Inligting

Kameelperd IX -118 - Geskiedenis


Kameelperd

'N Groot herkouende soogdier van Afrika, met 'n baie lang nek. Dit is die hoogste van viervoete.

(1X-118: dp. 14,245; 1. 441'6 "; b. 56'11"; dr. 28'4 "; s.
11 k .; kpl. 108; a. 15 ")

Giraffe (IX-118), voorheen tenkwa Sanford B. Dole, is op 11 November 1943 gelanseer deur die California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Kalifornië .; geborg deur juffrou Mary F. Leddy; verkry en gelyktydig in gebruik geneem op 12 Desember 1943; Lt.kom. Frederick F. Daly, USNR, bevelvoerder.

Na beurtkrag het Giraffe op 10 Februarie 1944 by Funafuti, Ellice -eilande ingetrek en daarna oorlogskepe by Eniwetok, Saipan, Guam, Ulithi en Palau aangevul voordat sy op 21 Julie 1945 in Okinawa gekom het. Sy het 20 November na Sasebo, Japan, ingegaan en bedien die besettingsvloot tot en met vertrek uit Yokosuka op 21 Februarie 1946 na Pearl Harbor en Norfolk. Kameelperd het Norfolk op 3 Mei bereik en is daar op 17 Junie 1946 ontmantel. Op daardie datum is sy terug na die oorlogsdepartement, 3 Julie 1946 van die vlootlys geskrap. Daarna is sy aan Metro Petroleum Shipping Co., Inc.

Kameelperd het twee gevegsterre gekry vir diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.


USS kameelperd

USS Giraffe IX - 118 'n tenkwa van die Armadillo -klas wat as 'n nie -geklassifiseerde diverse vaartuig aangewys is, was die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat die naam gekry het
Ledgard Giraffe album 'n album van Echoboy Giraffe skaak 'n sprokiesstuk USS Giraffe IX - 118 Giraffe constellation or Camelopardalis GIRAFFE Radar
USS Oracle AM ​​- 103 was 'n mynveër van Auk -klas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir die Amerikaanse vloot gebou is. Sy is in Mei 1943 in diens geneem en uit diens geneem
United States Navy as USS Fort Donelson en in die Chileense vloot as Concepcion. Robert E. Lee was oorspronklik die koopskip Giraffe, 'n skoener
USS Independence LCS - 2 is die hoofskip van die onafhanklikheidsklas van gevegskepe op die see. Sy is die sesde skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat genoem word
USS Gabrielle Giffords LCS - 10 is 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Die skip is vernoem na die voormalige Verenigde State
USS G - 1 SS - 19½ USS G - 2 SS - 27 USS G - 3 SS - 31 USS G - 4 SS - 26 USS G. H. McNeal SP - 312 USS G. L. Brockenborough 1862 USS G. W. Blunt 1861 USS Gabilan
USS Kingsville LCS - 36 sal 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot wees. Sy sal die eerste skip wees wat na Kingsville vernoem is
USS Murzim AK - 95 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy is vernoem na Murzim, die ster in die sterrebeeld
USS Hendry APA - 118 was 'n aanval in die Haskell -klas van die Amerikaanse vloot wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou en gedien het. Sy was van die VC2 - S - AP5 Victory -skip

USS Armadillo IX - 111 die hoofskip van haar tenkwa was die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na die gordeldier, 'n insekvretende
USS Highlands APA - 119 was 'n Haskell -klas aanvalstransport wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou en gebruik is. Sy was 'n Victory -skipontwerp, VC2 - S - AP5.
USS Caelum AK - 106 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Caelum is vernoem na die sterrebeeld Caelum
USS Ara AK - 136 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Ara is vernoem na die sterrebeeld Ara. Sy
Enorme kameelperdbeeld Dallas Zoo - Dallas, TX Gearchiveer van die oorspronklike op 2008 - 02 - 05. Tomaso, Bruce 2011 - 10 - 09 Skepper van die kameelperdbeeld van Dallas Zoo
USS Kenmore AP - 162 AK - 221 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir die Amerikaanse vloot gebou is. Kenmore is vernoem na die suster van George Washington
grasvelde van Afrika. Die grootste uitstalling is 'n gebied vir herbivore, die tuiste van kameelperde -sebras en volstruise. Daar is ook omheinings vir seekoeie, Afrikaanse leeus
USS Tulsa LCS - 16 is 'n onafhanklike klas se gevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die derde skip wat vernoem is na Tulsa, die tweede grootste
USS Lesuth AK - 125 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Lesuth is vernoem na die ster Lesuth in die
USS Sculptor AK - 103 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Beeldhouer is vernoem na die sterrebeeld
USS APc - 1 USS APc - 2 USS APc - 3 USS APc - 4 USS APc - 5 USS APc - 6 USS APc - 7 USS APc - 8 USS APc - 9 USS APc - 10 USS APc - 11 USS APc - 12 USS APc - 13 USS APc - 14 USS APc - 15

USS Coronado LCS - 4 is 'n seiljaggevegskip van onafhanklikheid. Sy is die derde skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na Coronado, Kalifornië
USS Rutilicus AK - 113 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy was verantwoordelik vir die lewering van troepe
USS Jackson LCS - 6 is 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot en die eerste skip wat vernoem is na Jackson, die hoofstad van
USS Rotanin AK - 108 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Rotanin, wat 'n verkeerde spelling van die naam is
USS Charleston LCS - 18 is 'n onafhanklike klas se gevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die sesde skip wat vernoem is na Charleston, die
USS Manchester LCS - 14 is 'n seiljaggevegskip van die onafhanklikheidsklas in die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die tweede skip wat vernoem is na Manchester, New
USS Omaha LCS - 12 is 'n onafhanklike klas se gevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die vierde skip wat vernoem is na die grootste Omaha
USS Mobile LCS - 26 sal 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot wees. Sy sal die vyfde skip wees met die naam Mobile. Mobiel
USS Megrez AK - 126 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Megrez is vernoem na Megrez, 'n ster in die

