Inligting

Ashikaga Takauji



Die eerste eeu van die Ashikaga -heerskappy word gekenmerk deur 'n opbloei van kultuur en kunste, insluitend Noh -drama, sowel as die popularisering van Zen -boeddhisme. Teen die latere Ashikaga -periode het Japan in die chaos van die Sengoku tydperk, met verskillende daimyo wat mekaar veg vir grondgebied en mag in 'n eeu lange burgeroorlog.

Die wortels van die Ashikaga -krag gaan terug nog voor die Kamakura -periode (1185 - 1334), wat die Ashikaga -shogunaat voorafgegaan het. Gedurende die Kamakura -era is Japan beheer deur 'n tak van die ou Taira -stam, wat die Genpei -oorlog (1180 - 1185) verloor het vir die Minamoto -stam, maar dit tog reggekry het om die mag oor te neem. Die Ashikaga was op sy beurt 'n tak van die Minamoto -stam. In 1336 het Ashikaga Takauji die Kamakura -shogunaat omvergewerp, in werklikheid die Taira weer verslaan en die Minamoto aan die bewind teruggekeer.

Ashikaga het sy kans grootliks te danke aan Kublai Khan, die Mongoolse keiser wat die Yuan -dinastie in China gestig het. Kublai Khan se twee invalle in Japan, in 1274 en 1281, het nie geslaag nie danksy die wonder van die kamikaze, maar hulle het die Kamakura -shogunaat aansienlik verswak. Openbare ontevredenheid oor die Kamakura -bewind het die Ashikaga -stam die kans gegee om die shogun omver te werp en mag aan te gryp.

In 1336 stig Ashikaga Takauji sy eie shogunaat in Kyoto. Die Ashikaga Shogunate staan ​​ook soms bekend as die Muromachi shogunate omdat die paleis van die shogun in die Muromachi -distrik van Kyoto was. Van die begin af was die Ashikaga -reël deur kontroversie ontwrig. 'N Meningsverskil met die keiser, Go-Daigo, oor wie eintlik mag sou hê, het daartoe gelei dat die keiser ten gunste van die keiser Komyo afgesit is. Go-Daigo het na die suide gevlug en sy eie mededingende keiserlike hof opgerig. Die tydperk tussen 1336 en 1392 staan ​​bekend as die era Noordelike en Suidelike howe omdat Japan twee keisers op dieselfde tyd gehad het.

Wat internasionale betrekkinge betref, het die Ashikaga -shoguns gereeld diplomatieke en handelsmissies na Joseon Korea gestuur en ook die daimyo van Tsushima -eiland as tussenganger gebruik. Ashikaga -briewe is gerig aan die 'koning van Korea' van die 'koning van Japan', wat 'n gelyke verhouding aandui. Japan het ook 'n aktiewe handelsverhouding met Ming China aangegaan, sodra die Mongoolse Yuan -dinastie in 1368 omvergewerp is. China se Confuciaanse afkeer van handel het bepaal dat hulle die handel as 'huldeblyk' uit Japan vermom, in ruil vir 'geskenke' van die Chinese keiser. Sowel Ashikaga Japan as Joseon Korea het hierdie sytak -verhouding met Ming China gevestig. Japan het ook handel gedryf met Suidoos -Asië en koper, swaarde en pelse gestuur in ruil vir eksotiese hout en speserye.


Ashikaga Takauji

Die Japannese krygshoofman Ashikaga Takauji (1305-1358) het tydens die burgeroorloë van die 14de eeu 'n posisie van militêre hegemonie bereik en die tweede shogunaat, of krygerregering, van die Middeleeuse Japan gestig.

Die Ashikaga -shogunaat (ook bekend as die Muromachi -shogunaat vanweë die ligging van sy sentrale kantore in die Muromachi -gedeelte van Kyoto), hoewel dit baie wisselvallighede ondergaan het, het dit ten minste die titulêre militêre heerskappy van Japan van 1336 tot 1573 behou.

Die eerste shogunaat van die Middeleeue is in 1185 deur Kamamura in die oostelike provinsies gestig deur Minamoto Yoritomo. Yoritomo, as shogun of 'generalissimo' wat deur die keiserlike hof in Kyoto aangestel is, het sterk persoonlike heerskappy uitgeoefen oor sy vasal -volgelinge. Toe hy in 1199 sterf, kon sy twee jong seuns wat hom opgevolg het as die tweede en derde shoguns, nie die Minamoto -beheer oor die shogunaat behou nie, en gedurende die vroeë 13de eeu was leiers van die Hojo -familie (wat met Yoritomo in die huwelik verwant was) het die ware heersers by Kamakura geword as shogunate regente.

Die Ashikaga was een van die belangrikste takfamilies van die Minamoto -stam. Gedurende die Kamakura-periode (1185-1333) het hulle getrou die Hojo-regente gedien, maar soos latere gebeure sou bewys, het hulle die hoop gekoester om eendag die voorrang van die gesag van Minamoto onder die weermag van die land te bevestig.

Ondergang van die Kamakura Shogunate

Alhoewel sommige die Hojo -regente deur sommige as die gebruikers van die regte van die Minamoto beskou het, het hulle gedurende die grootste deel van die 13de eeu die regering van die Kamakura -shogunaat bestuur op grond van feodale geregtigheid en met groot doeltreffendheid. Die moeite en uitgawes wat nodig was om twee pogings van die Mongole in 1274 en 1281 om Japan binne te val, af te weer en die behoefte om verdediging te handhaaf teen 'n moontlike derde poging, het 'n groot druk op die Hojo -administrasie geplaas en het bygedra tot die agteruitgang van die gesin.

Teen die beginjare van die 14de eeu het die kwaliteit van die Hojo -heerskappy versleg tot die punt dat daar ontevredenheid oor die hele land gekom het. Van vroeg af aan die bewind in Kamakura het die Hojo -regente daarin geslaag om die keiserlike hof in Kyoto, die voormalige setel van die sentrale regering in Japan, in 'n toestand van byna totale politieke impotensie te hou. Namate die beheer van Hojo verswak het, het 'n toenemende aantal mense onder sowel die hofmanne in Kyoto as die provinsiale krygers na die keiser gekom om nuwe leiding te kry.

In 1324 en weer in 1331 het die Hojo planne teen hulle in Kyoto ontbloot en selfs so ver gegaan dat keiser Daigo II uit die keiserlike hoofstad weggevoer is vir sy rol in die tweede. Die anti-Hojo-beweging het in intensiteit toegeneem, en in 1333 was die Hojo verplig om leërs uit Kamakura te stuur in 'n poging om die gevegte wat in die streek Kyoto uitgebreek het, te beheer. Een van die bevelvoerders van die Hojo -magte was Takauji, reeds op 28 -jarige ouderdom die hoof van die Ashikaga -familie. Kyoto. Byna gelyktydig het 'n ander militêre mag in die ooste Kamakura binnegegaan en die Hojo -leiers en hul onmiddellike volgelinge beslissend verslaan en sodoende die ineenstorting van die Kamakura -shogunaat tot gevolg gehad. Die generaal wat hierdie aanval gelei het, was Nitta Yoshisada, wat net soos Takauji die hoof was van 'n belangrike takfamilie (die Nitta) van die Minamoto -stam.

Tydperk van keiserlike herstel, 1333-1336

Toe hy uit ballingskap na Kyoto terugkeer, het Daigo II probeer om voordeel te trek uit die vernietiging van die Kamakura-shogunaat om die lang slapende gesag van die troon weer te bevestig of te "herstel". Alhoewel daar vroeër in die Japannese geskiedenis magtige soewereine was, was die neiging sedert ten minste die 9de eeu dat ander gesinne en groepe die sentrale heersende magte sou verwek. Die hoffamilie van Fujiwara, deur hulself as regent op die troon te vestig, was byvoorbeeld bykans almagtig in Kyoto gedurende die grootste deel van die 10de en 11de eeu. En in die 12de eeu het die weermag van die oostelike provinsies die nuwe heersers van Japan geword deur die stigting van die Kamakura -shogunaat.

Daigo II, 'n buitengewoon vasberade en eiesinnige persoon, het probeer om die keiserlike heerskappy direk en persoonlik uit sy hof in Kyoto uit te oefen. Maar hy en sy adviseurs was merkbaar onsuksesvol in die behoeftes van die mees kritieke sektor van die Japanse samelewing van die Middeleeue, die provinsiale krygerklas. Kort voor lank is baie van die ontevredenheid wat voorheen teen die Hojo -regime in Kamakura gerig was, teen die hof van Daigo II gekeer.

Waarskynlik die belangrikste determinant van die lot van die kort Herstelregering van 1333-1336 was egter die hewige wedywering om die leierskap van die krygerklas wat tussen Takauji en Nitta Yoshisada ontstaan ​​het. Yoshisada het dit reggekry om homself by die hof te vereer en Daigo II en sy hoofadviseurs teen Takauji te keer. In die agtste maand van 1335 het Takauji na die oostelike provinsies gegaan om 'n styging in die oorblyfsels van die Hojo en hul voormalige volgelinge te onderdruk. Drie maande later het die keiser opdrag gegee dat Takauji voornemens was om 'n onafhanklike territoriale basis in die ooste te vestig, Yoshisada opdrag gegee om 'n strafmag teen hom te lei. So begin 'n lang tydperk van stryd tussen die Ashikaga en Yoshisada, wat met ander ondersteuners van Daigo II verbonde was. In 'n poging om te voorkom dat hy as 'n rebel bestempel word, verseker Takauji die steun van 'n mededingende tak van die keiserlike familie wat ook na die troon streef. Tenminste in naam, is die stryd daardeur tot 'n dinastiese geskil oor keiserlike opvolging verhef.

