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Edward Holme


Edward Holme was 'n dokter in Manchester. Dr Holme is op 22 Mei 1818 ondervra deur Lord Kenyon se House of Lords -komitee.

Vraag: Hoe lank praktiseer u as dokter in Manchester?

Antwoord: Vier en twintig jaar.

Vraag: Het u in Manchester geleentheid gehad om openbare instellings te besoek?

Antwoord: Ek is 'n dokter by die belangrikste mediese instellings. Die mediese instellings waarmee ek verbind is, en ek is al vier en twintig jaar lank, is die Manchester Infirmary, Dispensary, Lunatic Hospital en Asylum, en die House of Recovery.

Vraag: Het dit u die geleentheid gebied om die toestand van die kinders wat gewoonlik in die katoenfabrieke werksaam is, waar te neem?

Antwoord: Dit het.

Vraag: In watter gesondheidstoestand het u die personeellede gevind?

Antwoord: Hulle was oor die algemeen gesond. Ek kan u, indien verlang, besonderhede van mnr. Pooley se fabriek gee. Hy het 401 personeellede in diens; en van die persone wat in 1796 ondersoek is, is bevind 22 het 'n delikate voorkoms, 2 is as siek, 3 met swak gesondheid, een onderhewig aan stuiptrekkings, 8 gevalle van scrofula: in goeie gesondheid, 363.

Vraag: Moet ek u verstaan, uit u ondersoeke in 1796 het u eerder 'n gunstige mening oor die gesondheid van persone in katoenfabrieke gevorm.

Antwoord: Ja.

Vraag: Het u sedertdien 'n geleentheid gehad om van mening te verander?

Antwoord: niks nie. Hulle is net so gesond soos enige ander deel van die werkersklasse van die gemeenskap.

Vraag: As kinders vir 'n lang tydperk te veel werk, sou dit, na u mening as 'n mediese persoon, hul gesondheid beïnvloed om op een of ander manier sigbaar te wees?

Antwoord: Ongetwyfeld; as 'n kind 'n enkele dag oorwerk was, sou dit hom in 'n groot mate ongeskik maak om sy werk die volgende dag te verrig; en as die praktyk vir 'n langer tydperk voortgesit word, sou dit binne 'n sekere tyd sy gesondheid heeltemal vernietig.

Vraag: Dan moet u verstaan ​​dat u, uit die algemene gesondheid onder die kinders in die katoenfabrieke, 'n mening moet vorm dat hulle nie buite hul fisiese vermoëns gewerk is nie?

Antwoord: Beslis nie.

Vraag: Die uitslag van u waarneming dui nie op 'n kontrole van groei as gevolg van hul werk nie.

Antwoord: Dit het nie.

Vraag: Sou u toelaat dat 'n kind van agt jaar byvoorbeeld twaalf uur per dag staande bly?

Antwoord: Ek het nie hierheen gekom om te antwoord wat ek sou doen as ek eie kinders het nie.

Vraag: Sou dit na u oordeel as 'n mediese mens 'n kind nadelig wees as hy op die tydstip wat hy geëet het, steeds besig was met die werk waaroor hy besig was?

Antwoord: Dit is vrae wat ek baie moeilik vind om te beantwoord.

Vraag: Wie het by u aansoek gedoen om die ondersoek van hierdie kinders in die fabriek van mnr. Pooley te onderneem?

Antwoord: Meneer Pooley.

Vraag: Gestel ek stel hierdie vraag aan u. As kinders twaalf, dertien, veertien, vyftien uur uit vier-en-twintig in diens was, moet u dan dink dat dit bevorderlik is vir die gesondheid van 'n sensitiewe kind?

Antwoord: My gevolgtrekking sou wees: die kinders wat ek gesien het, was almal gesond; as hulle gedurende die tien, twaalf of veertien uur werksaam was en gesond lyk, moet ek steeds sê dat dit nie hul gesondheid benadeel nie.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Holme, Edward