  • USS Giraffe IX - 118 'n tenkwa van die Armadillo -klas wat as 'n nie -geklassifiseerde diverse vaartuig aangewys is, was die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat die naam gekry het
  • Ledgard Giraffe album 'n album van Echoboy Giraffe skaak 'n sprokiesstuk USS Giraffe IX - 118 Giraffe constellation or Camelopardalis GIRAFFE Radar
  • USS Oracle AM ​​- 103 was 'n mynveër van Auk -klas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir die Amerikaanse vloot gebou is. Sy is in Mei 1943 in diens geneem en uit diens geneem
  • United States Navy as USS Fort Donelson en in die Chileense vloot as Concepcion. Robert E. Lee was oorspronklik die koopskip Giraffe, 'n skoener
  • USS Independence LCS - 2 is die hoofskip van die onafhanklikheidsklas van gevegskepe op die see. Sy is die sesde skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat genoem word
  • USS Gabrielle Giffords LCS - 10 is 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Die skip is vernoem na die voormalige Verenigde State
  • USS G - 1 SS - 19½ USS G - 2 SS - 27 USS G - 3 SS - 31 USS G - 4 SS - 26 USS G. H. McNeal SP - 312 USS G. L. Brockenborough 1862 USS G. W. Blunt 1861 USS Gabilan
  • USS Kingsville LCS - 36 sal 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot wees. Sy sal die eerste skip wees wat na Kingsville vernoem is
  • USS Murzim AK - 95 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy is vernoem na Murzim, die ster in die sterrebeeld
  • USS Hendry APA - 118 was 'n aanval in die Haskell -klas van die Amerikaanse vloot wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou en gedien het. Sy was van die VC2 - S - AP5 Victory -skip
  • USS Armadillo IX - 111 die hoofskip van haar tenkwa was die enigste skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na die gordeldier, 'n insekvretende
  • USS Highlands APA - 119 was 'n Haskell -klas aanvalstransport wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebou en gebruik is. Sy was 'n Victory -skipontwerp, VC2 - S - AP5.
  • USS Caelum AK - 106 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Caelum is vernoem na die sterrebeeld Caelum
  • USS Ara AK - 136 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Ara is vernoem na die sterrebeeld Ara. Sy
  • Enorme kameelperdbeeld Dallas Zoo - Dallas, TX Gearchiveer van die oorspronklike op 2008 - 02 - 05. Tomaso, Bruce 2011 - 10 - 09 Skepper van die kameelperdbeeld van Dallas Zoo
  • USS Kenmore AP - 162 AK - 221 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog vir die Amerikaanse vloot gebou is. Kenmore is vernoem na die suster van George Washington
  • grasvelde van Afrika. Die grootste uitstalling is 'n gebied vir herbivore, die tuiste van kameelperde -sebras en volstruise. Daar is ook omheinings vir seekoeie, Afrikaanse leeus
  • USS Tulsa LCS - 16 is 'n seiljaggevegskip van die onafhanklikheidsklas van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die derde skip wat vernoem is na Tulsa, die tweede grootste
  • USS Lesuth AK - 125 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Lesuth is vernoem na die ster Lesuth in die
  • USS Sculptor AK - 103 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Beeldhouer is vernoem na die sterrebeeld
  • USS APc - 1 USS APc - 2 USS APc - 3 USS APc - 4 USS APc - 5 USS APc - 6 USS APc - 7 USS APc - 8 USS APc - 9 USS APc - 10 USS APc - 11 USS APc - 12 USS APc - 13 USS APc - 14 USS APc - 15
  • USS Coronado LCS - 4 is 'n seiljaggevegskip van onafhanklikheid. Sy is die derde skip van die Amerikaanse vloot wat vernoem is na Coronado, Kalifornië
  • USS Rutilicus AK - 113 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Sy was verantwoordelik vir die lewering van troepe
  • USS Jackson LCS - 6 is 'n onafhanklike klas se gevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot en die eerste skip wat vernoem is na Jackson, die hoofstad van
  • USS Rotanin AK - 108 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Rotanin, wat 'n verkeerde spelling van die naam is
  • USS Charleston LCS - 18 is 'n onafhanklike klas se gevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die sesde skip wat vernoem is na Charleston, die
  • USS Manchester LCS - 14 is 'n seiljaggevegskip van die onafhanklikheidsklas in die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die tweede skip wat vernoem is na Manchester, New
  • USS Omaha LCS - 12 is 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy is die vierde skip wat vernoem is na die grootste Omaha
  • USS Mobile LCS - 26 sal 'n onafhanklike klasgevegskip van die Amerikaanse vloot wees. Sy sal die vyfde skip wees wat Mobile genoem word. Mobiel
  • USS Megrez AK - 126 was 'n vragskip van die kraterklas wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot in diens geneem is tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Megrez is vernoem na Megrez, 'n ster in die

Uss gabrielle giffords lcs 10 lltm seekameelperd InstantMarkets.

10, IX 116, GAZELLE, Lt. J. B. Koeller USNR. 10, IX 117, GEMSBOK, Lt. E. W. Smith USNR. 10, IX 118, GIRAFFE, Lt. Cdr. F. F. Daly USNR. 10, IX 119, IBEX. Kameelperde in serpe Bordspel BoardGameGeek. Die skepe sal die naam USS Kingsville LCS 36 en USS Pierre LCS 38 hê. Seekameelperd staan ​​hoog onder die beskerming van die toesigradars. Die dieretuin het 'n kameelperdkalf op Sondag 8 November verwelkom. Die baba se netjiese kameelperd weeg 137 pond en was 6 voet lank by geboorte. Eerstens. Niger, Franse magte op soek na gewapende mans wat toeriste in Afrika vermoor het. Sperdatum. 24 Julie 2020 12 dae gelede. Bodkennisgewing USS GABRIELLE GIFFORDS LCS 10 LLTM SEA GIRAFFE ANTENNA COVER. Ja, baba: Dieretuin in New York onthul die naam van April, die kameelperdkalf. Begin u reis in die VSA Oudhede grot, die tuiste van 'n verskeidenheid visse, reptiele, amfibieë en ongewerweldes. Loop deur die duikbootgrot om te leer hoe.

Sea Giraffe News Maritime Logistics Professionele nuus.

Kameelperd Moeders soen Niemand kan die kameelperd se moeder weerstaan ​​om 'n smokkel op die kop van haar baba te plant nie. 1000 -stuk legkaart, saamgestelde grootte 19,25 x. USS Giraffe IX 118 Diverse foto -indeks. Saab het 'n bevel ontvang om Sea Giraffe AMB Multi Mode Radar te verskaf vir die US Navy Expeditionary Sea Base -skip, USNS Hershel Woody. Giraffe Mothers Kiss 1000pc Puzzle - Hobby Express Inc. Is ontplooi om die gewapende mans wat sewe hulpwerkers, meestal Franse burgers, en 'n toonaangewende gids in 'n Niger -kameelperdpark doodgemaak het, na te jaag.

Hoe om reuse -Oobleck -stresballe te maak! Video Ontdek pret en.

Austal USA ontvang LCS -kontrakwysiging vir Sea Giraffe Radar USS Jackson LCS 6 voltooi skokproewe suksesvol. Saab Sea Giraffe Naval Radar Marine Link. Продолжительность: 0:41.

Sea Giraffe News MarineLink.

'N Beeld wat uit 'n afstandsbediende voertuig op afstand gebruik word, toon 'n onderdele -boks van die USS Indianapolis op die vloer van die Stille Oseaan in. United States Pacific Fleet Organization, 1 Mei 1945. Mesker Park Zoo & Botanic Garden: die kameelperdvoedende dame was onbeskof! AAN ALMAL! Sien 406 reisigersbeoordelings, 223 openhartige foto's en wonderlike aanbiedings vir. Saab ontvang 'n opdrag om Sea Giraffe AMB -radar vir die VSA te verskaf. Ek wou net vertel hoe ek na die werk van Slim na UXML en Sass na USS gegaan het.

USS Giraffe IX 118 Top 5 feite YouTube.

USS Abarenda AC 13 AG 14 USS Ajax AC 14 USS Brutus AC 15 USS Giraffe IX 118 USS Gloria Dalton IX 70 USS Gopher IX 11 Следующая Войти. Knuffeldiere Super oulike loperige kameelperd sagte knuffeldiere. Federale kontrakgeleentheid vir USS GABRIELLE GIFFORDS LCS 10 LLTM SEA GIRAFFE ANTENNA COVER HOOD N5523620R0008. Die NAICS -kategorie. Diere Rosamond Gifford Zoo. Elsie, die kameelperd, het 'n bad. Bubble Stick. Grapefruit petitgrain perfeksie. $ 7,45 2,6 ons. grootte. 01905. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Hoeveelheid. Voeg by mandjie.

Beste maniere om van die kameelperduitstalling af te kom na die maatstaf -brou Lyft.