Oorlog tussen die howe, 1336-1392

Na verskeie verskuiwings in die geveg, het die Ashikaga daarin geslaag om Kyoto in 1336 te beset en Daigo II te dwing om te abdikeer ten gunste van hul kandidaat. 'N Paar maande later ontsnap Daigo II uit die hoofstad en vlug suidwaarts na Yoshino, waar 'n paar van sy voorste ondersteuners op hom wag. Daigo II het volgehou dat sy 'abdikasie' ongeldig was en dat hy steeds die wettige soewerein van Japan was.

Van 1336 tot 1392 was daar twee howe in Japan: die suidelike hof van Daigo II en sy opvolgers in Yoshino en die noordelike hof van Kyoto wat deur die Ashikaga onderhou is. Daar was aansienlike gevegte gedurende die eerste dekades van die oorlog tussen die howe, en die magte van die suidelike hof het Kyoto selfs verskeie kere herower. Die Ashikaga het die opposisie egter geleidelik verminder, en in 1392 het hulle die howe herenig deur die suidelike keiser te oorreed om na Kyoto terug te keer en sy aanspraak op soewereiniteit aan die noordelike keiser prys te gee.

Oprigting van die Ashikaga Shogunate

Aan die begin van die oorlog tussen die howe het Takauji 'n nuwe shogunaat in Kyoto ingestel. As hoofman uit die oostelike provinsies sou Takauji verkies het om sy shogunaat in Kamakura op te spoor. Maar die noodsaaklikheid om die stryd aan te gaan met die suidelike hof, hoofsaaklik in die sentrale deel van Honshu, bepaal die wenslikheid om Kyoto as die plek vir die hoofkwartier van die shogunaat te kies. Nietemin het Takauji en sy adviseurs hulself duidelik beskou as die opvolgers van die Kamakura -shogunaat, wat hulle gehelp het om te vernietig, en probeer om hul regering op dieselfde manier as laasgenoemde te struktureer.

In vergelyking met die Kamakura-shogunaat en die latere Edo- of Tokugawa-shogunaat (1603-1867), was die Ashikaga-shogunaat 'n swak regerende instelling. Alhoewel dit die Noordelike Hof deeglik oorheers het en die gevegskrag van die mededingende Suidelike Hof geleidelik verminder het, is die Ashikaga -shogunaat van meet af aan belemmer deur 'n sterk neiging tot streekseparatisme. Takauji en sy onmiddellike opvolgers as shogun was verplig om baie grond weg te gee en om uitgebreide bestuursregte aan hul voorste generaals af te staan ​​om selfs 'n los militêre hegemonie oor die land te verseker. Tog was die Ashikaga -hegemonie feitlik onbestaande in gebiede ver van Kyoto, en teen die einde van die 15de eeu het dit heeltemal uitmekaar geval. Gedurende die afgelope honderd jaar van sy bestaan, het die shogunaat wat deur Takauji gestig is, slegs as 'n nasionale beheerliggaam oorleef.

Onenigheid binne die Shogunate

Nitta Yoshisada is in 1338 in die geveg dood, en keiser Daigo II sterf in 1339. Binne 'n paar jaar na die dood van hierdie groot teëstanders, het Takauji die aanvallende vegkrag van die Suidelike Hof byna uitgeskakel en kon hy 'n skikking vind. daarmee. Maar in die vroeë 1350's het daar onenigheid ontstaan ​​in die shogunaat-wat verskeie prominente vasaalhoofde van die Ashikaga sowel as Takauji en sy broer, Tadayoshi behels-wat so 'n stap verhinder het.

Tadayoshi het in die vroeë 14de eeu belangrike dienste gelewer in die opkoms van die Ashikaga -gesin tot nasionale bekendheid en het 'n paar van die heersende magte van die shogunaat met sy broer gedeel. Tog, in die loop van die herstel van die orde in die shogunaat, is Takauji gedryf om Tadayoshi dood te maak, 'n daad wat die laaste jare van sy lewe verduister het.

Toe Takauji in 1358 op 53 -jarige ouderdom oorlede is, is hy opgevolg as shogun deur sy seun, Yoshiakira. Takauji se lewe was byna geheel en al aan die geveg gewy, en dit was vir Yoshiakira en die derde Ashikaga -shogun, Yoshimitsu, om die Ashikaga -hegemonie te stabiliseer en die oorlog tussen die howe tot 'n einde te bring.

Takauji se beeld in die geskiedenis

Die 14de eeu was die enigste groot dinastiese skeuring in die Japannese geskiedenis, en baie latere nasionaliste het hulle gedwing om die grootste interpretasieprobleem wat hulle beskou, te hanteer: watter van die twee howe, die Noordelike of die Suide, moet beskou word as "wettig"? Aan die einde van die 19de eeu was die algemeenste bewering dat, aangesien Daigo II nooit vryelik geabdikeer het nie, die suidelike hof tydens sy bestaan ​​van 1336 tot 1392 wettig was. Die suidelike hof was lojalistiese helde, en die Ashikaga en hul bondgenote is beskou as ware 'verraaiers'.

In die periode van ultranationalisme en militêre aggressie wat tot die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gelei het, word veral Takauji as die gruwelikste persoon in die Japannese geskiedenis beskou. In 1934 is 'n minister, wat ook 'n geskiedenisliefhebber was en 'n artikel gepubliseer het wat Takauji in 'n gunstige lig toon, gedwing om sy pos te bedank. En tydens die oorlog is 'n bekende geleerde wat baie jare tevore simpatiek probeer het om Takauji se 'geloof' te ontleed, erg gekritiseer.

Sedert die einde van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog kon Japannese geleerdes die dinastiese kwessie en die burgerlike twis van die 14de eeu hanteer sonder vrees vir amptelike kritiek. Hul onlangse studies het Takauji meer passievol en toepaslik geëvalueer binne die konteks van sy tyd.


Epiese wêreldgeskiedenis

Die Ashikaga Shogunate duur van 1336 tot amptelik 1588, hoewel die laaste van die familie in 1573 uit Kyoto verdryf is, en dit het nie veel militêre mag na die 1520's nie. Die tydperk waarin die Ashikaga -familie die Japannese politiek oorheers het, bereik sy hoogtepunt toe Ashikaga Yoshimasa (1436 󈟆) die erflike titel van shogun (militêre diktator) van Japan van 1449 tot 1473 beklee het, hoewel die laaste jare van sy shogunaat oorheers is deur 'n opeenvolging van krisisse wat tot die Onin -oorlog (1467 en#8211 77) gelei het. Yoshimasa se tydperk as shogun of, streng gesproke, verteenwoordig die tyd na sy abdikasie 'n belangrike tydperk vir die ontwikkeling van Japannese beeldende kunste.

Die Ashikaga was 'n vegterfamilie wat sedert die 12de eeu prominent was in die Japannese samelewing, toe Yoshiyasu († 1157) sy familienaam as die naam van hul woonplek in Ashikaga aangeneem het. Hulle herlei hul afkoms verder na Minamoto Yoshiie (1039 �), ook bekend as Hachiman Taro Yoshiie, die oupa van Yoshiyasu. Uit die Seiwa Genji -tak van die beroemde Minamoto -familie, was hy een van die groot krygers van die Later Three Years ’ War wat van 1083 tot 1087 gewoed het.


Yoshiyasu se seun het aktief deelgeneem aan die Taira-Minamoto-oorloë van 1180 󈟁, en ses geslagte later het Ashikaga Takauji die eerste shogun geword, van 1338 tot 1358. Dit het gebeur nadat keiser Go-Daigo (r. 1318 󈞓) is na die Oki -eilande verban nadat hy daarvan beskuldig is dat hy beplan het teen die Kamakura Shogunate wat die weermag beheer het. Die keiser het 'n paar lojale magte bymekaargemaak om die oorheersing van die Kamakura -familie te beëindig.

Die keiser het sy troepe onder die bevel van Ashikaga Takauji geplaas en na die sentrale provinsies gestuur. Die keuse van Takauji was interessant, want hy het in 1324 en weer sewe jaar later aan erwe teen die shogunaat deelgeneem. Takauji, wat aan die hoof was van 'n leër om die vyande van die shogun te verslaan, verander van kant en besluit om die keiser te ondersteun. Hy neem Kyoto en verdryf die shogun, wat die Kemmu -restourasie bekend gemaak het.

Ashikaga Takauji

Rivaliteite het egter vinnig uitgebreek tussen Takauji en 'n ander krygsheer, Nitta Yoshisada. Teen hierdie tyd ly die aansien van die troon aan nadat groot administratiewe mislukkings duidelik daartoe gelei het dat Go-Daigo nie sy ondersteuners kon beskerm nie. Takauji het sy manne na Kyoto gelei, wat hy in Julie 1336 verower het, wat keiser Go-Daigo gedwing het om na Yoshino in die suide te vlug.

In 1338 vestig Takauji wat bekend staan ​​as die Ashikaga (of Muromachi) Shogunate, gebaseer in Kyoto. Takauji beheer die weermag en sy broer Ashikaga Tadayoshi beheer die burokrasie, met bykomende verantwoordelikheid vir die regbank.

Die shogunaat het aanvanklik 'n skeuring in die keiserlike gesin tot gevolg gehad, met die Kyoto-vleuel wat dit ondersteun en Go-Daigo en sy faksie uitspraak van die suidelike hof in Yoshino. Dit duur voort tot 1392 toe die beleid van alternatiewe troonopvolging weer ingestel is. Na 'n kort periode van stabiliteit, was daar 'n poging tot 'n opstand deur Ashikaga Tadayoshi, wat Kyoto in 1351 in beslag geneem het.

