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Spring Grove -hospitaalsentrum


Spring Grove Hospital Center (SGHC), wat besit en bedryf word deur die staat Maryland, is geleë op 'n pragtige kampus van 200 hektaar in die sentrum van Catonsville, Maryland. Die fasiliteit met 436 beddens is onder die beheer van die Mental Hygiene Administration van die Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Spring Grove, wat in 1797 gestig is, het 'n jarelange reputasie vir die verskaffing van kwaliteit psigiatriese sorg en behandeling en word erken as die tweede oudste deurlopende psigiatriese hospitaal in die Verenigde State. Dit is geakkrediteer deur die Gesamentlike Kommissie vir Akkreditasie van Gesondheidsorgorganisasies (JCAHO) .GGHC bied meer as 'n psigiatriese hospitaal tandheelkundige, dieet-, radiologiese en rehabilitasiedienste.Spring Grove, in samewerking met Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, bedryf 'n behandelingsnavorsingseenheid (TRU). Die behandelingsnavorsingsprogram van die hospitaal is uitsluitlik toegewy aan die oorsaak en genesing van skisofrenie. Spring Grove Hospital Center Alumni Museum, in die Garrett -gebou, bied 'n versameling foto's en tekeninge uit die geskiedenis van die hospitaal ten toon. Dit bevat ook 'n klein biblioteek, verskeie meubels en vroeë mediese toerusting. SGHC dien ook as 'n kliniese opleidingsplek vir studente, inwoners en genote. Die spesialiseringsrigtings sluit in kliniese apteek, sielkunde, medisyne, verpleegkunde, maatskaplike werk, arbeidsterapie en pastorale berading.


Die psigopatiese gebou (Foster-Wade)

Die oudste gebou wat oorleef het op die kampus van die Spring Grove-hospitaalsentrum, die Foster-Wade-gebou, is in wese twee afsonderlike geboue wat ongeveer 12 jaar uitmekaar gebou is. Hierdie twee geboue (nou afsonderlike gedeeltes van 'n enkele gebou) is die Foster Clinic (hierbo getoon) - wat gesamentlik bestaan ​​het uit die middelste gedeelte en die ooste, of & quotFoster & quot vleuel & quot (c. 1914) en die weste, of & quotWade & quot vleuel (c . 1926). Die hoeksteen wat aan die regterkant van die middelste deel van die gebou gevind is, is in 1914 gelê, en 'n groot deel van die eerste gedeelte van die gebou, dit wil sê die middelste gedeelte en die oostelike vleuel (albei hierbo gesien), is teen die einde van 1917. Die bouwerk is egter onderbreek deur geldbesnoeiings en arbeidstekorte wat verband hou met die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, en selfs hierdie eerste gedeeltes van die gebou is eers in 1920 voltooi. (Die middelste gedeelte en die oostelike vleuel van die gebou, hierbo getoon, was amptelik geopen op 5 Julie 1920.) Aan die einde van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die federale regering $ 25 000 bygedra vir die voltooiing van hierdie eerste afdelings, met die veronderstelling dat die gebou na voltooiing vir 'n sekere tydperk beskikbaar sou wees as 'n hospitaal vir geestesongestelde veterane.

Bogenoemde foto is omstreeks 1920 geneem. As u mooi kyk, sal u agterkom dat die westelike vleuel - links as u na die gebou kyk - op hierdie foto ontbreek. Dit is natuurlik omdat die westelike vleuel nog nie gebou was toe die foto geneem is nie. Trouens, daar het ses jaar gegaan tussen die tyd dat die middelste gedeelte en East Wing (& quotFoster Clinic & quot) in 1920 geopen is, en die tyd dat die bouwerk aan die westelike vleuel begin is, in 1926. Daar moet op gelet word dat beide 'n ooste en 'n westelike vleuel was deel van die oorspronklike ontwerp, maar die gebou is in twee afdelings gebou as gevolg van beperkings op finansiering. Met die voltooiing van die westelike vleuel in September 1927 het die Foster-Wade-gebou uiteindelik gestaan ​​soos dit oorspronklik ontwerp is-maar dit was ongeveer 13 jaar nadat dit begin is.

Deur 'n bykomende komplikasie by te voeg tot wat later 'n taamlik verwarrende nomenklatuurgeskiedenis was, noem die hoeksteen (skaars sigbaar op die foto hierbo as 'n klein wit kolletjie agter die regterkantste pilaar) nie die naam "quotFoster" of die naam "Wade" nie. dit lui : & quotPsychopathic Building 1914. & quot In 1919 (die jaar voordat dit klaar en bewoon is) is die & quotPsychopathic Building & quot* egter hernoem tot die & quotA.D. Foster Building, ter nagedagtenis aan die sekretaris en tesourier van die hospitaal, Arthur D. Foster, wat vroeër in daardie jaar gesterf het. Bedoel as 'n veeldoelige gebou vir die behandeling van "psigiatriese" gevalle "(nuwe opnames), sowel as vir die versorging en behandeling van fisies siek psigiatriese pasiënte, het die" Foster Clinic ", soos dit in die vroeë 1920's genoem is, akuut (opnames) ) psigiatriese afdelings, sowel as mediese/chirurgiese eenhede, 'n operasiesaal, 'n diagnostiese laboratorium en ander fasiliteite om algemene mediese en chirurgiese toestande te hanteer. (Hierdie dienste is later na die Garrett -gebou verskuif toe die gebou in 1934 geopen is.)

Die eerste gebruik van die Foster Clinic was 'n paar jaar lank (1920 - 25) as 'n psigiatriese hospitaal vir veterane, en die eerste pasiënte was sielkundiges uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Die federale regering het die veterane in 1925 na die nuutgeboude veteraanhospitaal in Perry Point, MD, oorgeplaas - en dit was eers toe dat die gebou vir volle gebruik deur die Spring Grove State Hospital beskikbaar geword het. Alhoewel die "Foster Clinic" gedurende hierdie tydperk hoofsaaklik 'n psigiatriese fasiliteit was vir veterane uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, is daar na bewering ander veterane, insluitend veterane van die Spaanse Amerikaanse Oorlog, daar versorg. Daar is ook berig dat 'n aantal van die eerste pasiënte veterane was met seksueel oordraagbare siektes, insluitend tersiêre sifilis.

Die gebou het sy huidige naam, die Foster-Wade-gebou, gekry nadat die westelike vleuel in September 1927 voltooi is. jaar (1896 tot 1927). Hy het pas afgetree toe die gebou ingewy is, en die nuwe vleuel is ter ere van hom genoem. (Dr Wade was na bewering teenwoordig by die openingseremonie.) Benewens die Foster-Wade-gebou blyk dit ook dat Wadelaan (oorspronklik Asylum Lane) na hom vernoem is, hoewel dit moontlik vernoem is na 'n lid van sy vooraanstaande gesin. Amptelik het die ouer oostelike vleuel, dws operasiekamer in die pleegkliniek, die vleuel na regs as u na die gebou kyk, bekend geword as die & quotFoster Wing, & quot; die nuwer westelike vleuel, dit wil sê die vleuel na links as u na die gebou kyk gebou, het die "Wade Wing" geword-en vanaf September 1927 het die gebou as geheel bekend geword onder die naam wat ons vandag gebruik, die & quotFoster-Wade Building. & quot; Verward? Om op te som, die Foster-Wade-gebou in sy meer as 86 jaar geskiedenis is onder verskillende name bekend. Dit sluit in die Psychopathic Building (1914 - 1919), The AD Foster Building (1919 - 1920), The Foster Clinic (1920 - 1927) en die Foster -Wade Building (1927 - Present).

Ongeag wat dit was of genoem word, die gebou bly 'n monumentale struktuur wat 'n belangrike deel uitmaak van die geskiedenis van staats- en federale openbare geestesgesondheidsbehandeling in Maryland.

Dit is met die hoofgebou verbind deur 'n ondergrondse tonnel wat nog bestaan. ) in die 1950's. Volgens 'n ooggetuie was die hitte van die brand so sterk dat dit 'n ontploffing veroorsaak het wat 'n deel van die dak van die gebou weggewaai het. Gelukkig was daar geen ernstige beserings nie. In later jare is die gebou gebruik om forensiese pasiënte te behandel. Die Foster-Wade-gebou is sedert 1979 as 'n pasiëntesorggebou gesluit, en dit word tans vir berging gebruik. Alhoewel die gebou leeg gely het gedurende die jare wat dit leeggestaan ​​het, is dit nooit omvattend opgeknap nie, en daarom is 'n groot deel van die binnekant in die oorspronklike toestand.