USS Freedom LCS 1 is die eerste in die Lockheed Martin Freedom -klas van CEC, en die Saab Microwave Systems voorheen Ericsson Sea Giraffe radar. FOTO: Stanley die kameelperd is veilig, maar ander diere op die. USS Missouri. Tans is daar geen inhoud met hierdie merker nie. Laai deur USS Missouri. Sien meer. Honolulu Zoo Twilight Tours Giraffe. The Blockade Runners American Battlefield Trust. Om die natuurlike ontwerp van die kameelperd te ondersoek, verduidelik 'n dieretuinbewaarder op video hoe die kameelperde se hart, bloedvate en vel sy bloed glad laat vloei. Indianapolis Dieretuin verwelkom baba kameelperd. Sea Giraffe bied die volume soekradar vir USS Independence LCS 2, een van twee variante wat geëvalueer word vir die seevaartgeveg van die Navys.

USS Giraffe IX 118 en Asbest blootstelling Asbest skepe.

Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home Giraffe op pedia. Geborg deur Apple TV USS Nog USS Discovery Die Trying episode Scavengers episode. Wrakstukke gevind van die USS Indianapolis wat deur Japan gesink is en doodgemaak het. 'N Paar kameelperde kan nog vroeër betaal word, alhoewel hulle by die kameelperde aangekom het, kan hulle 14 tot 16 maande lank swanger word, wat dit moeilik maak. Giraffe Stir Sticks Set van 5 van TrueZoo Elegant Gifts deur USS. Verkry deur die Amerikaanse vloot, 27 Oktober 1943, herdoop na Giraffe IX 118 van stapel gestuur, 11 November 1943 in opdrag van USS Giraffe IX 118 ,. Wild By Design Carnegie Wetenskapsentrum. Опубликовано: 30 окт. 2015 г.

Kom vir skatte van die Spaanse wêrelde, bly vir USS Nightmare.

Terwyl ons gunsteling sneeu -uile steeds nie vang nie, was die kameelperd die babapoeier, die USS Big Bird, joga, 7:20, 'n pyl met 'n mullet. 'N Uitsig van bo die kameelperd, diere, wilde diere Pinterest. Die Amerikaanse vloot het die Saabs Sea Giraffe AMB Multi Mode Radar gekies vir die Navys Expeditionary Sea Base -klas USNS Hershel.

Ons skip USS Cincinnati Commissioning Foundation.

Vind die goedkoopste en vinnigste maniere om van Giraffe Exhibit na Benchmark Van USS Midway Museum na Benchmark Brewing Company From Belly Up te kom. USS Giraffe IX 118 pedia. Onder die vaartuie wat volledig deur die regering besit is, was die kameelperd, 'n yster sywielwielstoomboot van Clyde, The USS Malvern, voorheen die Kate en Anna.

Nuwe produkte weelderige vars handgemaakte skoonheidsmiddels.

USS Abarenda AC 13 AG 14 USS Ajax AC 14 USS Brutus AC 15 USS Geoanna IX 61 USS Giraffe IX 118 USS Gloria Dalton IX 70 USS. Hulpskepe Asbes Jobsites Hissey, Mulderig & Friend. USS Giraffe IX 118 Verenigde State. Gestart: 11 November 1943. In opdrag: 12 Desember 1943. Ontmantel: 17 Junie 1946. Getref: 3 Julie 1946. Skripte vir die gebruik van Sass en Slim vir UIElements -uitlegte Unity Forum. Wesens is gegroepeer in unieke habitats, sodat jy kameelperde en sebras in die Afrikaanse savanne -omhulsel sien rondloop, of deur 'n gesimuleerde dwaal. HyperWar: USS Giraffe IX 118 Ibiblio. As die USS Oregon, 'n Navys se nuutste aanval -duikboot, die naweek gedoop word, sal dit met vloeistowwe uit Oregon gespat word. Die gemaskerde sanger ontmasker die kameelperd E! Aanlyn. Hoeveel serpe kan jy vir jou kameelperd versamel? Gooi die dobbelsteen, kies 'n kaart en bou u kameelperd in hierdie prettige telling en kleuraanpassing. Die wenner is.

Baba bongo gebore, waarskynlik meer gou by Species Survival Center.

Hierdie voorkoms kan beskryf word as pseudonodulêr of 'n kameelperdpatroon. kleur Doppler -studie toon gewoonlik normale of verminderde vloei, maar soms daar. Hashimoto thyroiditis Radiologie Verwysingsartikel R. Seekameelperd Nuus: Saab Seekameelper Naval Radar. vlootvliegtuie regoor die wêreld. Sea Giraffe bied die volume soekradar vir USS Independence LCS 2 .... Cape Fear Burgeroorlog Shipwreck District National Register NC.gov. FOTO: Stanley die kameelperd is veilig, maar ander diere op die Semlers Malibu Gisteraand het vuur na die bobou versprei aan boord van die amfibiese aanvalsskip USS. Uss gabrielle giffords lcs 10 lltm seedier.gov. Hierdie Giraffe Stir Sticks is gemaak vir lang bestellings. Hierdie roerstokkies, wat ontwerp is om selfs in die smalste koppies te pas, sal enige drank meng, van sap tot cocktails tot koffie.

Langkameelperde vier die eerste konstruksiestrek op nuwe.

Mense soek ook na. USS Giraffe IX 118 Visueel. Kmdt. Dave Back regs, uitvoerende beampte van USS Independence LCS 2 Gold Crew, doen 'n rondleiding deur sy skip na die deelnemers aan die Seekameelperd. Sea Giraffe radar gekies vir USNS Herschel Woody Williams. Op soek na 'n USS Giraffe IX 118 -afdruk? Koop fyn vervaardigde militêre geskenke en klere by Pr. 100% kliëntetevredenheidswaarborg op u USS.


Kameelperde gebruik hul hoogte ten goede en blaai op blare en knoppe in boomtoppe wat min ander diere kan bereik (akasia's is 'n gunsteling). Selfs die kameelperd se tong is lank! Die tong van 21 duim help hulle om lekker stukkies uit takke te pluk. Kameelperde eet die meeste van die tyd en gooi, soos koeie, kos op en kou dit as kou. 'N Kameelperd eet elke week honderde pond blare en moet kilometers ver ry om genoeg kos te vind.

Die hoogte van die kameelperd help dit ook om skerp uitkyk te hou vir roofdiere oor die wye uitgestrektheid van die Afrika -savanne.

Die grootte van die kameelperd kan ook 'n nadeel wees - dit is moeilik en gevaarlik vir 'n kameelperd om by 'n watergat te drink. Om dit te kan doen, moet hulle hul bene sprei en buig in 'n ongemaklike posisie wat hulle kwesbaar maak vir roofdiere soos Afrika se groot katte. Kameelperde hoef net een keer per paar dae te drink; hulle kry die meeste water uit die weelderige plante wat hulle eet.

Vroulike kameelperde kraam staande op. Hulle kleintjies ontvang 'n taamlik onbeskofte verwelkoming in die wêreld deur by geboorte meer as 5 meter op die grond te val. Hierdie babas kan binne 'n halfuur staan ​​en 'n ongelooflike tien uur na hul geboorte saam met hul ma's hardloop.


Kultuurgeskiedenis

  • Kameelperde: Afrika se sagte reuse - 2016, BBC (VK)/PBS (VS)
    • Bewaringsuitdagings rondom kameelperde
    • Die verskuiwing van kameelperde om oorlewing te bevorder
    • Biografiese vertelling van die kameelperdbioloog, Julian Fennessy, Ph.D.
    • Voorgelees deur David Attenborough (UK)/Paul Christie (VS)
    • Bewaringskwessies van kameelperde
    • Navorsingsprofiele, waaronder Anne Innis Dagg, "Jane Goodall van kameelperde"
    • David Attenborough vertel hierdie reis deur die diverse vasteland van Afrika.
    • Kameelperde wat in die titel getoon word Kalahari.
    • Seisoen 21 van die dokumentêre reeks Natuur toon 'n episode wat in Kenia afspeel.
    • Kykers sien die geboorte van 'n kameelperd en die verskuiwing van kameelperde na 'n wildreservaat.