Takauji kon hom verdryf, en Tadayoshi het na Kamakura gevlug. Takauji het 'n versoening tot stand gebring waartydens Tadayoshi skielik dood is, waarskynlik as gevolg van vergiftiging. Dit het Takauji in beheer van die noorde gelaat, maar hy sterf in 1358 en word opgevolg deur sy seun Yoshiakira (1330 󈞯), wat tot sy dood in 1367 onder die shogun was. Daar was toe 'n kort tydperk sonder shogun.

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

Toe Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358 �) in 1369 shogun word, 'n posisie wat hy tot 1395 beklee het, kon hy 'n stelsel ontwikkel waarmee gesinne wat aan hom lojaal was, baie plaaslike mag het en die amp van militêre goewerneur tussen die Hosokawa gewissel is, Hatakeyama en Shiba families. Yoshimitsu was moontlik van plan om 'n nuwe dinastie te begin. Hierdie teorie kom uit die feit dat hy nie meer gebied in die naam van die soewerein beheer nie.

Sekerlik het hy probeer om die mag van die adel van die hof te verbreek, en soms het hy openbare take verrig. Toe hy op lang pelgrimstogte gegaan het, het hy soveel edeles saamgeneem dat die optog vir baie toeskouers op 'n keiserlike parade gelyk het. Yoshimitsu kon 'n verhouding bou met keiser Go-Kogon.

Sy belangrikste prestasie, wat aansienlike diplomatieke vaardighede behels, was om die Noordelike en Suidelike howe te beëindig deur die suidelike keiser te oorreed om in 1392 na Kyoto terug te keer en die skeuring te beëindig tydens sy oupa se shogunaat.

Keiser Go-Kōgon

Yoshimitsu moes ook te doen kry met twee rebelle — die Meitoku Rebellie van Yamana Ujikiyo in 1391 󈟈 en die Oei Rebellion van 1400 onder leiding van Ouchi Yoshihiro (1356 �). Ouchi Yoshihiro het staatgemaak op steun van seerowers wat Korea en soms ook dele van China aangeval het, maar sy opstand het ontstaan ​​toe hy nie wou bydra tot die bou van 'n nuwe villa vir die shogun nie.

Hy het lankal 'n wrok teenoor die Ashikaga -gesin gehad, en op 'n manier was die villa bloot 'n verskoning vir oorlog. Ouchi Yoshihiro is egter baie vinnig verraai deur mense wat hy gedink het hom sou ondersteun, en nadat hy in die geveg gedood is, het die opstand vinnig geëindig.

Om 'n maklike opvolging te verseker, het Yoshimitsu die kantoor van die shogun afgestaan ​​aan sy seun Ashikaga Yoshimochi (1386 �), wat van 1395 tot 1423 shogun was, terwyl hy self in Kyoto gebly het, waar hy groot bedrae geld gemonopoliseer het. die invoer van koper wat nodig is vir die Japannese geldeenheid en die onderhandeling van 'n handelsooreenkoms met China in 1401.


Hy het ook 'n geringe kontroversie veroorsaak deur 'n brief aan die keiser van Ming van China te stuur, wat hy onderteken het met die titel “king of Japan. pottebakkers, tuintuiniers en blommerangskikkers. Baie van die kunstenaars wat Yoshimitsu aangemoedig het, het geïnteresseerd geraak in Chinese ontwerpe en is beïnvloed deur hul Chinese tydgenote. Dit het bekend geword as die karayostyl.

Die beheerstelsel wat deur Yoshimitsu ingestel is, duur voort onder Ashikaga Yoshimochi en sy seun Yoshikazu (1407 󈞅), wat vanaf 1423 en#821125 shogun was. Dit was egter ook 'n tydperk toe die Kanto -streek van Japan buite beheer van die shogunaat begin beweeg het.

Yoshikazu se oom Yoshinori (1394 �) het hom opgevolg en in 1428 as shogun oorgeneem. Yoshinori was van kleins af 'n Boeddhistiese monnik en het as leier van die Tendai -sekte opgehou, en moes die lewe van 'n monnik prysgee toe sy neef gesterf het. Vanweë sy agtergrond was hy vasbeslote om 'n beter regstelsel vir die armer mense in te stel en die regbank te hersien.

Hy het ook die beheer van die weermag deur die shogun versterk deur nuwe aanstellings te maak van mense wat lojaal is aan die Ashikaga -familie. Baie edeles hou nie van hom nie, omdat hy as afsydig en hoogmoedig beskou word, en in 1441 vermoor 'n generaal van Honshu, Akamatsu Mitsusuke, Yoshinori.

In wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die Kakitsu -voorval, is Akamatsu Mitsusuke opgejaag deur ondersteuners van die shogunaat en moes hy selfmoord pleeg. Yoshinori se oudste seun, Yoshikatsu (1434 󈞗), het hom opgevolg en was slegs twee jaar lank shogun. Met sy dood was daar geen shogun van 1443 tot 1449 nie, toe die 13-jarige broer van Yoshikatsu, Ashikaga Yoshimasa, shogun geword het.

Oorlog

Ashikaga Yoshimasa is op 20 Januarie 1436 in Kyoto gebore, en toe hy shogun word, het die shogunaat in belangrikheid afgeneem met 'n wydverspreide voedseltekort en mense wat sterf van honger. Yoshimasa was nie so geïnteresseerd in politiek nie en het die grootste deel van sy lewe daaraan gewy om 'n beskermheer van die kunste te wees.

Hy het wanhoop oor die politieke situasie, en sonder kinders, toe hy 29 jaar oud was, noem hy sy jonger broer, Yoshimi (1439 󈟇), as sy opvolger en berei hy hom voor op 'n weelderige aftrede. In 1465 het hy en sy vrou, Hino Tomiko, egter 'n seun gehad. Sy vrou was vasbeslote dat die seuntjie die volgende shogun moet wees, en 'n konflik tussen die ondersteuners van die twee kante en die vrou van Yoshimasa en die van sy broer het in 1467 begin.

Die gevegte, bekend as die Onin -oorlog, het plaasgevind rondom Kyoto, waar baie historiese geboue en tempels vernietig is en groot stukke grond verwoes is. Belangriker nog, dit toon die relatiewe militêre impotensie van die shogun en die mag van die militêre goewerneurs, en verander vinnig van 'n dinastiese twis tot 'n volmagoorlog.

Dit het toe 'n konflik geword tussen die twee groot krygshere in die weste van Japan, Yamana Mochitoyo, wat die vrou en babaseun ondersteun het, en sy skoonseun, Hosokawa Katsumoto, wat Yoshimi ondersteun het. Beide sterf tydens die oorlog, en daar was geen poging van beide kante om die konflik te beëindig nie, totdat die geveg in 1477 uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom het.

Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa

Teen hierdie tyd het Yoshimasa, wat gretig was om 'n moeilike opvolging te vermy, in 1473 as shogun opgetree ten gunste van sy seun. Sy seun, Yoshihisa, was shogun van 1474 tot sy eie dood in 1489, waarna Yoshimasa sy broer se seun as die volgende shogun genoem het om die wonde van die Onin -oorlog te genees. Yoshimi se seun, Yoshitane (1466 �), was shogun van 1490 tot 1493.

Met aftrede verhuis Yoshimasa na die gedeelte Higashiyama (Eastern Hills) van Kyoto, waar hy 'n villa bou wat later die Ginkakuji (Silver Pavilion) word. Daar ontwikkel hy die Japannese teeseremonie tot 'n ingewikkelde reeks geritualiseerde stappe en was 'n beskermheer vir baie kunstenaars, pottebakkers en akteurs. Hierdie bloei van die kunste het bekend gestaan ​​as die Higashiyama -periode. Yoshimasa sterf op 27 Januarie 1490.

Van die shogunaat van Yoshitane verloor die gesin vinnig sy politieke mag. Yoshitane ’s neef Yoshizumi (1480 �) het van 1495 tot 1508 shogun geword en is na 'n lang interregnum opgevolg deur sy seun Yoshiharu (1511 󈞞), wat in 1522 op 1122 tot shogun geword het en in daardie posisie gebly het tot 1547.

Sy seun Yoshiteru (1536 󈞭) volg hom op van 1547 tot 1565, en word na sy moord opgevolg deur 'n neef, Yoshihide (1540 󈞰), wat minder as 'n jaar lank in Shogun was. Yoshiteru se broer Yoshiaki (1537 󈟍) word toe die 15de en laaste shogun van die Ashikaga -familie. Hy was abt van 'n Boeddhistiese klooster in Nara, en toe hy shogun word, verloën hy sy lewe as 'n monnik en probeer om sy familie se ondersteuners byeen te bring teen 'n aanhoudende aanval deur Oda Nobunaga.

Vroeg in 1573 val Nobunaga Kyoto aan en verbrand 'n groot deel van die stad. In 'n ander aanval in Augustus dieselfde jaar kon hy Yoshiaki uiteindelik van Kyoto verdryf. In 1588 in ballingskap word Yoshiaki formeel geabdikeer as shogun, sodat Toyotomi Hideyoshi kan oorneem.

Daarna keer hy terug na sy lewe as 'n Boeddhistiese priester. In ten minste die afgelope 50 jaar en waarskynlik langer, het die shogunaat ondoeltreffend geword en krygsherde het weer verskyn, wat dikwels hul bedrywighede finansier deur nie net dele van Japan self te plunder nie, maar met seerowerings op buitelike dele van Japan en Korea.