HOLME, EDWARD (1770–1847), geneesheer, seun van Thomas Holme, boer en handelaar, is gebore te Kendal, Westmoreland, op 17 Februarie 1770. Nadat hy 'n skool in Sedbergh bygewoon het, het hy twee jaar by die Manchester -akademie deurgebring, en daarna studeer aan die universiteite van Göttingen en Edinburgh. Hy studeer in Desember 1793 sy doktorsgraad in Leyden, sy tesis 'De Structura et Usu Vasorum Absorbentium', wat een en sestig bladsye beslaan. Vroeg in 1794 begin hy in Manchester oefen, en word kort daarna verkies tot een van die dokters in die hospitaal daar. Hy het by die Literary and Philosophical Society aangesluit om hom in Manchester te vestig, en was een van die ondervoorsitters van 1797 tot 1844, toe hy John Dalton as president opgevolg het. Hy was agt-en-twintig jaar een van die stigters van die Portico-biblioteek en sy president. Hy was ook 'n stigter en eerste president van beide die Manchester Natural History Society en die Chetham Society. Hy was die eerste president van die mediese afdeling van die Britse Vereniging tydens die stigtingsvergadering in York (1831), en was die voorsitter van die Provinsiale Mediese en Chirurgiese Vereniging in 1836. Hy word lid van die Linnean Society in 1799. Hy was vir baie jaar, veral na die dood van John Ferriar [q. v.], 'n leier in sy beroep in Manchester, en die erkende hoof in al die plaaslike literêre en wetenskaplike samelewings.

Van die veertien opstelle wat tot die Literary and Philosophical Society bygedra het, het hy slegs 'n kort 'Nota oor 'n Romeinse inskripsie wat in Manchester gevind is' gepubliseer (Manchester Memoirs, vol. V.). 'N Ander opstel,' On the History of Sculpture to the Time of Phidias ', is na sy dood gedruk.

Hy sterf ongetroud op 28 November 1847 in Manchester en laat eiendom ter waarde van meer as 50 000 agterl., waarvan die grootste deel, saam met sy groot biblioteek, aan die mediese afdeling van University College, Londen, bemaak het. Sy portret is gegraveer deur J. R. Jackson, uit 'n skildery van W. Scott, wat aan die Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society behoort.

[Memoir deur dr W. C. Henry in Trans. van Provinsiale Med. en Surg. Assos. 1848, xvi. 77 Manchester Guardian, 1, 4, 8 Desember 1847, 26 Jan., 13 Mei, 10 Junie 1848 Baker's Memorials of a Dissenting Chapel, p. 116 Univ. Coll. Biblioteek Kat. 1879.]


903/904 - Slag van Holme

Daar word vermoed dat Holme die plek was van 'n geveg, wat na bewering in 903 of 904 plaasgevind het tydens 'n burgeroorlog tussen twee aanspraakmakers op die troon van Wessex nadat Alfred die Grote gesterf het. Sy seun Edward die oudste het die troon van Wessex ingeneem, maar Æthelwold, seun van Alfred se ouer broer, betwis sy eis.

In 902 kom Æthelwold met 'n vloot na Essex en die volgende jaar oorreed hy die Oos-Engelse Dene om die Angelsaksiese koninkryke Mercia en die noorde van Wessex aan te val. Edward het teruggekap deur die verwoesting van East Anglia en die Deense weermag moes terugkeer om sy eie gebied te verdedig. Edward het toe teruggetrek langs die Great North Road, maar die manne van Kent het agteruitgegaan. Æthelwold en die Dene het hulle ingehaal en daar word vermoed dat hulle hulle op Glatton Lane agtervolg tot by die Fen -rand by Holme. Hulle kon nie ontsnap nie en in die daaropvolgende geveg is beide Æthelwold en die Kentiese leier dood. Alhoewel die Dene die stryd gewen het, het dit die wrede burgeroorlog in die suide beëindig.

Hart, 'n voormalige huisarts van Yaxley en plaaslike historikus, het die eerste voorgestel dat die Slag van Holme hier plaasgevind het. Dit is nie honderd persent seker dat dit nie die webwerf of die presiese datum was nie, maar baie historici aanvaar dit blykbaar uit die beskrywing van Henry van Huntingdon, 'n Middeleeuse historikus, dat Holme waarskynlik die webwerf sal wees.