    Boeke: Navorsing/Memoirs

    • Kameelperd: biologie, gedrag en bewaring (Anne Innis Dagg 2014)
    • Zarafa: 'n Kameelperd se ware verhaal, van diep in Afrika tot in die hartjie van Parys (Michael Allin 1998)

    Kinders se letterkunde

    • Kameelperde (Lucia Raatma 2013)
      • Kinderboek met belangrike feite oor bewaring en inligting oor die spesie.

      Kweek openbare bewustheid en waardering

      Geskiedenis (Mitchell 2009)

        , Republiek Niger, Wes -Afrika (Bradshaw Foundation Trust for African Rock Art)
        • Gravures/gravures op rots (sandsteen)
          • Lewensgrootte, ongeveer 19 voet hoog
          • Toon twee kameelperde, 'n groot mannetjie met 'n kleiner wyfie agter
          • Terrein: Dabous, wes van A & iumlrberge
            • Datum onduidelik, na raming 7-10 000 vC
            • Prehistories waarskynlik van die pre-pastorale tydperk
            • Vroegste: 3400 v.C.
            • Laaste: 1225. Muur van die tempel van Ramses II.
            • Grieke: vertoon deur Caesar in sy wedstryde van 46 v.C.
            • Romeine: gevalle waar hulle in speletjies gedood is of geparadeer is ter viering van militêre triomf
            • Word nie in die Griekse of Romeinse kuns aangetoon nie (Mitchell 2009 Graham Mitchell, persoonlike kommunikasie)
            • Geen blywende impak nie "Dit sal nog 340 jaar duur voordat 'n lewende kameelperd weer in Europa gesien kan word" (Mitchell 2009).
            • Tydens die ekspedisie van die noordwestelike kus van die Kaap de Goede Hoop onder leiding van sersant Jonas de la Guerre
            • Geen beskrywing gegee nie, dit lyk asof daar geen eksemplare versamel is nie.
            • Bewyse van hoe ver suidelike kameelperde natuurlik voorgekom het.
            • 1758: Linnaeus publiseer 'n taksonomiese evaluering. Plaas kameelperde in die genus Cervus, dink dat dit verband hou met takbokke, te oordeel aan die horingagtige geweier.
            • 1761 of 1762: Die eerste eksemplaar: 'n vel van 'n jong kameelperd. Verkry nadat 'n russtasie vir die Nederlandse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie aan die Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Suid -Afrika, geopen is.
            • 1762: Die Franse dierkundige Marhurin Brisson plaas kameelperde in 'n nuwe genus, Kameelperdeomdat hy vermoed het dat die horings permanent is.
            • 1764: Monsters gestuur na die Universiteit Leiden in Holland vir studie deur die in Switserland gebore J.N.S. (Jean) Allamand, professor in natuurgeskiedenis. Gevul en uitgestal aan die Universiteit.
              • Hy is veral geïnteresseerd in die vraag of kameelperde hul horings afval of nie, in die hoop om 'n taksonomiese kontroversie op te los wat Linnaeus en Brisson begin het (nie een het 'n monster gesien nie).
              • Begin van die wetenskaplike studie van kameelperde
              • Voorbeeld gestuur na die beroemde anatomis John Hunter.
                • 1780: Vel en dele van 'n skelet wat prominent in sy persoonlike museum vertoon word. Dit is egter nie deeglik bestudeer of beskryf nie.
                • Eerste voorbeeld van 'n kameelperd wat in Engeland gesien is.
                • Laaste eksemplare uit suidelike Afrika gestuur.
                • Allamand werk saam met Buffon, wat beskrywings in syne inkorporeer Histoire Naturelle.
                • 'N Kameelperd wat na Frankryk gestuur is, leef 17 jaar in die Jardin des Plantes in Parys.
                • 'N Belangrike stimulus vir wetenskaplike studie van kameelperde
                • Gewysig deur Dagg en Foster (1976)

                Evolusionêre teorie

                • Kameelperde word 'n berugte voorbeeld wanneer dit deur Jean Baptiste Lamarck gebruik word om te illustreer hoe diere aanpas by die uitdagings van hul omgewing (Gadjev 2014)
                  • Dierkunde filosofie, 1809

                  Resultate en bespreking

                  'N Totaal van 65 verskillende gedrag kan geïdentifiseer word. Hierdie gedrag is onderverdeel in 30 Aktiwiteite en 35 Interaksies. Aktiwiteite is verder onderverdeel Algemene aktiwiteite (Bykomende lêer 1: Tabel S1) en Abnormale herhalende gedrag (Bykomende lêer 2: Tabel S2). Interaksies is gestruktureer volgens geslag en ouderdomsklas van die handelende dier, en van die diere waarop die gedrag vermoedelik gerig is. Dit het tot gevolg gehad Algemene interaksies (Bykomende lêer 3: Tabel S3), Bull-Cow-gedrag (Bykomende lêer 4: Tabel S4), Bul-Bul gedrag (Bykomende lêer 5: Tabel S5), Koei-bul gedrag (Bykomende lêer 6: Tabel S6), interaksies deur kalwers (Bykomende lêer 7: Tabel S7), en moederlike gedrag (Bykomende lêer 8: Tabel S8). Daar is geen gedrag gevind wat uitsluitlik tussen koeie uitgevoer word nie.

                  Aktiwiteite

                  Soos hierbo genoem, word gedrag aan die kategorie toegeken Aktiwiteite hou nie verband met enige soort interaktiewe gedrag nie en is ook nie beperk tot een geslags- of ouderdomsgroep nie. Gedrag van die Aktiwiteite kategorie is verder onderverdeel Algemene aktiwiteite (Bykomende lêer 1: Tabel S1) en Abnormale herhalende gedrag (Bykomende lêer 2: Tabel S2).

                  Abnormale herhalende gedrag

                  Soos met ander spesies, word dit aanvaar dat abnormale herhalende gedrag dikwels by gevange diere ontwikkel as gevolg van 'n tydsbegrotingsverskuiwing in die daaglikse aktiwiteitspatroon [46, 47]. Kameelperde in gevangenskap spandeer aansienlik minder tyd om te voed in vergelyking met die hoeveelheid tyd wat kameelperde Snuffel in die natuur [16, 20].

                  Interaksies

                  Hierdie afdeling bevat gedrag wat gekenmerk word deur enige soort direkte of indirekte sosiale interaksie tussen individuele kameelperde. Gedrag van die Interaksies kategorie is verder onderverdeel Algemene interaksies (Bykomende lêer 3: Tabel 3), Bul - Koeigedrag (Bykomende lêer 4: Tabel S4), Bul - Bulgedrag (Bykomende lêer 5: Tabel S5), Cow - Bull Gedrag (Bykomende lêer 6: Tabel S6), behaviourale interaksies deur kalwers (Bykomende lêer 7: Tabel S7) en moederlike gedrag (Bykomende lêer 8: Tabel S8). Alle gedrag wat tussen koeie uitgevoer word (koei-koei) is ook waargeneem tussen ander sterrebeelde van geslag en ouderdom, en word dus hieronder gelys algemene interaksies.