The Psychopathic Building (later, Foster-Wade)

Soos dit in 1915 verskyn het

Die Oosvleuel van die gebou wat in 1915 as die Foster-Wade-gebou bekend sou staan, word gebou

Die solariums van die oostelike vleuel (of quotsun parlors & quot) is agter die boogvensters in die middel van die foto hierbo. Klik op die East Solarium om 'n foto te sien van een van hierdie kamers in die oostelike vleuel nadat die gebou beset is. Klik op West Solarium om 'n soortgelyke solarium in die westelike vleuel te sien.

*Vandag dink ons ​​aan die woord 'psigopaties' as 'n patroon van antisosiale of manipulerende gedrag. In 1914, toe die gebou die naam "Psigopatiese gebou" genoem word, word die woord egter meer algemeen gebruik om die wetenskap van geestes- en gedragsversteurings oor die algemeen te verwys. Terwyl die Foster-Wade-gebou later in sy geskiedenis forensiese pasiënte huisves, was die gebou oorspronklik nie daarvoor bedoel nie, en die naam "Psychopathic Building" was nie bedoel om na 'n populasie sosiopatiese pasiënte te verwys nie.

** Tunnels verbind ook die hoofgebou met die oorspronklike kragstasie en later met die Bland-Bryant-gebou en die 'nuwe' kragstasie (1932). Let daarop dat die lugopening vir die Foster-Wade-tonnel op die voorgrond van die middelste prent op hierdie bladsy sigbaar is. Hierdie tonnels is beide gebruik vir voetverkeer tussen geboue tydens gure weer, en as leidings. In die vroeë 1930's kon personeellede tussen die drie groot pasiëntesorggeboue (Main, Foster-Wade en Bland-Bryant) tussen die hospitaal reis sonder om na buite te gaan.


Spring Grove -hospitaalsentrum - Geskiedenis

Geskiedenis van Spring Grove (Village), Houston County, Minnesota
Uit: Die geskiedenis van Houston County, Minnesota
Geredigeer deur: Franklyn Curtis-Wedge.
H. C. Cooper, Jr. & amp Co.
Winona, Minn. 1919

Spring Grove is een van die mooiste en mees bloeiende dorpe in die suide van Minnesota. Die reisiger wat uit die trein klim, word gekonfronteer met 'n pragtige driehoekige park, waaroor die imposante argitektuur van die Noorse Evangelies -Lutherse kerk met sy eienaardige immergroen kerkhof omring, terwyl vanaf die top van die park die belangrikste sakestraat met sy twee aansienlike banke aan weerskante, en hul gepaardgaande besigheidshuise. Die koshuisgedeelte is miskien die mooiste in die land, want daar is waarskynlik nie 'n dorp in die staat wat selfs twee keer so groot is nie, met soveel pragtige huise, artistiek in argitektuur, modern as gemaklik, en omring met pragtige grasperke, immergroen bome wat oorheers as boomversierings.

Die bevolking is byna geheel en al van Skandinawiese geboorte of afkoms, net soos die van die ryk landbougebied rondom die dorp, en die welvaart van dorp en land is die gevolg van die spaarsaamheid van hierdie mense. Sedert die vroegste dae was die geskiedenis van die dorp en die platteland byna identies aan die van die kerk, die enigste in die dorp.

Die dorp het die een kerk, twee banke, 'n lewendige koerant, twee hysbakke, 'n bakkery, 'n telefoononderneming, elektriese ligdienste en waterwerke, en 'n voermeule, 'n hotel, twee rolprentteaters, waarvan een ook 'n dramatiese operahuis en 'n baie bekende hospitaal, sowel as die gewone professionele mans en sakehuise.

Die boere-koöperatiewe beweging word verteenwoordig deur die Farmers 'Co-operative Creamery Association, en die Spring Grove Stock and Grain Co. Die Wilmington Township Mutual Life Insurance Co het ook Spring Grove as adres.

Spring Grove se dorpie is laat in 1889 opgeneem. 2 November 1889, vier en dertig burgers, Asle Halverson, Lars Budahl, OB Nelson, OB Tone, Lars O. Dokken, GE Overstrud, E. Ellingson, JM Walhus, Andrew B. Foss, Andrew Lee, Otto Brenne, OC Hagen, HM Gjerdinger, Knud Olsen, SH Ellestad, Ole O. Roppe, Jr., Charles Hoegh, F. Bartholomew, HN Hendrickson, H. Hanson, NP Newhouse, P. Olsen Fallang, Gilbert Askum, Christian Olsen, Andreas Nikkelson, Hans S. Lee, Teman Gilbertson, Iver Seby, Magnus Johnson, Hans J. Ellefsrud, C. Muller, Nels Hendrickson, J. Muller en EA Flaskerud het 'n versoekskrif by die landraad gevra om die inlywing van 'n dorp om die suidelike helfte van afdeling 11, township 101, reeks 7 en die noordelike helfte van die noordelike helfte van afdeling 14 te omhels, 'n oppervlakte van 480 hektaar, waarvan die bevolking op 31 Oktober 1889 voorgestel is 369 persone. Dit is uiteengesit dat dele van die gebied in die suidoostelike kwart van afdeling 11 deur Mons Fladager, 12 Julie 1877 en 22 Januarie 1884, platgemaak is.

O. B. Tone, een van die ondertekenaars, was destyds voorsitter van die landbestuur. In beweging van H. It. Briggs tydens die gewone sitting van die liggaam, is die petisie toegestaan ​​en die voorlopige reëlings van meneer Tone. 'N Verkiesing is behoorlik gehou op 17 Desember 1889, onder leiding van Lars Budahl, Ole O. Roppe, Jr., en H. N. Hendrickson, waarby 75 stemme uitgebring is, 53 wat ten gunste van die voorstel was en 22 teengestaan ​​het.

Die eerste jaarlikse verkiesing is gehou op 31 Desember 1889, onder leiding van Ole C. Steneroden en E. Ellingson as beoordelaars en J. M. Walhus as klerk. Vier -en -dertig stemme is uitgebring en daar was slegs een kandidaat vir elke amp: president, Charles Hoegh -trustees, N. Olson, OB Nelson en Asle Halverson -blokfluit, SH Ellestad -tesourier, HN Hendrickson -regters, L. Budahl en F. Bartholomew -konstabels, JJ O'Brien en OG Myrah.

Die eerste vergadering van die nuwe raad is gehou op 14 Januarie 1890. Dr C. K. Onsgard was die eerste gesondheidsbeampte. O. G. Myrah was die eerste straatkommissaris. Later die jaar is 'n aantal sypaadjies en kruispaadjies bestel. So is die wiele van die dorpsregering aan die gang gesit.

Die presidente van die dorp was: 1889, Charles Hoegh 1894, A. Halverson 1897, TT Bergh 1899, Truls Paulson 1903, Charles Hoegh 1906, OB Nelson 1907, Truls Paulson 1908, Asle Halverson 1909, GC Glasrud ​​1914, CJ Sylling 1916 , GC Glasrud ​​1918, CJ Sylling.

Die opnemers was: 1889, S. H. Ellestad 1897, H. L. Quanrud 1898, C. J. Schansberg 1903, F. E. Poerg 1907, Helmer Ostle 1908, E. O. Clauson 1914, Ove Hoegh 1917, E. L. Quinnell. Op 9 Maart 1910 word John Vaaler tot klerk verkies, maar weier om te dien, en meneer Clauson gaan voort. Al die vroeë verkiesings was feitlik eenparig en die kandidate het almal of binne een of twee van die stemme gekry. Tot 1895 was die grootste aantal stemme by enige verkiesing 34. In daardie jaar is 63 stemme uitgebring weens die waterverbandvraag. Maar toe neem die belangstelling af, en in 1899 word slegs 31 gegooi. In 1900 was daar 59 stemme, waarvan die suksesvolle burgemeesterskandidaat nege stemme teen hom uitgebring het. Die eerste werklike wedstryd het in 1901 plaasgevind toe Truls Paulson 24 stemme vir president en Charles Hoegh 23. In 1902 het Paulson 58 stemme gekry en Hoegh 24. Die volgende jaar uit 121 stemme het Hoegh 119 gekry. In daardie jaar, 1903, was die eerste wedstryd vir blokfluit, FE Joerg het 87 stemme gekry en HL Quanrud 34. In 1904 het die totale stem tot 42 gedaal en was daar geen wedstryde nie. Die lisensievraag wat in 1905 verskyn het, het 137 stemme uitgebring, maar die enigste stryd om 'n amp was oor die pos as blokfluit, FE Joerg het 88 stemme gekry en Ove Hoegh, 50. Op die lisensievraag was 33 stemme vir lisensie en 100 teen. Weer in 1906 was die enigste wedstryd oor blokfluit, F. E. Joerg wat 69 en Helmer Ostle, 48 stemme. In 1907 kom die eerste wedstryd vir trustees, Ole Hendrickson het 21 stemme gekry teenoor A. O. Roppe se 58 vir 'n pos in die raad. Die volgende jaar is Asle Halverson verkies tot president met 58 stemme teen Henry Fladager, wat 33 gekry het. geregtigheid. Die voorstel om te verkoop is gestem deur 'n stem van 39 tot 26. Rente het die volgende jaar afgeneem, slegs 35 stemme is uitgebring en daar was geen wedstryde nie. In 1911 was daar wedstryde vir president en trustees, maar niemand was naby nie.

