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21 Augustus 1965 - Tweeling 5 - Geskiedenis


21 Augustus 1965 - Tweeling 5

Tweeling 5 het op 21 Augustus 1965 van Cape Canaveral af opgestyg. Sy vlug duur sewe dae 22 uur en 55 minute. Dit het 'n kort tydjie die rekord gehou vir die langste vlug. Die twee ruimtevaarders aan boord was L Gordon Cooper jr en Charles Pete Conrad.


NASA -geskiedenis: Tweeling V gelanseer uit Cape Canaveral 53 jaar gelede

TERUGVOER: 21 Augustus 1965

BO VIDEO: Vandag, drie en vyftig jaar gelede, op 21 Augustus 1965, het Gemini V, die derde Gemini-vlug, van Kaap Canaveral geloods met die bevelvoerder Gordon Cooper en vlieënier Pete Conrad. (lunarmodule5 video)

NASA-Drie-en-vyftig jaar gelede vandag, op 21 Augustus 1965, het Gemini V, die derde Gemini-vlug, van Kaap Canaveral gelaai met die bevelvoerder Gordon Cooper en vlieënier Pete Conrad.

Die sending van 8 dae het die vorige wêreldrekord van die Sowjetunie, wat die bemanning van Vostok 5 in 1963 opgestel het, vir die langste tyd in die ruimte gebreek.

Die doel van die missie was om ontmoetingsvermoëns te toets met die Radar Evaluation Pod (REP) wat tydens die tweede baan uit die vaartuig geslinger is.

Ongelukkig het probleme met die brandstofsel ontstaan, en die bemanning kon nie 'n afspraak maak met die REP nie.

Terug op die grond het mede -ruimtevaarder Buzz Aldrin 'n plan ontwikkel waar die bemanning met 'n 'punt in die ruimte' kon ontmoet.

Die plan het gewerk en die bemanning het die eerste presisie -maneuver ooit tydens 'n ruimtevaart uitgevoer.

Die bemanning het sy missie op 29 Augustus 1965 voltooi en veilig in die Atlantiese Oseaan geland.

Vandag, drie en vyftig jaar gelede, op 21 Augustus 1965, het Gemini V, die derde Gemini-vlug, van Kaap Canaveral geloods met die bevelvoerder Gordon Cooper en vlieënier Pete Conrad. (NASA Beeld)


Vlug

Die bekendstelling het perfek verloop, behalwe vir 'n paar sekondes Pogo -ossillasie (aksiale vibrasie van die vuurpyl). Dit is gemeet op +0,38 g (3.7  m/s²) tydens eerste vlug, meer as die toegelate +0.25 g (2.5  m/s²) vir 'n totaal van ongeveer 13 sekondes. Conrad en Cooper het hul visie en spraak kortliks aangetas deur die sterk trillings. Die oorsaak is te wyte aan onbehoorlike gasvlakke in 'n oksideermiddelpyp, en ernstige ossillasies het geen daaropvolgende Tweelingvlugte beïnvloed nie. Die aanvanklike wentelbaan was 101 x 216 myl (163 x 349 kilometer).

Film van die bekendstelling onthul 'n reeks onverklaarbare ligflitse in die uitlaat van die eerste fase, maar telemetriegegewens dui niks aan wat dit kon veroorsaak het nie. Daaropvolgende hersiening van vorige Gemini -bekendstellings sowel as film van Titan II ICBM -toetse het ook die teenwoordigheid van hierdie ligflitse getoon. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie verskynsel veroorsaak word deur kleeflint wat droogmiddelsakke aan die turbine -uitlaatpyp vasmaak.

Die boonste helfte van die eerste fase van die Titan II, wat bestaan ​​uit die stikstoftetroksiedtenk en die omliggende romp, is op die oppervlak van die Atlantiese Oseaan gevind en dit is opgehaal en word nou in die Amerikaanse ruimte- en raketsentrum in Huntsville, Alabama, vertoon.

Die eerste groot gebeurtenis tydens die missie was die uitwerp van die Radar Evaluation Pod (REP) om 2 uur en 13 minute na die vlug. Die radar het getoon dat die peul 'n relatiewe snelheid van twee meter per sekonde beweeg. Terwyl die bemanning nie in kontak was met die grond nie, het die bemanning gevind dat die druk in die brandstofsel 4 ure en 22 minute na die vlug van 850 tot 65 pond per vierkante duim gedaal het. Dit was nog steeds bo die 22,2  psi (153  kPa) minimum, maar Cooper het besluit om dit af te sluit. Sonder krag sou hulle nie 'n afspraak met die REP kon hê nie, en dit kan ook 'n voortydige einde van die missie beteken. Die oorsaak van hierdie ongeluk is vermoedelik 'n kortsluiting in die suurstoftenkverwarmer wat 'n stroombreker gestuit het.

Toetse op die grond het bevind dat die brandstofsel moontlik is om te werk, selfs met 'n lae suurstofdruk. As die brandstofsel egter af is, kan hulle slegs 'n dag in 'n wentelbaan bly en steeds genoeg batterykrag hê om weer in te gaan.

Daar is besluit om die brandstofselle weer aan te skakel en te toets met behulp van toerusting wat meer en meer krag benodig. Dit het getoon dat die brandstofselle stabiel was en dat die bemanning die missie kon voortsit.

Intussen het Buzz Aldrin 'n alternatiewe afspraaktoets opgestel. Hy het 'n doktor in baanmeganika gehad en 'n skema uitgewerk waar die bemanning met 'n "punt in die ruimte" kon ontmoet.

Die bemanning het koud geword toe hulle wegry. Selfs as die koelmiddelpype in die pakke afgeskakel is en die lugvloei laag is, het hulle steeds gebewe. Sterre wat stadig by die vensters ronddryf, was ook 'n disoriëntasie, en die bemanning het deksels op die vensters gesit.

Soos met Tweeling 4, het die bemanning gesukkel om in alternatiewe rustye te slaap. Hulle het nog min rus toe hulle besluit om hul slaapperiodes saam te neem.

Die fantoombyeenkoms het op die derde dag gekom. Dit het perfek verloop, al was dit die eerste presisie -maneuver op 'n ruimtevaart. Hulle het vier maneuvers probeer - apogee -aanpassing, fase -aanpassing, vlakverandering en koelliptiese maneuver - met behulp van die baan -houding en maneuverstelsel (OAMS).

Die grondpersoneel het die volgende dag 'n klein probleempie ontdek. Die brandstofsel produseer afvalwater (nie geskik om te drink nie, aangesien dit te suur was) wat in 'n tenk aan boord gestoor is. Dit was dieselfde tenk wat vir drinkwater gebruik is, met die drinkbare en nie-drinkbare water geskei deur 'n blaaswand. Die probleem was dat die brandstofsel 20% meer ontslag lewer as wat verwag is. Daar is egter gou vasgestel dat daar aan die einde van die missie nog plek oor sou bly. Oor die algemeen was die brandstofselle suksesvol in die vervaardiging van koel drinkwater vir die ruimtevaarders, maar hulle het berig dat die water 'n groot hoeveelheid gasborrels bevat.

Op die vyfde dag het 'n groot probleem voorgekom toe een van die OAMS -boegschroefblokke (bestaande uit stropers 5, 6, 7 en 8) herhaaldelik wanfunksioneer. Die presiese rede vir hierdie probleme was onduidelik en 'n verskeidenheid moontlike oorsake is voorgestel. Dit beteken die kansellasie van alle eksperimente wat die gebruik van die stuwwagens vereis, en die bemanning kon hulle nie weer laat werk nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Sewentien eksperimente is beplan, waarvan een gekanselleer is, aangesien dit fotografie van die REP behels het. Eksperiment D-1 betrek die bemanning wat hemelse voorwerpe fotografeer, en D-6 was 'n grondfotografie-eksperiment. Eksperimente D-4/D-7 behels die maak van helderheidsmetings van hemelse en aardse agtergronde en raketpluime. Eksperimente S-8/D-13 ondersoek of die bemanning se gesig tydens die sending verander het.

Al die mediese eksperimente van Gemini 4 is uitgevoer, sowel as eksperiment M-1 in die uitvoering van die hart. Dit het behels dat Conrad opblaasbootmanchette gedra het. Eksperiment M-9 het ook ondersoek of die ruimtevaarders se vermoë om horisontaal te meet, verander het.

Die ruimtevaarders het tydens die missie nie veel lus gehad nie en was gemiddeld ongeveer 1000 kalorieë per dag, ver onder die beoogde voedselinname van 2700 kalorieë per dag. Hulle het gerapporteer dat roos 'n aanhoudende probleem is tot op die punt dat hul los velvlokkies op die instrumentpaneel van die Tweeling sou kom en sommige instrumentuitlees gedeeltelik sou verduister. Daar word vermoed dat hierdie toestand te wyte is aan 'n baie lae humiditeit in die kajuit, wat veroorsaak dat die vel van die ruimtevaarders droog en skilferig word. Mediese ondersoeke na die vlug toon 'n mate van verlies aan rooibloedselle en plasma. Die sirkulasiestelsel van Conrad het binne twee dae na die sending na normale waardes teruggekeer, terwyl Cooper vier dae oorgeneem het.