                  Hierdie etogram is saamgestel om te dien as basis vir huidige en toekomstige studies wat ontwerp is om die komplekse gedragspatrone van die spesie verder te ondersoek. Op grond van ons eie waarnemings, kan verskeie dikwels ouer beskrywings geverifieer word en selfs nuwe insigte bygevoeg word tot wat in die literatuur gesê word.

                  Die indeling van die beskrywe gedrag in aktiwiteite en interaksies Dit kan vanuit 'n definisie -oogpunt nogal duidelik blyk, maar moet met omsigtigheid gebruik word, omdat die volledige bedoeling en doel van 'n waargenome gedrag altyd 'n interpretasie bly wat gebaseer is op 'n projeksie van die waarnemer se opvatting. Die gedrag van die dier kan nie tot die som van verskillende gedragshandelinge verminder word nie, en daarom is duidelike en presiese terminologie noodsaaklik om 'n gemeenskaplike taal te skep wat verstaanbaar is onder menslike waarnemers en om by te dra tot die begrip van gedrag in die natuur.

                  Met betrekking tot sosiale interaksies wat nie beperk is tot een geslag of ouderdomsklas nie (Algemene interaksies), is dit opmerklik dat baie van hierdie gedrag oorspronklik beskryf is as uitsluitlik oordrewe deur een geslag, of deur 'n spesifieke ouderdomsgroep. Tydens ons waarnemings registreer ons egter ook die uitvoering van hierdie gedrag deur onderskeidelik die onderskeie teenoorgestelde geslag, of in ouderdomsgroepe.

                  Die afdeling oor spelgedrag was taamlik kort en omvattend gehou. Vir kortheid is alle gedrag van dieselfde voor die hand liggende (spel) bedoeling saamgevat. Tog kan toekomstige studies verskillende vorme van spelgedrag by kameelperde onthul, soortgelyk aan dié van ander hoefdiere, hoewel dit waarskynlik nie so uitgesproke is soos bv. by perde [24].

                  Verskeie gedrag, hoewel dit dikwels slegs in die vorm van 'n poging waargeneem word (bv. Montering, paring, verpleegkunde) word in hierdie etogram as afsonderlike gedrag geklassifiseer, omdat pogings duidelik en belangrik blyk te wees, daarom kan hierdie gedrag as 'n aparte onderafdeling beskou word. in 'n etogram wat vir waarnemings gebruik word.

                  Daar moet ook genoem word dat vir die visuele kommunikasie van oorheersing teenstrydige beskrywings in die literatuur gegee word. Pratt en Anderson [5] rapporteer dat 'n dominante bul met 'n hoë kop na 'n teenstander sal loop, met die doel om so groot as moontlik te lyk. Inteendeel, Dagg [9] verklaar dat 'n dominante bul wat 'n teenstander bedreig, sy kop diep met die nek parallel met die grond sal dra, asof hy 'n gevegsposisie inneem. Ons stel voor dat beide waarnemings voldoende is en dat kommunikasie van oorheersing kan wissel met die afstand tussen teenstanders. In hierdie verband kan die 'kophoogte' houding aangeneem word vir 'n afstand van meer as twee liggaamslengtes, terwyl die 'stryd'-houding naby die teenstander aangeneem word, soos dit tydens ons eie waarnemings gesien is. Die tipiese bedoeling van 'n bedreigende kameelperdbul word dikwels uitgedruk deur 'n geboë en gespanne nek (sien Oorheersing gebaar), soos dit ook by ander hoefdiere gesien word, bv. perde [53] of rendier [54]. Die visuele kommunikasie van onderwerping is in stryd met dié van oorheersing en word dus ook teenstrydig beskryf in die literatuur. Volgens Pratt en Anderson [5, 27] sal die subdominante individu sy kop laag hou om kleiner te lyk as wat dit is om nie aggressie te veroorsaak nie. Dagg [9] berig dat minderwaardige kameelperde bulle met 'n regop nek en neus na bo wys, 'n voedingsposisie inneem en die liggaam daardeur aan aanvalle blootstel. Asook vir oorheersingkan 'n afstandafhanklike uitdrukking vir indiening oorweeg word. In hierdie verband moet die plastisiteit van sosiale gedrag en kommunikasiepatrone in gedagte gehou word tydens geleiding en interpretasie van gedragswaarnemings.


                  Voorkoms en anatomie

                  Volgroeide kameelperde is 5-6 m lank, met mannetjies langer as wyfies. [11] Die gemiddelde gewig is 1,600  kg (3,500  lb) vir 'n volwasse mannetjie en 830  kg (1,800  lb) vir 'n volwasse wyfie. [25] Ten spyte van sy lang nek en bene, is die kameelperd se liggaam relatief kort. [26]: 66 Die kameelperd se groot, uitpuilende oë aan beide kante van die kop gee hom 'n goeie, algehele visie van sy groot hoogte. [27]: 25 Kameelperde sien in kleur [27]: 26 en hul gehoor- en reuksintuie is ook skerp. [12] Die dier kan sy spierneusgate toemaak om te beskerm teen sandstorms en miere. [27]: 27 Die kameelperd se voorvochtige tong is ongeveer 50 cm lank. Dit is pers-swart van kleur, miskien om te beskerm teen sonbrand, en is nuttig om blare vas te gryp, sowel as om die dier se neus skoon te maak. [27]: 27 Die bolip van die kameelperd is ook prehensile en handig om te voer. Die lippe, tong en binnekant van die mond is bedek met papille om te beskerm teen dorings. [11]

                  Die jas het donker vlekke of kolle (wat oranje, kastaiingbruin, bruin of amper swart op kleur [12] kan wees) geskei deur ligte hare (gewoonlik wit of roomkleurig [12]). Elke individuele kameelperd het 'n unieke rokpatroon. [23] Die jaspatroon dien as kamoeflering, sodat dit in die lig- en skadupatrone van savanne -bosveld kan meng. [9] [14] Die vel onder die donker gebiede kan dien as vensters vir termoregulering, wat 'n plek is vir komplekse bloedvatstelsels en groot sweetkliere. [28] Die vel van 'n kameelperd is meestal grys. [25] Dit is ook dik en stel hulle in staat om deur die doringbos te hardloop sonder om deurboor te word. [27]: 34 Hulle pels kan as 'n chemiese verdediging dien, aangesien dit vol parasietweermiddels is wat die dier 'n kenmerkende geur gee. Daar is ten minste elf hoof aromatiese chemikalieë in die pels, hoewel indool en 3-metielindool verantwoordelik is vir die grootste deel van die reuk. Omdat die mannetjies 'n sterker reuk as die wyfies het, word vermoed dat dit ook 'n seksuele funksie het. [29] Langs die nek van die dier is 'n maanhare van kort, regop hare. [11] Die 1  m (3,3  ft) stert eindig in 'n lang, donker stuk hare en word gebruik as 'n verdediging teen insekte. [27]: 36

                  Skedel en ossikone

                  Both sexes have prominent horn-like structures called ossicones, which are formed from ossified cartilage, covered in skin and fused to the skull at the parietal bones. [ 23 ] Being vascularized, the ossicones may have a role in thermoregulation. [ 28 ] Appearance is a reliable guide to the sex or age of a giraffe: the ossicones of females and young are thin and display tufts of hair on top, whereas those of adult males end in knobs and tend to be bald on top. [ 23 ] There is also a median lump, which is more prominent in males, at the front of the skull. [ 11 ] Males develop calcium deposits that form bumps on their skulls as they age. [ 12 ] A giraffe's skull is lightened by multiple sinuses. [ 26 ] :70 However, as males age, their skulls become heavier and more club-like, helping them become more dominant in combat. [ 23 ] The upper jaw has a grooved palate and lacks front teeth. [ 27 ] :26 The surface of the giraffe's molars are rougher than those of some other mammals. [ 27 ] :27