In 1914 was daar wedstryde vir burgemeester en trustees en klerk, maar niemand was naby nie, behalwe vir klerk, Ove Hoegh verslaan EO Clausen met 'n stem van 69 teen 61. In 1915 was daar geen wedstryde behalwe vir assessor, OF Karlsbratten ontvang 33 en Charles Hoegh 25 stemme. In 1916 was daar geen noue wedstryde nie, almal behalwe twee was eenparig. Die naaste was vir klerk, Hoegh wat 54 en Clauson 27 stemme gekry het. Glassrud het 71 stemme vir president en Sylling 12. In 1917 was die enigste wedstryd vir burgemeester, G. C. Glasrud ​​wat 51 en J. N. Ristey 48 stemme gekry het. In 1918 was daar geen noue wedstryde nie. Vir president ontvang E. J. Foss 26 stemme teen 40 vir C. J. Sylling. In 1919 was die verkiesing eenparig.

Brandbeskerming is in 1891 ingestel toe die dorp grond van Ole O. Roppe gekoop het, 'n motorhuis opgerig het en toerusting beveilig het wat bestaan ​​uit twee brandweerwaens, vragmotors, platforms, slange en emmers. As 'n voorkoming van brande is Ole O. Hagen aangestel in die pos as skoorsteeninspekteur. Die dorp het nou brandtoerusting wat bestaan ​​uit drie slangwaens, 'n klein haak- en leerwa, 700 voet goeie 2 & frac12 duim -slang en 'n klokalarm. Daar is 'n vrywillige brandweer van 25 lede.

Die eerste openbare put in Spring Grove dateer lank voor dorpsdae. Mons Fladager het 'n put van sewentig voet uitgeblaas en dit met messelwerk uitgevoer, lank voor die dae van die geboorde putte. 'N Windpomp is hieroor geplaas en trokke het tot by die straat gestrek en sodoende water vir openbare gebruik voorsien. Die eerste stappe in die rigting van die vestiging van die waterwerke in die dorp is geneem op 19 September 1894, toe grond van Lars Budahl vir $ 350 aangekoop is om 'n watertoevoer te vestig. Op 12 Maart 1895, met 'n stemming van 56 tot 9, het die kiesers toestemming gegee om $ 3 000 effekte uit te reik. Daar is besluit om 'n aanleg deur 'n windpomp te laat werk, maar namate die werk vorder, is dit nodig om 'n dieper put te hê en 'n pompstasie met 'n petrolenjin met toring en tenk te vestig. Die volledige stelsel met hoof- en brandkrane is in die vroeë lente van 1896 voltooi teen 'n koste van $ 3,927. Die stelsel is sedertdien uitgebrei.

Die waterwerke word uitgevoer op 'n verhoogde tenksisteem, met 'n tenk van 1800 vat op 'n toring van 60 voet. Die watertoevoer kom uit twee diep putte, die pompkrag word verskaf deur 'n petrolenjin. Die druk is 30 tot 35 pond. Die dorpie het ongeveer 3 000 voet se ses duim hoofleiding, 16 dubbele brandkrane en 4 doodloopstrate.

Op 3 Januarie 1898 is die raad gestem om die dorpsstrate met parafienligte aan te steek. Op 17 April 1901 is deur die raad gestem om 'n petrolstelsel in te stel. Intussen, in 1892, nadat die kontrak op 9 Desember 1891 toegestaan ​​is. 18 Maart 1893, is S. G. Reque gemagtig om planne op te stel vir 'n elektriese ligte. Die burgers het op 10 Maart 1903 gestem oor die kwessie van die uitreiking van obligasies van $ 5.500 vir die doel, en 'n gunstige besluit is geneem met 'n stem van 70 tot 50. Maar op 16 Junie 1903 verwerp die raad alle bod, en die voorstel is laat vaar. Op 12 Maart 1912 is 'n verband van $ 7.500 gestem vir 'n stadsaal, elektriese ligte en uitgebreide waterwerke. Die werk is daardie jaar voltooi. Die stadsaal is 'n baksteenstruktuur van een verdieping, wat die fabriek en die raadsaal huisves en toesluit en die brandapparaat skuiling bied. In dieselfde jaar is 'n nuwe stadsput voorsien. Op 31 Augustus 1915 is 'n kontrak met die Root River Power & amp Light Company aangegaan vir diens vir 'n tydperk van vyftien jaar. Terselfdertyd is $ 1,750 gestem om die plaaslike aanleg te verbeter, sodat die dorp nou uitstekende ligte diens vir straat-, kommersiële en residensiële doeleindes het.

Die Root River Power & amp Light Co. met huiskantore in Preston en kragstasie in Brightdale Park, verskaf die dorpie Fountain, Preston, Harmony, Canton, Prosper, Mabel, Spring Grove, Caledonia en Houston. Die beamptes is: president, Tollef Sanderson vise -president, sekretaris -tesourier van A. G. Olson, S. A. Langum. A. H. Hanning is die hoofbestuurder.

Een van die skoonhede van Spring Grove wat reeds genoem is, is die openbare park, 'n driehoek land wat wes van die statige kerk lê. Die oostelike deel van hierdie park is deur die kerk aan die dorp voorgehou. In 1914 het die dorp 'n bandstand opgerig. Intussen is 'n aantal lotte aan die westelike punt verkoop. In 1916 is hierdie persele deur verskeie geboue beset. Aan die punt was 'n keldergat, waar die winkel van T. T. Bergh afgebreek is. Oos hiervan was 'n lang gebou, skuins van straat tot straat. Dit was leeg, die noordelike kant was voorheen deur die Onsgard State Bank bewoon en die suidkant deur die Olson & amp Kieland -winkel. Volgende oos van hierdie winkel was die smidswinkel van H. P. Dahl. In die lente van 1916 het ds Alfred O. Johnson en Albert Hallan voor die raad verskyn wat die Kerk se Hulpraad, die jongmensevereniging van die kerk, verteenwoordig, en 'n voorstel voorgelê waarmee die liggaam ingestem het om $ 3,400 aan die dorp te oorhandig koop hierdie erwe, verwyder die geboue, vul die gate op en omskep die hele driehoek in 'n park. Die voorstel is aanvaar, die geboue is verwyder en die grond gelykgemaak, terwyl die res van die uitgawes deur die dorp gedek word. Die struikgewas wat die park versier, is deur die Ladies 'Improvement Club ingesit. Hierdie klub, wat amptelik die Gemeenskapsverbeteringsgenootskap genoem is, is op 4 April 1917 georganiseer met hierdie beamptes: president, mev. C. M. Langland vise -president, mev. Ove Hoegh tesourier, mev. J. N. Ristey sekretaris, mevrou C. J. Helland.

Die dorp het 'n aangename en gemaklike skoolgebou met gegradueerde en hoërskoolkursusse, een van die doeltreffendste skole in die land. Die eerste skool in die omgewing was 'n Noorse skool. In 1857 is 'n raamskoolhuis gebou, ongeveer 18 by 24 voet. Hier word die skool soms in Engels en soms in Noors geleer. Hierdie gebou oorkant die pad, oos van die huidige skool, was die gemeenskapsentrum wat as algemene vergaderplek, stadsaal en skoolhuis gedien het. In 1872 is 'n gebou met twee verdiepings opgerig, wat die afgelope tyd plek gegee het aan die huidige struktuur. Die gebou is goed geleë, te midde van 'n ruim grasperk, met genoeg plek vir speelgronde, atletiese toestelle en dies meer.

Die Spring Grove -hospitaal vervul 'n behoefte wat lank in die gemeenskap gevoel word. Aangesien die noodsaaklikheid van so 'n instelling noodsaaklik was, het eerwaarde Alfred O. Johnson, op versoek van 'n aantal vooraanstaande burgers, vroeg in 1916 'n vergadering belê, en planne is vervolmaak wat gelei het tot die inlywing, 15 Februarie 1916. 'n Geskikte Die plek aan die noordelike buitewyke van die dorp is op 12 Mei 1916 gekoop en die bouery is dadelik begin. Die instelling is op 8 Januarie 1917 geopen, onder leiding van Emma Larson. Sy is op 14 Desember 1918 opgevolg deur juffrou Erlanson. Die oorspronklike beamptes en trustees dien steeds. Hulle is: Alfred O. Johnson, president dr. G. M. Helland, vise -president J. N. Ristey, sekretaris en tesourier J. J. Jetson, M. S. Nelson, P. L. Bergsgaard, H. A. Burtness, O. A. Kroshus, almal van Spring Grove, en H. E. Burtness, van Caledonië. Die hospitaal is aangenaam geleë op 'n bevallende kruin, is toegerus met alle moderne geriewe, word goed bygewoon en doen wonderlike genesings- en trooswerk.