Slag

Uhtred veg by The Holme

Die Wes -Saksiese leër onder Edward en Uhtred het die geveg begin deur die Deense agterkant onder Hastein te stamp en 'n sarsie pyle af te vuur voordat hy die stryd aangeval het. Duisende Dene en rebelse Saksers het oor die rivier gelaai, met Beorhtsige onder hulle. Die Wes -Sakse het aanvanklik die oorhand gekry, en Uhtred het die jong seun, Sigurd Thorsson, Sigurd Sigurdsson doodgemaak na 'n kort tweestryd voordat hy Eohric se kampioen Osketill doodgemaak het en hom deur die lies gesteek het. Uhtred laat toe sy manne 'n skildmuur vorm, en hy skree beledigings na Eohric en beskuldig hom van 'n lafaard. Finan het die verraaier Beorhtsige in 'n enkele geveg doodgemaak. Die Dene het egter kort daarna die oorhand gekry, maar het 'n sloot oorgesteek en 'n nuwe skildmuur gevorm. Cnut - wat die gille van die geveg van agter hoor hoor - het die res van die leër teen die Wes -Saksiese hinderlae in 'n geveg gelei. Eohric is in die sloot gedood, met Uhtred wat in sy nek gekap het voordat die Denes sy lyk kon ophaal. Aethelwold is geïnspireer toe Sigebriht en sy Kentish  fyrdHy het gekom, en hy het vir Hastein gesê dat hy sy belofte nagekom het. Sigebriht het egter aan sy mans gesê dat hulle vir hul voorvaders en vir Wessex veg, en hy het teen die Vikings geveg en uiteindelik lojaliteit aan Wessex teenoor die Danes getoon. Cnut het Sigebriht met 'n spies doodgemaak, maar die Kentiese troepe het die gety van die geveg omgedraai. Nadat Hastein tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat die Dene die geveg verloor het, het Aethelwold probeer vlug, maar hy het van sy perd geval voordat hy kon ontsnap, en hy is deur Uhtred in 'n hoek geslaan en doodgemaak. Die Viking -leër het 'n dawerende nederlaag gekry, en Edward is bevestig as koning van Wessex.


Æthelwold: Alfred the Great ’s rebel neef

Aan die begin van die 10de eeu is die sorgvuldig vervaardigde koninklike dinastie van koning Alfred byna verwoes deur 'n ambisieuse prins, Æthelwold. Ryan Lavelle beskryf 'n bloedige burgeroorlog wat die magtigste gesin van Angelsaksiese Engeland verdeel het

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 27 April 2020 om 12:30

Die 26ste Oktober 899 was 'n swart Vrydag vir die Angelsaksiese koninkryk Wessex. Alfred die Grote was dood. Lank lewe die koning. Maar watter koning? Volgens baie geskiedenis is Alfred opgevolg deur sy seun Edward, later bekend as Edward 'the Elder'. Maar in die nasleep van Alfred se dood, was dit sy neef Æthelwold 'aetheling' - wat 'prins' beteken - wat die eerste keer van die punt af was en sy aanspraak op die Wessex -troon gestamp het deur te storm in wat nou die slaperige Dorset -stad Wimborne Minster is. Daar, volgens die Angelsaksiese Chronicle, het hy die hekke gesluit en verklaar dat hy "daar sou woon of daar sou sterf", en 'n non aangegryp, miskien met die bedoeling om met haar te trou. Dit was rebellie, in koninklike styl.

Æthelwold se opstand is vandag min bekend, slegs 'n voetnoot in die Angelsaksiese geskiedenis. Behalwe dat dit 'n ongelooflike verhaal is, is dit om twee redes belangrik. Dit dui daarop dat, ondanks Alfred se ongeëwenaarde reputasie as die redder van Angelsaksiese Engeland, daar aansienlike teenkanting teen sy dinastie was, nie net in sy eie koninkryk nie, maar ook oor dele van die Britse Eilande. Dit dui ook daarop aan dat, as Æthelwold 'n bietjie meer fortuin sou geniet in die uitval van Alfred se dood, en een onduidelike geveg in 902 'n alternatiewe uitkoms gehad het, die toekoms van Engeland inderdaad heel anders kon gewees het.

Alfred die Grote se dood in Oktober 899 kon beswaarlik as 'n verrassing gekom het. In die vroeë 890's het Alfred se biograaf, Asser, geskryf oor die pynlike siekte, wat vermoedelik die siekte van Crohn is, wat die koning in sy laaste jare geteister het. Gevolglik is Edward die Ouere versorg om die kroon te aanvaar. Maar hy was nie die enigste lid van die koninklike familie met ontwerpe oor mag in Wessex nie. Æthelwold se aanspraak op die troon lê by sy vader, koning Æthelred I. Æthelred was Alfred se oudste broer en het as sodanig die koninkryk voor Alfred regeer, van 865 tot 871. Toe Æthelred sterf, word sy seuns te jonk geag om te slaag, so Alfred neem die troon in.