Die Ashikaga Shogunate bly 'n omstrede tydperk van die Japannese geskiedenis. Gedurende die dertigerjare is Takauji swaar gekritiseer in skoolboeke vir sy minagting teenoor keiser Go-Daigo. Baie historici erken hom nou as die man wat 'n mate van stabiliteit in die land gebring het.

Die houding teenoor Yoshimasa het ook verander. Omdat hy so sterk op die kunste gekonsentreer het, het hy die bestuur van die land nagelaat. Hy word nou erken as die hoof van 'n onbekwame administrasie wat groot leed in groot dele van Japan beleef het. Dit sou lei tot 'n tydperk van groot onstabiliteit wat eers tot 'n einde gekom het toe Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1603 shogun geword het.


Ashikaga Takauji - Geskiedenis

Min figure in die Japannese geskiedenis is so kontroversieel soos Ashikaga Takauji, 'n man wie se optrede die Hojo Shikken laat val het, die droom van keiserlike herstel 'n werklikheid gemaak het en die droom dan afgebreek in 'n oorlog wat die hof verdeeld sou laat en die land in die hande van 'n nuwe krygsregering.

In 1331, terwyl Go-Daigo voorberei het om die juk van die Kamakura-heerskappy af te gooi, was Takauji 'n magtige landbesitter in die Kanto-streek. Sy stam, die Ashikaga, was van Seiwa Genji -voorraad, dieselfde tak van die Minamoto -familie wat Yoritomo vervaardig het. Minamoto Yoriyasu (? -1157), kleinseun van Minamoto Yoshiie, het hom in Shimotsuke gevestig en die naam van sy onderneming aangeneem: Ashikaga-no-sho. Yoshiyasu se seun Ashikaga Yoshikane (? -1199) het in 1180 by Minamoto Yoritomo aangesluit en hom in die Gempei -oorlog gedien. Yoshikane was toevallig ook getroud met 'n dogter van Hojo Tokimasa, en so het die Ashikaga floreer in die jare na Yoritomo se dood in 1199. Trouens, vyf van die volgende sewe geslagte Ashikaga-leiers sou met Hojo-dames trou, om Takauji in te sluit (Takauji was egter nie bloed van Hojo nie-sy ma het

was toevallig van die Uesugi -huis). Teen 1331 het die Ashikaga gegroei en vertak, met Ashikaga -lyne in Mutsu, Shimotsuke, Kozuke, Sagami, Mikawa, Mimasaka en die Kinai -streek, onder latere bekende name soos Imagawa, Hosokawa, Hatakeyama en Shiba.

Takauji, wat deur die Hojo gerespekteer is, was een van die mans wat vinnig na die ooste gestuur is nadat die nuus van Go-Daigo se opstand Kamakura bereik het. In Oktober het Takauji by die Bakufu se aanval op Kasagi aangesluit, wat gelei het tot die arrestasie van Go-Daigo.

In die lente van 1333 het Go-Daigo uit ballingskap op die eiland Oki ontsnap en teruggekeer na die vasteland, gestimuleer deur die aktiwiteite van Kusunoki Masashige, wat tans Bakufu-troepe by die fort Chihaya, op die berg Kongo, weerhou. Takatoki was vasbeslote om hierdie poging tot keiserlike herstel eens en vir altyd te beëindig, en beveel twee magtige leërs om aan die oorlog deel te neem. Een van hierdie gashere was onder die beheer van Ashikaga Takauji, wat van Kamakura vertrek het, terwyl die ander deur 'n sekere Nagaoshi Takaie gelei is. Lojalistiese samoerai van die Akamatsu -stam het Nagaoshi se mag in 'n hinderlaag gelê en Nagaoshi self is dood. Hierdie agterkant het Takauji die mees kragtige bevelvoerder van Bakufu gelaat wat nou in die veld werk. Takauji het bondgenote bymekaargemaak toe hy verhuis het, aan die begin van Junie in Tamba, 'n provinsie onder beheer van Takauji se familielede, die Uesugi. Op hierdie stadium kon Takauji waarskynlik sy manne bygevoeg het tot diegene wat die lojaliste reeds druk en die rebellie van Go-Daigo beëindig het. In plaas daarvan verklaar Takauji vir die keiserlike saak en val middel Junie Kyoto aan.

Na alle waarskynlikheid het Takauji beplan om van kant te verander sodra hy sy bevele ontvang om weswaarts te marsjeer, deels as gevolg van die waargenome slagtoffers deur die Hojo. Sy leër was grootliks saamgestel uit krygers wie se hoofde familiêre bande met die Ashikaga gehad het, en sy besluit om eers direk na Tamba te marsjeer, was ongetwyfeld betekenisvol. Die redes wat Takauji vir opstand gehad het, het gewissel van persoonlike ambisie tot 'n groeiende afkeer van die Hojo: hy kom uit 'n gesin met sterker bloed dan die Hojo en was mal daaroor dat hy soos 'n vasaal behandel word.

Nog voordat hy Tamba bereik het, het Takauji 'n brief van Go-Daigo ontvang waarin die hoop uitgespreek is dat die Ashikaga die Hojo sou aansit. Hierdie brief het in werklikheid enige verraadlike gedagtes wat Takauji mag gehad het, gelegitimeer, net soos dit uit 'n keiserlike hand gekom het. Takauji het Kyoto daarom omseil en geheime boodskappe aan sy bondgenote uitgestuur om hulle te waarsku oor sy voornemens.

Takauji se magte het Kyoto maklik beveilig, sodat Go-Daigo in Julie na die hoofstad kon terugkeer. Terselfdertyd het Nitta Yoshisada van Kozuke opgestaan ​​en Kamakura aangeval en 'n einde gemaak aan die Hojo Shikken terwyl die stad brand en Hojo Takatoki selfmoord gepleeg het. Tot vreugde van die hof was die mag weer op die troon herstel.

Go-Daigo het sy sukses egter te danke aan die pogings van die militêre manne wat hom ondersteun het. Terselfdertyd het die hof sy deel van die buit geëis, en dit het gelei tot 'n onseker balans wat die swakhede van die nuwe regering van Go-Daigo aan die lig gebring het. Die belangrikste onder hierdie mislukkings was 'n oënskynlike naïviteit ten opsigte van die samoerai -klas, dat selfs al sou hulle eeue lank die hoogste in Japan gewees het, kan verwag word dat hulle die adel sal terugneem. Terwyl die gemiddelde samoerai die keiser vereer het ('n feit wat in die Westerse geskiedenis gewoonlik geïgnoreer word), het hierdie gevoel van verpligting en vriendelike respek geensins vertaal dat dit die res van die hof sou insluit nie.

Na die vernietiging van die Hojo se politieke instellings in Kyoto, het Takauji 'n kantoor in die hoofstad, die Buygo-sho (of, ongeveer, kommissaris se kantoor), opgerig. Die Buygo-sho was verantwoordelik vir die bestuur van die stad, en deur sy kantore het Takauji die reg aanvaar om belonings en afsprake aan sy manne uit te betaal. Go-Daigo het seker gekap oor die merkbare teenwoordigheid van Takauji in Kyoto, maar aanvanklik werk die twee mans saam met 'n mate van wedersydse respek. Takauji is in werklikheid ruim beloon deur die keiser vir sy dienste, en is die shugo van Musashi genoem en het in twee ander provinsies aansienlike invloed gekry, die hoflike titel van die vierde rang, junior graad, en die posisie Chinjufu Shgun. The last, which translates as 'general of the northern pacification command' was actually a consolation prize-Takauji had asked for the title of Sh gun, in effect an official acknowledgment that he was the realm's foremost soldier. Go-Daigo might have been wise to give him what he wanted, but this he did not do, perhaps fearing (not without cause) that Takauji would become a new Taira Kiyomori. In addition, there can be no doubt that Go-Daigo's other prominent general, Nitta Yoshisada, made very effort to hinder Takauji's ambitions. The Nitta, a hither-to relatively obscure family that had suffered by not joining Minamoto Yoritomo in the Gempei War, were now famous throughout the realm. Yoshisada, already a rival of Takauji, had no intention of coming under the Ashikaga's thumb.

Tension began to grow as Go-Daigo attempted to juggle the wants of the samurai with the suddenly unchained desires of the nobility. No doubt to Takauji's chagrin, the coveted rank of Sh gun was given to Prince Morinaga (and later Prince Norinaga), and the Hojo's now vacant lands were handed out almost capriciously. It would appear that Go-Daigo's earliest rewards were on the inordinate side, and after assigning considerable chunks of land to the nobility, many deserving warriors were rewarded either inadequately or not at all. Go-Daigo faced the same dangerous predicament the Hojo had found itself in after the Mongol Invasions, with similar results.

1334 was largely taken up by reorganization, although Takauji was careful to stay in step with the emperor. To this end he was ably assisted by his brother Tadayoshi, a gifted and unscrupulous political schemer. When Go-Daigo announced that Prince Norinaga was being sent to Kamakura, Takauji arranged for Tadayoshi to go along as his military guardian. Later in the year, Prince Morinaga, who had been residing in Yoshino up until now, returned to Kyoto and soon rumors began flying that he was plotting against Takauji. Takauji confronted Go-Daigo about the matter, and after the latter protested his own innocence, Morinaga was arrested. The action was certainly a controversial one-it had been Morinaga's letters that had drawn many warriors onto Go-Daigo's side in the first place, and the Prince was well liked. perhaps fearing that Morinaga's imprisonment would stir up trouble in the capital, the Prince was sent to Kamakura.