Die poskantoor is in 1854 gestig deur die inspanning van James Smith, wat as posmeester aangestel is, en die kantoor is by sy huis geopen, wat op daardie stadium 'n taverne was. Dit is hy wat die naam Spring Grove gegee het. Hy het die plek bly hou tot ongeveer twee jaar daarna, toe Embrick Knudson aangestel is, en hy het die kantoor na sy huis naby die ou Hinkley -plek verwyder. In 1861 word Mons Fladager aangestel as adjunk, en het dit ongeveer 'n jaar in sy winkel gehou, toe mnr. Prentiss die pos beklee en die kantoor na sy hotel, die ou Hinkley -winkel, verwyder het. Na 'n tyd word dr T. Jenson as posmeester aangestel. Hy het J. C. Tartt as adjunk aangestel, wat die kantoor in sy winkel in die oostelike deel van die dorp, naby die ou McCormick -plek, opgeneem het. Die kantoor is so gehou tot 1865, toe Nels Olson Onsgard in diens geneem is. Toe kom Truls Paulson en volgende O. E. Kieland. Mons Flatager is daarna deur die administrasie van Cleveland aangestel sonder om te vra, maar hy het geweier om te dien, en T. I. Doely, wat 'n petisie versprei het, is aangestel. Hy word gevolg deur O. B. Tone, wat opgevolg is deur O. C. Vaaler, wat nog dien.

Spring Grove het byna veertig jaar gelede 'n koerant gehad. In die lente van 1880 begin 'n ondernemende jong man, Sven H. Ellestad, 'n klein bladsynetjie, 10 by 24 duim, en noem dit die Spring Grove Posten. Hy was redakteur, eienaar, uitgewer en drukker. Schmidt Nilson, wat belangstel in die sukses daarvan, het die grootste deel van die redaksionele werk tot sy rubrieke bygedra. Dit het 'n plaaslike bewoning in 'n klein raamgebou agter die T. T. Bergh se hardewarewinkel gehad. Sy pers was 'n klein een, en word gesê dat dit $ 180 gekos het. Die koerant floreer 'n rukkie, maar die omstandighede was nie voordelig nie, en die publikasie is gestaak, en die lys lys word deur die Decorah Posten oorgeneem.

Die Spring Grove Herald is begin as die Spring Grove Weekly deur W. H. Smethurst. Die kantoor was geleë in die Haaken & amp Haaken -gebou, waar Ellingson se restaurant nou is. Die koerant het nogal 'n stryd om bestaan ​​en is uiteindelik gekoop deur Frank Bartholomew, nou in Winnebago City. Hy verskuif dit na die hoekgebou wat nou deur die Fladager Brothers bewoon word. Toe bou hy 'n gebou met twee verdiepings met die drukkery in die trappe, en 'n operahuis met trappe. In April 1893 het hierdie gebou aan die brand geslaan, en ten spyte van die heroïese pogings van die vrywillige brandweer, met die brandpompe, is hierdie gebou, die werktuigmagasyn langsaan en die kerk alles vernietig. Dit was slegs deur inspannende werk dat die res van die besigheidsafdeling gered is. Maar onverskrokke druk Bartholomew 'n vuurkwessie uit en werk in 'n hut tot die lente van 1895, toe verkoop hy dit aan OK Dahle, wat die huidige eenverdiepinggebou op dieselfde perseel gebou het en die Herald redigeer totdat hy tot provinsie verkies is prokureur vier en 'n half jaar later. Dit is toe uitgevoer deur Geo. W. Drowley vir 'n tyd lank as huurder, en later verkoop aan George H. Kuster, destyds hoof van die plaaslike skole. Hy verkoop aan Albert Olson, wat dit op sy beurt aan E. L. Berg verkoop het. Dit is daarna oorgedra na BL Onsgard, die huidige eienaar, wat sedert 1906 in besit is. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is die Herald deur verskillende partye as huurders geredigeer: Charles L. Metcalf, drie jaar en totdat hy tot hofbeampte verkies is. en OO Kjomme gedurende die jare 1914 en 1915. Met hierdie uitsonderings is die koerant behoorlik deur mnr. Onsgard self uitgevoer en het hy onder sy bestuur 'n groot kring en belangrike invloed geniet.

Die twee banke is die State Bank of Spring Grove en die Onsgard State Bank.

Die Onsgard State Bank het sy begin in die sewentigerjare begin toe Nels Olson Onsgard, toe 'n winkelier, die geldsake van sy kliënte as 'n persoonlike huisvesting begin hanteer het, konsepte verkoop, lenings reël en dies meer. In 1890 is hierdie onderneming georganiseer as die Bank of Spring Grove en aan die agterkant van die winkel gestig. Later is 'n baksteenaanleg gebou, noordwaarts in die ander straat. 6 September 1907 is die Onsgard State Bank ingelyf, met Nels O. Onsgard as president, O. K. Dahle as vise -president, O. N. Onsgard as kassier en B. N. Onsgard as assistent -kassier. In 1911 word O. N. Onsgard vise -president, B. N. Onsgard kassier en 0 E Hallan, assistent kassier. In 1915, na die dood van Nels Olson Onsgard, word O. K. Dahle president, die ander offisiere bly soos voorheen. In 1917 volg P. T. Newhouse O. N. Onsgard op as vise -president. Op 1 November 1918 word B. T. Haugen tweede assistent -kassier. Die beamptes is nou: president, O. K. Dahle vise -president, P. T. Newhouse kassier, B. N. Onsgard assistent kassier, O. E. Hallan tweede assistent kassier, B. T. Haugen. Die instelling verhuis na sy sogenaamde nuwe bankhuis, 7 Februarie 1916. Hierdie gebou is goed toegerus vir sy doel, afgesien van die hoofbankkamer, 'n spreekkamer en 'n beampte, met ander geriewe. Die bank het 'n kapitaal van $ 25,000, 'n surplus en onverdeelde winste van $ 15,622,96 lenings en afslag van $ 266,758,18 totale deposito's van $ 388,054.81 en 'n onmiddellike kontantreserwe van $ 53,463.70, volgens die verslag van 31 Desember 1918. Die bank beoog om aan sy beskermhere elke diens verenigbaar met konserwatiewe bankoordeel. As hulle besef dat die toekoms van die dorp in die ontwikkeling van die plattelandse distrikte lê, help dit op alle moontlike maniere om hierdie ontwikkeling te bewerkstellig, en beïndruk die boere dat die bankhuis hul werklike finansiële hoofkwartier is, waar oor alle onderwerpe beraadslaag kan word. met betrekking tot hul wedersydse belange.

Die State Bank of Spring Grove is op 1 November 1904 ingelyf deur C. J. Scofield, Caledonia O. B. Tone, O. B. Nelson, Mons Fladager en dr. Trond Stabo, van Spring Grove en E. J. Scofield, van Elbow Lake. Op 10 November ontmoet hierdie here, as direkteure, O. B. Tone as president, O. B. Nelson as vise -president en C. J. Scofield as kassier. In the meantime, a bank building, a sightly structure of brick, a real ornament to the business street of Spring Grove, and in every way excellently equipped for its purpose, had been erected. Doors were opened on Dec. 12, 1904, in sole charge of the cashier, C. J. Scofield. The capital stock was $15,000 and the surplus $5,000. The institution since then has enjoyed a well deserved growth. From a staff of one the working force has increased to four. Oct. 1, 1906, Charley M. Langland became assistant cashier in January, 1916, Archie C. Scofield, son of the cashier, became second assistant cashier and on June 5, 1918, M. C. Ike became bookkeeper. O. B. Tone, the first president, served until his death, March 14, 1917, and at the January meeting of 1918 was succeeded by O. B. Nelson, and Mr. Nelson was succeeded as vice president by Peter Fladager who, after the death of his father, Mons Fladager, in 1906, had become a director at the January meeting of 1907. In January, 1914, Charley M. Langland succeeded Dr. Trond Stabo as director. But in January, 1918, Dr. Stabo again became a director. So with the retirement of O. B. Tone and Mons Fladager, both deceased, and the addition of Charley M. Langland and Peter Fladager, the directorate is the same as originally constituted. In 1905, the first full year of business, the bank had deposits of $56,002.36, and loans and discounts of $44,112.27. In 1910, the deposits were $205,434.35, and the loans and discounts $176,976.19. In 1915, the deposits were $313,852.46, and the loans and discounts $339,032.46. The bank is in close touch with farming conditions, and aims to be a farmers bank in every particular. It endeavors to assist the farmers in their financial affairs, looking after their investments and giving advice at all times. It has also taken an important part in distributing helpful literature, encouraging business methods in agriculture, and lending its best assistance in the progress of the community. According to the report, at the end of 1918 the bank had a capital of $15000 surplus and undivided profits of $14,785 loans and discounts of $289,092.97 total deposits of $393,678.76 and immediate cash assets of $69,859.96.

