Inligting

William Howard Day


William Howard Day is gebore op 19 Oktober 1825 in New York. Hy werk as drukker in die Northampton Gazette voordat hy na Cleveland verhuis, waar hy betrokke raak by die stryd teen rassediskriminasie.

Geïnspireer deur die voorbeeld van Frederick Douglass, word Day redakteur van die Cleveland ware demokraat (1851-52) en die Vreemde Amerikaner (1853-54). In 1858 het hy 'n toer deur Europa begin waar hy toesprake gehou het en geld ingesamel het vir die saak teen slawerny.

Day het na die Burgeroorlog na die Verenigde State teruggekeer en by die Freedmen's Bureau gewerk. Hy word inspekteur van skole in Maryland en Delaware voordat hy in 1867 tot predikant van die African Methodist Episcopal Church aangestel is.

William Howard Day, wat as hoofsekretaris van die Algemene Konferensie van die African Methodist Episcopal Church (1875-1880) gedien het, is op 3 Desember 1900 in Harrisburg oorlede.


William Howard Day, ongedwonge afskaffer

Die William Howard Day -begraafplaas in Lincolnstraat in Steelton, PA, is 'n entjie van die Bass Pro Shop in die Harrisburg Mall af. Die begraafplaas van 43 hektaar is in 1940 geopen om aan die behoeftes van die Afro-Amerikaanse gemeenskap in Harrisburg te voldoen.

Die William Howard Day Homes is woonstelle in Community Drive, Reilly Road en Herrstraat in Harrisburg.

Beide die huise en die begraafplaas is vernoem ter ere van die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat op die Harrisburg City School Board gedien het. Hy dien as president van die raad van 1891-1893, die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse president van enige skoolraad in die land.

Die naam van William Howard Day is nie so bekend as Frederick Douglas of Harriet Tubman nie, alhoewel hy in die middel van die 1800's saam met albei die beroemde afskaffers gewerk het.

Todd Mealy doseer moderne Amerikaanse geskiedenis aan die Penn Manor High School, en het gevoel dat die verhaal van Day ’ vertel moes word. Mealy is die skrywer van Aliened American: A Biography of William Howard Day, 1825-1900.

Day is gebore in New York in 1825. Sy ma, Eliza, was 'n weggeloopte slaaf. Dit is nie bekend of sy pa ook was nie, maar albei het vry gebly in New York toe hy gebore is. Sy pa sterf in 'n ongeluk by die New York -hawe op dag 3.

Sy ma het die moedige besluit geneem, ” sê Mealy, om hom aan te neem vir aanneming by 'n blanke gesin uit Northampton, Massachusetts. U moet dit voorstel, dit is die 1830's en die#8217's. Sy wou hê dat hy veilig moet wees, nie ontvoer moet word nie, en moet sorg dat hy 'n opleiding kry. ”

Day ontvang 'n Bachelor ’s en Master ’s graad van Oberlin College in Ohio. Later sou hy 'n doktorsgraad in die goddelike graad aan die Livingstone College behaal. Hy het baie betrokke geraak by die Underground Railroad en het ontsnapte slawe gehelp om na Kanada te vlug. Hy woon 'n tyd lank in Kanada, werk in vlugteling -slawe -nedersettings en publiseer 'n koerant. Hy het ook Groot -Brittanje, Ierland en Skotland besoek en geld ingesamel vir die doel.

Nadat hy na die state teruggekeer het, het hy 'n dosent geword en een van die voorste advokate vir die Gelyke Regte -beweging, wat gehelp het om die Equal Rights League te stig wat die voorganger van die NAACP geword het.

Hy vestig hom uiteindelik in Harrisburg en word die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat in diens van die Statebond was. Kort daarna het hy by die Harrisburg School Board aangesluit en later president geword.

Todd Mealy hoop dat sy biografie kan help om sommige van die bydraes wat Day tot die saak van gelyke regte gelewer het, te belig. Mealy sal op Sondagmiddag 8 Februarie om 14:30 'n lesing hou oor William Howard Day vir die Historical Society of Dauphin County in die Harris-Cameron Mansion, South Front Street 219 in Harrisburg.

Todd Mealy het ook geskryf Biografie van 'n stad teen slawerny: advokate teen antislavery, afskaffing en ondergrondse spoorwegaktiviste in Harrisburg, PA, en mees onlangs Legendariese inwoners van Harrisburg.


Presidente in die park

President Woodrow Wilson gooi die eerste bal van die openingsdag in 1916 tydens sy eerste termyn uit.

Die volgende dag beskryf sportskrywers die gebeure van die spel asemloos. "Daar was baie openinge van bofbalseisoene in Washington, maar niks soos gister nie, toe die Nationals 'n oorwinning van 3 tot 0 oor die atletiek behaal het," skryf J. Ed Grillo in die Washington Post. 'Elke beskikbare ruimte was vol menslikheid. Die staanplekke was vol versmoring. ” Die Aandster het opgemerk dat "die president een van die beste ondersteuners van almal was, want hy het tot die einde van die wedstryd gebly totdat die laaste Philadelphian uit was en die oorwinning veilig in die McAleer -kolfsak weggebêre was." (Sien foto's van bofbal van regoor die wêreld.)

Taft keer die volgende jaar terug na die balpark, wat die presidensiële openingsdag 'n tradisie maak wat tot in die moderne era sou bestaan ​​- met die meeste presidente wat dit minstens een keer in hul ampstermyn doen. Maar die tradisie het deur die jare 'n bietjie verander. Richard Nixon het in 1973 die eerste president geword wat die openingsveld buite Washington, DC, uitgegooi het toe die stad sy bofbalspan tydelik verloor het. In 1988 word Ronald Reagan die eerste president wat 'n openingsdagveld uit die heuwel gooi eerder as op die tribune.

Slegs twee sittende presidente het die openingsdag, Carter en Trump, oorgeslaan. Carter het wel die eerste wedstryd in die laaste wedstryd van die 1979 Wêreldreeks uitgegooi en sedertdien ook 'n openingsdag uitgegooi. Trump het in 2006 'n veldtog by 'n Red Sox -wedstryd uitgegooi, maar het dit nie as sittende president gedoen nie.


Oberlin Heritage Centre Blog

In 1850 kyk 'n jong Afro-Amerikaanse egpaar van Oberlin, wat as opkomende woordvoerders teen slawerny en rasse-onreg erken word, met optimisme aan na 'n toekoms van blink hoop vir hulself, hul ras en hul land. Maar toe hulle van Oberlin afskeid neem om die hoop deur Ohio en die nasie te versprei, kon hulle hulle net nie verbeel die teleurstelling en ontnugtering wat hulle in die komende jare sou ly nie. Op die lange duur sou hulle hul pogings beloon kry, maar slegs na 'n tydelike skeiding van hul land en 'n permanente skeiding van mekaar. Hulle name was William Howard Day en Lucie Stanton.