S-1 was betrokke by die neem van die eerste foto's van die zodiacal-lig en die gegenschein vanuit 'n baan. Daar was ook sintopiese fotografie van die aarde. Een foto van die Zagrosberge onthul meer detail as die amptelike geologiese kaart van Iran. Eksperiment S-7, die Cloud-Top Spectrometer, het aan die lig gebring dat die hoogte van wolke vanuit 'n wentelbaan bepaal kan word.

Op 190 uur, 27 minute en 43 sekondes na die missie is heropbou oor Hawaii begin. Die ruimtevaarders het die toegang weer beheer en sleep en hef geskep deur die kapsule te draai. As gevolg van 'n rekenaarfout, beland die bemanning 130 kilometer kort van die beplande landingspunt in die Atlantiese Oseaan. Alhoewel die rekenaar perfek gewerk het, het 'n programmeerder die rotasiesnelheid van die aarde as 360 ° per 24 uur in plaas van 360,98 ° ingeskryf Sien Sideriese dag.

Die Gemini 5 -missie is ondersteun deur die volgende hulpbronne van die Amerikaanse departement van verdediging: 10 265 personeel, 114 vliegtuie en 19 skepe. Herstel was deur USS Lake Champlain.


Hierdie dag in die geskiedenis vir 21 Augustus

1897 – Oldsmobile word eers vervaardig deur Olds Motor Vehicle Co in Lansing, Michigan.

1901 – Baltimore Orioles werper Joe McGinnity is geskors uit NL vir die vuis en amp spuug op skeidsregter Tom Connolly in die vorige dag ’s 5-2 verlies vir Detroit tigers lewenslange skorsing verminder tot 12 dae.

1926 – Chicago White Sox-werper Ted Lyon slaan Boston Red Sox, 6-0 in slegs 67 minute op Fenway Park.

1942 – Walt Disney ’s animasiefliek “Bambi ”, gebaseer op die boek van Felix Salten, word vrygestel.

1945 – Amerikaanse president Harry Truman beëindig die Lend-Lease-program.

1952 Verteenwoordigers van die bofbalspeler Ralph Kiner (NL) en Allie Reynolds (AL) huur die arbeidsleier John Norman Lewis teen $ 15,000 om regsadvies aan spelers te gee in onderhandelinge met spaneienaars.

1959 – Hawaii word die 50ste Amerikaanse staat.

1962 – Verne Gagne klop Mister M (dokter X) in Minn, om die kampioen van die National Wrestling Association te word.

1965 – Tweeling 5 in die baan van die aarde gelanseer (2 ruimtevaarders)

1968 – Marine James Anderson, Jr. is die 1ste Afro -Amerikaner wat Medal of Honor wen.

1982 & #8211 Rollie Fingers (Brewers) word die eerste werper om die nommer 300 te bespaar.

1987 – “ Dirty Dancing ” film onder regie van Emile Ardolino, met Patrick Swayze en Jennifer Gray in die hoofrol, open in die VSA.

1989 – Voyager 2 begin 'n vliegveld van die planeet Neptunus.

1992 – US Marshals trek in by die kajuit van Randy Weaver in Ruby Ridge, Idaho, om hom aan te keer op vuurwapens en 11 dae staan ​​daaruit.

1995 – Atlantic Southeast Airlines Vlug 529 neerstort naby Carrollton, Georgia, en 9 bemanningslede en passasiers sterf.

2007 – Orkaan Dean maak sy eerste land in Costa Maya, Mexiko, met winde teen 165 km / h. Dean is die eerste storm sedert orkaan Andrew wat as 'n kategorie 5 aangekom het.

2017 – Johnson & amp Johnson het gelas om $ 417 miljoen te betaal aan 'n vrou wat eierstokkanker ontwikkel het nadat sy produkte op grond van talk gebruik het.

2018 – Michael Cohen, president Trump se persoonlike advokaat, pleit skuldig op aanklagte, insluitend onwettige betaling in opdrag van Trump aan vroue met wie Trump sake gehad het.

2018 – Paul Manafort, voormalige Trump -veldtogvoorsitter, word skuldig bevind op agt aanklagte van bedrog in 'n federale hof in Alexandria, Virginia.

2019 – Amerikaanse president Donald Trump sê dat die Deense premier Mette Frederiksen vir hom was oor sy belangstelling om Groenland te koop en sy reis na Denemarke kanselleer


Agt dae of borsbeeld: die missie van Tweeling 5

Met die bemanning van die Internasionale Ruimtestasie (ISS) wat gereeld ses of meer maande in 'n wentelbaan deurbring, word dit soms vergeet dat slegs 'n paar dekades gelede net die eerste vlugte van so 'n lengte probeer is en die uitwerking daarvan op die menslike liggaam grootliks onbekend was . Dit het meer as 'n halfeeu se ervaring geneem om die tegnieke te ontwikkel wat nodig is om mense vir maande op 'n slag gesond en produktief in die ruimte te bly, sowel as om aan te pas by die aarde se omgewing nadat hulle teruggekeer het.

Een van NASA se vroegste ruimtetuie met 'lang duur', was die missie van Tweeling 5 wat op 21 Augustus 1965 gelanseer is. Hoewel dit volgens die standaarde van vandag baie beskeie was, was hierdie rekordvasstellende ruimtevaart slegs een van die vele stappe in die rigting van NASA se doelwit om die maan te bereik, asook om die middele te ontwikkel om die langer missies wat vandag algemeen is, te vlieg.

Gemini -programdoelwitte

Die doel van NASA se Tweeling -program was om die tegnologieë en tegnieke te ontwikkel wat nodig is om president Kennedy se doel te bereik om 'n man teen 1970 op die maan te land. Die belangrikste doelwitte van die program was:

Demonstreer dat mense en hul toerusting tot twee weke in die ruimte kan oorleef
Demonstreer ontmoetings- en doktegnieke in 'n wentelbaan
Demonstreer die tegnologie en tegnieke wat nodig is om EVA's uit te voer (Ekstra-Voertuigaktiwiteite)

Om al hierdie doelwitte te bereik was nodig as die maanprogram van Apollo suksesvol sou wees.

Diagram wat die belangrikste stelsels van die Tweeling -ruimtetuig toon. Klik op die prent om te vergroot. (McDonnell)

Tweeling was 'n tweemans-ruimtetuig wat ongeveer kegelvormig was met 'n basieseursnee van 3,3 meter, wat 5,8 meter hoog was. Gebou deur die McDonnell Aircraft Corporation (wat in 1967 saamgesmelt het met Douglas om McDonnell Douglas te word wat 30 jaar later met Boeing saamgesmelt het), het dit uit twee groot afdelings bestaan. Die eerste afdeling was die reintry -module wat die bemanning, hul toerusting, voedselvoorrade ensovoorts in 'n wentelbaan gehuisves het, asook die herwinningstelsels wat nodig was om dit veilig na die aarde terug te bring. In teenstelling met die huidige ruimtetuie van vandag, is die Gemini-bemanningskajuit onder suiwer suurstof onder druk gebring teen ongeveer 'n derde standaard atmosferiese druk om gewig te bespaar. Die volgende is die adaptergedeelte wat die herintredingsmodule tydens opstyg met die lanseervoertuig verbind het en toerusting bevat wat nodig is om die bemanning in 'n wentelbaan te ondersteun. Dit het bestaan ​​uit 'n retrograde gedeelte met 'n stel van vier soliede retrorockets wat gebruik is om die afdaling na die aarde vanaf 'n wentelbaan te begin, en 'n toerustinggedeelte waarin die voortstuwingstelsels in die baan, OAMS (Orbital Attitude and Manuvering System), lewensondersteuning, kragstelsels gehuisves is. en alle ander toerusting wat nie nodig is vir die terugkeer na die aarde nie.

Met 'n tipiese lanseringsmassa van ongeveer 3 700 kilogram, het Gemini die grootste operasionele vuurpyl nodig gehad wat destyds beskikbaar was om in 'n wentelbaan te kom: 'n aangepaste Titan II ICBM wat deur Martin Marietta gebou is (wat daarna in 1995 saamgesmelt het met Lockheed om die lugvaartreus te vorm, Lockheed Martin). Benewens die veiligheidstelsels wat bygestaan ​​is vir die bemanning van die vlug, het die tweestadige Titan II modifikasies vereis om longitudinale ossillasies wat bekend staan ​​as 'pogo', te demp. Alhoewel dit nie 'n probleem vir sy rol as ICBM is nie, kan die pogo -effek intens genoeg word om 'n probleem vir 'n bemanning te veroorsaak. Met die Gemini -vraglading daarby, was die Titan II GLV (Gemini Launch Vehicle) 33 meter lank en het hy 'n ten volle aangevuurde massa van ongeveer 154 ton.