The creamery industry is an important one in Spring Grove. The first creamery in Spring Grove was started by Nels Olson Onsgard, merchant and banker. The successive owners were then: Graham & Tollefson Ole N. Kjome, Sylling & Larson, Gaare & Sylling and Nels Kjome, the latter of whom sold to the co-operative company. The Spring Grove Co-operative Creamery Co. was incorporated Jan. 28, 1909, by Knute H. Rauk, P. C. Onstad, O. C. Vaaler, Albert Bergsrud, Magnus Thoreson, Peter Kinneberg and K. E. Kieland. K. H. Rauk was the first president. The present officers are: president, Henry Roverud vice president, C. B. Doety secretary, Carl Haugen treasurer, Peter Onstad directors, Knute H. Rauk, O. A. Kroshus and John N. Schmidt.

The vicinity of Spring Grove was selected as the site of a village in 1852 by James Smith, and at once became a famous stopping place for the heavy stream of pioneers coming from Brownsville, or up over the Iowa prairies and bound far the rich farm lands to the westward and northwestward. He put up a house and a store on the eastern part of section 11, and began to accommodate travelers. In 1855, he sold his store to William Hinckley. Hinckley bought land of Embrick Knudson, and erected and opened a store a half a mile west of Smith's place. About this time Embrick Benson sold to William Flemming forty acres on which most of the village is now located. Flemming opened a hotel, called the "Pumpkin Tavern." About this time Smith platted a village which never materialized. He soon sold to Robert McCormick who kept a public house. Nick and Jesse Demering opened a saloon near the "Pumpkin Tavern," but soon sold to a Mr. Badger, of Wisconsin, who put in a stock of merchandise. This building with its contents was soon burned. Tartt & Smith from Dorchester, Iowa, then opened a store but remained only a short time. In the meantime the forty first owned by Benson and then by Flemming had passed into the hands of Peter Halverson. In February, 1860, he sold to Mons Fladager, the real founder of the village. Mr. Fladager opened a store in the "Pumpkin Tavern" building. In 1864, he erected a store on the site of the old Badger building. In 1881, he completed a brick block. The same store is now occupied by his sons. Mr. Fladager platted the present village. When he arrived here there were but two people, William Hinckley, keeping a general store, and Peter McCormick, keeping a hotel.

In the meantime, the surrounding country had been settled by sturdy Norwegian pioneers, the vanguard coming in 1852. Of the first colony, there now remain but two: Mrs. Mons Fladager, who was Jorend P. Lommen, daughter of Peter Lommen, and L. T. Johnson. The early township history has been related. The interests of the township center in the village, the town hall being located but half a mile to the westward. This building was erected in 1896, has suitable sheds, and in the yard a commanding flag pole has been erected. Nearby is the beautiful cemetery where so many of the pioneers repose.


Inhoud

Founded in 1797, Spring Grove is the nation's second-oldest psychiatric hospital. Only the Eastern State Hospital which was founded in 1773 in Williamsburg, Virginia, is older. In its long history it has been variously known as The Baltimore Hospital, The Maryland Hospital, The Maryland Hospital for the Insane, and finally as The Spring Grove Hospital Center. The present site was purchased in 1852 by which time the original buildings had become inadequate. Dr Richard Sprigg Steuart, then President of the Board and Medical Superintendent, managed to obtain authorization and funding from the Maryland General Assembly for the construction of the new facility at Spring Grove. He chaired the committee that selected the Hospital's present site in Catonsville, and he personally contributed $1,000 towards the purchase of the land. [ 2 ] Building was however delayed by the onset of the American Civil War, and was not completed until 1872. Steuart's building (known at various times as "The Main Building", "The Center Building" or "The Administration Building,") remained the main hospital facility for almost 100 years. It was eventually demolished in 1963, when it was replaced by more modern construction. [1]


Baltimore Heritage

Timothy Leary’s got nothing on Baltimore! Join us for a walk around the Spring Grove Hospital Center campus to see this partially abandoned historic facility where, among other things, the first and longest government-run psychedelic drug research took place. Here, scientists tested LSD and other chemicals as potential treatments for psychiatric illnesses until national controversy caught up with everybody and the research was shut down in 1976.

Spring Grove has a history far deeper than the experimental 1960s. Founded in 1797, it is the second oldest continuously operating psychiatric hospital in the country. Before the Civil War, free and enslaved African Americans were also patients here. Later it became a whites-only facility. Today, Spring Grove treats around 300 patients, a fraction of its 1960 population. There’s also a psychiatric illness research facility in the same building where the LSD experiments occurred.

Our our tour we’ll see the remnants of the oldest building on campus and industrial structures from the 1930s, plus a barely noticeable cemetery. Join us as we walk through three centuries of history that weaves together tales of yellow fever epidemic, Confederate traitors, and psychedelic scandal. Groovy.


A personal unique caring touch.

Whether it is a garden reception, a remembrance pick-up softball game, or a more traditional service, Spring Grove is known for a personal unique and caring touch. Our staff specializes in creating those moments that inspire your guests to share their favorite memories of your loved one. Click below and see what Spring Grove can create for you.

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Bakery and Laundry

By: Kathryn Simmons

Vocational buildings at mental institutions tend to take a backseat to the more established patient wards in status and prominence. The history of the Laundry and the Bakery at the South Carolina State Hospital for the Insane has certainly fallen by the wayside due to their reputation as more menial structures. Nonetheless, these two distinct structures possess architectural integrity and history making them value worthy of preservation. They exemplify the importance and the history of occupational therapy in psychiatry during nineteenth-century America, and they both set the standard for the construction of other buildings of the same vernacular style at other sites.

The introduction of occupational therapy significantly changed mid-nineteenth-century American psychiatric treatment. It suggested that being in a routine set in a peaceful and supportive environment can be restorative, allowing the curing process to proceed, and even to accelerate.[1] Therefore, it was common for hospital staff to encourage the mentally ill to work while under the care of an institution.[2] This kind of occupational therapy was no different at the Columbia Division on Bull Street. Individuals with less serious ailments were given permission, even encouraged, to perform tasks around the campus, including working in places such as the institution’s bakery and laundry.

Positioned directly behind the Babcock building, and different than the laundry facility that is still standing today, the original Laundry on Mills Drive was erected in 1884. Prior to its completion, the structure was initially a steam plant however, it was adaptively reused as the mental hospital’s first official laundry facility.[3] The Building Committee reported that this “neat, substantial brick structure” was nearly completed in 1882 however, they needed a small appropriation in the amount of $94.45 in order to finish the job.[4] Even more, the place where clothing and linen were laundered prior to this time was considerably modest: The Sixty-Second Annual Report indicates that a large brick room was added to the Laundry building in its early years, replacing a wooden shed that was used for washing dirty laundry.[5] Even though it was not originally built as a laundry, this means that the original Laundry building on Mills Drive provided the first established and longstanding structure for these particular tasks to be performed.

The Laundry building that still stands consists of a central section with extended wings, and is elevated to two levels. It also houses a cupola, which is comparable to the one located on the roof of Babcock, even though its iconic neighbor’s is more cylindrical. The Laundry is a structure more vernacular and occupational in nature, supplied with an engine and boiler as well as basic machinery for washing, drying, and ironing. The building itself is analogous to many other laundry facilities in the States as well, including those regarded as the best in the country. Though, designing the buildings to resemble one another was done merely out of convenience and building efficiency.[6] The Spring Grove Hospital Center in Williamsburg, Virginia, for instance, is the second oldest psychiatric hospital in the nation it houses a one-story laundry building similar in style to the one at Bull Street.[7]

An earthquake on August 31, 1885 brought destruction to several buildings, including the Laundry. It left many in turmoil, and the Building Committee issued a deposition to rebuild many aspects of the campus as a result. It also wanted to take the proper precautions to ensure that the structures could withstand similar disasters in the future. The Laundry was supplied with indoor hydrants and sufficient hose following an accident at City Water Supply, the workers were asked to find an alternative source as well. They dug a large well in the rear of the building as a result. In the end, a considerable amount of funds was spent on maintenance and improvements that year, including a tank and steam pump.[8] Regrettably, tragedy struck once again when the Laundry was consumed by fire two years later in 1887. The structure’s insurance, amounting to nearly $6,000, allowed the Building Committee to make plans to construct another laundry plant, to repair the boilers and the grist mill, and to purchase a new engine.[9]

The patients working in the Laundry aided in these changes and in the upkeep of the building as part of their occupational therapy. According to archival records, these patients—as well as others who received the same type of therapy—were not paid but merely encouraged to work.[10] The Mental Health Board and others in higher authority declared it was solely for the benefit of the patients and occupational therapy purposes, yet this proves to be rather suspicious since the hospital was benefiting from a substantial amount of free labor. These patients were among others who aided in the maintenance and sustainment of these vocational buildings, but the patients highly outnumbered them.