In 1335 Hojo Tokiyuki, a son of Takatoki, rose up and attacked Kamakura. The event created a considerable panic, and Go-Daigo's administrators Kamakura was abandoned and in the course of the chaotic flight, Tadayoshi saw to it that Morinaga was murdered. A better back-room dealer than a warrior, Tadayoshi was quite unable to contain Tokiyuki, and the event looked to the first real crisis of Go-Daigo's restoration.

Takauji hastily gathered an army, apparently without the consent of the emperor, and marched along the Tokaido Road, absorbing Tadayoshi's forces into his own. Takauji briskly defeated Tokiyuki in a number of engagements in Totomi and Suruga and on 8 September 1335 retook Kamakura. Tokiyuki was killed and order restored to the Kanto-albeit, no doubt, in such a way as to provoke the consternation of Go-Daigo and Nitta Yoshisada. Declaring that he felt more secure in Kamakura than in Kyoto, Takauji had himself a headquarters at Eifukuji temple. Go-Daigo made some effort to recall him, but to no avail. Almost as provocatively, Takauji began rewarding those warriors who supported him with lands, securing their personal loyalty and throwing the Court's lackluster rewards record in sharp contrast.

It may be that Takauji attempted to lure Nitta Yoshisada away from the Court during this period, for he was the most powerful warrior in Go-Daigo's service and losing him to Takauji would leave the emperor isolated. At the same time, a war with Yoshisada that resulted in the destruction of the Nitta could only benefit the Ashikaga in the long run, so Takauji was essentially in a win-win situation as far as that went. When it became obvious that Yoshisada had no intention of abandoning Go-Daigo, Takauji issued what amounted to an act of war: he announced that Kozuke, Nitta's home province, was now under the governorship of the Uesugi.

Go-Daigo, after some waffling, made the decision to brand Takauji a traitor and called for his destruction. Takauji, meanwhile, was careful to avoid involving the emperor in his own call to arms and directed his hostilities towards Nitta Yoshisada. He received a certain amount of legitimacy from the signature of retired emperor Kogon-in (whom the Hojo had appointed emperor after Go-Daigo's first bid for power in 1331).

In December 1335 a punitive expedition led by the Emperor's son Takanaga and Nitta Yoshisada marched out from Kyoto and defeated an advance force commanded by Tadayoshi in Mikawa province. The Imperialists pressed eastward, only to be mauled by Takauji himself in the Ashigara pass of the Hakone Mountains. A following battle in Suruga sent Go-Daigo's army fleeing westward, pursued by the Ashikaga. On 23 February Takauji's army fought its way into Kyoto but failed to capture Go-Daigo, who had taken up with the warrior monks of the Enryakuji. Takauji himself arrived two days later and began what would prove to be an extremely short-lived occupation of Kyoto. At the same time, the loyalist general Kitabatake Akiie had gathered an army and drove on the capital, gratefully accepting the full assistance of the Enryakuji. Within days of entering the capital, Takauji found himself forced to defend it against Kitabatake, and after four days retreated to Settsu. Takauji eventually made his way to Kyushu, on the way making various promises and appointments to drum up a considerable amount of support from the western families. Once on Kyushu, a brief campaign was required to defeat the sole source of notable opposition to the Ashikaga on the island, the Kikuchi. The Kikuchi were defeated at the Battle of Tadara no hama on 14 April 1336, and Takauji now had a secure base of operations and the support of the Kyushu warrior families, including the Shimazu, Matsuura, Otomo, and Shoni. Adding these clans to those already in the Ashikaga camp (the Hosokawa, Akamatsu, Imagawa, Isshiki, Nikki, Uesugi, Ko, and Ouchi) rounded out a formidable coalition that was far more formidable then the army Takauji had marched to Kyoto with. Nonetheless, Takauji could not afford to dally on Kyushu for long: at other points throughout the country Go-Daigo's forces were pressing those Ashikaga bastions left behind, including those in the Kanto and the eastern Chugoku provinces. In June Takauji headed back towards Kyoto, setting part of his army on the march through western Honshu and the other slowly advancing via ship.

Faced with Takauji's inexorable movement towards Kyoto, Go-Daigo was pressed by Nitta and the court for immediate action, with Nitta advocating an all-out battle with Takauji's army to end the war decisively. Kusunoki Masashige was against a direct approach due to the disparity in numbers but in the end Go-Daigo decided to fight. Often presented as foolishness on his part (especially to highlight the tragedy of Masashige's resulting death), Go-Daigo's decision may simply have been realistic. Taking to the hills again (as Kusunoki suggested) would probably have only delayed the inevitable. Most of the country's important samurai families were either already on Takauji's side or leaning that way-Go-Daigo's Kemmu Restoration was in fact already over.

Nitta Yoshisada commanded the army that deployed around and near the Minatogawa in Harima province. Aware that at least part of Ashikaga's army would be approaching by boat, Yoshisada was forced to position part of his army along the coast from the mouth of the Minatogawa east some miles to the mouth of the Ikutagawa. 700 men under Kusunoki were forward deployed beyond the Minato (which may well have been dry at this time) while Nitta covered an area to his south. Yoshisada's rear was covered by is relatives the Wakiya and his southern flank by the Otachi Ujiakira.

By 4 July Takauji's land force, under the command of Tadayoshi, and his own naval contingent had paused at points in Harima and exchanged messages. Tadayoshi's group was at Ichi-no-tani while Takauji rested his warriors and sailors at Akashi. Meanwhile, another ship-borne contingent under Hosokawa Jozen was regrouping off the coast of Shikkoku and would set out while the sky was still dark the next morning.

On the morning of 5 July, a day that promised to be hot and humid, Takauji gave the order to move to contact. Tadayoshi advanced eastward, his main body flanked to the south by Shoni Yorihisa and to the north by the warriors of the Shiba clan. While Takauji sailed around and prepared for a landing just east of the Minatogawa's mouth, Tadayoshi clashed with Kusunoki's picked men and soon became heavily engaged. Wakiya Sagisuke had repulsed a landing by Hosokawa and now Jozen moved to make another try further up the coast. Meanwhile, the Shoni had moved around Kusunoki's hard-pressed troops and clashed with Nitta's forward ranks. To the north, Shiba outflanked Kusunoki and advanced on Nitta's right. By this point, Takauji had landed and after regrouping struck Nitta's front. At this critical stage in the battle, Nitta received word that Hosokawa had landed behind the Imperialist army near the Ikutagawa. Nitta realized that the possibility now existed that Takauji might trap the defending army and defeat it in detail. Panicking and pressed from all sides, Yoshisada sounded a general retreat, which, unfortunately, left Kusunoki isolated. That redoubtable warrior fought against hopeless odds until he took his own life, by which time the battle was more or les decided. Go-Daigo's one hope for securing a continuation of his restoration had ended in complete defeat, and while Nitta and other surviving loyalists would fight on elsewhere, Takauji was triumphant.

Nitta managed to hold off the oncoming Ashikaga samurai long enough for Go-Daigo to flee Kyoto for the relative safety of the Enryakuji on Mt. Hiei. Takauji entered Kyoto a month or so after Minatogawa and received retired emperor Kogon-in, whom he rewarded generously. Anxious to put an end to the war while he was so far ahead, Takauji launched an attack on Mt. Hiei that made little progress. A loyalist counter-attack on 7 August caused some damage to Kyoto but resulted in the death of the force's commander, Nawa Nagatoshi. A virtual stalemate settled over the area, not broken until October, when Nitta Yoshisada failed in an attempt to drive Takauji from Kyoto. Continued resistance from Mt. Hiei was becoming more and more pointless, and perhaps to buy time Go-Daigo agreed to a cease-fire. He handed over the Imperial Regalia to the Ashikaga and fled to Yoshino while Nitta Yoshisada went with Prince Takanaga and holed up in southern Echizen. Takauji invested the Regalia on Prince Yakuhito, retired emperor Kogon-in's brother, who reigned as the Emperor Komyo. Knowing that there was likely to be much fighting left to be done, Takauji made immediate rewards to those who had followed him to Kyoto and any who responded to subsequent calls to arms.

Perhaps to the frustration of Takauji, Go-Daigo would not go away. From Yoshino he loudly declared that the Imperial Regalia in Komyo's possession were in fact forgeries. Since the originals were necessary to have a legitimate succession, that meant that Go-Daigo was still the real emperor. He gained enough support to make his claim at least feasible, and the Period of the Southern and Northern Courts began.

Takauji responded to this new threat by bearing down on Nitta Yoshisada. Repeated attacks were launched against Nitta's stronghold of Kanagasaki in Echizen and in April 1337 it was brought down. Yoshisada himself escaped, but his son and Prince Takanaga were forced to commit suicide. The next year Ashikaga forces engaged Nitta in the Battle of Fujishima (August 1338) and in the course of the fighting Yoshisada was killed. Two months previously, another notable supporter of Go-Daigo, Kitabatake Akiie, was killed at the Battle of Ishizu (Izumi).

The Southern Court not withstanding, the deaths of Nitta and Kitabatake effectively sealed Takauji's hold on the country. In 1338 emperor Komyo gave Takauji the title he had long sought: Sh gun.

The government Takauji established was very much influenced by the political situation of the time. The threat the Southern Court posed his fledgling government compelled Takauji to place especially loyal retainers in the provinces he controlled, and in this virtual wartime environment the authority of the Shugo was much enhanced. Rather then essentially acting as go-betweens with the jito and other landowners and the Bakufu, the Shugo became military governors, of whom those with a history of loyalty to the Ashikaga (the Hosokawa and Akamatsu, for instance) became the strongest. Takauji kept his headquarters in Kyoto to stay close to Yoshino and in a centralized position, though he did maintain a political institution in Kamakura.