                  Legs, locomotion and posture

                  The front legs of a giraffe are slightly longer than its hind legs. The radius and ulna of the front legs are articulated by the carpus, which, while structurally equivalent to the human wrist, functions as a knee. [ 30 ] The foot of the giraffe reaches a diameter of 30 cm (12 in), and the hoof is 15 cm (5.9 in) high in males and 10 cm (3.9 in) in females. [ 27 ] :36 The rear of each hoof is low and the fetlock is close to the ground, allowing the foot to support the animal's weight. [ 11 ] Giraffes lack dewclaws and interdigital glands. The giraffe's pelvis, though relatively short, has an ilium that is outspread at the upper ends. [ 11 ]

                  A giraffe has only two gaits: walking and galloping. Walking is done by moving the legs on one side of the body at the same time, then doing the same on the other side. [ 23 ] When galloping, the hind legs move around the front legs before the latter move forward, [ 12 ] and the tail will curl up. [ 23 ] The animal relies on the forward and backward motions of its head and neck to maintain balance and the counter momentum while galloping. [ 8 ] :327–29 The giraffe can reach a sprint speed of up to 60 km/h (37 mph), [ 31 ] and can sustain 50 km/h (31 mph) for several kilometers. [ 32 ]

                  A giraffe rests by lying with its body on top of its folded legs. [ 8 ] :329 To lie down, the animal kneels on its front legs and then lowers the rest of its body. To get back up, it first gets on its knees and spreads its hind legs to raise its hindquarters. It then straightens its front legs. With each step, the animal swings its head. [ 27 ] :31 The giraffe sleeps intermittently around 4.6 hours per day, mostly at night. [ 33 ] It usually sleeps lying down, however, standing sleeps have been recorded, particularly in older individuals. Intermittent short "deep sleep" phases while lying are characterized by the giraffe bending its neck backwards and resting its head on the hip or thigh, a position believed to indicate paradoxical sleep. [ 33 ] If the giraffe wants to bend down to drink, it either spreads its front legs or bends its knees. [ 23 ] Giraffes would probably not be competent swimmers as their long legs would be highly cumbersome in the water, [ 34 ] although they could possibly float. [ 35 ] When swimming, the thorax would be weighed down by the front legs, making it difficult for the animal to move its neck and legs in harmony [ 34 ] [ 35 ] or keep its head above the surface. [ 34 ]

                  The giraffe has an extremely elongated neck, which can be up to 2 m (6 ftه in) in length, accounting for much of the animal's vertical height. [ 27 ] :29 The long neck results from a disproportionate lengthening of the cervical vertebrae, not from the addition of more vertebrae. Each cervical vertebra is over 28 cm (11 in) long. [ 26 ] :71 They comprise 52–54 percent of the giraffe's vertebral column, compared with the 27–33 percent typical of similar large ungulates, including the giraffe’s closest living relative, the okapi. [ 36 ] This elongation largely takes place after birth, as giraffe mothers would have a difficult time giving birth to young with the same neck proportions as adults. [ 37 ] The giraffe's head and neck are held up by large muscles and a nuchal ligament, which are anchored by long dorsal spines on the anterior thoracic vertebrae, giving the animal a hump. [ 11 ]

                  The giraffe's neck vertebrae have ball and socket joints. [ 26 ] :71 In particular, the atlas–axis joint (C1 and C2) allows the animal to tilt its head vertically and reach more branches with the tongue. [ 27 ] :29 The point of articulation between the cervical and thoracic vertebrae of giraffes is shifted to lie between the first and second thoracic vertebrae (T1 and T2), unlike most other ruminants where the articulation is between the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) and T1. [ 36 ] [ 37 ] This allows C7 to contribute directly to increased neck length and has given rise to the suggestion that T1 is actually C8, and that giraffes have added an extra cervical vertebra. [ 38 ] However, this proposition is not generally accepted, as T1 has other morphological features, such as an articulating rib, deemed diagnostic of thoracic vertebrae, and because exceptions to the mammalian limit of seven cervical vertebrae are generally characterized by increased neurological anomalies and maladies. [36]

                  There are two main hypotheses regarding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of elongation in giraffe necks. [ 39 ] The "competing browsers hypothesis" was originally suggested by Charles Darwin and only challenged recently. It suggests that competitive pressure from smaller browsers, such as kudu, steenbok and impala, encouraged the elongation of the neck, as it enabled giraffes to reach food that competitors could not. This advantage is real, as giraffes can and do feed up to 4.5 m (15 ft) high, while even quite large competitors, such as kudu, can only feed up to about 2 m (6 ftه in) high. [ 40 ] There is also research suggesting that browsing competition is intense at lower levels, and giraffes feed more efficiently (gaining more leaf biomass with each mouthful) high in the canopy. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] However, scientists disagree about just how much time giraffes spend feeding at levels beyond the reach of other browsers. [ 10 ] [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 43 ]

                  The other main theory, the sexual selection hypothesis, proposes that the long necks evolved as a secondary sexual characteristic, giving males an advantage in "necking" contests (see below) to establish dominance and obtain access to sexually receptive females. [ 10 ] In support of this theory, necks are longer and heavier for males than females of the same age, [ 10 ] [ 39 ] and the former do not employ other forms of combat. [ 10 ] However, one objection is that it fails to explain why female giraffes also have long necks. [ 44 ]

                  Internal systems

                  In mammals, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is longer than the right in the giraffe it is over 30 cm (12 in) longer. These nerves are longer in the giraffe than in any other living animal [ 45 ] the left nerve is over 2 m (6 ftه in) long. [ 46 ] Each nerve cell in this path begins in the brainstem and passes down the neck along the vagus nerve, then branches off into the recurrent laryngeal nerve which passes back up the neck to the larynx. Thus, these nerve cells have a length of nearly 5 m (16 ft) in the largest giraffes. [ 45 ] The structure of a giraffe's brain resembles that of domestic cattle. [ 27 ] :31 The shape of the skeleton gives the giraffe a small lung volume relative to its mass. [ 47 ] Its long neck gives it a large amount of dead space, in spite of its narrow windpipe. These factors increase the resistance to airflow. Nevertheless, the animal can still supply enough oxygen to its tissues. [ 47 ]

                  The circulatory system of the giraffe has several adaptations for its great height. Its heart, which can weigh more than 25 lb (11 kg) and measures about 2 ft (61 cm) long, must generate approximately double the blood pressure required for a human to maintain blood flow to the brain. [ 12 ] Giraffes have usually high heart rates for their size, at 150 beats per minute. [ 26 ] :76 In the upper neck, the rete mirabile prevents excess blood flow to the brain when the giraffe lowers its head. [ 14 ] The jugular veins also contain several (most commonly seven) valves to prevent blood flowing back into the head from the inferior vena cava and right atrium while the head is lowered. [ 48 ] Conversely, the blood vessels in the lower legs are under great pressure (because of the weight of fluid pressing down on them). To solve this problem, the giraffe's lower legs have a thick, tight layer of skin, which prevents too much blood from pouring into them. [ 14 ]

                  Giraffes have oesophageal muscles that are unusually strong to allow regurgitation of food from the stomach up the neck and into the mouth for rumination. [ 26 ] :78 They have four chambered stomachs, as in all ruminants, and the first chamber has adapted to their specialized diet. [ 11 ] The giraffe's intestines measure up to 80 m (260 ft) in length [ 11 ] and have a relatively small ratio of small to large intestine. [ 49 ] The liver of the giraffe is small and compact. [ 26 ] :76 A gallbladder is generally present during fetal life, but it may disappear before birth. [ 11 ] [ 50 ] [ 51 ]


                  Giraffe Evolution

                  The evolution that giraffes have had since their earliest ancestors to the actual specimens is fascinating. What animals share genetic code with them? Was their neck part of an evolutive process?