This structure stood for only three years before a newly constructed Bakery joined it in 1900. At a height of fifteen and a half feet, it features a central portion and it contains machinery for baking and two ovens, as well as two wings assigned for storing bread and flour.[11] Like the Laundry building at the Columbia Division of the State Hospital, there were facilities similar in style and architecture to the Bakery at other institutions, such as the Bakery at the United States Military Academy at West Point.[12] Patients that worked at the Bakery as part of their occupational therapy were responsible for preparing baked goods for everyone on the campus as well as those at the Pineland Training School. They worked in conjunction with the central kitchen, which was where they baked goods prior to the building’s construction: The patients prepared any necessary items in the Bakery, and then delivered those to the kitchen, which was where the main food was prepared. Workers then carried the meals to each dining room and dormitory in “food trains.”[13] This system of production influenced a similar arrangement when the Bakery and the kitchens merged in the early 1950s, known today as the Food Services Building. This new facility provided more efficient food preparation and serving, and many called it the best in the Southeast.[14]

Around the same time, the Board of Health contracted the Columbia architectural firm Lafaye & Lafaye to lay the foundation for the development and construction of a new Laundry and Bakery at State Park. Overseen by Robert S. Lafaye, the Laundry building was completed on January 10, 1914.[15] The staff and patients needed these new facilities, especially the Laundry, because the existing ones failed to meet the hospital’s needs.[16] The annual reports frequently lamented the overcrowded conditions of the hospital and, similar to the events at the Columbia Division, the Laundry facility regrettably could not keep up with the demands. During the latter part of 1959, the Board of Health contracted the laundry management consulting services of Victor Kramer Co., Inc. in hopes of establishing a facility that provided better quality and more efficient service. Establishing a Bakery and a Laundry facility at State Park authorized the decommission of their former counterparts at the Columbia Division, for these new structures were purpose-built to serve not only the State Hospital at Bull Street, but also the penitentiary, the youth reformatories in the surrounding area, and Whitten Village upstate.[17]

Standing in the shadows of the grand Babcock building for almost a century, the Laundry and the Bakery both have an architectural history worthy of preservation. These structures illustrate the importance and the history of occupational therapy at the height of nineteenth-century psychiatry. They—in addition to their counterparts at State Park—also set the standard for similar vocational buildings, such as the Laundry at the Spring Grove Hospital Center and the Bakery at West Point. Each annual report and archived document further exemplified and proved this. These two buildings were imperative for the effective treatment of each patient—not just those who worked there. They were more than just a laundry and a bakery.

[1] Katherine Ziff, Asylum on the Hill: History of a Healing Landscape (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012), 7.

[2] Carla Yanni, The Architecture of Madness: Insane asylums in the United States (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), 74-75.

[3] 1958 Report of Committee to Study Mental Health Laws and Facilities, The South Carolina Picture, 17, Box 10A, Series 190018, State Dept. of Mental Health Office of the State Commissioner Administrative, correspondence, and speech files of the superintendent/state commissioner ca. 1919-1973, “Laundry 1959 thru 1960,” South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, SC. (Hereafter referred to as SCDAH)

[4] 59th Annual Report of the South Carolina Lunatic Asylum for the Fiscal Year 1881-82, 7-14, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[5] 62nd Annual Report of the South Carolina Lunatic Asylum for the Fiscal Year 1884-85, 23, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[6] 62nd Annual Report of the South Carolina Lunatic Asylum for the Fiscal Year 1884-85, 23, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH 59th Annual Report of the South Carolina Lunatic Asylum for the Fiscal Year 1881-82 (p. 11), Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[7] “Spring Grove Hospital: A History of Spring Grove,” last modified July 20, 2011, http://www.springgrove.com/history.html

[8] 63rd Annual Report of the South Carolina Lunatic Asylum for the Fiscal Year 1885-86, 9-10, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[9] 74th Annual Report of the South Carolina State Hospital for the Insane for the Year 1887, 6, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[10] “A New Laundry for Negro Division is Called Greatest Need,” Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH

[11] 77th Annual Report of the South Carolina State Hospital for the Insane for the Year 1900, 15, Container 1, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1838-1903, SCDAH.

[12] “State Hospital’s New Kitchen and Bakery Called Best in the Southeast,” The State Newspaper, Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH.

[13] “A New Laundry for Negro Division is Called Greatest Need,” Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH.

[14] “State Hospital’s New Kitchen and Bakery Called Best in the Southeast,” The State Newspaper, Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH.

[14] “A New Laundry for Negro Division is Called Greatest Need,” Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH.

[15]4th Annual Report of State Hospital Commission to the General Assembly of South Carolina 1913, 2, Container 2, Series 190002, Mental Health Commission, Annual Reports of the South Carolina Department of Mental Health 1905-1958, SCDAH.

[16] “A New Laundry for Negro Division is Called Greatest Need,” Series 19008, State Dept. of Mental Health Agency General Reference Scrapbooks, 1951-1964, Newspaper Clippings Unlabeled black binder, SCDAH.

[17] Barnett, Joe. “New Pen Cellblock, State-Use Laundry Are Okayed by Board,” The State Newspaper, Box 10A, Series 190018, State Dept. of Mental Health Office of the State Commissioner Administrative, correspondence, and speech files of the superintendent/state commissioner ca. 1919-1973, “Laundry 1959 thru 1960,” SCDAH.


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According to Spring Grove's annual report of 1906, the building housed 25 patients. The upper floor was used as sleeping quarters, and the lower floor included a sitting room ("for those who do not work") and a dining room.

The original hospital was located in the city of Baltimore and dates to 1797, making it the second oldest continuously operated psychiatric hospital in the country. Because of the need for expanded facilities, the present site in Catonsville was purchased in 1852.


In the spring of 1955, M. Edythe Klotzman and her husband Aaron gathered a group of their friends together in Baltimore to create a new non-profit organization – Friends of Psychiatric Research, more commonly known as Friends. They wanted to create an organization dedicated to fostering research to improve the lives of people with mental illness. They also believed that an independent non-profit research institution was the best vehicle for bringing together the variety of people whose different talents could shed light on socio-medical problems. Aaron personally contributed $2,500, representing 1/3 of the total first year’s operating budget.

Research on the Treatment of Serious and Persistent Mental Illness

At the outset, Friends of Psychiatric Research was based at Spring Grove State Hospital fostering research on mental disorders. In 1960, Friends received funding for its first federal research grant. By 1962, the organization was associated with Springfield State Hospital, and in 1964, Friends was appointed to conduct research for all seven of the State of Maryland’s state psychiatric hospitals.

During Friends’ association with the State of Maryland, there were a number of notable accomplishments. Researchers completed a collaborative outpatient study of the treatment of schizophrenia with participants from Maryland State Psychiatric Hospitals. Drs. Albert Kurland, Thomas Hanlon, and Kay Ota in particular conducted an important comparative effectiveness trial of different anti-psychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia. Their research also examined the use of anti-depressant therapy in this patient population. In addition, this team examined other important areas of the treatment of serious and persistent mental disorders.

Friends instituted a “night hospital” at Spring Grove Hospital for women on the road to recovery from mental health problems who still needed the support of the hospital on a daily basis. These women worked during the day and returned “home” to the Hospital each evening. This program was one of the first such programs in the United States. Friends also sponsored two vocational rehabilitation residences for developmentally challenged children in downtown Baltimore.

For approximately ten years, beginning in 1967, Friends operated two group homes for men and women with mental health problems in Baltimore, Maryland. More than 500 clients who lived in the homes received counseling, participated in social adjustment programs and, when possible, held jobs and contributed their earnings to the homes’ operating expenses. About 20% of the clients were able to return to the community as self-supporting individuals.

Friends helped administer the Veterans Administration (VA) – National Institute of Mental Health grant for a multi-site lithium carbonate clinical trial for bipolar disorder at 22 VA hospitals nationwide. The VA’s Central Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory under the direction of Dr. James Klett oversaw this important study.