Diagram wat die belangrikste komponente van die Tweeling-Titan II toon. Klik op die prent om te vergroot (NASA)

Met die eerste suksesvolle bemande toetsvlug van die ruimtetuig tydens die kort drie-baan Gemini 3-missie wat op 23 Maart 1965 van stapel gestuur is, was NASA gereed om geleidelik die leerkurwe op te werk om die doelwitte van die Gemini-program te bereik (sien "Die missie van Tweeling 3”). Die hoofdoel van die volgende vlug, Gemini 4 wat op 3 Junie gelanseer is, was om die stapsgewyse proses te begin om die duur van bemande missies te verleng deur vier dae in 'n wentelbaan te spandeer (sien "Die vergete missie van Tweeling 4”). 'N Sekondêre doelwit was om stasionêre maneuvers met die tweede fase van sy Titan II-lanseervoertuig uit te voer ter voorbereiding van die uiteindelike ontmoeting van die program en met 'n Alasa-boonste verhoog wat deur Atlas gelanseer is, spesiaal aangepas om as doelvoertuig te dien. Alhoewel dit die meeste openbare aandag geniet, was 'n EVA 'n ander sekondêre doel van hierdie missie. Terwyl oorspronklik 'n eenvoudige stand -EVA vir die Gemini 4 -missie beplan is, is 'n volledige ruimtewandeling met ruimtevaarder Ed White wat die ruimtetuig heeltemal verlaat, uitgevoer in reaksie op die suksesvolle EVA wat tydens die Sowjet -Voskhod 2 -missie tien weke tevore uitgevoer is (sien "Die missie van Voskhod 2”).

Die Tweeling 5 -missie

Die derde bemande missie van die Gemini -program, Gemini 5, sal voortgaan om die vermoëns van die ruimtetuig en sy ruimtevaarders te versterk. Om sy hoofdoelwitte te bereik, was ruimtetuig nommer 5 die eerste ten volle operasionele Tweeling met innoverende brandstofselle wat nodig was om krag vir langer missies op te wek, sowel as 'n L-band radarstelsel en 'n volle dryfveer om 'n orbitale ontmoeting te voer. In plaas daarvan om 'n Agena te gebruik as 'n doelwit vir die ontmoetingsoefening van hierdie missie, het Gemini 5 'n 34.5 kilogram Rendezvous Evaluation Pod (REP) in sy adapterafdeling gehad. Sodra dit in 'n wentelbaan ontplooi is, oefen hy 'n afspraak met die REP, wat toegerus was met 'n radartransponder en ander toerusting, soos 'n Agena -teikenvoertuig waarmee die ruimtevaarders dit kon bereik tot ongeveer 400 kilometer.

Diagram van die Rendezvous Evaluation Pod (REP) van Gemini 5. Klik op die prent om te vergroot. (NASA)

In teenstelling met die Gemini 4-missie waar hierdie maneuvers slegs met die oog en die intuïsie van die vlieënier uitgevoer is (sonder sukses, moet dit bygevoeg word as gevolg van die soms anti-intuïtiewe aard van die orbitale meganika), sou die Gemini 5-missie data van sy radar gebruik stelsel in kombinasie met maneuvers bereken deur boord- en grondrekenaars om die ontmoetingstaak meer akkuraat uit te voer. Aangesien die retrorockets op die vorige drie Gemini -vlugte volgens die bedoeling verloop het, sou die Gemini 5 -missie die eerste bemande Gemini -vlug wees om nie sy OAMS te gebruik om sy baan te verlaag nie, net voordat hy terugkeer as 'n 'fail safe' maatreël om herbetreding te waarborg van 'n retrorocket -mislukking. Dit het aansienlik meer dryfmiddel in 'n baan laat beweeg om die missiedoelwitte te bereik.

Tydens vroeë beplanning is daar voorgestel dat een van die Gemini 5 -bemanning 'n EVA tydens die missie sou uitvoer. Aangesien hierdie doel bereik is tydens die Gemini 4 -missie en die gevoel was dat 'n herhaling van hierdie prestasie van weinig meer waarde sou wees, is die EVA -doelwit uitgewis namate die ontwikkeling van beter toerusting vir meer komplekse EVA's voortgesit word vir toekomstige missies. Sonder die behoefte om genoeg verbruiksgoedere te dra om die Gemini -bemanningskajuit na 'n EVA weer onder druk te bring, kan sendingbeplanners die taak van Gemini 5 verleng van die oorspronklik beoogde week in 'n wentelbaan tot 'n volle agt dae. Twee keer so lank as die Gemini 4 -sending, was agt dae die minimum sendinglengte wat Apollo nodig het om op die maan te land en terug te keer na die aarde. Sekondêre doelwitte was onder meer die evaluering van die nuwe brandstofselle onder vlugtoestande, demonstrasie van stelsels om alle fases van orbitale ontmoetings te ondersteun en 'n beheerde toegang na 'n voorafbepaalde landingspunt. Terwyl hulle in 'n wentelbaan was, sou die twee ruimtevaarders 17 eksperimente doen om verskillende wetenskaplike, mediese en verdedigingsverwante doelwitte te bereik.

Die belangrikste bemanning vir die Gemini 5 -missie: Charles “Pete ” Conrad, jr. (Links) as vlieënier en L. Gordon Cooper (regs) as bevelvoerder. (NASA)

Op 8 Februarie 1965 kondig NASA amptelik die bemanningsopdragte aan vir die Gemini 5 -missie. Die primêre bemanning het bestaan ​​uit kapt. L. Gordon Cooper van die USAF as die bevelvoerder en USN Lt. Charles "Pete" Conrad, Jr. as die vlieënier. Die 38-jarige Cooper, bekend as "Gordo" by sy kollegas, het 'n vooraanstaande militêre loopbaan as vlieënier en as toetsvlieënier gehad voordat hy in 1959 gekies is as lid van die oorspronklike "Mercury 7" ruimtevaarderspan (sien &# 8220Projek Mercurius: die keuse van die ruimtevaarders en hul masjien“). Hy was 'n veteraan van die Geloof 7 Mercuriusvlug waar hy meer as 34 uur in 'n wentelbaan deurgebring het in die eindronde van die program in Mei 1963. Met die Gemini 5 -sending sou Cooper die eerste mens wees wat twee keer in 'n wentelbaan sou vlieg. Pete Conrad was 35 jaar oud en was 'n vlootoetsvlieënier voordat hy gekies is as deel van NASA se tweede groep ruimtevaarders in 1962. Dit sou sy eerste ruimtevaart wees. Die rugbyspan vir die Gemini 5 -missie was Neil A. Armstrong en Elliot M. See. Albei mans was burgerlike vlieëniers wat deel was van die tweede groep NASA -ruimtevaarders en nie een van hulle het nog ooit die ruimte ingevlieg nie.

Die amptelike weergawe van die Gemini 5 missie pleister. Oorspronklik bevat die bedekte wa die frase 𔄠 days or bust ”, maar NASA -amptenare het daarop aangedring dat dit verwyder word. (NASA)

Om die missie van die grond af te kry

Die Titan II-lanseervoertuig vir die Gemini 5-sending, reeksnommer 62-12560 met die naam GLV-5, het op 18 Mei 1965 by Cape Kennedy aangekom vanaf Martin's Baltimore, Maryland-aanleg. Dit is opgerig by Launch Complex 19 (LC-19) op 7 Junie, net vier dae na die bekendstelling van Gemini 4. Die ruimtetuig nr. 3 van 3.605 kilogram is op 19 Junie vanaf McDonnell's in St. Louis, Missouri, gestuur en met GLV-5 op 8 Julie gepaar. geskeduleerde bekendstellingsdatum van 9 Augustus.

Ruimtetuig nr. 5 word op 8 Julie 1965 bo-op GLV-5 by LC-19 gehys. (NASA)

Terwyl die bemanning sy opleiding voortduur op 'n beperkte aantal toenemend besig simulators wat 'n steeds vinniger tempo van toekomstige Tweeling -missies ondersteun, het dit gou geblyk dat meer tyd nodig was, veral om voor te berei op die onbeproefde en komplekse ontmoetingsmaneuvers. Onwillig, op 21 Julie 1965, het die Gemini -programamptenare die geskeduleerde bekendstellingsdatum met tien dae teruggestel om die grond- en vlugpersoneel meer tyd te gee om voor te berei vir die missie. Cooper en Conrad het 'n kleedrepetisie vir die aftelling op 22 Julie voltooi, wat die gesimuleerde bekendstelling van 'n Atlas-Agena van LC-14 ingesluit het. Alhoewel hierdie missie nie 'n Agena as 'n doelvoertuig sou gebruik nie, was dit 'n broodnodige proeflopie vir die Gemini 6 -sending wat einde Oktober met 'n Agena sou vergader (sien “Die ongevoerde missie van Tweeling 6“). Alhoewel die langer as verwagte oefening van 14½ uur goed verloop het, is dit afgeskrik deur 'n onsuksesvolle poging om die oprigter by die einde van die LC-19 te verhoog sodat die bemanning die ruimtetuig kon verlaat. Cooper en Conrad moes onttrek word met 'n "kersieplukker" soortgelyk aan die wat tydens die Mercury -program gebruik is, en op aandrang van Cooper ingesluit as 'n rugsteun vir net hierdie gebeurlikheid.