William Howard Day
(met vergunning van University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

William Howard Day het in 1843 op 17 -jarige ouderdom na Oberlin gekom, waar hy vir die kollegiale program aan die Oberlin College ingeskryf het. Hy het 'n sterk minagting vir slawerny en rasse -onreg meegebring, geleer van sy ma, wat uit slawerny in die staat New York ontsnap het en hom in Manhattan gevestig het. Dit was daar, as 'n negejarige seuntjie, dat William getuie was van die verskriklike wedloopoproer wat die dominee Charles G. Finney en die huis van die afskaffingskrywer Lewis Tappan verwoes het. Maar nou, toe hy by die universiteit was wat Finney en Tappan soveel gedoen het om 'n afskaffingsvesting te word, het William geen tyd verspil om sy stempel af te druk nie. [1]

Hy het goeie vriende geword met George Vashon, wat in 1844 die eerste swart student sou word wat 'n Baccalaureusgraad van Oberlin College ontvang het, en Sabram Cox, 'n ander Afro -Amerikaner wat een van Oberlin se belangrikste ondergrondse spoorwegoperateurs was. In 'n noue samewerking met Vashon en Cox het William 'n toonaangewende redenaar en organiseerder van die swart gemeenskap van Oberlin geword. Op 1 Augustus 1844, toe die swart burgers van Oberlin hul derde jaarlikse viering van die herdenking van die Britse emansipasie in Wes -Indië vier, het William voor die skare gestaan ​​om die emansipasie van agt honderdduisend van ons medemense uit die galg te herdenk juk van slawerny ” en het sy “ ‘ Gekleurde vriende aangespoor [om] voort te sukkel en voort te gaan! Moenie moedeloos wees nie; ons sal uiteindelik oorwin. Oberlin Evangelis. [2]

Gedurende die lang winterreses tussen semesters, sou William na Kanada reis en onderwys gee in die baie swart nedersettings wat daar gestig is deur vlugtelinge uit Amerikaanse slawerny. Hy het ook gedurende die skoolmaande werk gekry in Oberlin as 'n tikskrywer vir die Oberlin Evangelis. En toe nuwe studente by die Oberlin College ingeskryf het, het hy nuwe vriendskappe ontwikkel. Onder hulle was Charles en John Mercer Langston en Lawrence W. Minor, wat almal 'n belangrike bydraer tot die swart gemeenskap van Oberlin sou word. Nog 'n nuwe vriendskap was met Lucie Stanton. [3]

Lucie (wat gereeld Lucy gespel word) het in 1846, in William's#8217s, na Oberlin gekom. Sy is grootgemaak in Cleveland in 'n huis wat 'n stasie was op die Underground Railroad. In Cleveland het sy saam met blanke kinders 'n openbare skool bygewoon, maar uiteindelik was sy verplig om van haar ras af weg te gaan. Dit was in daardie stadium teen staatsreg dat swart kinders die openbare skool moes bywoon, en haar stiefpa, 'n welgestelde Afro -Amerikaanse kapper, het sy eie privaatskool in Cleveland begin, waar Lucie bygewoon het. So kom Lucie, net soos William, by Oberlin, baie bewus van Amerikaanse rassisme en slawerny. Sy en William trek natuurlik na mekaar toe en begin 'n hofmakery wat 'n paar jaar sou duur. [4]

William studeer in 1847 en word die derde swart student wat 'n Baccalaureusgraad aan die Oberlin College behaal het. Hy is gekies om 'n aanvangsrede te gee, wat hy getiteld het “The Millenium of Liberty ” en herdruk in die Oberlin Evangelis. [5] William het na sy afstudering in Oberlin gebly en aanhou werk vir die Evangelis, en help met die organisering van Oberlin ’s “wakingskomitee ”- swart inwoners wat die gemeenskap sou beskerm teen “men-diewe ”. In 1848 roep William saam met Sabram Cox, Lawrence Minor, John Watson en Harlow H. Pease (die wit neef van die eerste inwoner van Oberlin, Peter Pindar Pease) 'n “Meeting of Colored Citizens ” of Lorain County , waar hulle elf besluite geneem het, insluitend: [6]

1. Besluit dat ons, die bruin burgers van die Lorain -land, hiermee verklaar dat hoewel die Grondwet van ons gewone land ons burgerskap gee, ons elkeen daartoe verbind om die ander te ondersteun in die aanspraak op ons regte ingevolge die Amerikaanse Grondwet, en om die wette wat ons onderdruk, te laat toets …

4. Besluit dat ons steeds die leerstelling van die slaaf aanspoor om onmiddellik met sy skoffel op sy skouer te vertrek na 'n land van vryheid.

5. Besluit dat ons alle bruin persone en hul vriende aanmoedig om skerp op die uitkyk te wees vir diewe en hul abettors, en hulle te waarsku dat geen persoon wat as slaaf beweer word sonder probleme uit ons midde geneem sal word nie … [7]

William het naam gemaak as 'n uitstekende organiseerder en redenaar, en hy sou die volgende dekade 'n dryfveer wees in plaaslike, staats- en nasionale swart burgerregte/anti-slawerny-konvensies. In Januarie 1849, tydens die “State Convention of the Colored Citizens of Ohio ” in Columbus, het William 'n toespraak gelewer in die volksvergadering van die Algemene Vergadering van Ohio en die eerste swart persoon geword wat 'n sitting van die liggaam toegespreek het. Dit was 'n belangrike mylpaal vir Ohioans en vir die 23-jarige William, aangesien hy die vergadering versoek het om die berugte diskriminerende Ohio “ Black Laws ”:

Ons glo dat elke mens regte in gemeen het en dat die geringste van hierdie regte wettiglik buite die bereik van wetgewing is en hoër is as die bewerings van politieke nut.

Ons vra om gelyke voorregte, nie omdat ons dit as 'n neerbuigendheid van u kant sou beskou om dit te verleen nie, maar omdat ons mans is en dus geregtig is op al die voorregte van ander mans in dieselfde omstandighede …

Ons vra dieselfde skoolvoorregte as ander, want ons betaal skoolbelasting in dieselfde verhouding.

Ons vra toestemming om ons dowes en stommes, ons kranksinniges, blindes en armes na die asiele te stuur wat vir elkeen voorberei is.

Ons vra die herroeping van die afskuwelike verordenings, wat ons vereis om onsself te verklaar dat ons armes, rondlopers of vlugtelinge uit die gereg is, en dat ons wettiglik in die staat kan bly.