Wil u meer resensies van seisoen 4 lees en nog meer weet oor die werklike gebeure uit die geskiedenis wat die drama geïnspireer het? Lees meer van die kundiges op ons saamgestelde bladsy op Die Laaste Koninkryk

'N Verdeelde koninkryk

Æthelred se seuns was nie besonder opgewonde oor hierdie magsoordrag van die een tak van die gesin na die ander nie. Dit lyk asof spanning tussen die kante van die regerende stam - Alfred's en Æthelred's - gedurende die hele Alfred se bewind weggesteek het. In die 890's vertel Alfred dat sy 'jong familielede' - waarskynlik Æthelwold en sy broer, Æthelhelm - 'n weergawe van sy testament betwis het. Die verspreiding van koninklike eiendom is sterk betwis.

Alfred se reaksie op hierdie familie -gekibbel was om sy seun as sy opvolger aan te kondig: in 'n handves van die 890's word Edward opgeteken as rex ("Koning") saam met sy vader. Dit was 'n beslissende - sommige sal meedoënlose beweging sê - van Alfred se kant toe hy probeer om 'n koninklike dinastie te vestig uit die kinders van sy huwelik met Ealhswith, 'n edelvrou. Maar as die doel was om 'n vinnige en bloedlose opvolging te verseker, het dit skouspelagtig misluk.

DIE LAASTE KONINKRYK SEISOEN 4 -OORSIGTE (LYS WAT DAAGLIK OPGEDOEN WORD):

Dit het al te duidelik geword toe Æthelwold, soos die Angelsaksiese Chronicle ons vertel, die landgoed Wimborne en Christchurch, wat nou in Dorset is, beslag lê. Ons weet nie veel van Christchurch nie, behalwe dat dit 'n burhof versterkte nedersetting, op hierdie tydstip, het Wimborne saak gemaak. Dit was 'n belangrike koninklike landgoed en die plek waar Æthelwold se pa, koning Æthelred, begrawe is. As, soos waarskynlik blyk, Æthelwold vinnig opgetree het na Alfred se dood, sou hy in die laat herfs toegeslaan het, toe die oeste ingesamel en voorrade gereed was vir die koning terwyl hy in sy koninkryk vorder. Vikings was geneig om dit te doen vir die praktiese doel om hulself te voed, maar vir Æthelwold het beslaglegging op Wimborne beteken dat hy sou kon aanspraak maak op die regmatige ontvanger van die kos en drank wat vir die koning opsy gesit is, bekend as die 'plaas van een nag'.

Æthelwold se motivering vir die neem van Wimborne was ook strategies. Wessex was 'n verdeelde koninkryk, en een van die afdelings was tussen die oostelike helfte (wat die koninklike sentrum van Winchester insluit) en die weste. Wimborne lê reg op hierdie breuklyn, en sover ons kan sien, was die ondersteuners van Æthelwold wes daarvan. Sy optrede was moontlik bedoel om 'n nuwe afdeling van die koninkryk uit te trek.

Die skrywer van die Angelsaksiese Chronicle doen sy bes om die optrede van Æthelwold as onwettig voor te stel, en vergelyk dit met die beslaglegging op 'n koninklike woning deur 'n woeker in die agtste eeu. Maar ongeag die draai van Edward se ondersteuners, dit was meer as 'n klein plaaslike probleem. Die toekoms van Wessex was nou voor die hand liggend.

Æthelwold se hand is moontlik versterk deur 'n klein maar beduidende minderheid edeles wat wrok teen die dooie koning gekoester het. Ons weet van 'n oudman, of hoofamptenaar, van Wiltshire met die naam Wulfhere, wat tydens Alfred se bewind grond verloor het omdat hy die koning verlaat het. Dit is moontlik dat hierdie spanning weer ontstaan ​​het tydens die omwentelinge aan die einde van Alfred se lewe. Dit was immers 'n tydperk waarin nuwe Viking -aanvalle, deur krygers wat afkomstig was van veldtogte op die vasteland van Europa, 'n beduidende bedreiging vir Wessex ingehou het. As Æthelwold, soos waarskynlik lyk, sy broer as die afstammeling van koning Æthelred I oorleef het, kon die koninklike rebel op steun steun vir sy saak. Nie almal het ingegryp in die Alfrediaanse siening van die koninklike familie in Wessex nie.