Findings from pharmacotherapy studies and group homes demonstrated that people with serious and persistent mental illness could be treated in the community to permit their reintegration in society and at much lower cost than residing in state institutions. These findings contributed to emerging deinstitutionalization trends in the United States.

As its research projects became more diverse and numerous, the name of the organization was changed to Friends Medical Science Research Center, Inc. Friends’ reputation was growing as well. Physicians, other health professionals, and principal investigators in Maryland were approaching Friends to administer research projects for them.

Heroin and Other Opioid Addiction

Friends made major contributions to the study of heroin addiction and its treatment from the early days of the heroin epidemic in the 1960s. In June 1964, the Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity, aware of the growing need to evaluate drug treatment programs in the United States, sought Friends’ assistance, thrusting the organization into the national spotlight and into the newly emerging world of electronic data collection.

Dr. David Nurco, who joined Friends in the mid-1960s, began studying the impact of drug abuse on families and the community, establishing the Friends Social Research Center (SRC) as the organization’s primary research site, until the opening of its Los Angeles office in the 1970s. Since its inception, researchers at the SRC have focused their work on determining the nature, correlates, and consequences of drug abuse and developing effective treatment interventions.

In 1963, Friends Medical Laboratory was established to detect heroin and other substance use through urine testing. The laboratory was used in research conducted by Drs. Nurco, Hanlon, and colleagues to examine approaches to better provide community supervision of individuals on parole and probation. It was also used in clinical trials of early opioid antagonists (cyclazocine and naloxone) in this population. The laboratory subsequently provided services to substance abuse treatment programs and private industry throughout the State of Maryland. Researchers in the lab pioneered a technique for testing urine specimens for 36 opioids and other substances. The Friends laboratory still operates today as a corporation separate from FRI, serving as a community partner in the treatment of drug use disorders.

In 1971, Dr. John Krantz, one of Friends’ original Board members, recognized the need to treat drug addiction as a disease. His dream was to provide treatment for adolescents with substance use problems, a cause for which he personally raised $167,000. Friends secured additional state and federal funding to provide treatment for substance using youth. This marked the beginning of Epoch Counseling Center, located in metropolitan Baltimore, which provided outpatient counseling for adolescents and adults with alcohol and drug problems.

In 1975, an increasing number of requests for assistance with grants administration from VA hospitals in California led to the establishment of a Friends branch in Tarzana, California. At that time, Friends, through Dr. Klett’s VA research group, assisted with a federally-funded VA cooperative study of a long-acting opioid pharmacotherapy, called LAAM, for the treatment of heroin addiction. This study was funded by President Nixon’s Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention led by the nation’s first drug czar, Dr. Jerome Jaffe, now a senior research scientist at FRI. The study brought Dr. Walter Ling to Friends for a 40-year collaboration between his research group at UCLA and Friends to examine treatments for opioid and other substance use disorders.

Throughout the 1980s, principal investigators involved in extramural studies funded by the National Institutes of Health began requesting Friends to administer their grants, including pharmaceutical studies. In addition, during the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, FRI investigators continued to expand their research work in the identification and treatment of opioid and other drug use disorders, focusing on pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatments, bio-behavioral HIV interventions, and prevention. In 1996, Friends updated its name to Friends Research Institute (FRI) to reflect is broader research focus.

In 1997, through the tireless efforts of Dr. Steven Shoptaw, FRI established Safe House, which continuously operated until 2015. Safe House provided low-cost, safe, and decent housing to people living with HIV/AIDS who also may have had unstable housing, a mental illness, and/or substance problem. Safe House helped this vulnerable community by reducing the barriers to care.

In 2008, FRI assumed responsibility for an existing clinic in Los Angeles, renamed the Friends Community Center, which operates service programs and conducts research studies focused on reducing substance use (including methamphetamine) and HIV risks with individuals who experience multiple health disparities. The site is located on the border of Hollywood and West Hollywood.

Today, an interdisciplinary group of FRI investigators continue to conduct research on substance misuse and its intersection with criminal justice, HIV/AIDS, health, and mental health. Their work has garnered widespread recognition resulting from its contribution to both scientific knowledge and clinical practice. Throughout its history and into the future, FRI is committed to contributing to the well-being of society through studies designed to discover effective and scalable approaches to alleviate some of the most vexing health and societal problems.


MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH

(M00L01, formerly 32.12.01)
FY2021 appropriation: $414,508,371 authorized positions: 119.8
Aliya C. Jones, M.D., Deputy Executive Director (410) 402-8452
e-mail: [email protected]
web: https://bha.health.maryland.gov/pages/Home.aspx


Springfield Hospital Center, Sykesville, Maryland, August 2006. Photo by Diane F. Evartt.
CHIEF OF STAFF
Stephanie C. Slowly, Waarnemende stafhoof (410) 402-8451
e-mail: [email protected]

MEDICAL DIRECTOR
Steven G. Whitefield, M.D., Medical Director (410) 402-8446
e-mail: [email protected]

BEHAVIORAL HEALTH FACILITIES

    EASTERN SHORE HOSPITAL CENTER (Cambridge)
    (M00L07, formerly 32.12.07)
    FY2021 appropriation: $22,958,055 authorized positions: 188.6
    Forrest A. Daniels, D.Sc., Chief Executive Officer (410) 221-2525 1-888-216-8110 (toll free) fax: (410) 221-2558
    e-mail: [email protected]
    web: https://health.maryland.gov/eshc/Pages/Home.aspx

        CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
        Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
        Vacancy, Chair (chosen by Board)
        James E. Smith, 2016 Cheryl T. Cotten, 2019 Sylvia M. Dlugokinski-Plenz, 2020 Katherine A. Smith, 2020 Cathy Jo Jones, D.N.P., 2022 Stacey L. Kram, D.N.P., 2022 Andrew J. Naumann, 2023 Debra A. Webster, Ed.D., 2024 three vacancies.

      MEDICAL RECORDS
      Jennifer T. Jones, Direkteur (410) 221-2503 e-mail: [email protected]

      NURSING
      Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 221-2428

      PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
      Lisa K. Hines, R.N., Bestuurder (410) 221-2428 e-mail: [email protected]

      PERSONNEL SERVICES
      Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 221-2330

      OPERATIONS
      William H. Webb, Chief Operations Officer (410) 221-2527
      e-mail: [email protected]

      FISCAL SERVICES
      Lori A. Woods, Chief Financial Officer (410) 221-2312 e-mail: [email protected]

      HOSPITAL POLICE
      Wallace O. Creighton, Hoof (410) 221-2323 e-mail: [email protected]

      HOUSEKEEPING
      Vacancy, Supervisor (410) 221-2363

      MAINTENANCE
      Randall T. Williams, Supervisor (410) 221-2372

      PATIENT SERVICES
      Paula Palladino, Clinical Director (410) 221-2492
      e-mail: [email protected]

        MEDICAL EDUCATION
        Dolores J. Slyter, Bibliotekaris (410) 221-2485 e-mail: [email protected]

      PSYCHOLOGY
      Doris A. Staeudle, Ph.D., Direkteur (410) 221-2334 e-mail: [email protected]

      REHABILITATION & ACTIVITIES
      Kimberly S. Lawhorne, Bestuurder (410) 221-2380

      SOCIAL WORK
      Rachel Sadorf, Direkteur (410) 221-2457 e-mail: [email protected]

      (M00L04, formerly 32.12.04)
      FY2021 appropriation: $22,165,949 authorized positions: 186.5
      Lesa A. Diehl, Chief Executive Officer (301) 777-2240
      e-mail: [email protected]
      web: www.tbfinancenter.com/page/home

              CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
              Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
              Vacancy, Chair (chosen by Board)
              Alvin Scott Gibson, 2019 Yvonne M. Perret, 2021 David A. Goad, 2022 Craig A. Robertson, 2022 Mary S. Shrout, 2022 Mark A. Tomick, 2022 Rayelle T. Davis, 2024.