Ons vra dat bruin mans nie verplig word om hulself as leuenaars te beskryf nie, in elke geval van getuienis in “courts of justice ” waar 'n wit persoon 'n party is

Ons vra dat ons een volk mag wees, saamgebind deur een gemeenskaplike band, en beskut is deur dieselfde onpartydige wet …

Laat ons ons teenstanders inlig dat ons kom vir ons regte en dat ons deur die Grondwet van ons gewone land kom en dat ons deur die wet kom en vertrou op God en die geregtigheid van ons saak , belowe onsself om nooit weerstand te bied teen tirannie nie, of dit nou in die ystermanakels van die slaaf is, of in die onregverdige geskrewe manakels gratis. [8]

Swart wette van Ohio was van krag sedert die vroeë dae van staatskaping en het verskeie pogings tot herroeping oorleef. Maar William se tydsberekening was perfek in 1849. Dit was so dat die Algemene Vergadering vasgevang was tussen verteenwoordigers van die Demokratiese en Whig-partye, met 'n handjievol afskaffingslede van die nuwe Free Soil Party teen slawerny wat die magsbalans gehad het. 8211 en bereid en in staat om daardie krag effektief uit te oefen. En dus, minder as 'n maand na die hartstogtelike beroep van William, het die Algemene Vergadering met 'n oorweldigende meerderheid gestem om die meeste swart wette op te hef en openbare skoolopleiding van swart kinders toe te laat (alhoewel meestal ras -geskei). Dit was 'n belangrike stap vorentoe vir Ohio en 'n groot oorwinning vir William. [9]

Maar William was nie die enigste wat gedurende hierdie tydperk groot deurbrake behaal het nie. Terug by Oberlin College is Lucie in 1850 verkies tot die eerste swart president van die Ladies ’ Literary Society, en word toe die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse vrou in die land wat 'n universiteitsgraad verwerf het. Lucie is ook gekies om 'n aanvangsrede te lewer, wat ook herdruk is in die Oberlin Evangelis. Met 'n sjarmante stem, beskeie houding, gepaste uitspraak en grasieuse cadences, het sy 'n pleidooi vir die onderdruktes gelewer ”: [10]

Donker hang die wolke. Die polsslag teen slawerny klop flou. Die stemreg word ontken. Die bruin man word steeds verpletter deur die gewig van onderdrukking. Hy het moontlik talente van die hoogste orde, maar vir hom word geen roem- of onderskeidingspad geopen nie. Hy kan nooit hoop om daardie voorregte te behaal terwyl sy broers in slawerny bly nie. Aangesien die vryheid van die slaaf en die verkryging van ons regte, sosiaal en polities, dus onafskeidbaar met mekaar verbind is, laat alle vriende van die mensdom pleit vir diegene wat nie hul eie saak mag pleit nie.

Waarheid en reg moet seëvier. Die slaaf gaan vry. Kyk na die toekoms! Hark! die vreugdegeroep vloei uit die hart van die aarde en bevry miljoene! Dit jaag opwaarts. Die engele in die hemel se uiterlike kantele vang die geluid op hul goue liere en stuur dit opwindend deur die weergalmende boë van die boonste wêreld. Hoe soet, hoe majestueus, dryf daardie diep inspirerende geluide uit die sterre -eilande oor die oseaan van die ruimte! Versag en versag bereik hulle die aarde en vervul die siel met harmonie en asemhaling van God en van liefde en van universele vryheid. [11]

En so, met onbeperkte optimisme, het Lucie Oberlin verlaat en werk gekry in Columbus, onderrig in die nuutgestigte openbare skole vir swart kinders, terwyl William na Cleveland verhuis het, waar hy 'n korrespondent geword het vir 'n koerant teen slawerny genaamd die Daaglikse ware demokraat en was aktief in die Cleveland -waaksaamheidskomitee en het vlugtelinge uit slawerny gehelp. Hy het ook aktief gebly in byeenkomste, en in 1851 het hy gemik op die Ohio -grondwet en die beperking van die stemreg op slegs blanke manlike inwoners. [12]

Die diskriminerende woord “white ” in die Ohio-grondwet was al dekades lank 'n teiken vir progressiewe mense, al het die howe in Ohio dit sedertdien verdun tot die lig dat swart mans soos William nou op sommige plekke kon stem. Tog het William hom ten doel gestel om die woord heeltemal uit te skakel, en 'n staatsgrondwetlike konvensie wat in 1850-1851 gehou is, het hom die geleentheid gebied. 'N Staatskonvensie van bruin mans ” is gelyktydig in Columbus gehou, en William het die kans gekry om beide konvensies gelyktydig aan te spreek in Januarie 1851. Met behulp van statistieke wat deur John Mercer Langston opgestel is, het William aan die byeenkomste gesê: [13]

Ons stel u met respek voor dat die voortsetting van die woord “white ” in die Ohio State Constitution, waardeur ons die voorreg ontneem word om vir mans te stem om wette te maak waarvolgens ons bestuur moet word, 'n oortreding is van elke beginsel [van ons vaders van die revolusie] …

Weereens help bruin mans deur hul belasting om die laste van die staat te dra, en ons vra: mag hulle nie toegelaat word om verteenwoordig te word nie? persoonlike eiendom wat aan bruin persone in die graafskappe behoort, ten bedrae van meer as drie miljoene dollars … [Ons dink dat die bedrag hierbo gespesifiseer, beslis 'n bietjie aandag van u af vereis, sodat terwyl bruin mans hul deel van die laste van die staat, kan hulle hul deel van die seëninge hê …

Ons vra, meneer, ten slotte dat u uself in ons plek sal plaas- dat u ons eis eerlik sal oorweeg, en soos die geregtigheid u beveel, om te beslissen. In u hande is ons lot geplaas. Daarom doen ons 'n beroep op u. Ons kyk na u om ons ons regte te gee, want ons vra niks meer nie. ” [14]

Maar hierdie keer was William se tydsberekening nie so goed nie. Trouens, dit was dekades lank af. Die afgevaardigdes van die konstitusionele konvensie het oorweldigend gestem om die woord “white ” in die nuwe Grondwet te behou.

Dit was die eerste van 'n lang reeks teleurstellings, maar William en Lucie het nog steeds die stryd aangesê. In 1852 sluit hulle huwelik aan en Lucie keer terug na Cleveland. In 1853 begin William sy eie koerant, Die vervreemde Amerikaner, die eerste Afro -Amerikaanse koerant in Ohio. Die koerant het 'n baie indrukwekkende en intelligente korps manlike en vroulike korrespondente gebruik, waaronder Lucie, wat 'n fiktiewe verhaal vir die eerste uitgawe oor 'n slaaf van broer en suster geskryf het. Die verhaal, getiteld “Charles en Clara Hayes ”, word erken as die eerste voorbeeld van gepubliseerde fiksie deur 'n swart vrou. Die vervreemde Amerikaner het rassekwessies van plaaslike en staatswese hanteer, maar William het ook nasionale kwessies aangepak, insluitend in sy eerste uitgawe 'n redaksionele weerlegging van president Franklin Pierce se onlangse inhuldigingstoespraak: Die president het vergeet of, as hy dit nie vergeet het nie, omgee om nie te onthou dat die Suide, vir wie hy pleit, elke dag die grondwetlike regte van vrye burgers vertrap nie. ” [15]

Maar die vertrapping van grondwetlike regte, deur die noorde sowel as die suide, het sy tol geëis. In 1854 het die Algemene Vergadering van Ohio William uit die persgalery van die Senaat verdryf, hoofsaaklik vanweë sy ras. (Sien my Oberlin begin hierdie oorlog! Blog) In 1850 het die Amerikaanse kongres die berugte wet op vlugtelinge -slawe goedgekeur, en die Pierce -administrasie demonstreer nou die lengtes waarna die regering sou gaan om dit af te dwing toe hulle verskeie maatskappye van mariniers stuur, kavallerie en artillerie na Boston om 'n enkele vlugteling, Anthony Burns, oor te dra. En die Amerikaanse kongres het die lank gerespekteerde Missouri-kompromie omvergewerp deur slawerny toe te laat in Amerikaanse gebiede wat gratis gewaarborg is. William, wat deur sommige van die meer militante swart leiers gekritiseer is omdat hy die sterre en strepe van sy land om hom omring het, het self 'n meer militante houding begin inneem. Die kroonhou kom in 1856, toe William en Lucie terugkeer van 'n reis na die swart nedersettings in Kanada en uiteindelik die lang reis per trein en wa onderneem het omdat hulle 'n kooi op 'n Michigan -passasiersboot geweier is weens die kleur van hul vel. Die voorval en die daaropvolgende onsuksesvolle regsgeding teen die bootoperateur het William emosioneel en finansieel verwoes en sy oorblywende geloof in Amerikaanse geregtigheid verpletter. [16]