Cooper en Conrad nadat hulle op 22 Julie 1965 uit die Gemini 5 -ruimtetuig verwyder is deur “cherry plukker ”. (NASA)

Die voorbereidings vir die bekendstelling van Gemini 5 wat op 19 Augustus geskeduleer is, het goed verloop tot die dag voor die oprit. 'N Reeks kwessies met die nuwe brandstofselle en gepaardgaande instrumente, wat noodsaaklik was vir 'n suksesvolle uitgebreide missie in 'n wentelbaan, het uiteindelik 'n ongeplande houvas om 04:00 EDT op die lanseringsdag genoodsaak. Met die bekendstelling wat nou tot die middaguur uitgestoot is, kon die ruimtevaarders laat slaap en eers eers 10:35 die ruimte binnekom. Die aftelling het goed verloop tot T-10 minute toe donderstorms die lanseerplek bedreig het. 'N Weerligaanval in die omgewing van die kussing het veroorsaak dat 'n paar instrumentasieprobleme die lansering gedwing het om te skuur net toe stortreën LC-19 verswelg. Later die dag het 'n geringe brand in die tonnel wat kabels van die blokhuis na die lanseerplatform vervoer het, uitgebreek en 'n volledige afrekening van die fasiliteite, insluitend nog 'n bespotte aftelling, gedwing om te verseker dat daar geen probleme was nie.

Conrad en Cooper loop op die lanseringsdag op pad na die portaal by LC-19. (NASA)

Die tweede lanseringspoging op 21 Augustus sal baie beter verloop. Cooper en Conrad word om 04:30 wakker gemaak en het 'n tradisionele steak- en eiersontbyt geëet na 'n kort mediese ondersoek. Daarna trek hulle hul G4C -ruimtesakke aan wat oorspronklik bedoel was om 'n EVA te ondersteun. Alhoewel die pakke nie meer die ekstra omvangryke lae en ander bepalings bevat wat nodig is om dit teen die ruimte te beskerm nie, moet die bemanning die pakke dra vir die hele missie van agt dae, ondanks hul beste pogings om dit een keer te kan verwyder wentelbaan.

Die bekendstelling van Gemini 5 vanaf LC-19 op 21 Augustus 1965. (NASA)

Na 'n byna foutlose aftelling, het Gemini-Titan 5 om 09:00 EDT van LC-19 afgehaal. Alles het goed gegaan met die styging tot naby die einde van die eerste fase brand. Die pogo -effek het aangebreek toe die ossillasies 'n ongemaklike hoogtepunt bereik van 0.38 Gs wat die toelaatbare limiet van 0.25 Gs oorskry het. Die rit word uiteindelik net 'n paar sekondes glad voordat die tweede skof sou ontbrand. Die res van die styging in die wentelbaan het verloop soos beplan, terwyl Tweeling 5 in 'n aanvanklike wentelbaan van 163 by 349 kilometer ingevoeg is. 'N Later ondersoek het getoon dat onbehoorlike prosedures ter plaatse verantwoordelik was vir die pogo -effek wat nie vir die res van die Tweeling -program herhaal is nie. Die oksideertenk van die eerste fase van die GLV-5-lanseervoertuig is later bo-op die Atlantiese Oseaan voor die kus van Bermuda gevind en is teruggevind deur die Amerikaanse vlootvernietiger, USS Dupont (vermoedelik het die brandstoftenk en aangehegte enjins afgebreek en gesink).

Die herwinning van die Titan II GLV-5 oksideertenk deur die USS Dupont nadat dit in die Atlantiese Oseaan voor die kus van Bermuda dryf. (NASA)

'N Besige eerste dag

Nadat hulle 'n wentelbaan bereik het, het die Tweeling 5 -bemanning begin met die voorbereidings vir hul lang verblyf. Naby hul eerste apogee het Cooper die OAMS -stuwers kortliks afgevuur om die perigee op 'n veiliger hoogte van 172 kilometer te verhoog om te verseker dat die verval van die baan nie die missie voortydig sou beëindig nie. Maar toe die ruimtevaarders aanhou gereed maak om die REP, wat Conrad die bynaam 'die klein jakkals' genoem het, te ontplooi vir die komende ontmoetingsoefening, het die eerste groot probleem reeds opgeduik.

Diagram wat die brandstofselstelsel toon wat krag verskaf het vir die Tweelingvlugte vir 'n lang tyd. Klik op die prent om te vergroot. (NASA)

Net soos in die toekomstige Apollo-missies, het die Gemini-vlugte met lang duur brandstofselle gebruik wat waterstof en suurstof in 'n stel spesiaal ontwerpte selle kombineer om elektriese krag te produseer omdat dit ligter was as batterye met dieselfde energieopbergingskapasiteit. Vir hierdie missie, wat 'n geraamde 4 200 amp-uur elektrisiteit sou verg, was Gemini 5 gelaai met 10,5 kilogram vloeibare waterstof en 81,5 kilogram vloeibare suurstof (LOX). Om die druk in die regte werkbereik te hou terwyl dit leeggemaak is, is die LOX -tenk toegerus met 'n elektriese verwarmer om 'n klein hoeveelheid van die kryogene vloeistof te verdamp. Die verwarmer in die LOX -tenk was op hierdie stadium onbekend vir almal, maar het kort nadat hy 'n wentelbaan bereik het, 'n wanfunksie gehad, en die druk het stadig begin daal. Opgemerk dat die druk in die LOX -tenk onder die nominale 5,600 kilopascal (kPa) druk tot 3,100 kPa geval het, het Conrad die tenkverwarmer met die hand geaktiveer. Ongelukkig het die funksionele verwarmer nie gewerk nie en die druk in die LOX -tenk het stadig gedaal namate die reaktant opgebruik is.

'N Kunstenaarsvoorstelling van die REP, deur Conrad gedoop “the little rascal ”, soos dit sou verskyn nadat dit deur Gemini 5. ontplooi is (NASA)

Onbewus van die toenemende probleem, het die bemanning voortgegaan met werk vir hul ontmoetingsoefening. Twee uur en 13 minute na die bekendstelling jaag Cooper die ruimtetuig 90 grade na sy vlugpad terwyl hy oor die Indiese Oseaan beweeg en die REP -teiken uitwerp. Cooper wend hom daarna tot 'n agterste houding en skakel Gemini se radar aan. Onmiddellik kon hulle die transpondersein van die REP opspoor wat aandui dat dit met 'n snelheid van twee meter per sekonde terugtrek. Maar net 15 minute na die opsporing van die REP het die bemanning opgemerk dat die brandstofsel se LOX -tenkdruk nou slegs 2 270 kPa was en vinnig daal. Met 'n minimum aanbevole werkdruk van 1,380 kPa, het Cooper teësinnig die besluit geneem om die afspraakoefening uit te skakel en af ​​te skort terwyl hy nie in kontak was met grondbeheerders nie. Teen die tyd dat Gemini 5 die Midde-Stille Oseaan bereik het, het die druk gedaal tot slegs 880 kPa wat die sending bedreig het met 'n vroeë terugkeer.

Pete Conrad tydens sy eerste dag in 'n wentelbaan. (NASA)

Toe ons weer met die grondbeheerders in aanraking gekom het en met die erns van die brandstofselkwessie, het ingenieurs by McDonnell begin om die probleem op te los terwyl terselfdertyd bereken is om vas te stel hoe lank Gemini 5 alleen op sy beperkte batterykrag kan bly. Dit is deels gedoen om nie net te bepaal hoeveel tyd ingenieurs het om die probleem op te los nie, maar ook om Gemini se terugkeer lank genoeg te vertraag om 'n gunstiger herstelgebied te bereik, indien moontlik. Alhoewel daar bereken word dat Gemini 13 uur alleen op batterye in 'n wentelbaan kan bly, het die druk in die LOX -tenk teen 490 kPa gestabiliseer deur die vierde omwenteling. Toetse op grondhardeware en die versigtige aanvang van verskillende ruimtetuigstelsels het getoon dat die brandstofselle moontlik was om selfs onder hierdie onderdruk te werk. Ongelukkig was die afspraak met die REP nou nie moontlik nie. 'N Nuwe plan moes bedink word om 'n afspraak sonder die "klein rakker" te beoefen.