                  While the giraffe as we know it is native to Africa, more than 20-25 million years ago their ancestors also roamed along Europe and Asia. There aren’t many fossils of them, but some information has allowed scientists to come up with some evolution theories.

                  These ancient giraffes looked like deer and were much shorter than what we know of them today, but the scientific debate focus on how they ended up with the extremely long necks of today’s giraffes. There are a couple of theories that resume most ideas. Some believe it occurred slowly, over a long time due to the trees in the areas where they lived that trying to reach them got giraffes taller in the process.

                  Order Artiodactyla

                  They are even-toed ungulates which are those animals with hooves like deer, pigs, hippos, among others that share this peculiarity. There are three suborders within the Artiodactyla order:
                  Tylopoda which includes camels and llamas Suina a suborder composed by pigs and peccaries and finally the clade Cetruminantia which includes whales, hippos, and ruminants the suborder to which giraffes belong.

                  Family Giraffidae

                  They are ruminant artiodactyls which only has two extant genera Okapia and Giraffa. Although externally they look very different, both have a genetic and morphological relationship. Both okapis and giraffes are distributed only in the African continent.

                  According to scientific studies, they evolved in the Miocene from ungulate animals occupying regions of Africa and Eurasia We are talking about 25 million years ago. Eventually, they became extinct, but a new species emerged.

                  The long neck is a later adaptation since such ancestors had short necks and were smaller resembling more a modern okapi than an actual giraffe. Fossils of these species such as the Giraffokeryx, has short necks, horns on one side of the head and behind. By their placement has suggested the possibility that the males wrestled with lateral head movements and not with the long neck like the current giraffes.

                  Long neck

                  How did the giraffes develop such a long neck? There are two theories: one from Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the other from Charles Darwin.

                  This hypothesis, known as the Lamarck Theory, was introduced in the early 1800s. It states that the food on the ground was scarce and that these animals were instinctively raising their necks as high up as they could to reach what was there. Over time, the size of those necks was longer which provide them an adaptation that allowed their survival.

                  The theory of the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck is the concept of ​​use and disuse That is, a characteristic that is used very frequently by a living being, gradually develops and strengthens until it meets the need of the species. The parts of the body not used go missing until disappearing entirely.

                  On the other side, Charles Darwin had another theory about the survival of the fittest. He believed that some of the giraffes had a genetic mutation that allowed them to develop longer necks. These individuals were able to eat more, and so they were stronger. That means that those males were the ones breeding and that genetic code was passed down to the next generations. Those that couldn’t get enough to eat weren’t strong enough to mate with the females, and they eventually died without having offspring.

                  Darwin explains that individuals with characteristics better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and therefore, such traits are inherited. He also said that species that can not compete and adapt eventually become extinct.

                  However, there is not a definitive explanation for the long necks of giraffes accepted by most scientists. Both theories, have interesting points, but they also have inconsistent and unconfirmed details.

                  Other scientists such as Elissa Cameron and Johan du Toit agree with the hypothesis that the necks of giraffes are long because of their continuous reach of high trees, especially because of their preference for the acacia, whose leaves are at heights that other herbivores cannot reach.

                  Nevertheless, researchers like Robert Simmons and Lue Scheepers disagree with this idea. They claim that regardless of whether they go through the dry season or not, giraffes feed on lower shrubs, even if there are tall trees in the same area. They observed that the females spent more time feeding with their neck in a horizontal position and that both genders ingested quantities of food at a faster rate than when they did it in a vertical position.

                  The hypothesis that giraffes have long neck due to the scarcity of food at low heights is not entirely accepted, so the dilemma is not fully explained yet.

                  Another related question is why only the giraffes developed this feature when many other animals in the zone are also herbivores? The theories and hypotheses have arisen to explain this subject, but none has the general acceptance of the scientific community.

                  Recently another theory appeared trying to explain this unique feature of giraffes and is related to the successful reproduction as male giraffes fight for the right to mate with a female through necking, so the bulls with the stronger necks have better chances to reproduce.

                  Read the article. Why do giraffes have long necks?

                  Bryan Shorrocks. The Giraffe: Biology, Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. John Wiley & Sons, Aug 8, 2016. Page 42.

                  Hassanin, Alexandre Douzery, Emmanuel J. P. (2003). “Molecular and Morphological Phylogenies of Ruminantia and the Alternative Position of the Moschidae”. Systematic Biology.

                  Darwin, Charles (1872). Origin of Species. Sixth Edition.

                  Brownlee, A. (1963). “Evolution of the Giraffe,” Nature vol. 200, p. 1022.


                  یواس‌اس جیراف (آی‌ایکس-۱۱۸)

                  یواس‌اس جیراف (آی‌ایکس-۱۱۸) (به انگلیسی: USS Giraffe (IX-118) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۴۱ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳۴٫۵۷ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۳ ساخته شد.

                  یواس‌اس جیراف (آی‌ایکس-۱۱۸)
                  هنه
                  مالک
                  آغاز کار: ۱۱ نوامبر ۱۹۴۳
                  اعزام: ۱۲ دسامبر ۱۹۴۳
                  مشخصات اصلی
                  وزن: 14,245 tons
                  Gebed: ۴۴۱ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳۴ ٫ ۵۷ متر)
                  Tema: ۵۶ فوت ۱۱ اینچ (۱۷ ٫ ۳۵ متر)
                  Bewys: ۲۸ فوت ۴ اینچ (۸ ٫ ۶۴ متر)
                  سرعت: 11 knope

                  ی یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


                  The nonprofit Giraffe Heroes Project was born in the head and heart of Ann Medlock, a freelance editor, publicist and writer living in Manhattan. Ann started the Project in 1981 as an antidote to the mind-numbing violence and trivia that pervaded the media, eroding civic energy and hope. People needed to know about the heroes of our times and all that they were accomplishing as courageous, compassionate citizens.

                  Ann’s strategy for the Giraffe Heroes Project was simple—she would find unknown heroes, commend them as Giraffes for sticking their necks out, and get their stories told on radio and television and in print. Giraffe stories would show the public that there was headway being made on the problems of the world, that there were individuals who had solutions—and the courage to move into action. The stories would feed people’s souls, inform their attitudes—and get them moving on public problems that mattered to them.

                  The idea of telling heroes’ stories to inspire others to action has deep roots. People had been telling the stories of heroes for thousands of years as a way to communicate core values. Ann Medlock invented the Giraffe Project to do the same thing for our times. She knew that stories go straight to the heart and stay there, bypassing the objections that the mind can throw up to keep out theories, rules and admonitions. Ann also knew that the giraffe metaphor and imagery were great ways to get people’s attention, to engage their interest and, once engaged, to get past both their fears and their anti-message radar.

                  In those days of getting the Project started, friends and family were asking Ann why she was putting so much into something that could well be a lost cause. Flying off to Paris to write a speech for the Aga Khan hadn’t been a bad way to make a living. Why was she going on and on with this Giraffe thing? She wasn’t sure herself.

                  She got the answer on a trip west, at a seminar Joseph Campbell was giving at Esalen. Ann had attended Campbell’s classes whenever he taught in New York City she couldn’t pass up this chance to hear Campbell talk for a full weekend on the story of Parsifal.