En so was dit in 1856 dat William en Lucie by duisende ander vlugtelinge van Amerikaanse rasse -onderdrukking aangesluit het en na Kanada verhuis het. Daar het hulle 'n kind gehad en 'n aktiewe rol gespeel om die Kanadese waaksaamheidskomitees te help om selfs Kanadese swartes te beskerm teen ontvoering in Amerikaanse slawerny. In 1858, toe die radikale blanke Ohio -afskaffer, John Brown, Kanada besoek het om steun te werf vir 'n beplande slaweopstand in die hart van die Amerikaanse suide, het William ingestem om sy “Provisional Constitution ” vir hom te druk, maar wou nie deelneem nie verder. [17] ('n Oorspronklike afdruk van hierdie dokument het onlangs $ 22 800 op 'n veiling gehaal.)

In 1859 vaar William na Brittanje om finansiële steun te vra “ om 'n pers te stig … ten bate van die vlugtende slawe en bruin bevolking ” van Kanada. Hy was nog steeds daar toe die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog in 1861 uitbreek, en daarom het hy ook die Britse volk aangemoedig om die Konfederasie te verwerp en die Unie te ondersteun. Maar hy het ook geld aangevra vir 'n nuwe koloniseringspoging in Afrika onder leiding van sy militante vriend, Martin Delany. [18]

Die lang skeiding van sy vrou het haar egter laat om hul kind alleen groot te maak en hul huwelik onherstelbaar beskadig. Toe president Lincoln sy Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 uitgereik het, het die Days geloof in die Verenigde State gevind om terug te keer en hulself toe te wy aan die bevordering van die vrymanne, maar hulle het in verskillende rigtings gegaan. William word 'n superintendent van skole vir die Freedmen ’s Bureau en uiteindelik president van die Harrisburg, Pennsylvania skoolraad. Lucie moes die stigma van die Victoriaanse tydperk as alleenstaande moeder oorkom (jy kan hier lees oor haar beproewinge en verdrukkings), maar sy het uiteindelik 'n langtermyn-ambisie bereik en om na die suide te gaan om swart kinders in Georgië te leer. en Mississippi. Nadat die egskeiding afgehandel is, trou sy weer, en onder die naam Lucie Stanton was Sessions 'n aktiewe beampte van die Women's Relief Corps en 'n plaaslike matigheidsvereniging. [19]


Lucie Stanton Sessions in haar latere jare

Alhoewel die grenslose, jeugdige optimisme van hul Oberlin -dae moontlik getemper is, het beide Lucie en William voortgegaan om ” voort te gaan en hul lewens te wy aan die oorsaak van universele vryheid. ”

Bronne geraadpleeg:

Todd Mealy, Aliened American: A Biography of William Howard Day: 1825 tot 1865, Volume 1

Stephen Middleton, The Black Laws: Race and the Legal Process in Early Ohio

Frank Uriah Quillin, The Color Line in Ohio: 'n Geskiedenis van rassevooroordeel in 'n tipiese noordelike staat

Staatskonvensie van bruin mans, “ Adres by die konstitusionele konvensie van Ohio / van die staatsbyeenkoms van bruin mans, gehou in die stad Columbus, 15, 16, 17 en 18, 1851 ”

Ellen NicKenzie Lawson met Marlene D. Merrill, The Three Sarahs: Documents of Antebellum Black College Women

“ Ontmoeting met bruin burgers ”, Die Bevryder, 2 Maart 1849, Vol XIX, No. 9, Bladsy 1

Die Oberlin Evangelis (sien voetnote vir spesifieke kwessies)

C. Peter Ripley, et al, red., The Black Abolitionist Papers, Volume IV, The United States, 1847-1858

C. Peter Ripley, et al, red., The Black Abolitionist Papers, Volume II, Canada, 1830-1865

William Cheek, John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1829-65

William M. Mitchell, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom

Victor Ullman, Look to the North Star, 'n lewe van William King

James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom

Oberlin Heritage Centre Harlow Pease, “Harlow Pease (1828-1910) ”

Algemene katalogus van Oberlin kollege, 1833 [-] 1908, Oberlin College Archives

Robert Samuel Fletcher, 'n Geskiedenis van Oberlin College: vanaf die stigting tot en met die burgeroorlog, Deel 1

[1] Mealy, pp. 47-50
[2] Mealy, pp. 120-121 Oberlin Evangelis, 6 November 1844
[3] Mealy, bl. 121-126
[4] Lawson, pp. 190-191
[5] “Katalogus en rekord ” Oberlin Evangelis, 13 Oktober 1847
[6] Mealy, bl. 134, 146 Oberlin Heritage Centre
[7] “ Ontmoeting met bruin burgers en#8221
[8] Samuel J. May Versameling teen slawerny
[9] Quillin, pp. 39-40
[10] Lawson, pp. 192-193 Oberlin Evangelis, 6 November 1850
[11] Oberlin Evangelis, 17 Desember 1850
[12] Mealy, pp. 169-172 “ Ohio Constitution ”
[13] Ripley, Vol. IV, bl. 225 Wang, p. 153
[14] “ Adres vir die konstitusionele konvensie ”
[15] Ripley, Vol. IV, pp. 215, 150 Lawson, pp. 196-197
[16] McPherson, bl. 119 Ripley, Vol. IV, bl. 75 Mealy, pp. 238-243
[17] Mealy, bl. 268, 277
[18] Mitchell, pp. 171-172 Mealy, p. 316
[19] Lawson, pp. 198-201

Hierdie inskrywing is op Woensdag 2 April 2014 om 08:24 geplaas en word ingedien onder Afskaffing, Heropbou Era, Vroueregte. U kan enige reaksie op hierdie inskrywing volg via die RSS 2.0 -feed. Beide opmerkings en pings is tans gesluit.


Sensusrekords kan u baie min feite oor u voorouers van William Howard vertel, soos beroep. Beroep kan u vertel van die sosiale en ekonomiese status van u voorouer.

Daar is 3 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan die tellingsrekords van William Howard u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 642 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het, en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die hawens van aankoms en vertrek.

Daar is 1 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Vir die veterane onder u voorouers van William Howard, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle gedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.

Daar is 3 000 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan die tellingsrekords van William Howard u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 642 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het, en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die hawens van aankoms en vertrek.

Daar is 1 000 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van William Howard. Vir die veterane onder u voorouers van William Howard, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle gedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.


Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis, 30 Mei: Tien mense sterf ná polisiebeleid op staalwerkers wat naby die Republiek Staalfabriek in Suid -Chicago betoog het

Vandag is Sondag 30 Mei, die 150ste dag van 2021. Daar is nog 215 dae oor die jaar.