'N Fotomontage wat Conrad en Cooper in hul Gemini 5 -ruimtetuig wys. (NASA)

Intussen is die ruimtetuig in 'n vrye dryfmodus geplaas, terwyl Cooper en Conrad 'n broodnodige rus gekry het op 'n verstrooide slaapskedule waar een van die ruimtevaarders altyd wakker was om ruimtetuigstelsels te monitor en ander take uit te voer. Ongelukkig kon Cooper en Conrad nie beter slaap as wat McDivitt en White tydens die Gemini 4 -sending gedoen het nie. Kommunikasie met die grond en enige aktiwiteite in die strakke perke van die Tweeling -bemanningskajuit het dit vir die ruimtevaarder "buite diens" moeilik gemaak om te slaap. Die feit dat die kajuit 'n bietjie te koel geword het terwyl dit in die vrye dryfmodus was, het die situasie net meer ongemaklik gemaak. Uiteraard was veranderinge nodig om die bemanning te laat rus.

Die langpad

Met die opwinding van die eerste dag agter die rug, het Cooper en Conrad oorgeskakel na 'n roetine van eksperimente en moniteringstelsels aan boord van die ruimtetuig. Op die derde dag van die sending het Cooper en Conrad 'n ontmoetingsoefening uitgevoer met 'n 'fantoom' Agena -teikenvaartuig. Op grond van berekeninge en opdragte van grondbeheerders sowel as hul boordrekenaar, het die bemanning suksesvol 'n spoedige ontmoeting uitgevoer wat hulle binne 500 meter van hul beoogde teikenpunt gebring het, wat die tegnieke demonstreer wat nodig sou wees vir die komende Gemini 6 -sending na ontmoeting en dok met 'n regte teiken.

'N Uitsig oor Cape Kennedy, Florida vanaf Gemini 5 die dag na die bekendstelling daarvan. (NASA)

Na hierdie suksesvolle demonstrasie het Cooper en Conrad weer die ruimtetuig afgeskakel en in die daaropvolgende dae in 'n vrye dryfmodus gegaan. Hulle het radartoetse uitgevoer met 'n grond-gebaseerde transponder, sigstoetse, rook van 'n brand in Laredo, Texas, waargeneem en gepoog om 'n patroonborddoelwit waar te neem wat hulle vir hierdie eksperiment voorgehou het, waargeneem. Later het die bemanning 'n Minuteman I-lanseer vanaf LF-06 by die Vandenberg-lugmagbasis in Kalifornië waargeneem, met die kodenaam "Shuttle Train" geborg deur die Strategic Air Command (SAC). Vir hul derde nag in 'n wentelbaan is Cooper se versoek om ononderbroke slaap uiteindelik toegestaan. Daardie aand het Cooper sewe uur geslaap terwyl Conrad vyf uur gekry het.

The next day included some more defense-related experiments. The astronauts successfully observed a rocket sled test at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. During the next overpass, they spotted the contrail of a chase plane before they glimpsed the ignition of a second Minuteman I ICBM launched from LF-04 at Vandenberg as part of an SAC test flight known by the code name “Pilot Rock”. Later as they passed over the Atlantic Ocean, they spotted their recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain, with a destroyer escort following astern.

A view of the Mission Control Center during the Gemini 5 mission in what is now the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. (NASA)

In the mean time, other problems were cropping up that were causing concern. While the pressure in the fuel cell LOX tank had actually risen somewhat alleviating concerns about its operation, the cells were producing 20% more waste water than expected. With no way to dump the excess waste water overboard, there were some concerns that it might exceed tank’s storage capacity. Powering down the fuel cells was not an option because of the limited battery life. In addition, excess hydrogen vented from the fuel cell storage tank tended to make the spacecraft tumble which increased OAMS propellant usage. Since the waste water from the fuel cells was being dumped into the same tank that contained the drinking water supply segregated in a separate bladder, the problem was alleviated by the crew increasing their intake of water.

Late during the fifth day of the mission, it was noticed that parts of the OAMS system started growing sluggish with one thruster quitting entirely. After their next sleep period in a free drift mode, Cooper and Conrad awoke to discover that the whole OAMS was acting erratically and that a second thruster had stopped functioning. Fortunately, one of the two redundant rings of attitude thrusters on the reentry module was available for attitude control for what was left of the mission.

Pete Conrad performing his duties in orbit on August 25, 1965. (NASA)

Despite the problems, the astronauts were able to accomplish most of their mission objectives. On the morning of August 26, Cooper and Conrad set a new crewed spaceflight endurance record beating the earlier record set by Soviet cosmonaut Valeri Bykovsky who spent just under four days, 23 hours in orbit during the Vostok 5 mission in June 1963. In addition to beating this two year old record, Cooper and Conrad performed all but one of their planned 17 experiments. Only the “D-2 Nearby Object Photography” experiment, which required observing the REP, was not performed because of the fuel cell issues during the first day of flight. All of the other photography experiments were performed as were the other medical, scientific and defense investigations.

Among the medical experiments was the “M-3 In Flight Exerciser” where the astronauts used a bungee cord with foot straps at one end and a handle at the other to perform some simple exercises. With their ship powered down and in free drift mode, Cooper and Conrad exercised frequently during their last few days in orbit to help pass the time. In another experiment, Conrad used inflatable leg cuffs as part of the “M-1 Cardiovascular Conditioning” experiment. While the experiment was running, these cuffs would inflate for two minutes out of every six to put pressure on Conrad’s legs in an effort to prevent deterioration of his cardiovascular system while in orbit. While the results seemed positive if somewhat inconclusive, they were yet another early example of NASA’s desire to address the effects of prolong weightlessness.

The US Navy’s Sealab II underwater habitat as it appeared before it was deployed off the coast of California. (OAR/National Undersea Research Program)

Before they returned home, the Gemini 5 crew participated in a unique communications experiment. Cooper and Conrad briefly talked with former Mercury astronaut Scott Carpenter who was living in Sealab II at the time. Sealab II was the second in a series of underwater habitats developed by the US Navy to prove the viability of saturation diving and humans living in isolation for extended periods of time – issues not unlike those being addressed by NASA’s crewed space program. With a crew of four other “aquanauts”, Carpenter, who was technically still on NASA’s astronaut roster, was spending 30 days at a depth of 62 meters off the coast of La Jolla, California while his fellow aquanauts rotated through two-week stays in Sealab II (for a US Navy documentary on Sealab II, see the Related Videosection below). The conversation of these two Mercury veterans exploring two different alien frontiers was surely one of the more unusual moments in the history of the Gemini program.

Returning Home

As the Gemini mission approached its end on the morning of August 29, Cooper and Conrad began preparing for their return to Earth. With neither man being described as particularly tidy, the cramped cabin of their spacecraft had filled up with trash and assorted clutter prompting the often witty Conrad to characterize their mission as “eight days in a garbage can”. This was not too surprising given that a team of specialists had efficiently packed as much as possible into the limited storage space available on the small spacecraft so it was inevitable that better trash management strategies would need to be developed for future long space flights.

An image taken by the TIROS 9 weather satellite on August 29, 1965 of what would become Hurricane Betsy while it was off the coast of Puerto Rico. (NOAA)

But as the astronauts stowed their gear and prepared their spacecraft for landing, ground controllers were concerned about the weather in the planned recovery zone in the Atlantic Ocean 800 kilometers southwest of Bermuda. Early on August 27, a tropical depression had formed over the Atlantic about 560 kilometers east southeast of Barbados and began gaining strength as it drifted more or less towards the north over the Windward Islands. By the morning of August 29, what would become Hurricane Betsy was located east of Puerto Rico and had already strengthened to become a tropical storm. As a result, conditions in the primary recovery zone were quickly worsening. Although the conditions still had not exceeded established safety requirements for landing, the decision was made to bring Gemini 5 back home one orbit early with enough time for the USS Lake Champlain to reposition itself to the alternate recovery zone to the east and farther from the intensifying tropical storm.

While making their final pass over Hawaii 190 hours, 27 minutes and 43 seconds after launch, Gemini 5 fired its four retrorockets in succession to begin the descent back to Earth. With the reentry taking place in complete darkness, the descent was made on instruments only. Cooper held the reentry module in a full lift attitude until an altitude of 120 kilometers and then rolled to a bank angle of 53 degrees. Based on the prediction of the on-board computer, it quickly became apparent that they were going to overshoot their planned landing point. Cooper changed the bank angle to 90 degrees to increase the drag with the G-load quickly shooting up from 2½ to 7½ Gs. Unknown to Cooper and Conrad at the time, human error had resulted in the wrong rotation rate of the Earth being entered into the ground computer guidance program (360 degrees per day instead of 360.98 degrees) which caused a navigation error.