              HOUSEKEEPING
              Gerard A. Peck (301) 777-2249

              MAINTENANCE
              Joseph E. Crawford, Jr., Supervisor (301) 777-2280

              MEDICAL RECORDS
              Krystal A. Dowling, Supervisor (301) 777-2325 e-mail: [email protected]

              PERSONNEL
              Christina M. Loney, Administrateur (301) 777-2236 e-mail: [email protected]

              POLICE
              James D. Hott, Hoof (301) 777-2205 e-mail: [email protected]

              PURCHASING
              Jimmie R. Murphy, Purchasing Officer (301) 777-2227

              PATIENT SERVICES
              Linda de Hoyos, M.D., Clinical Director (301) 777-2270
              e-mail: [email protected]

              PHARMACY
              James M. Crable, Clinical Pharmacist (301) 777-2221

              PSYCHOLOGY
              Janet L. Hendershot, Psy.D., Direkteur (301) 777-2220 e-mail: [email protected]

              REHABILITATION
              Melissa J. Nething, Direkteur (301) 777-2232

              CLIFTON T. PERKINS HOSPITAL CENTER (Jessup)
              (M00L10, formerly 32.12.10)
              FY2021 appropriation: $71,616,033 authorized positions: 599.5
              Marian G. Fogan, Chief Executive Officer (410) 724-3003 fax: (410) 724-3009
              e-mail: [email protected]
              web: https://health.maryland.gov/perkins/Pages/home.aspx

                      CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
                      Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
                      Danielle LaSure-Bryant, Chair (chosen by Board, 1-year term), 2021
                      C. Arthur Blair, 2018 Jennifer L. Shotwell, 2020 Sandora B. Cathcart, 2021 Anna E. D'Agostino, 2021 Tracie A. Montague, 2021 Yetta D. Lyle, 2022 two vacancies.

                      OPERATIONS
                      Vacancy, Chief Operating Officer (410) 724-3003

                      DIETARY SERVICES
                      Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 724-3045

                    HUMAN RESOURCES
                    Jazmine J. Rich, Direkteur (410) 724-3014 e-mail: [email protected]

                    PATIENT SERVICES
                    Inna Taller, M.D., Clinical Director (410) 724-3076
                    e-mail: [email protected]

                      ADMISSIONS
                      Lawrence Q. Brown, Direkteur (410) 724-3227

                    MEDICAL CLINIC
                    Syed Karim, M.D., Direkteur (410) 724-3105 e-mail: [email protected]

                    NURSING
                    Michelle L. Preston, Chief Nursing Officer (410) 724-3184 e-mail: [email protected]

                    PRETRIAL EVALUATIONS
                    Danielle R. Robinson, M.D. (410) 724-3217 e-mail: [email protected]

                    PSYCHIATRY
                    Inna Taller, M.D., Direkteur (410) 724-3079

                    PSYCHOLOGY
                    Salah C. (Chris) Khellaf, Ph.D., Direkteur (410) 724-3019 e-mail: [email protected]

                    REHABILITATION
                    Marian G. Fogan, O.T.R./L. (410) 724-3211 e-mail: [email protected]

                        CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
                        Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
                        Vacancy, Chair (chosen by Board)
                        Michele A. Washart, 2019 Sandra B. Pelzer, 2020 Nakieta Lankster, Psy.D., 2021 Brynez M. Roane, Ph.D., 2022 Jane S. Casper, 2024 two vacancies.

                      ADMINISTRATION
                      Molly J. Evans, Chief Operating Officer (410) 368-7825
                      e-mail: [email protected]

                      MEDICAL SERVICES
                      Tonya D. Tuggle, M.D., Medical Director (410) 369-7803
                      e-mail: [email protected]

                          CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
                          Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
                          Vacancy, Chair (chosen by Board)
                          Thomas Pulaski, 2019 Mary M. Bradley, R.N., 2020 Adaugo Frimpong, 2020 Darlene A. Simmons, 2021 Rebecca Cutick, 2022 Beverly C. Richardson-O'Neil, 2024 Lori R. Stone, 2024.

                        ADMINISTRATION
                        James Polimadei, Chief Operating Officer (301) 251-6824
                        e-mail: [email protected]

                        MEDICAL SERVICES
                        Claudette J. Bernstein, M.D., Medical Director (301) 251-6821
                        e-mail: [email protected]

                          NURSING
                          Suba Serry, Direkteur (301) 251-6863

                        PSYCHOLOGY SERVICES
                        Prabha Menon, Direkteur (301) 251-6857 e-mail: [email protected]

                          SPRING GROVE HOSPITAL CENTER (Catonsville)
                          (M00L09, formerly 32.12.09)
                          FY2021 appropriation: $86,593,873 authorized positions: 740.4
                          Dwain S. Shaw, J.D., Chief Executive Officer (410) 402-7455
                          e-mail: [email protected]
                          web: https://health.maryland.gov/springgrove/Pages/home.aspx
                                CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
                                Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
                                Vacancy, Chair (chosen by Board)
                                Kevin G. Becker, 2020 Linda J. Raines, 2024 Sue Song, 2021 Paula W. Wolf, 2021 Richard K. Powell, 2022 Edgar K. Wiggins, 2023 Linda J. Raines, 2024 three vacancies.

                                  ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES
                                  Jorel M. Fleming, Chief Operating Officer (410) 402-7301
                                  e-mail: [email protected]

                                  DIETARY
                                  Linda M. Alexander-Johnson, Director, Dietary Operations Service (410) 402-7577 e-mail: [email protected]

                                PERSONNEL
                                Colina V. Mason, Chief Human Resource Officer (410) 402-7501 e-mail: [email protected]

                                PLANT MANAGEMENT
                                Bryan K. Chenoweth, Direkteur (410) 402-7405 e-mail: [email protected]

                                PATIENT SERVICES
                                Marie Rose Alam, M.D., Chief Medical Officer (410) 402-7595
                                e-mail: [email protected]

                                  ADMISSIONS
                                  Mark N. Mollenhauer, M.D., Associate Clinical Director (410) 402-7595 e-mail: [email protected]

                                CLINICAL OPERATIONS
                                Vacancy, Hoof (410) 402-7204

                                CONTINUED CARE DIVISION
                                Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 402-7131

                                DENTAL SERVICES
                                Shankari Kumarachandran, D.D.S., Direkteur (410) 402-7804 e-mail: [email protected]

                                EDUCATION
                                Karima M. Orpia, Direkteur (410) 402-7788 e-mail: [email protected]

                                HEALTH INFORMATION SERVICES
                                Ann M. Sutton, Direkteur (410) 402-7657 e-mail: [email protected]

                                NURSING
                                Wendy A. Tarbalouti, R.N., Chief Nursing Officer (410) 402-7818 e-mail: [email protected]

                                PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
                                John E. O'Brien, Direkteur (410) 402-7297 e-mail: [email protected]

                                PHARMACY
                                Robert P. Zepp, Direkteur (410) 402-7817

                                PSYCHOLOGY
                                Jerome F. (Jerry) Kowalewski, Ph.D., Direkteur (410) 402-7699

                                REHABILITATION SERVICES
                                Margaret H. Farley, Direkteur (410) 402-7166 e-mail: [email protected]

                                SOCIAL WORK
                                Robin M. Templeton, Direkteur (410) 402-7550 e-mail: [email protected]

                                  SPRINGFIELD HOSPITAL CENTER (Sykesville)
                                  (M00L08, formerly 32.12.08)
                                  FY2021 appropriation: $73,783,665 authorized positions: 672.5
                                  Paula A. Langmead, Chief Executive Officer (410) 970-7000
                                  e-mail: [email protected]
                                  web: https://health.maryland.gov/springfield/Pages/home.aspx
                                        CITIZENS ADVISORY BOARD
                                        Appointed by Governor upon recommendation of Secretary of Health to 4-year terms:
                                        Carole Ann Hays, Chair (chosen by Board in June, 1-year term), 2018
                                        Spencer L. Gear, 2017 James P. Gleason, Jr., Esq., 2019 Jessica R. Contreras, 2020 Ann A. Patterson, 2020 Marianne Myrtue, 2024 Wrenn M. Skidmore, 2024.

                                      PATIENT SERVICES
                                      Olga M. Rossello, Clinical Director (410) 970-7006
                                      e-mail: [email protected]

                                        FORENSIC SERVICES
                                        Tyler C. Hightower, M.D., Direkteur (410) 970-7100 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      MEDICAL RECORDS
                                      Denise L. Maskell, Direkteur (410) 970-7110 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      MEDICAL SERVICES
                                      Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 970-7120

                                      NURSING
                                      Gloria E. Merek, R.N., Direkteur (410) 970-7167 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
                                      Iris I. Mielke, Deputy Director (410) 970-7040 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      PHARMACY
                                      Bethany A. DiPaula, Pharm.D., Direkteur (410) 970-7135 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES
                                      Jo A. Hall, M.D., Acting Director (410) 970-7275 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      PSYCHOLOGY
                                      Robert A. Levin, Ph.D., Direkteur (410) 970-7140 e-mail: [email protected]

                                      REHABILITATION
                                      Vacancy, Direkteur (410) 970-7180

                                      SUPPORT SERVICES
                                      Vinson McKennie, Chief Operations Officer (410) 970-7010
                                      e-mail: [email protected]

                                        ACCOUNTING
                                        Vacancy, Chief Financial Officer (410) 970-7016


                                      Kyk die video: Spring Grove football player charged with assault in PIAA official attack (Januarie 2022).