Vandag se hoogtepunt in die geskiedenis:

Op 30 Mei 1937 is tien mense dood toe die polisie op staalwerkers geskiet het wat naby die Republiek Staalfabriek in Suid -Chicago betoog het.

In 1431 is Joan of Arc, wat as ketter veroordeel is, op die brandstapel in Rouen (roo-AHN ’), Frankryk, verbrand.

In 1883 is 12 mense dood getrap in 'n stormloop wat veroorsaak is deur 'n gerug dat die Brooklyn -brug wat onlangs geopen is, in gevaar sou val.

In 1922 is die Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, toegewy tydens 'n seremonie wat bygewoon is deur president Warren G. Harding, hoofregter William Howard Taft en Robert Todd Lincoln.

In 1943, tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, het Amerikaanse troepe die Aleoetiese eiland Attu van Japanse magte beveilig.

In 1971 het die Amerikaanse ruimtesonde Mariner 9 van Kaap Kennedy af op 'n reis na Mars gebars.

In 1972 het drie lede van die Japannese Rooi Leër op die Lod -lughawe in Tel Aviv, Israel, geskiet en 26 mense is dood. Twee aanvallers is dood en die derde is gevang.

In 1989 het studentebetogers in Beijing 'n standbeeld van 'Goddess of Democracy' op die Tiananmen -plein opgerig (die standbeeld is vernietig tydens die ondergang van die Chinese regering).

In 1994 sterf die president van die Mormoonse Kerk, Ezra Taft Benson, op 94 -jarige ouderdom in Salt Lake City.

In 1996 het die Britse prins Andrew en die voormalige Sarah Ferguson 'n onbetwiste besluit gekry om hul huwelik van tien jaar te beëindig.

In 2002 was 'n plegtige, woordelose seremonie die einde van die pynlike opruiming by ground zero in New York, 8 1/2 maande na 9/11.

In 2006 het die FBI gesê dat dit geen spoor van Jimmy Hoffa gevind het nadat hy 'n voorstedelike perdeplaas in Detroit opgegrawe het nie.

In 2015 sterf die seun van visepresident Joe Biden, voormalige prokureur -generaal in Delaware, Beau Biden, op 46 -jarige ouderdom aan breinkanker.

Tien jaar gelede: President Barack Obama het die weermaggeneraal Martin Dempsey gekies om die voorsitter van die gesamentlike stafhoofde te wees. Duitsland het planne aangekondig om die kernkrag in die komende 11 jaar te laat vaar, en 'n ambisieuse strategie uiteengesit in die nasleep van die Japanse Fukushima -ramp om atoomkrag deur hernubare energiebronne te vervang.

Vyf jaar gelede: President Barack Obama het Amerikaners op Memorial Day uitgedaag om die stilte te vul van diegene wat gesterf het in hul land met liefde en ondersteuning vir gesinne van die gevalle, "nie net met woorde nie, maar met ons optrede."

N jaar gelede: Spannende protesoptogte oor die dood van George Floyd en ander polisiemoorde op swart mense het oral in die land gegroei. Rassistiese menigtes het meestal vreedsame betogings in tientalle stede gehou, hoewel baie later in geweld neergedaal het, terwyl polisiemotors aan die brand gesteek het. Die National Guard is buite die Withuis ontplooi, waar skares die wetstoepassers getart het wat pepersproei afgevuur het. 'N Vierde dag van geweld in Los Angeles het die burgemeester aangespoor om 'n stadsreël in te stel en die Nasionale Garde in te roep. Straatbetogings in New York oor polisiemoorde het gelei tot die stad se ergste onrus in dekades, terwyl brande gebrand het, vensters stukkend geraak en konfrontasies tussen betogers en beamptes opgevlam het. 'N Vliegtuigskip wat deur Elon Musk se SpaceX gebou is, het van die Cape Canaveral in Florida vertrek om twee Amerikaners na die Internasionale Ruimtestasie te vervoer, wat 'n nuwe era van kommersiële ruimtevaart ingelui het.

Vandag se verjaarsdae: Akteur Ruta Lee is 86. Akteur Keir Dullea is 85. Rockmusikant Lenny Davidson (The Dave Clark Five) is 77. Akteur Stephen Tobolowsky is 70. Akteur Colm Meaney is 68. Akteur Ted McGinley is 63 Akteur Ralph Carter is 60. Akteur Tonya Pinkins is 59. Die countrysanger Wynonna Judd is 57. Rockmusikant Tom Morello (Audioslave Rage Against The Machine) is 57. Akteur Mark Sheppard is 57. Filmregisseur Antoine Fuqua is 56. Akteur John Ross Bowie is 50. Rockmusikant Patrick Dahlheimer ( Live) is 50. Akteur Idina Menzel is 50. Rapper Cee Lo Green is 46. Rapper Remy Ma is 41. Akteur Blake Bashoff is 40. Christelike rockmusikant James Smith (Underoath) is 39. Akteur Javicia Leslie is 34. Akteur Jake Short is 24. Akteur Sean Giambrone is 22. Akteur Jared Gilmore is 21.

Daar word gereeld gesê dat joernalistiek die eerste konsep van die geskiedenis is. Kyk elke dag terug na wat nuut en oud is.


Nuwe aanlyn: digitale uitgawe van die William Howard Taft Papers

LOC -manuskripafdeling 31.07.2020 12:00

The papers of William Howard Taft (1857-1930), twenty-seventh president of the United States and tenth chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, consist of approximately 676,000 documents (785,977 images), which have been digitized from 658 reels of previously reproduced microfilm. Held in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division, these papers constitute the largest collection of original Taft documents in the world. The collection contains family papers, personal and official correspondence, presidential and judicial files, speeches and addresses, legal files and notebooks, business and estate papers, engagement calendars, guest lists, scrapbooks, clippings, printed matter, memorabilia, and photographs dating from 1784 to 1973, with the bulk of the material dated 1880-1930.  The materials address the major issues that confronted his presidency, including tariffs, federal income tax, international arbitration, antitrust enforcement, conservation, Republican party politics, U.S. investment in Latin America, and the construction of the Panama Canal.

The Index to the William Howard Taft Papers (link to catalog record) was created by the Manuscript Division in 1972 after the bulk of the collection was microfilmed. The index comprises six volumes, each of which is available in searchable PDF and HTML versions. Volume 1 (PDF and HTML) provides alphabetical listings of presidential subject or case files in Series 5, Series 6, and Series 7, as well as legal case files in Series 12 and Series 13. The remaining volumes provide an alphabetical list of correspondents found throughout the collection: Volume 2: A-C (PDF and HTML), Volume 3: D-H (PDF and HTML), Volume 4: I-M (PDF and HTML), Volume 5: N-S (PDF and HTML), and Volume 6: T-Z (PDF and HTML). The information in these volumes is helpful in finding individual letters or documents in the online version. Items in Series 27, an addition to the collection, came to the Library after 1972 and are not included in the index.

A current finding aid (PDF and HTML) to the William H. Taft Papers is also available online with links to the digital content on this site.