The Gemini 5 reentry module shown in the Atlantic after splashdown on August 29, 1965 as the crew was being recovered. (NASA)

At an altitude of 20 kilometers, Cooper manually deployed the drogue chute followed later by the main parachute. The Gemini 5 reentry module splashed down in the Atlantic 170 kilometers from its planned landing point at 7:55 AM EDT after a flight that lasted a record 7 days, 22 hours, 55 minutes and 14 seconds. Because of the navigation snafu, the demonstration of a precision landing would have to wait for another Gemini flight. Despite coming down far from the recovery ship, the Gemini 5 reentry module was quickly spotted by a Navy helicopter which dispatched three divers to secure the capsule 43 minutes after splashdown. While the seas were calm at the landing site and Cooper initially wanted to wait for the USS Lake Champlain to recover them, he quickly changed his mind when he discovered how far away the carrier actually was and opted for a helicopter recovery instead.

Conrad and Cooper on the deck of the USS Lake Champlain after they returned from their eight-day mission in orbit. (NASA)

Once on board the carrier, Cooper and Conrad, who were walking fairly well despite eight days in a weightless state, were greeted by the crew and whisked off for the first in a series of post-flight medical examines. While the astronauts’ blood plasma and calcium levels were somewhat low, they survived their eight-day spaceflight in good condition and seemed back to normal after just a couple of days after returning Earth. With 640 man-hours of cumulative experience in space, the American manned space program seemed to have finally turned a corner and was overtaking the Soviet space effort which had become quiet after the Voskhod 2 mission. While there were still more Gemini missions planned to learn what was needed about working and living in space, NASA seemed well on its way to getting Apollo to the Moon.

Related Video

Here is a US Navy educational film about Sealab II entitled “Man in the Sea: The Story of Sealab II”.

Verwante leesstof

“The Forgotten Mission of Gemini 4”, Drew Ex Machina, June 3, 2015 [Post]

“The Mission of Gemini 3”, Drew Ex Machina, March 23, 2015 [Post]

General References

David Baker, The History of Manned Space Flight, Crown Publishers, 1981

Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, SP-4203, NASA History Division, 1977

David J. Shayler, Gemini: Steps to the Moon, Springer-Praxis, 2001


This Day in History for August 21

1841 – John Hampton patents venetian blind.

1864 – Battle of Globe Tavern, Virginia, ends after 2500 casualties.

1878 – American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY.

1887 – Mighty (Dan) Casey struck-out in a game with NY Giants.

1897 – Oldsmobile begins operation as a General Motors division.

1914 – 20th US Golf Open: Walter Hagen shoots a 290 at Midlothian CC, Ill.

1929 – Chicago Cardinals become 1st pro football team to train out of town.

1932 – Wes Ferrell is 1st to win 20 games in each of his 1st 4 seasons.

1948 – US President Harry Truman ends Lend-Lease program.

1953 – Baseball player reps Ralph Kiner (NL) & Allie Reynolds (AL) hire John Norman Lewis at $15,000 to give legal advice to players in negotiation.

1959 – Hawaii becomes the 50th US State.

1965 – Gemini 5 launched into Earth orbit (2 astronauts).

1967 – Ken Harrelson becomes baseball’s 1st free agent.

1975 – US lightens trade embargo against Cuba.

1982 – Rollie Fingers (Brewers) becomes 1st pitcher to get same #300.

1993 – NASA loses contact with Mars Observer.

1995 – US marshals move in on Randy Weaver’s cabin in Idaho.

1995 – Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529 crashes near Carrollton, Georgia, killing 9 crew and passengers.

1996 – Netscape Browser 3.0 is released.

2001 – “How You Remind Me” single is released by Nickleback (named #1 rick song of 2000s by Billboard).


Historical Events on August 21

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1541 Ottoman Turks under Suleiman the Magnificent capture Buda, the capital of the Hungarian Kingdom and go on to dominate central Hungary for 150 years

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1560 Tycho Brahe becomes interested in astronomy

    Spain begin siege of Alkmaar in the Netherlands -22] Deed of Transfers proclaims Netherlands independence Sea battle at Kijkduin: De Ruyter defeats English & French fleet Pueblo Indians takes possession of Santa Fé from Spanish Battle of Dunkeld fought in Scotland between supporters of King James VII of Scotland and troops of William of Orange The Edirne Event: Turkish army removes Sultan Mustafa II, lessening the power of the sultans

Treaty of Rente

1718 Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, Turkey and Venice sign peace treaty

    The church (later cathedral) of "Our Lady of Candlemas of Mayagüez (Puerto Rico)" is founded, establishing the basis for the founding of the city.

Coup d'état

1772 King Gustav III of Sweden completes a coup d'etat by adopting a new Constitution and installing himself as an enlightened despot, ending 50 years of parliamentary rule

Oorwinning in Slag

1808 Battle of Vimeiro: British and Portuguese forces led by General Arthur Wellesley defeat French force under Major-General Jean-Andoche Junot near the village of Vimeiro, Portugal, the first Anglo-Portuguese victory of the Peninsular War.

    Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, is elected Crown Prince of Sweden by the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. Jarvis Island is discovered by the crew of the ship, Eliza Frances

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1831 Former slave Nat Turner leads uprising against slavery

    John Hampton patents venetian blind The city of Hobart, Tasmania, is founded. Tlingit Indians destroy Fort Selkirk, Yukon Territory. America's first consul to Japan, Townsend Harris, arrives in Shimoda. (Traditional Japanese date: July 21, 1856) 1st Lincoln-Douglas debate in Illinois The Vienna Stadtpark opens its gates. Raid at Lawrence KS by William Quantrill BBT Charleston, South Carolina [->DEC 31] Battle at Globe Tavern, Virginia, ends after 2500 casualties Battle of Grubbs Crossroads, Kentucky Battle of Summit Point, Virginia Major General Nathan B. Forrest's assault on Memphis, Tennessee American Bar Association organizes at Sarasota, NY Surrey wicket-keeper Ted Pooley completes a then-1st class cricket record 8 stumpings in a County match against Kent at The Oval The Virgin Mary, along with St. Joseph and St. John the Evangelist, reportedly appears to the people of Knock, County Mayo, Ireland. American inventor William Seward Burroughs patents the adding machine Dutch Mackay government resigns

US Golf Open

1914 US Open Men's Golf, Midlothian CC: 21-year old Walter Hagen holds off amateur Chick Evans by 1 stroke to win the first of his 2 Open titles first of 11 major championships

    Belgium: German troops occupy Tamines French offensive in the Ardennen/Sambre Italy declares war on Turkey in World War One Australasian Championships Men's Tennis, Brisbane: Englishman Gordon Lowe beats Horace Rice of Australia 4-6, 6-1, 6-1, 6-4 Sir Roger Casement, an Ulster Protestant and ardent Irish nationalist, arrested by the British PGA Championship Men's Golf, Flossmoor CC: American based Scotsman Jock Hutchison beats J. Douglas Edgar of England, 1-up first of Hutchinson's 2 majors Dutch football club FC Emmen is formed in the town of Emmen in north-eastern province of Drenthe in the Netherlands -22] Uprising against Greek president and dictator Pangalos Chicago White Sox pitcher Ted Lyons no hits Boston Red Sox, 6-0 in just 67 minutes at Fenway Park 4th Pan-African Congress meets (NYC) Chicago Cardinals become 1st pro football team to train out of town Prohibition of Wieringermeer finished

Bofbal Record

1931 Yankees slugger Babe Ruth becomes the first MLB player to hit 600 career home runs as NY defeats St. Louis Browns, 11-7 at Sportsman's Park

    Wes Ferrell is 1st to win 20 games in each of his 1st 4 seasons Italy bars all Jewish teachers in Public & High School Walt Disney's animated movie "Bambi", based on the book by Felix Salten, is released World War II: German soldiers plant the Nazi flag on Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Transport #22 departs with French Jews to nazi-Germany Gromyko named USSR-ambassador in Washington Japan leaves Aleutian Islands Germans storm up Hill 262 (Mont Ormel) Normandy Grieg, Wright and Forrest's musical "Song of Norway" premieres in NYC Raid on Jewish children's house in Secrétan/St-Mandé US 12nd Army Corps occupies Sens US President Harry Truman ends Lend-Lease program Cleveland Indians 47-inning scoreless streak is broken as future Baseball Hall of Fame pitcher Bob Lemon yields a home run to Aaron Robinson in a 3-2 loss to Chicago WS Philadelphia fans cause A's to forfeit game when they riot over a trapped line drive by Rich Ashburn, Giants leading 4-2 in 9th declared winners Baseball player representatives Ralph Kiner (NL) & Allie Reynolds (AL) hire labor leader John Norman Lewis at $15,000 to give legal advice to players in negotiations with team owners Marion Carl in Douglas Skyrocket reaches record 25,370 m Sultan Sidi Mohammed Am Joessoef V of Morocco deposed

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1955 Emmett Till arrives in Money, Mississippi, a week before he is murdered

    WTVW TV channel 7 in Evansville, IN (ABC) begins broadcasting 1st launching in Baikonur, Kazakhstan (R7 "Semiorka"-rocket)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1961 Kenyan political activist Jomo Kenyatta released from jail after 9 years. Imprisoned during 1952 Mau Mau rebellion with other nationalist leaders by British authorities