With the feud with Southern Court on going, Takauji had been content to hand over most political tasks to his brother Tadayoshi. By 1349, however, conflict had arisen between the two and Takauji dismissed Tadayoshi on the suspicion of treachery. 1 Takauji's son Tadafuyu, whom Tadayoshi had adopted, protested the move and in 1350 came to blows with his natural father. The realm seemed to teeter on the brink of a three way civil war between Takauji, Tadayoshi, and the Southern Court, with the latter gaining support as a result of the rift between the brothers. Takayoshi was captured by Takauji's men in 1352 in Izu and poisoned, presumably on Takauji's orders. Tadafuyu responded by joining the Southern Court, whose cause was alive in the Kanto as the Nitta family joined with Tadayoshi's surviving followers and took to the field against Takauji. Takauji managed to defeat this group but learned of startling developments back in the capital. The new emperor of the Southern Court Go-Murakami (Prince Norinaga, whose father Go-Daigo had died in 1338) had taken advantage of Takauji's distraction to recapture Kyoto on 5 April 1352. The operation had been finely executed and hard fighting and considerable blood was required to dislodge Go-Murakami's adherents. Heavy fighting continued in the Kinai for the next three years, culminating in the January 1355 recapture of Kyoto by Go-Murakami's army. Takauji rallied his forces in Omi province and launched a counterattack that produced a string of fiercely contested struggles in March and a fight for the capital itself that occupied the better part of April.

Ashikaga Tadafuyu, present on the Southern side, fought tenaciously but by 25 April was driven out. Takauji's forces had been badly blooded in the last weeks of the fighting, and the future Ashikaga deputy Sh gun Hosokawa Yoriyuki was wounded, but Kyoto was secured. The Southern Court had expended its greatest efforts in the previous three years, and would never again pose so great a threat to the Ashikaga.

Takauji himself spent the next three years reorganizing his administration and was considering the idea of personally leading a campaign to Kyushu against the Shibuya family when he fell ill and died on 8 June 1358. Takauji was succeded by his son Yoshiakira, who kept the Ashikaga government in Kyoto. The Southern Court would continue to resist until December 1392, though never as fiercely as had during Takauji's time. Takauji's new Bakufu, built out of the ashes of the Hojo and the failure of the Kemmu Restoration, would survive for a total of 15 generations but would in many ways be the weakest of Japan's military governments. Much had been sacrificed to the Shugo in the early years for the sake of necessity, and this would later come back to haunt the Bakufu. A few of the great houses could trace common cause with Takauji back to the earliest stages of his career (such as the Uesugi) and a number could claim strong familial bonds (including the Hosokawa and Imagawa) but many had been raised up out of necessity or expediency. This was in contrast to both the Minamoto and later Tokugawa models, and would prove fatal after the Onin War (1467-77). At the same time, Go-Daigo's failure and the subsequent fall of the Southern Court eliminated any chance of a return to Imperial rule for nearly 500 years.

A great soldier and a charismatic leader, the first of the Ashikaga Sh guns etched out a place in Japanese history by giving free rein to his own ambitions and those of the warrior class. Perhaps, given how unwilling the samurai were to relinquish political authority, Takauji was an inevitable figure, and he is often seen as a traitor, opportunist, and even (usually when connected to Kusunoki Masashige) a villain. Like so many of Japan's great samurai figures, just who Ashikaga Takauji was is really a matter of perspective.

1 Tadayoshi comes across as an entirely unsavory character, and even allowing for the biases of the Taiheki he does not appear to have been at all popular in his day. In particular, his murder of Prince Morinaga and the poisoning of Prince Tsunenaga, another of Go-Daigo's son, was considered villainous.


Takauji the Shogun

The Southern Court not withstanding, the deaths of Nitta and Kitabatake effectively sealed Takauji's hold on the country. In 1338 emperor Komyo gave Takauji the title he had long sought: Shôgun.

The government Takauji established was very much influenced by the political situation of the time. The threat the Southern Court posed his fledgling government compelled Takauji to place especially loyal retainers in the provinces he controlled, and in this virtual wartime environment the authority of the Shugo was much enhanced. Rather then essentially acting as go-betweens with the jito and other landowners and the Bakufu, the Shugo became military governors, of whom those with a history of loyalty to the Ashikaga (the Hosokawa and Akamatsu, for instance) became the strongest. Takauji kept his headquarters in Kyoto to stay close to Yoshino and in a centralized position, though he did maintain a political institution in Kamakura.

With the feud with Southern Court on going, Takauji had been content to hand over most political tasks to his brother Tadayoshi. By 1349, however, conflict had arisen between the two and Takauji dismissed Tadayoshi on the suspicion of treachery Ώ] . Takauji's son Tadafuyu, whom Tadayoshi had adopted, protested the move and in 1350 came to blows with his natural father. The realm seemed to teeter on the brink of a three way civil war between Takauji, Tadayoshi, and the Southern Court, with the latter gaining support as a result of the rift between the brothers. Tadayoshi was captured by Takauji's men in 1352 in Izu and poisoned, presumably on Takauji's orders. Tadafuyu responded by joining the Southern Court, whose cause was alive in the Kanto as the Nitta family joined with Tadayoshi's surviving followers and took to the field against Takauji. Takauji managed to defeat this group but learned of startling developments back in the capital. The new emperor of the Southern Court Go-Murakami (Prince Norinaga, whose father Go-Daigo had died in 1338) had taken advantage of Takauji's distraction to recapture Kyoto on 5 April 1352. The operation had been finely executed and hard fighting and considerable blood was required to dislodge Go-Murakami's adherents. Heavy fighting continued in the Kinai for the next three years, culminating in the January 1355 recapture of Kyoto by Go-Murakami's army. Takauji rallied his forces in Omi province and launched a counterattack that produced a string of fiercely contested struggles in March and a fight for the capital itself that occupied the better part of April.

Ashikaga Tadafuyu, present on the Southern side, fought tenaciously but by 25 April was driven out. Takauji's forces had been badly blooded in the last weeks of the fighting, and the future Ashikaga deputy Shôgun Hosokawa Yoriyuki was wounded, but Kyoto was secured. The Southern Court had expended its greatest efforts in the previous three years, and would never again pose so great a threat to the Ashikaga.

Takauji himself spent the next three years reorganizing his administration and was considering the idea of personally leading a campaign to Kyushu against the Shibuya family when he fell ill and died on 8 June 1358. Takauji was succeeded by his son Yoshiakira, who kept the Ashikaga government in Kyoto. The Southern Court would continue to resist until December 1392, though never as fiercely as had during Takauji's time. Takauji's new Bakufu, built out of the ashes of the Hojo and the failure of the Kemmu Restoration, would survive for a total of 15 generations but would in many ways be the weakest of Japan's military governments. Much had been sacrificed to the Shugo in the early years for the sake of necessity, and this would later come back to haunt the Bakufu. A few of the great houses could trace common cause with Takauji back to the earliest stages of his career (such as the Uesugi) and a number could claim strong familial bonds (including the Hosokawa and Imagawa) but many had been raised up out of necessity or expediency. This was in contrast to both the Minamoto and later Tokugawa models, and would prove fatal after the Onin War (1467-77). At the same time, Go-Daigo's failure and the subsequent fall of the Southern Court eliminated any chance of a return to Imperial rule for nearly 500 years.

A great soldier and a charismatic leader, the first of the Ashikaga Shôguns etched out a place in Japanese history by giving free rein to his own ambitions and those of the warrior class. Perhaps, given how unwilling the samurai were to relinquish political authority, Takauji was an inevitable figure, and he is often seen as a traitor, opportunist, and even (usually when connected to Kusunoki Masashige) a villain. Like so many of Japan's great samurai figures, just who Ashikaga Takauji was is really a matter of perspective.


History Ashikaga Clan

The Ashikaga (足利) were a warrior family of the twelfth to the sixteenth centuries and with the Nitta (新田) family one of the two major descendants of the Seiwa Genji (清和源) branch of the Minamoto family. The Ashikaga rose to prominence in the fourteenth century under Ashikaga Takauji, who established the Muromachi shogunate (1338-1573). Fifteen shoguns of the Ashikaga family ruled Japan during two and a half centuries of political and social disorder. Under the Ashikaga the arts flourished, winning them an eminent place in Japanese cultural history.

Oorsprong

The Ashikaga family was founded by Minamoto no Yoshiyasu (源義康, died 1157), a grandson of Minamoto no Yoshiie, the most renowned member of the Seiwa Genji. They took the name of their family seat, the Ashikaga estate (荘園 or 庄園 shōen) in Shimotsuke Province (下野国 Shimotsuke no kuni, modern-day Tochigi Prefecture). Yoshiyasu’s son Ashikaga Yoshikane (足利義兼, 1154-1199) distinguished himself in the service of the Minamoto during the Genpei War (源平合戦 Genpei Kassen, 1180-85) between the Minamoto and the Taira, and in 1189 he accompanied Minamoto no Yoritomo, founder and first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate (1192-1333), in a campaign of subjugation against the Northern Fujiwara (奥州藤原氏 Ōshū Fujiwara-shi) in northern Japan.

During that time the Ashikaga began to intermarry with the Hōjō (北条) family, who as shogunal regents (執権 shikken) became the de facto rulers at Kamakura after the death of Yoritomo in 1199. Thanks to their service to the shogunate and their relationship with the Hōjō, during the Kamakura period the Ashikaga extended their influence beyond Shimotsuke into Shimōsa Province (下総国 Shimōsa no Kuni, now part of Chiba and Ibaraki prefectures) and Mikawa Province (三河国 Mikawa no kuni, now part of Aichi Prefecture).