This day in history, May 23: Bank robbers Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker shot to death in police ambush in Bienville Parish, Louisiana

Today is Sunday, May 23, the 143rd day of 2021. There are 222 days left in the year.

Vandag se hoogtepunt in die geskiedenis:

On May 23, 1934, bank robbers Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker were shot to death in a police ambush in Bienville Parish, Louisiana.

In 1430, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.

In 1533, the marriage of England’s King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer.

In 1911, the newly completed New York Public Library was dedicated by President William Howard Taft, Gov. John Alden Dix and Mayor William Jay Gaynor.

In 1915, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary during World War I.

In 1939, the Navy submarine USS Squalus sank during a test dive off the New England coast. Thirty-two crew members and one civilian were rescued, but 26 others died the sub was salvaged and recommissioned the USS Sailfish.

In 1944, during World War II, Allied forces bogged down in Anzio began a major breakout offensive.

In 1945, Nazi official Heinrich Himmler committed suicide by biting into a cyanide capsule while in British custody in Luneburg, Germany.

In 1967, Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, an action which helped precipitate war between Israel and its Arab neighbors the following month.

In 1977, Moluccan extremists seized a train and a primary school in the Netherlands the hostage drama ended June 11 as Dutch marines stormed the train, resulting in the deaths of six out of nine hijackers and two hostages, while the school siege ended peacefully.

In 1984, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop issued a report saying there was “very solid” evidence linking cigarette smoke to lung disease in non-smokers. “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,” starring Harrison Ford, was released by Paramount Pictures.

In 1994, funeral services were held at Arlington National Cemetery for former first lady Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis.

In 2007, President George W. Bush, speaking at the U.S. Coast Guard commencement, portrayed the Iraq war as a battle between the U.S. and al-Qaida and said Osama bin Laden was setting up a terrorist cell in Iraq to strike targets in America.

Tien jaar gelede: President Barack Obama opened a six-day European tour in Ireland, where he paid tribute to his Irish ancestors before heading to Britain. The European Union imposed sanctions on Syrian President Bashar Assad over the continuing crackdown on antigovernment protesters. Pakistani commandos recaptured a major naval base from Taliban attackers after a bloody 18-hour standoff.

Vyf jaar gelede: During his visit to Asia, President Barack Obama, eager to banish lingering shadows of the Vietnam War, lifted the U.S. embargo on selling arms to America’s former enemy. Prosecutors failed for the second time in their bid to hold Baltimore police accountable for the arrest and death of Freddie Gray, as an officer was acquitted in the racially charged case that triggered riots a year earlier. The Supreme Court upended the conviction and death sentence of a Black Georgia man because prosecutors had improperly excluded African-Americans from his all-white jury. Dr. Henry Heimlich, the 96-year-old retired chest surgeon credited with developing the namesake Heimlich maneuver, used it to save a woman choking on food at his senior living center in Cincinnati.

N jaar gelede: For the first time since he declared the coronavirus pandemic a national emergency more than two months earlier, President Donald Trump played golf at one of his courses at the start of the Memorial Day weekend, as he pushed for state and local leaders to fully reopen after months of closures and tight restrictions. China reported no new confirmed coronavirus cases for the first time since it started announcing infections in January.

Vandag se verjaarsdae: Actor Barbara Barrie is 90. Actor Joan Collins is 88. Actor Charles Kimbrough is 85. International Tennis Hall of Famer John Newcombe is 77. Actor Lauren Chapin is 76. Country singer Judy Rodman is 70. Chess grandmaster Anatoly Karpov is 70. Singer Luka Bloom is 66. Former baseball manager Buck Showalter is 65. Actor-comedian-game show host Drew Carey is 63. Actor Lea DeLaria is 63. Country singer Shelly West is 63. Author Mitch Albom is 63. Actor Linden Ashby is 61. Actor-model Karen Duffy is 60. Actor Melissa McBride is 56. Rock musician Phil Selway (Radiohead) is 54. Actor Laurel Holloman is 53. Rock musician Matt Flynn (Maroon 5) is 51. Country singer Brian McComas is 49. Actor John Pollono is 49. Singer Maxwell is 48. Singer Jewel is 47. Game show contestant Ken Jennings is 47. Actor LaMonica Garrett is 46. Actor D.J. Cotrona is 41. Actor Lane Garrison is 41. Actor-comedian Tim Robinson is 40. Actor Adam Wylie is 37. Movie writer-director Ryan Coogler is 35. Golfer Morgan Pressel is 33. Actor Alberto Frezza is 32. Folk/pop singer/songwriter Sarah Jarosz (juh-ROHZ’) is 30.

Daar word gereeld gesê dat joernalistiek die eerste konsep van die geskiedenis is. Kyk elke dag terug na wat nuut en oud is.


William Howard Taft, former president and chief justice, dies at 72 in 1930

WASHINGTON, D.C., March 8 — William Howard Taft died at 5:15 p.m. vandag.

Surrendering at last to a combination of ailments, the former President and chief justice passed away after lingering for weeks at the point of death. He was 72.

He died peacefully at his home on Wyoming Ave., with Mrs. Taft at his bedside. His two sons had returned to Cincinnati recently.

Funeral arrangements, still incomplete, contemplate a ceremony attended by the highest officials of the government. It is undecided whether entombment will be at Washington or Cincinnati.

The end came a few hours after Associate Justice Edward Terry Sandford of the United States Supreme Court died suddenly at his home following a collapse in his dentist's office.

The federal government he served over four decades will observe a period of official mourning by proclamation of President Hoover.

Congress and the Supreme court will recess. Flags on government buildings and army and navy stations throughout the world will be put at half-staff.

A congressional committee of twenty senators and twenty representatives will attend the funeral.

Taft had been confined to his home since Feb. 4, when he returned to Washington from Ashville., N.C., where he had gone for rest and recuperation. The day previous he had resigned as chief justice.

Suffered From Old Ailment.

Suffering from an old nervous disorder, a bladder complaint and heart trouble, his condition was aggravated of late by hardening of the arteries.

Dr. Francis R. Hagner announced tonight that a sudden stroke of cerebro arterio sclerosis (hardening of the brain arteries) caused Taft's death.

The doctors abandoned hope for his ultimate recovery weeks ago, and last Thursday said it was only a matter of time.

He spent these last days generally in a comatose state. Drs. Hagner and Thomas A. Claytor visited him several times daily, issuing regular bulletins through the White House.

President and Mrs. Hoover are placing the facilities of the White House at Mrs. Taft's disposal for such help as she may need.

President Hoover as soon as he was advised of the death of Taft called at the home to pay his respects. He was accompanied by Charles Evans Hughes, who replaced Taft as chief justice.

Mrs. Hoover accompanied her husband and Mr. Hughes. The three entered the big mansion together.

In official and unofficial Washington, which loved him, the news of the former president's death stirred a great outpouring of sorrowful tributes. This mentioned the wide regard with which he was held both as chief executive and Chief Justice of the nation.

Charles Evans Hughes, who succeeded to the chief justiceship after Taft's resignation last month, said the people had "recompensed his endeavors in their behalf with a warmth of affection which perhaps has never been so universally felt toward a public officer during his own time."