                  Campbell showed Parsifal as a recurring theme in mythology, the story of the Holy Fool. This Fool is always considered a dummy by the smart, hip people who really know the score. In Parsifal’s case, there’s a mysterious blight on the land, nothing will grow and no one knows how to break the spell. Parsifal, the Holy Fool, sets out to find the cause, right the wrong, and save the people. He’s told he can’t do it, that he’s too dumb, too weak, too everything. But he goes ahead anyway, breaking the curse on the land and bringing life back to the people.

                  The Holy Fool is the most dangerous person on earth, Campbell explained, the most threatening to all hierarchical institutions, because he ignores their power. He has no concern for naysayers. He’s unfazed by risk. He’s not limited by his limita­tions, not listening to reason, not stoppable, not controllable. He knows what he has to do and he’s doing it, no matter what.

                  Driving up the California coast after the seminar, Ann had what later seemed to her an obvi­ous revelation—the reason she had been so obsessed with finding Giraffes and telling their stories was that these were our time’s Holy Fools she had locked into an archetype that had her in thrall, one that was desperately needed in the spiritual blight of the 1980’s. No matter what it took, she would go on.

                  Back in New York, she had lunch with Campbell and told him what she was doing, what his seminar had made clear to her, how grateful she was that he’d shown her the reason for her obsession. She was amazed to see his eyes well up, and delighted to have his endorsement of her quest.

                  At its beginnings in 1981, the Giraffe Project had been just Ann, running around New York City interviewing the people whose stories she wanted to tell. The first Giraffes were people like Gene Gitelson, a Vietnam vet who’d left the security of his banking career to help down-and-out vets, and Elsa Hart, a gems expert who’d faced down crooked middlemen to get an Apache tribe in Arizona a fair deal for the gemstones from their mine.

                  After she recorded an interview, Ann would write a radio public service announcement around it, then convince an actor such as Candice Bergen, John Denver or Sam Waterston, to record it. She sent the records to hundreds of radio stations–who began playing them. Just as Ann had hoped, the stories of Giraffes were so compelling they were soon picked up by print media and television, both local and national. In effect, she was a press agent for America’s heroes.

                  John Graham joined Ann on the quest—but it took him awhile. A U.S. Foreign Service Officer for fifteen years, he’d been in the middle of wars, revolutions and arms sales. A three-year stint working at the U.S. Mission to the UN gave him the chance to focus his skills and energy on ending apartheid and other human rights abuses, and on stopping wars instead of starting them. In September 1980, he decided he could do more for peace by quitting the Foreign Service and training the opponents of government policies—people who wanted America to cut nuclear arms, do more to end apartheid, or combat poverty at home and abroad.

                  John had met Ann just as she was developing the Giraffe idea. At first, he admits, he thought what she wanted to do was lightweight he couldn’t see how just telling stories would change anything, especially if the symbol for it all was a giraffe.

                  Still, as friends, Ann and John understood that her Giraffe Project and his trainings were aimed at compatible goals by different paths. By the middle of 1981, however, they’d fallen in love, and whatever skepticism John had felt about Ann’s path needed another look. He began to feel the archetypal power of the stories she was telling and to see her genius in using the giraffe metaphor to get them into people’s heads and hearts. He could see that people were listening to Giraffe stories, and that the Giraffe Project was already changing lives. It was anything but lightweight. The two paths began to merge. By 1983 Ann’s media work and John’s trainings were all under the Giraffe banner, and the two of them were working on the Project seven days a week.

                  The Project was soon telling Giraffe stories, not just on radio, but on television and in magazines and newspapers. It began publishing Giraffe News, and Giraffes were being featured in major media such as Time, Parade, USA Weekend, Readers’ Digest, People, The New York Times, Glamour, CBS, PBS, CNN, ABC and the Voice of America. The exposure attracted resources of many kinds to the Giraffes, and their stories inspired others to action, from setting up a soup kitchen in Tucson to saving a wetland on Long Island.

                  In 1991, the Giraffe Project moved into schools with the first editions of the Giraffe Heroes Program, a character education and service-learning curriculum that teaches courageous compassion and active citizenship to kids in grades K through 12. That same year, Ann Medlock launched her award-winning radio broadcasts on public radio. In 1995, the Project launched its web site, one of the first in the nonprofit world.

                  In ’98, Ann created Stan Tall & Bea Tall, cartoon giraffes who tell heroes’ stories to the very young. John wrote an active-citizenship handbook for teens en dan one for people of all ages. Thanks to grants from several foundations, many of these materials are now online, as free downloads.

                  Now called the Giraffe Heroes Project, the team has commended over a thousand Giraffes and all are available to the world in a free online database. Over a quarter million kids have done the Giraffe Heroes Program at school. Giraffe speeches, trainings, books, OpEds, the website, and an ever expanding social media presence have brought the message of courageous service to people all over the world.

                  Almost four decades of experience have proved Ann Medlock right the Giraffe message can and does move people to take the brave and compassionate actions that are the mainstays of free and healthy societies.


                  NATURAL HISTORY

                  Beskrywing: The tallest land mammal, with a neck as long as 6 feet, the giraffe is also well known for the unique brown and white pattern on its coat (&ldquopelage&rdquo) and its lengthy eyelashes and legs.

                  Habitat: Giraffes use both semi-arid savannah and savannah woodlands in Africa.

                  Reeks: Giraffes are found in fragmented habitats scattered throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

                  Breeding: Giraffe pregnancy usually lasts about 15 months, with two-year intervals between births. Females give birth throughout the year and usually reach sexual maturity between the ages of five and seven years. Males reach sexual maturity between seven and eight years of age and travel extensively to detect and investigate females receptive to mating.

                  Life Cycle: Giraffes can live as long as 25 years.

                  Feeding: Giraffes eat a very wide variety of trees and shrubs and spend a large part of each day browsing.

                  Threats: Giraffes have experienced severe habitat loss and fragmentation as a result of the expansion of human activities into their habitats. Uncontrolled timber harvest, the conversion of native habitat for agricultural development, mining, poor land-use planning, and urban expansion have all played a role in the loss and degradation of giraffe habitat. Giraffes are hunted both legally and illegally for sport and for their parts and products. Lack of enforcement of local laws, in addition to civil unrest in certain parts of giraffes' range, have allowed poaching for bushmeat, bones, tail hair and other giraffe parts to become a leading cause of this species' mortality and a major contributor to its decline. Poaching and legal sport hunting are both spurred by the international trade in giraffe parts and products. Giraffes are further threatened by the proliferation of diseases like giraffe skin disease, as well as inbreeding depression in isolated populations, collisions with automobiles and airplanes, and the increased frequency and magnitude of droughts associated with climate change.

                  Population Trend: Giraffes once occupied much of the savannah and savannah woodlands of Africa, but the species currently remains in only a fraction of that expansive range. According to the IUCN's 2016 estimate, giraffes have undergone a 36&ndash40 percent population decline over the past 30 years. Today roughly 97,500 giraffes remain in Africa &mdash compared to the 150,000-plus giraffes recorded in Africa in 1985 (or within the last three generations).

                  Subspecies: There are currently nine subspecies of giraffes that are generally recognized by taxnomonists: West African (Giraffa camelopardalis peralta) Kordofan (G. c. antiquorum) Nubian (G. c. camelopardalis) reticulated (G. c. reticulata) Rothschild's (G. c. rothschildi) Masai (G. c. tippelskirchi) Thornicroft's (G. c. thornicrofti) Angolan (G. c. angolensis) and South African (G. c. giraffa).


                  Kyk die video: Giraffe Conservation Foundation (Januarie 2022).