Muromachi Shogunate

In 1333, loyalist forces supporting the cause of Emperor Go-Daigo (後醍醐天皇 Go-Daigo-tennō, 1288-1339) overthrew the Kamakura shogunate. Go-Daigo had been seized by Hōjō officials two years earlier for plotting against the shogunate and had been exiled to the Oki Islands in the Sea of Japan. His followers continued to resist in the central provinces around Kyōto, and early in 1333, the shogunate dispatched an army from Kamakura under Ashikaga Takauji (足利尊氏, 1305-1358) in an attempt to resolve the problem. Upon reaching the central provinces, however, Takauji announced his support for the loyalists and seized the shogunate offices in Kyōto. A few weeks later Nitta Yoshisada, leader of the other main branch of the Minamoto and also a vassal of the shogunate, followed Takauji’s example, changed sides, and destroyed the headquarters of the Hōjō-dominated regime in Kamakura.

Go-Daigo returned from exile to Kyōto with the intent of restoring direct imperial rule, but his Kenmu Restoration (建武の新政 Kenmu no Shinsei) lasted only three years and was notably unsuccessful. To a great extent, the warrior supporters of the court were divided by a contest between Ashikaga Takauji and Nitta Yoshisada for military control over Japan. Primarily as a result of his clash with Yoshisada, Takauji turned against the restoration government in 1335/36, drove Go-Daigo into the mountainous region around Yoshino (吉野) in present-day Nara Prefecture, and in 1338 established the Muromachi shogunate in Kyōto.

The Ashikaga received their legitimacy from the so-called Northern Court (北朝 Hokuchō), headed by a branch line of the imperial family that reigned in Kyōto, while Go-Daigo and his lineal descendants ruled the Southern Court (南朝 Nanchō) at Yoshino. The first half-century of the Muromachi period is also known as the age of the northern and southern courts. The imperial schism was brought to an end with the return of the southern emperor to Kyōto in 1392 when the Ashikaga promised to reinstate the practice of alternate succession to the throne by the two rival branches of the imperial family.

During the first half of the period of schism, the Ashikaga were obliged not only to wage war against the supporters of the Southern Court but also to deal with conflicts within the shogunate itself. The feuding among the shogunate leaders become so intense that in 1352 Takauji resorted to having his brother Ashikaga Tadayoshi (足利直義, 1306-1352) murdered.

Shogun and shugo

The Muromachi shogunate achieved its highest authority and stability as a governing institution in the late fourteenth and the early fifteenth century under the third shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (足利義満, 1358-1408). During his rule, the Southern Court no longer posed a serious threat. Moreover, some Ashikaga vassals holding the title of shugo (守護, military governor) had established territorial domains, often extending over two or more provinces, that were concentrated in the central-western regions of Honshū and the island of Shikoku. Yoshimitsu’s success as skiet lay in his ability to maintain a balance of power between the shogunate and the shugo (ook bekend as shugo daimyō). The principal link between the Ashikaga shogun and shugo was the office of shogunal deputy or governor-general (管領 kanrei), held in rotation by the chieftains of three shugo houses collateral to the Ashikaga: the Hosokawa (細川), Hatakeyama (畠山), and Shiba (斯波) families.

Yoshimitsu’s sons Ashikaga Yoshimochi (足利義持, 1386-1428) and Ashikaga Yoshinori (足利義教, 1394-1441) provided firm leadership in the early fifteenth century. But even during this time, clear signs of a weakening of the Ashikaga hegemony appeared. The Kantō region, which was administered by the head of a branch line of the Ashikaga who styled himself Kantō kubō (関東公方, lit. “shōgun of the east”), had never been adequately subordinate to the shogunate, and it became necessary during Yoshinori’s time to take punitive steps against the kubō Ashikaga Mochiuji (足利基氏, 1398–1439) that led to his suicide in 1439. Although the insubordinate Mochiuji was thus eliminated, there was no suitable successor, and the Kantō region gradually slipped from Ashikaga control. Meanwhile, internal dissent in the form of succession disputes began to plague some of the great shugo houses, including the kanrei houses of Shiba and Hatakeyama. The balance of power between skiet en shugo, which was the basis of the Ashikaga hegemony, became increasingly precarious.

Decline of the Ashikaga shogunate

The Ōnin War (1467–1477), which was fought mainly in Kyōto, accelerated the end of the Ashikaga clan. Heralded by the various shugo succession disputes mentioned above, it was precipitated by a conflict within the Ashikaga family itself over the successor to the eighth shogun, Ashikaga Yoshimasa (足利義政, 1436-1490). In the fighting that ensued, each side was supported by contending factions within the Shiba and Hatakeyama houses. The war finally came to an end in 1477 however, the Ashikaga power had been destroyed, and Japan had been plunged into the century of disunion known as the “Warring States” or Sengoku Period.

For the remainder of the Muromachi Period, the Ashikaga shoguns exercised little power and became in effect the puppets of their leading vassals. Out of the turmoil of the Sengoku period emerged a new class of daimyō who established territorial domains throughout the country and set the stage for a dynamic process of military unification in the late sixteenth century. By the time of the first of the great unifiers, Oda Nobunaga (1534-82), the Ashikaga shogunate had almost completely crumbled, and Nobunaga, who formally tolerated its continuance for five years after seizing control over Kyōto in 1568 and beginning the major process of unification, finally deposed the fifteenth shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki (足利義昭, 1537-1597). Yoshiaki, however, continued to behave as skiet, encouraged by powerful daimyō until Toyotomi Hideyoshi assumed supreme power, shattering his hopes to ever return to full honours. In 1588, Yoshiaki took the priestly name Shōzan Dōkyū and accepted a stipend from Hideyoshi.

The Ashikaga to present day

While the main branch of the family has disappeared, the Kantō Ashikaga, founded by Takauji’s fourth son Motouji, the first Kantō kanrei (関東管令), and consisting – among others – of the Kamakura and later the Koga branch (the latter established by Ashikaga Shigeuchi who had to flee to Koga) survived the political turmoil. When the fifth and last Koga kubō (古河公坊), Ashikaga Yoshiuji (足利義氏, 1541-1583) died without a male heir, his daughter Ujinohime (足利氏姫) succeeded her father at the young age of nine and took his title. In 1591, Toyotomi Hideyoshi consented to her marriage to Ashikaga Kunitomo, the first son of Ashikaga Yorizumi (足利頼純, died 1601). When Kunitomo died in 1593, she was married to his younger brother Ashikaga Yoriuji, starting a new Ashikaga branch, the Kitsuregawa (喜連川). In the light of their family’s prominence Tokugawa Ieyasu later accorded Kitsuregawa Yoriuji (喜連川頼氏, 1580-1630) the status of a daimyō of the fourth rank or higher, receiving a stipend equivalent to 100,000 koku (approximately 18 million litres of crop yield), although the Kitsuregawa domain in Shimotsuke Province yielded only 4,500 koku.

The Ashikaga thus survived as a minor and inconspicuous daimyō family. The last family head of the Kitsuregawa line, Ashikaga Atsuuji, died in 1983 and since then Ashikaga Yoshihiro, a university professor and a descendant of the Hirashima kubō (平島公坊) of Awa Province (安房国 Awa-no kuni, part of present-day Chiba Prefecture), a family branch established by the eleventh skiet Ashikaga Yoshizumi (足利 義澄, 1481-1511), has continued to uphold their family traditions.

The Minamoto Ashikaga should not be confused with the clan by the same name who were a branch family of the Japanese Fujiwara clan of court nobles, more specifically Fujiwara no Hidesato of the Northern Fujiwara branch. The clan was a dominant force in the Kantō region during the Heian period (794-1185). It had no direct relation to the samoerai Ashikaga clan which ruled Japan under the Ashikaga shogunate.

Patrons of the Arts

Although the Muromachi Period may appear to have been a dark and barbarous age regarding political and social history, it was also a time of glorious cultural achievement, and the Ashikaga shoguns are remembered for their generous patronage of the arts. The two significant spans of cultural flourishing in the Muromachi Period were the age of Yoshimitsu in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries and the age of Yoshimasa in the late fifteenth century. As the patrons of such arts as the no theatre, linked verse, monochrome ink painting (which was stimulated primarily by the tally trade and cultural intercourse with China), landscape gardening, and the tea ceremony, the Ashikaga shoguns can be characterized as far more gifted in the cultural than in the military sphere of medieval rule.


Local Historical Context [ edit | wysig bron]

Symbol of the Ashikaga Shogunate

Nanbokucho Period [ edit | wysig bron]

The Nanbokucho Period (1336-1392) was known as the period of Southern and Northern Courts. In 1333, a coalition of supporters of Emperor Go-Daigo (1288–1339), who sought to restore political power to the throne, toppled the   Kamakura Regime. Unable to rule effectively, this new royal government was short-lived. In 1336, a member of a branch family of the Minamoto clan, Ashikaga Takauji (alleged owner of this Yoroi), usurped control and drove Go-Daigo from Kyoto. Takauji then set a rival on the throne and established a new military government in Kyoto. Meanwhile, Go-Daigo traveled south and took refuge in Yoshino. There he established the Southern Court, in contrast to the rival Northern Court supported by Takauji [See Mason Craiger 1974, 139]. During the time of Takauji Ashikaga, Japan remained divided between the two courts, and it was not until the time of the third Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimitsu Ashikaga (1358-1408) that it was reunited. During Yoshimitsu's time, the Ashikaga Shogunate had managed to extend its control over a large portion of the country. As a result, the southern court was persuaded in 1392 to return to Kyoto and merge with the Northern Court, with the understanding that the imperial throne would be occupied alternately by the descendants of the two courts. This promise, however, was not kept by the Northern Court, and since that time only its descendants occupied the throne [See Hane 1991, 88-89].