    Verne Gagne beats Mister M (doctor X) in Minn, to become NWA champ Jerry Lynch's record 15th pinch-hit HR gives Pirates a 7-6 win Martial law declared in South Vietnam, following raids on Buddhist pagodas Gemini 5 launched into Earth orbit (2 astronauts) Romania adopts constitution The Crusher beats Mad Dog Vachon in St Paul, to become NWA champ LPGA Western Open Women's Golf, Rainbow Springs CC Mickey Wright wins her 13th and final major title by 1 from Margie Masters & Jo Ann Prentice 1st concert at Busch Memorial Stadium: The Beatles (St. Louis, Missouri) China reports downing of 2 US bombers Kansas City utility Ken Harrelson becomes baseball's first free agent when he is abruptly released by the Athletics calls team owner Charlie Finley "a menace to baseball" Liquid gas tanker explodes in Martelange Belgium, 22 killed Mikis Theodorakis arrested in Greece After 5 years Soviet Union once again jams Voice of America radio

Presidential Konvensie

1968 Democratic Convention opens in Chicago, goes on to nominate Hubert Humphrey

Warsaw Pact Invasion of Czechoslovakia

1968 Warsaw Pact forces complete their invasion of Czechoslovakia by arresting the Czech leader Alexander Dubček and forcing him to sign the Moscow Protocols

Crowds of protesters surround Soviet tanks during the first days of the invasion of Czechoslovakia

Wêreld Record

1986 Ian Botham takes world-record 356th Test Cricket wkt (v NZ, The Oval)

    Red Sox Spike Owens scores 6 runs in a 24-5 rout of Cleveland Indians Surinames Ronnie Brunswijks Jungle commandos kill 2 government officials Lake Nyos volcanic eruption in Cameroon releases a poisonous gas cloud of carbon dioxide, killing 1,746 people and 3,500 livestock With 2 outs in 6th inning, Red Sox score 11 runs "Mack Lobell" set harness racing's trotting mil (1:52) Clayton Lonetree, 1st US marine court-martialed for spying, convicted Silke Horneer swims female world record 100m breaststroke (1:07.91) "Dirty Dancing" film directed by Emile Ardolino, starring Patrick Swayze and Jennifer Grey opens in the US

Voyager 2 Spacecraft

1989 Voyager 2 begins a flyby of planet Neptune

Coup d'état

1991 Conservative coup in the Soviet Union is crushed by popular resistance led by Boris Yeltsin in three days

    Latvia declares its independence from USSR US Marshals move in on Randy Weaver's cabin in Ruby Ridge, Idaho to apprehend him on firearms charges an 11 day stand-off ensues NASA loses contact with Mars Observer

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1998 P. W. Botha found guilty of contempt for repeatedly ignoring subpoenas to testify before South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

    NATO decides to send a peace-keeping force to the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Red Cross announces that a famine is striking Tajikistan, and calls for international financial aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. "How You Remind Me" single released by Nickelback (Billboard Song of the Year 2002) The archery competition concludes at the Athens Olympics with South Korea dominant with 3 of 4 gold medals venue is the Panathenaic Stadium, in which the 1896 games were held Belarusian sprinter Yulia Nestsiarenka runs 10.93 to beat American Lauryn Williams and win the 100m gold medal at the Athens Olympics Nicolás Massú & Fernando González win the men's doubles tennis at the Athens Olympics beating German pair Nicolas Kiefer & Rainer Schüttler in 5 sets it's Chile's first Olympic gold medal

Wêreld Record

2004 American super-swimmer Michael Phelps wins his 6th gold medal of the Athens Olympics even though he doesn't swim the final of men's 4 x 100m medley relay US wins in world record 3:30.68

    The Australian women's 4 x 100m medley relay team of Giaan Rooney, Leisel Jones, Petria Thomas & Jodie Henry smashes the world record to take gold in 3:57.32 at the Athens Olympics

Olympic Goud

2008 Striker Carli Lloyd scores in extra time as the United States beat Brazil 1-0 to take the women's Football Gold Medal at the Beijing Olympics

    New Zealand clinch their 10th Tri Nations Rugby Series with one match remaining, scoring 2 tries in the last 3 minutes to beat South Africa, 29–22 in the first-ever Test at FNB Stadium in Johannesburg 20 people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo die from the Ebola virus 37 people are killed and 16 are injured in a bus crash near Chin Swee Temple, Malaysia 21 people are killed in flash floods in Qinghai province, China Israeli airstrike in Rafah kills Mohammed Abu Shammala, Raed al Atar and Mohammed Barhoum - 3 of Hamas's top commanders Terrorist attack on train between Amsterdam and Paris thwarted by 4 passengers overpowering gunman After 108 years a "message in a bottle" put in the sea by UK Marine Biological Association is announced found on a beach in Amrum, Germany 1st British unmanned drone hit on a UK citizen outside a conflict - ISIS fighter Reyaad Khan in Raqqa, Syria European Refugee Crisis: Germany makes it easier for Syrian refugees to claim asylum by suspending their Dublin Regulations Kevin Durant scores 30 as the US retains the Olympic men's basketball title with a comfortable 96-66 win over Serbia at the Rio de Janeiro Games

Olympic Goud

2016 Kenyan runner Eliud Kipchoge wins the Olympic men's marathon gold medal at the Rio de Janeiro Games in a time of 2:08.44 Feyisa Lilesa (Ethiopia) second in 2:09:54, and Galen Rupp (US) third in 2:10:05

    Brazil takes 3rd Olympic men's indoor volleyball gold medal at the Rio Games with 25–22, 28–26, 26–24 win over Italy Total solar eclipse visible from North America London's parliament clock Big Ben chimes for the last time before a four-year restoration process for its tower starts Destroyer USS John S McCain collides with an oil tanker near Singapore leaving 10 missing and 5 injured Johnson & Johnson ordered to pay $417m to woman who developed ovarian cancer after using their talc-based products Chile's constitutional court approves bill to ease country's total abortion ban

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2018 Michael Cohen, President Trump's personal lawyer, pleads guilty to charges including illegal payment at direction of Trump to women Trump had affairs with

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2018 Australian PM Malcolm Turnbull calls for and wins a leadership vote 43-35 over Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton

    Paul Manafort, former Trump campaign chairman, is convicted on eight counts of fraud in a federal court in Alexandria, Virginia Water-ice first detected on the Moon by India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft (2008-9) in findings published by scientists Californian Representative Duncan Hunter indicted for using campaign funds for personal expenses including holidays and flight for a pet rabbit

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2019 German Chancellor challenges British PM Boris Johnson to find a solution to a no-deal Brexit in 30 days at their meeting in Berlin

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2019 The Rock [Dwayne Johnson] named highest paid actor for a second year in a row, earning $89.4m

    74,155 fires caused by land clearing are burning in the Amazon rain forest, the most ever recorded, according the Brazil's National Institute for Space Research US President Donald Trump says Danish PM Mette Frederiksen was "nasty" to him over his interest in buying Greenland and cancels his trip to Denmark

Polio

2019 Nigeria goes three years without a case of polio in landmark toward eradication of the disease

Children with polio in a US hospital, inside an iron lung. In about 0.5% of cases, patients suffered from paralysis, sometimes resulting in the inability to breathe. More often, limbs would be paralyzed.
    American golfer Scottie Scheffler makes birdie on 4 of final 5 holes to become 12th player in PGA Tour history to shoot 59 in 2nd round of the Northern Trust at TPC Boston Actress Lori Loughlin sentenced to two months in prison along with her husband for her role in US college admissions bribery scandal

Musiek Single

2020 BTS's release new single Dynamite, becomes 1st video to be watched more than 100 million times in 24 hours on YouTube


8 Days or Bust

Fifty-one years ago this month, NASA astronauts Leroy Gordon “Gordo” Cooper and Charles M. “Pete” Conrad set a new spaceflight endurance record during the flight of Gemini 5. It was the third of ten (10) missions in the historic Gemini spaceflight series. The motto for the mission was “Eight Days or Bust”.

The purpose of Project Gemini was to develop and flight-prove a myriad of technologies required to get to the Moon. Those technologies included spacecraft power systems, rendezvous and docking, orbital maneuvering, long duration spaceflight and extravehicular activity.

The Gemini spacecraft weighed 8,500 pounds at lift-off and measured 18.6 feet in length. Gemini consisted of a reentry module (RM), an adapter module (AM) and an equipment module (EM).

The crew occupied the RM which also contained navigation, communication, telemetry, electrical and reentry reaction control systems. The AM contained maneuver thrusters and the deboost rocket system. The EM included the spacecraft orbit attitude control thrusters and the fuel cell system. Both the AM and EM were used in orbit only and discarded prior to entry.

Gemini-Titan V (GT-5) lifted-off at 13:59:59 UTC from LC-19 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on Saturday, 21 August 1965. The two-stage Titan II launch vehicle placed Gemini 5 into a 189 nautical mile x 87 nautical mile elliptical orbit.