Patrick J. Hurley, who holds the war secretaryship which Taft had in the Roosevelt administration, said the army mourned "the loss of a friend."

Officials Pay Tribute.

"A great, a fine life," said acting Secretary Cotton of the state department while acting Secretary Jahncke of the navy said Mr. Taft was "a great American citizen, always considerate of the human feelings of his fellow man."

Senator William E. Borah of Idaho mourned the ending of "a marvelous career" and the passing of "a most lovable character."

Senator Walsh of Montana, acting democratic leader of the senate, said, "no one ever doubted his integrity or his devotion to his country."

Neither Dr. Hagner nor Dr. Claytor were at his bedside when the end came.

A Dr. Fuller, who was summoned by the nurses when they were unable immediately to reach the attending physicians, pronounced the former chief justice dead.

Dr. Claytor arrived fifteen minutes later.

When the end came unexpectedly, the activity which has surrounded the Taft residence since his return from Asheville had almost ceased, only a few cars were in front of the home. Shortly thereafter taxicabs arriving with newspaper men gave notice of the death.

First word of the death was sent to the White House, which announced it to the press in the following bulletin:

"Former Chief Justice Taft died at 5:15 p.m. today."

Dr. Claytor at 6:30 p.m. tonight issued a formal bulletin saying the former chief justice had undergone a sudden change at 4:45 p.m., from which he failed to rally.

The funeral will be conducted probably Tuesday from the Unitarian church here which Taft attended during all his life in the capital.

William Howard Taft, twenty-seventh President of the Unites States, was hand-picked for the office by Theodore Roosevelt in 1908.

In 1912 Roosevelt carried out his threat to hamstring his renomination. Taft was renominated and Woodrow Wilson was swept into power through the split in the Republican party caused by Roosevelt's bull moose defection.

Taft took his defeat just as cheerfully as he had said he would. Smiling he welcomed Wilson into the White House March 4, 1913, and smilingly he retired to Yale college to become Kent professor of law in the university.

For eight years he remained in the comparative insecurity of his professorship, emerging only when impelled to proclaim his advocacy of a larger army and navy before this country entered the World War and his earnest support of the League of Nations covenant, with or without reservations.

Then, on Oct. 11, 1921, he achieved his real life ambition, accepting from president Harding the nomination to be Chief Justice of the Supreme court of the United States.

William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, O., Sept. 15, 1857.

Early in his youth young Taft showed his scholarly aptitude, graduating from Woodward. High School, Cincinnati, at seventeen into Yale, where he became class orator and salutatorian of the 1878 class, taking his B.A. degree.

Two years later, 1880, young Taft got his LL.B. in the Cincinnati Law School, taking first prize in his class. In later years he was showed with degrees from Yale Harvard, Princeton, Hamilton, Pennsylvania, Cincinnati, Oxford (England), McGill, and other colleges. But be prized most his L.L.B. at Cincinnati, which enabled him to hang out his shingle as a lawyer.

Finding clients few, he took to law reporting, working first for his brother's paper and then for the Cincinnati Commercial. But this was unsatisfactory. A political move gave him the position of internal revenue collector at $4,500 a year, but he gave this up to become, at much less salary, assistant prosecutor of Hamilton County, O., which he held till 1883, when he went back to the practice of law.

A couple of years as assistant county solicitor from 1885 to 1887 found him appointed to be judge of the Superior court in Cincinnati, which he held till 1890.

Benjamin Harrison was President then and he sent for Judge Taft and offered him the post of solicitor general of the United States, a job which entails more work than glory. Taft was but thirty-three, but he displayed such skill of the Bering Sea seal fisheries dispute with Great Britain and the elucidation of the first McKinley tariff bill that in 1892 he was appointed United States circuit judge for the sixth circuit, embracing Ohio, Michigan, Tennessee and Kentucky.

He held his position till 1900, rendering decisions on labor controversies and the enforcement of the Sherman anti-trust act which startled the country and were upheld completely by the Supreme court. Her had become meanwhile professor and Jean of law school at Cincinnati university, but his decisions made him a national figure.

President McKinley sent for him in 1900 and ordered him the post of chairman of the United States Philippine commission, which he accepted.

President Roosevelt, who had succeeded to the White House through the assassination of McKinley, sent Taft, at the latter's suggestion, to Rome to consult with Pope Leo XIII on the subject of the property owned in the islands by religious orders under the old Spanish regime.

When Taft left the Philippines in January 1904 to become secretary of war under Roosevelt, his departure brought grief to the Filipinos, whose friend he had become. During this period he three times refused an offer to become an associate justice of the United States Supreme court, an honor to which he dearly aspired. But he felt that he could not desert the Filipinos and in accepting the cabinet post as secretary of war he did so only because as such he would have supervision over the government of the Philippines.

Roosevelt, who admired Taft's administrative ability, kept him busy. Twice between 1904, and 1908, when he was elected President. Taft was sent on trips which took him around the world. He put down, by civil methods, the insurrection in Cuba, he supervised the construction of the Panama Canal, he inspected Puerto Rico, visited Japan, where he cheered the subjects and the statesmen of the Mikado by assuring them America was their friend, not their enemy.

He dropped in on the Philippines again and made a trip over the Siberian continental railroad, coming back by way of Europe.

Roosevelt, putting aside the idea of what was being called a third term for himself, preached Taft to politicians high and low, night and day, until in June, 1908, the Republican Convention nominated William Howard Taft on the first ballot amid tremendous enthusiasm. Bryan ran against him on the Democratic ticket an Taft won by about 1,370,000 plurality. Women did not vote then, and that was considered a magnificent victory.

His first step on becoming President was to summon Congress to extra session to pass what was afterward called the Payne-Aldrich tariff bill. Its terms were in line with the promises of the Republicans, but when Taft, in an indiscreet moment, pronounced it "the best Tariff bill over passed" a storm of opposition arose which the Democrats took such good advantage of in 1910 that they elected a Democratic House of Representatives. The Senate, with a dissatisfied Republican element, was not easy to manage, and this President Taft found himself in the middle of his term riding a bucking horse.

President Taft was no politician. He had no astuteness, no ear to the ground and no ability or desire to strikes the popular chord by some opportune speech or act. But by sheer doggedness he saw safely through Congress a lot of legislation which he was bent upon.

The laws for the publication of campaign funds and contributions, for regulating the Panama Canal tolls, for halting the white slave traffic and for the adoption of the income tax amendment were all Taft measures. He settled the Mexican boundary dispute in Texas, put a final end to the Bering sea controversy and put through the arbitration treaty for the Atlantic fisheries.

The earnest advocate of arbitration treaties with all countries, he much deplored the action of the Senate in refusing, during his term, to ratify the treaties he had concluded with great Britian and with Canada. But he took his defeats as goodhumoredly as his victories,.

Theodore Roosevelt, returning from his African hunting trip in 1910, secretly anxious for his own renomination, according to some observers socially and politically opposed to Taft for private reasons, according to others, began almost immediately a crush against the Taft administration. Walter came to his wheel in the shape of the Ballinger-Pinchot Alaska coal controversy.