A Chronology of Japanese History: Muromachi (Ashikaga) Period (1333-1573)

1334 – Go-Daigo attempts to re-establish the imperial authority under an imperial government in Kyoto. He grants the title of Shogun to his son, Prince Morinaga only for a short time and appoints many courtiers as provincial governors then Narinagaay is appointed Shogun until 1338.

October 1335 – Ashikaga Takauji turns against Go-Daigo and establishes a Shogunate of his own in Kyoto.

1336 – Ashikaga Takauji assumes control of Kyoto and supports Komyo (of the Senior line – Jimyoin) as Emperor until 1348 to legitimise his new power. Go-Daigo and his court followers flee to Yoshino and become the Southern Dynasty while Komyo remains in Kyoto as the Northern Dynasty.

1338 – Ashikaga Takauji assumes the title of Shogun until 1358.

1339 – Go-Murakami becomes Emperor (the Southern Dynasty) until 1368.

1348 – Suko becomes Emperor (The Northern Dynasty) until 1351.

1351 – Go-Kogon becomes Emperor (The Northern Dynasty) until 1371.

1358 – Ashikaga Yoshiakira becomes Shogun until 1367.

1368 – Chokei becomes Emperor (the Southern Dynasty) until 1383. Ashikaga Yoshimitsu becomes the third Ashikaga Shogun, at nine years old. The first 30 years of power are spent in constant warfare defending his power and putting down revolts.

1373 – Goen-yu becomes Emperor (The Northern Dynasty) until1382.

1382 – Go-Komatsu becomes Emperor (The Northern Dynasty) until 1392, when the country is reunited under his rule.

1383 – Go-Kameyama becomes Emperor (the Southern Dynasty) until 1392.

1392 – The Southern Imperial Court capitulates – the Northern and the Southern Dynasties are reunited under Emperor Go-Komatsu’s rule, who ruled until 1412.

1397 – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu builds Kinkakuji temple.

1401 – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu sends a mission to China pledging to stop the pirate traders. They return next year with Ashikaga Yoshimitsu’s investiture as “King of Japan” and subject of the Ming Empire.

1404 – Authorised ships begin official tally trade with China (while pirating continues).

1408 – Ashikaga Yoshimitsu dies. He is succeeded by his son Ashikaga Yoshimochi (1408-1423) and then his grandson Ashikaga Yoshikazu (1423-1425) – neither of them being very powerful. The shogunate power weakens.

1412 – Shoko becomes Emperor until 1428.

1428 – Ashikaga Yoshinori becomes the sixth Ashikaga Shogun and once again asserts the shogunal power.

Go-Hanazono becomes Emperor until 1464.

1441 – The Shogun Ashikaga Yoshinori is assassinated by one of his chief retainers. Ashikaga Yoshikatsu becomes Shogun until 1443.

1443 – Ahikaga Yoshimasa becomes the eighth Shogun.

1644 – Go-Tsuchimikado becomes Emperor until 1500.

1467-1477 – Onin War – it starts as a Shogunal succession dispute between Hosokawa and Yamana houses (both major constable – shugo houses). The war ends with the Ashikaga family hegemony Kyoto is virtually destroyed, and the country ends up completely decentralised.

1467-1568Sengoku Jidai (The Period of Warring States) – from outbreak of Onin War, Oda Nobunaga takes control of Kyoto. The imperial family and the Shogun loses power, but retain titles and positions.

1468 – Monks and courtiers begin flight to countryside.

1473 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa retires and leads a quiet life as lay priest devoting his time to arts and cultural life. Ashikaga Yoshihisa (his son) becomes the ninth Ashikaga Shogun, but his power does not extend outside his home in Yamashiro province.

1475 – Religious uprising in Kaga Province.

1477 – OninWar ends Kyoto is in ruins.

1480 – Religious uprising in Kyoto hereafter occur annually across country.

1485 – A provincial uprising in Yamashiro drives out the constable’s (shugo) armies, leaving the province under the control of the government. The uprising is lead by the countrypeople and petty warriors.

1488 – Ikko school uprising drives the constable’s (shugo) armies out of Kaga province.

1489 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa finishes Ginkakuji temple (Silver Pavilion) in Kyoto.

1490 – Ashikaga Yoshimasa dies. Ashikaga Yoshihisa dies during a campaign against the Rokkaku house in Omi province. Ashikaga Yoshitane becomes the tenth Ashikaga Shogun.

1493 – Ashikaga Yoshitane is removed from the office and is exiled by Hosokawa Masamoto. Ashikaga Yoshizumi becomes the eleventh Ashikaga Shogun, although he is 14 years old and Hosokawa’s puppet.

1499 – „Dry-stone garden” of Ryoan-ji completed (Kyoto)

1500 – Go-Kashiwabara becomes Emperor until 1526. The enthronement ceremony is not held until 1521 because of the lack of funds.

Great Fire of Kyoto takes place, which destroys 20,000 homes.

1506 – Religious uprising reignited in Kaga Province.

1508 – Ashikaga Yoshizumi is removed from the office by the houses of Hosokawa and Ouchi. Ashikaga Yoshitane returns to the Shogunal office.

1511 – Religious uprising in Yamashiro Province.

1512 – Famine in Kanto region.

1520 – In bid to end uprisings, shogunate declares moratorium on debt.

1521 – Ashikaga Yoshitane flees from the capital city and goes into exile. Ashikaga Yoshiharu becomes the twelfth Ashikaga Shogun at ten years old. He serves as Hosokawa Takakuni’s puppet.

1526 – Go-Nara becomes Emperor until 1557. The enthronement ceremony is not held until 1536 due to the lack of funds.

1531 – Asakura clan of Echizen overthrown in religious uprising.

1536 – Tenmon Lotus Uprising.

1542 – Portuguese ships arrive at Tanegashima. Firearms and Christianity are introduced in Japan (other theories about first arrival of firearms also exist).

Ikenobo Sen’o transcribes oral teaching on flower arrangement

1543 – The firearms were first introduced in Japan by the Portuguese and were immediately incorporated in the ninjutsu techniques. Because of that, firearms were shunned by the majority of the other classes – most especially the samurai – until the Meiji Restoration.

1546 – Ashikaga Yoshiharu flees from Kyoto. His son, Ashikaga Yoshiteru, becomes the thirteenth Ashikaga Shogun and is under the Hosokawa’s control.

1547 – Saito Dosan destroys Toki clan and takes control of Gifu town.

1549 – St. Francis Xavier lands on Kyushu Island, at Kagoshima, introducing Christian faith.

1551 – The trade with China breaks down. Unrestrained numbers of Japanese ships sail between Japan and China.

1555 – Battle of Kawanakajima tales place.

Japanese pirates prey on the Chinese coast.

1556 – Western-style medicine introduced by Almeida.

Saito Dosan fights his adoptive son, Yoshitatsu, and is defeated.

1557 – Ogimachi becomes Emperor.

1559 – Oda Nobunaga takes control of all Owari Province.

Otomo of Bungo opens the port of Fuchu.

1560 – Oda Nobunaga defeats Imagawa clan’s army at Battle of Okehasama

1563 – Jesuit missionary Luis Frois arrives in Japan he later writes Historia de Japan, which covers the years 1549-93 ans, though chiefly a history of Jesuit Activities, provides much information about contemporary Japan.

Omura Sumitada becomes the first daimyo to convert to Christianity.

1565 – Ashikaga Yoshiteru is assassinated by one of the agents of Miyoshi house’s. Ashikaga Yoshihide becomes Shogun until 1568.

Christian missionaries are expelled from Kyoto.

1567 – Oda Nobunaga pacifies Mino province and renames Inokuchi Castle, “Gifu”.

The Portuguese ships arrive in Nagasaki.

1568 – Oda Nobunaga occupies Kyoto and installs Ashikaga Yoshiaki as the fifteenth, and the last, Ashikaga Shogun.

Nanban Temple (church) is erected in Kyoto.

1569 – Oda Nobunaga receives Jesuit Lois Frois gives him the permission to reside in Kyoto.

1571 – Oda Nobunaga destroys Enryakuji temple on Mount Hiei in Kyoto. The start of the cadastral surveys.

First Portuguese merchant ship arrives to trade at Nagasaki.

1573 – Oda Nobunaga ousts Ashikaga Yoshiaki from the Shogunate, who flees in exile to Shikoku Island. This is the end of the Ashikaga Shogunate.


Eras of Takauji's bakufu [wysig | wysig bron]

Because of the anomalous situation, which he had himself created and which saw two Emperors reign simultaneously, one in Yoshino and one in Kyoto, the years in which Takauji was shogun as reckoned by the Gregorian calendar are identified in Japanese historical records by two different series of Japanese era names (nengō), that following the datation used by the legitimate Southern Court and that formulated by the pretender Northern Court. Η ]

  • Eras as reckoned by the legitimate Southern Court (declared legitimate by a Meiji era decree because in possession at the time of the Japanese Imperial Regalia):
    • Engen (1336–1340)
    • Kōkoku (1340–1346)
    • Shōhei (1346–1370)
    • Ryakuō (1338–1342)
    • Kōei (1342–1345)
    • Jōwa (1345–1350)
    • Kan'ō or Kannō (1350–1352)
    • Bunna (1352–1356)
    • Enbun (1356–1361)


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