A primary purpose of the Gemini 5 mission was to stay in orbit at least eight (8) days. This was the minimum time it would take to fly to the Moon, land and return to the Earth. Other goals of the Gemini 5 mission were to test the first fuel cells, deploy and rendezvous with a special rendezvous pod and conduct a variety of medical experiments.

Despite fuel cell problems, electrical system anomalies, reaction control system issues and the cancellation of various experiments, Gemini 5 was able to meet the goal of an 8-day flight. But it wasn’t easy. The last days of the mission were especially demanding since the crew didn’t have much to do. Pete Conrad called his Gemini 5 experience “8 days in a garbage can.”

On Sunday, 29 August 1965, Gemini 5 splashed-down in the Atlantic Ocean at 12:55:13 UTC. Mission elapsed time was 7 days, 22 hours, 55 minutes and 13 seconds. A new spaceflight endurance record.

Gemini 5 was Gordon Cooper’s last spaceflight. Cooper left NASA due to a deteriorating relationship with management. Pete Conrad flew three (3) more times in space. In particular, he commanded the Gemini 11, Apollo 12 and Skylab I missions. Indeed, Conrad’s Apollo 12 experience made him the third man to walk on surface of the Moon.


Chronology of U.S. Astronaut Missions (1961 - 1972)

1961
Mercury Redstone 3 - 5 May 1961 - Earth Suborbital (Shepard)
Mercury Redstone 4 - 21 July 1961 - Earth Suborbital
(Grissom)
1962
Mercury Atlas 6 - 20 February 1962 - Earth Orbiter
(Glenn)
Mercury Atlas 7 - 24 May 1962 - Earth Orbiter
(Carpenter)
Mercury Atlas 8 - 3 October 1962 - Earth Orbiter
(Schirra)
1963
Mercury Atlas 9 - 15 May 1963 - Earth Orbiter
(Cooper)
1964
1965
Gemini 3 - 23 March 1965 - Earth Orbiter
(Grissom, Young)
Gemini 4 - 3 June 1965 - Earth Orbiter
(McDivitt, White)
Gemini 5 - 21 August 1965 - Earth Orbiter
(Cooper, Conrad)
Gemini 7 - 4 December 1965 - Earth Orbiter
(Borman, Lovell)
Gemini 6A - 15 December 1965 - Earth Orbiter
(Schirra, Stafford)
1966
Gemini 8 - 16 March 1966 - Earth Orbiter
(Armstrong, Scott)
Gemini 9A - 3 June 1966 - Earth Orbiter
(Stafford, Cernan)
Gemini 10 - 18 July 1966 - Earth Orbiter
(Young, Collins)
Gemini 11 - 12 September 1966 - Earth Orbiter
(Conrad, Gordon)
Gemini 12 - 11 November 1966 - Earth Orbiter
(Lovell, Aldrin)
1967
1968
Apollo 7 - 11 October 1968 - Earth Orbiter
(Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham)
Apollo 8 - 21 December 1968 - Lunar Orbiter
(Borman, Lovell, Anders)
1969
Apollo 9 - 3 March 1969 - Earth Orbiter
(McDivitt, Scott, Schweikart)
Apollo 10 - 18 May 1969 - Lunar Orbiter
(Stafford, Young, Cernan)
Apollo 11 - 16 July 1969 - Lunar Landing
(Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins)
Apollo 12 - 14 November 1969 - Lunar Landing
(Conrad, Bean, Gordon)
1970
Apollo 13 - 11 April 1970 - Lunar Mission - Landing Aborted
(Lovell, Haise, Swigert)
1971
Apollo 14 - 31 January 1971 - Lunar Landing
(Shepard, Mitchell, Roosa)
Apollo 15 - 26 July 1971 - Lunar Landing
(Scott, Irwin, Worden)
1972
Apollo 16 - 16 April 1972 - Lunar Landing
(Young, Duke, Mattingly)
Apollo 17 - 7 December 1972 - Lunar Landing
(Cernan, Schmitt, Evans)

Other Missions


Neil Alden Armstrong (5 August 1930–25 August 2012)

The following is the official NASA biography from the John H. Glenn Research Center:

National Aeronautics and Space Administration
John H. Glenn Research Center
Lewis Field
Cleveland, Ohio 44135

Neil A. Armstrong

Neil A. Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio, on August 5, 1930. He began his NASA career in Ohio.

After serving as a naval aviator from 1949 to 1952, Armstrong joined the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1955. His first assignment was with the NACA Lewis Research Center (now NASA Glenn) in Cleveland. Over the next 17 years, he was an engineer, test pilot, astronaut and administrator for NACA and its successor agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

As a research pilot at NASA’s Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., he was a project pilot on many pioneering high speed aircraft, including the well known, 4000-mph X-15. He has flown over 200 different models of aircraft, including jets, rockets, helicopters and gliders.

Armstrong transferred to astronaut status in 1962. He was assigned as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission. Gemini 8 was launched on March 16, 1966, and Armstrong performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space.

As spacecraft commander for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, Armstrong gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the moon and first to step on its surface.

Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. In this position, he was responsible for the coordination and management of overall NASA research and technology work related to aeronautics.

He was Professor of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati between 1971-1979. During the years 1982-1992, Armstrong was chairman of Computing Technologies for Aviation, Inc., Charlottesville, Va.

He received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Purdue University and a Master of Science in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Southern California. He holds honorary doctorates from a number of universities.

Armstrong is a Fellow of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots and the Royal Aeronautical Society Honorary Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the International Astronautics Federation.

He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco. He served as a member of the National Commission on Space (1985-1986), as Vice-Chairman of the Presidential Commission on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident (1986), and as Chairman of the Presidential Advisory Committee for the Peace Corps (1971-1973).

Armstrong has been decorated by 17 countries. He is the recipient of many special honors, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom the Congressional Space Medal of Honor the Explorers Club Medal the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy the NASA Distinguished Service Medal the Harmon International Aviation Trophy the Royal Geographic Society’s Gold Medal the Federation Aeronautique Internationale’s Gold Space Medal the American Astronautical Society Flight Achievement Award the Robert J. Collier Trophy the AIAA Astronautics Award the Octave Chanute Award and the John J. Montgomery Award.

Armstrong passed away on Aug. 25, 2012 following complications resulting from cardiovascular procedures. He was 82.

Neil Alden Armstrong, age 6 Ensign Neil A. Armstrong, United States Naval Reserve, 23 May 1952. (U.S. Navy) Ensign Neil Alden Armstrong, United States Navy, circa 1951. (U.S. Navy) Ensign Neil A. Armstrong, as wingman to Lieutenant (j.g.) Ernie Moore, is flying the second Grumman F9F-2 Panther, Bu. No. 125127 (marked S 116), assigned to VF-51, USS Essex (CV-9), 1951. (Naval Aviation Museum) 3 September 1951, Ensign Neil A. Armstrong was flying his Grumman F9F-2 Panther, Bu. No., 125122, escorting a photo reconnaissance aircraft over Korea when his airplane was damaged by enemy ground fire. At low altitude, he struck an anti-aircraft cable which further damaged the fighter and made it impossible to land. Armstrong was able to reach friendly territory and ejected safely. This photograph was taken a short time later. (Amerikaanse vloot) NASA Engineering Test Pilot Neil A. Armstrong, 1958. (NASA) NASA test pilot Neil A. Armstrong dons a David Clark Co. MC-2 full-pressure suit before his first flight in the North American Aviation X-15 hypersonic research rocketplane, at Edwards AFB, 30 November 1960. (NASA) Neil Armstrong with the first North American Aviation X-15A, 56-6670, on Rogers Dry Lake after a flight, 1960. Armstrong made seven flights in the X-15, including the longest, “Neil’s Cross Country”. (NASA) NASA Research Test Pilot Neil A. Armstrong with the Bell X-14 at NASA Ames Research Center, February 1964. (NASA via Jet Pilot Overseas) NASA Project Gemini astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during a field training exercise near Cimarron, New Mexico, June 1964. (NASA via Jet Pilot Overseas) Astronauts David R. Scott, Pilot (left) and Neil A. Armstrong, Command Pilot (right) with U.S. Air Force pararescue jumpers at the end of the nearly disastrous Gemini 8 mission, 17 March 1966. (NASA) NASA Project Apollo Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong with a Bell Aerosystems Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, 1969. (Ralph Morse/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) Neil Alden Armstrong, Mission Commander, Apollo 11, 16 July 1969. (NASA) Neil Armstrong steps onto the Moon, 10:56 p.m. EDT, 20 July 1969. (NASA) Neil Alden Armstrong inside the Lunar Module Arend on the surface of The Moon, 20 July 1969. (Edwin E. Aldrin, NASA) Professor Neil A. Armstrong in his classroom at the University of Cincinnati College of Engineering, 1974. (Peggy Palange, UC Public Information Office) An 8-foot tall bronze statue of Neil Alden Armstrong, sculpted by Chas Fagan, sits in front of the Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering at Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.


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