areas: Chief Anthony Enahoro from the Mid-West, Chief Harold Dappa-Biriye from the Rivers, and Mr. Michael Ani, from the South-Eastern State. The other two persons were Chief Akin Olugbade from the West, and Alhaji Au Monguno from the North.

22. Rivers State in Action:
Commander Alfred Diete-Spiff was appointed Military Governor of Rivers State in May, 1967, who, under directive from the Head of State, set up a nucleus of public administration in the territory. Owing to belligerent mood in the area the Military Governor of the State operated an absentee government from 24 Queens Drive, Lagos, using an Advisory Council which included Professor I. S. Dema who could not attend from Ghana Dr. Melford Graham-Douglas, Mr. S. Eke-Spiff, Mr. A. Zuofa, Mr. K. B. Tsaro-Wiwa, Mr. O. Nduka (these last two resigned) and Mr. S. Uzor. After Bonny had been liberated on July 25, 1967, an administration was started there using Mr. K. B. Tsaro-Wiwa as Administrator. When Port Harcourt was liberated on May 18, 1968, the Military Governor shifted base from Lagos to the State by mid year. At the end of the year, he appointed a ten-man Executive Council, including himself as ex-officio Chairman, the General Officer Commanding, the Commissioner of Police and seven civil Commissioners.

23. Performances:
The Rivers State Government in action has remained stable and viable from the outset, and has created ample public organs for its services: – The courts of Justice the Civil Service, Boards, Corporations and State-owned companies:
Cultural Councils, the College of Science and Technology, the Advanced Teacher Training College, and other educational institutions.
The Rivers State Government and Religious bodies in the State are working harmoniously and in mutual confidence. The Rivers State Government and traditional authority in the State are hands in gloves. The Government has created incentives to stimulate and promote the private sector in all recognizable occupations.
It has launched a Four-Year-Development Plan to overcome the physical handicaps of the Rivers area. The Rivers State is represented at the Supreme Military Council and the Federal Executive Council directly by Rivers people. Places are open for competent Rivers elements in other public organs at the Federal and national level.

24. Assessment:
Taking stock of results of the protracted efforts by the Rivers pioneers and various actors on the stage, decade after decade, it can be said with confidence and satisfaction that most of the mischiefs which motivated organization and action on our part, have been cured. Equality of opportunity for all Nigerians at all levels has been guaranteed by the creation of 12 States, and in the Rivers State, by creating 18 Administrative Divisions.
The physical handicaps of the Rivers area have been contained by the Development Plan of the Rivers State Government and those of various Rivers Communities. Rivers traditional traits and historical heritage have prospects of being re-conditioned for service in Society.
The Administrative and Economic viability of this State has been proved beyond every shadow of doubt. The moral quality of Rivers people and their leaders has been esteemed by all valuers as very high. The attainment of Statehood by Rivers people is both quantitative and qualitative not only because of the eminence of the target, but also because of the difficulties our leaders traversed to attain it.
Behind many good deeds of great men and women, the faithful wives of our pioneers and actors on the stage from decade to decade deserve deep commendation. To God we must all give glory for the Rivers State, realising that:— “Except the Lord builds the house their labour is but lost that build it”.


Kyk die video: 31. júla 2021 (Januarie 2022).