President Taft's indiscriminate application of the Sherman antitrust laws against the International Harvester, Standard Oil, Steel and other corporations antagonized a large section of big business, and through George W. Perkins, formerly of the Morgan banking house, but now a backer of Roosevelt, big business began to apply the big stick to President Taft,

The result was that though Taft was renominated by the Republicans, the Progressives under Roosevelt made hash of the campaign and the Democrats elected Woodrow Wilson. Taft carried only two states in the whole election.

His good nature, pleasant personality, ruddy, smiling face and great bulk of cheerful human nature stood him in good stead when he took up law teaching again at Yale.

President at fifty-one, he became tenth Chief Justice of the Supreme court at sixty-three.

His wife, Helen Taft, to whom he was married in 1886, bore him three children, Robert, Charles and Helen.

"He Belonged to All of Us," Says Coolidge.

Former President Calvin Coolidge, who reached New York not long after Mr. Taft's death became known here, was one of the first of numerous men in public life to express his grief.

"William Howard Taft's public service extended over a generation," said the ex-President. "To me he was a friend, kindly, genial and helpful. He came often to my office when I was in Washington, and always brought mature thought and good cheer.

"I join with millions of fellow citizens in my expressions of sympathy for his family. He belonged to all of us."

Other statements included.

Alfred E Smith: "He served his country in the highest tradition of American ideals. He will be mourned by a nation that knows how to value its great men."


Past and Present: East New York’s Historic Howard House

Howard’s Woods was a farm tract established by William Howard, the eldest of seven brothers who came to the Flatbush area in the late 1600s from England. They settled on land that was part of the “New Lots” opened up to Flatbush settlers looking for more room. As time went by, new neighbors came to the area a pretty remote spot near the Jamaica Bay. Around 1700, William Howard turned his large Dutch style farm house into an inn and tavern.

He was near a crossroads where the Jamaica Plank Road that led to Long Island was met by other local roads, including what would become Atlantic Avenue, the perfect place for a tavern. His customers were farmers, merchants and others making their way back and forth to Brooklyn and Long Island. He called his inn Howard House.

Howard House soon became a way station for stage coaches, and a tourist destination for those heading further out on Long Island, or to Manhattan via Brooklyn, and William Howard was a busy man. In the old tradition of English pubs and inns, he always kept a key on a hook outside so that anyone could enter after all were asleep and take shelter. Howard knew his customers were honest and would settle up later. On August 27th, 1776, Howard House was visited by a man who used that key and came into the inn at two in the morning.

The American colonies were flexing their muscles toward independence from England. The Declaration of Independence had been signed, and war was in the air. General George Washington and the Continental Army was in Brooklyn, in the Gowanus and Brooklyn Heights area, and even out in New Lots, people were wondering what would happen next. Many people, like William Howard, were English themselves, but had committed themselves to the cause of American liberty.

So when the British gentleman who entered the inn at two in the morning woke William Howard and his son up, they had no idea what was going on. Even though it was in the middle of summer, the man had a coat on, and a cap on his head. He was accompanied by several other men, and they called for a round of drinks for themselves. After downing their ale, the leader of the group announced to Howard and his teenage son that they were his prisoners. He was Lord William Howe, the commander of the British forces. The tavern soon found itself surrounded by red-coated British troops who came out of the woods in huge numbers.

Howe had come to nip this little revolution in the bud by marching through Flatbush and wiping out the Continental Army as they slept in Gowanus. But he had no clue how to get there, and had gotten lost. General Howe forced Howard and his son, also William, to lead him down the roadways and paths to Gowanus. Marched at gunpoint, they had little choice, and with only a torch to see where they were going, they reluctantly led Howe and his army to the Flatbush Road, and on to the Battle of Brooklyn.

Howe let the Howards go after they had done their job, and lucky to be alive, they made their way back to their inn. General Howe and his aide, General Clinton, did now know that Howard had secretly sent a trusted servant ahead to warn Washington. He then proceeded to lead the British through Flatbush the long way, stalling them as long as possible. Washington found out just in time that the British were coming, and although defeated and forced to retreat, they made it through the bloodiest battle of the Revolution. The British occupied all of Brooklyn and New York City for the rest of the war.

Back in New Lots, Howard House became more popular than ever as Brooklyn and Flatbush (still a separate town) grew and prospered. Stage coach lines became more numerous, as was road traffic. By the mid-1800s, the Long Island Railroad was running, as were horse drawn trollies to Broadway Junction. In 1852, William Howard the younger was now 90 years old. He still held court at Howard House, telling the story of General Howe to any and all who came in.

Earlier, in 1835, a Connecticut developer named John R. Pitkin came through these parts and bought up as much land as he could. He wanted to start a new city that would rival New York City, and he called his new town East New York. His operation did not succeed conceptually or financially, but East New York did continue to grow, and Howard House was right in the middle of it.

In 1857, the last bit of the old Dutch house was torn down, and a new building built on its site. This was a large wood-framed Italianate villa with a cupola on the roof. It was built by the last Howard to own the inn, the grandson of William Howard, Philip Howard Reid. He opened a feed store next door, and gave it a go for almost 10 years. Then the Howard estate was sold in 1868 for $23,000. It included Howard House, as well as four acres of land.

Howard House was purchased by brewing company S. Leibmann’s Sons. They did a total renovation inside and out, and when the inn reopened several months later, it was totally changed inside and was a modern and fashionable inn. It was now under the proprietorship of Major Henry Breden. He had been an experienced hotel man before the Civil War. He made Howard House more popular than ever. It became home to several local clubs who met their regularly. It was the place to dine in the area, and attracted both locals and tourists.

By 1890, the Long Island Railroad stopped literally at its front door, as did several trolley lines. The LIRR ran a special summer Rockaway Beach train that began and ended here at the inn, now at the corner of Atlantic and Alabama Avenues. Trolleys ran from the inn to the beaches at Canarsie, as well. Amazingly, all of these people managed to get where they were going in an orderly manner, as there was no real structure in place. Travelers of the day heard the familiar cry of “Howard House” from the conductors before they reached the station.

Howard House was in the papers all the time. Partly because of activities going on there, good and bad, and partly because it was the most historic place East New York had. Everyone knew about William Howard’s forced guide work to Gowanus. The newspapers frequently ran articles about the history of the house, and its occupants. They would also talk about how important Howard House was to history, and how it was a landmark. What a concept.

Rumors of tearing it down had been floating around in the papers since around 1910, prompting another round of articles about its history. East New York had changed by then, it was a growing densely populated urban area. The Long Island Railroad had been elevated, and buried underground right near the inn, and Howard House was no longer a stop on its route. The trains now stopped at nearby Broadway Junction, instead. The inn grew seedy, became a boarding house, and finally closed. As a final indignity, the building was sold to a company that used it as a laundry.

In 1925, the now derelict building was torn down for a new $40,000 brick store, showroom and light industrial building. When that announcement was made in the papers, they also said that the inn was 200 years old, and that George Washington had slept there. Neither one of those statements is true. The building was only about 70 years old. But that George Washington certainly got around, didn’t he? Today, this same showroom/factory building is self-storage. Not even a plaque commemorates the place where General Howe was served a beer, and led on a long path into the annals of history. GMAP


Kyk die video: William Howard and Juwan Morgan: Media Day (Januarie 2022).