Edward se reaksie op Æthelwold se Wimborne-gambit was vinnig en onthul baie oor die manier waarop hy en sy suster Æthelflæd sou werk tydens die sogenaamde 'herowering' van die Danelaw 'n paar jaar later. Hy het die nabygeleë Ystertydse heuwel van Badbury Rings ingeneem en sy leër daar opgeslaan. Badbury was 'n plek van politieke byeenkoms, so Edward se optrede was 'n manier om aan te toon dat hy self 'n wettigheid in die koninkryk gehad het. Deur Badbury Rings vas te hou, kon Edward keer dat Æthelwold verder noordwaarts na Mercia beweeg en 'n moontlike pad na Winchester blokkeer. 'N Meesterslag het die koninklike voorgee nagegaan. Die opmerking van die Angelsaksiese Chronicle dat Æthelwold "snags weggesteel het", was moontlik nie ver van die waarheid nie.

'N Koninklike kragmeting

Æthelwold was egter nie op die spel nie. Hy is op pad na die koninkryk van Northumbria, waar 'n weergawe van die Chronicle erken dat die Vikings hom daar "as koning aanvaar en aan hom trou bewys het". 'N Ander weergawe noem Æthelwold selfs "koning van die heidene". Die Vikings verwys na baie van hul leiers as 'konings', en Æthelwold was moontlik een van hulle. 'N Seldsame tipe munt uit York op die oomblik, met die naam van ALVVALDUS REX (foto hieronder), kan aandui dat hy ernstig opgeneem is.

Wes -Saksiese kroniekskrywers was erg oor Æthelwold se alliansie met Vikings, maar as 'n oorlogstaktiek was dit nie ongewoon nie. Daar is goeie rede om te vermoed dat Alfred hom ook met Viking -huursoldate verbind het as die omstandighede dit vereis. As Æthelwold dus kragte saamgesnoer het met Northumbrians en Danes, was hy in goeie geselskap.

Wat ook al die moraliteit van Æthelwold se Viking -alliansie, dit lyk asof dit beslis nuwe lewe geblaas het in sy veldtog om Wessex te gryp - twee jaar later was hy terug, en hierdie keer sou daar nie weggehardloop word nie.

Die tweede en beslissende deel van Æthelwold se opstand het in 901 begin toe hy met 'n vloot na Essex, destyds 'n plek van Viking -nedersetting, gevaar het. Hier vertel die Chronicle dat Æthelwold voorlegging ontvang het. In die laat herfs of vroeë winter van 902 waag hy na Mercia en verenig hom met onteiende lede van die Merciaanse koninklike familie. Maar 'n terugkeer na Wessex was altyd op die kaart, en dit duur nie lank voordat hy die Teems weer in sy ou koninkryk by die vesting Cricklade oorgesteek het nie. Hier het hy koninklike lande in die omgewing verwoes.

Edward het weinig ander keuse as om op hierdie uitlokking te reageer, en het presies dit gedoen en 'n leër gestuur om Deense East Anglia, nog een van Æthelwold se vestings, aan te val. Wat daarna gebeur het, is nie heeltemal duidelik nie, maar dit lyk asof die groot alliansie van Æthelwold die agterhoede van Edward se oproerige weermag ingehaal het op 'n onbekende plek genaamd 'die Holme'-'n ontwikkeling wat Edward so ontstel het dat hy sewe boodskappers gestuur het om te onthou sy troepe.

By die Holme, vertel die Chronicle, het die Viking -mag 'die slagplek gehou'. Met ander woorde, hulle het gewen. Maar hulle het ook die meeste mans verloor - en onder die gesneuweldes was Æthelwold aetheling.

Drie jaar lank is die koninkryk van Wessex stuiptrekkings gemaak deur Æthelwold se gewelddadige opposisie teen Edward die Ouere, sy kragtige aanspraak op die troon en sy vermoë om steun uit Engeland te vergader. Æthelwold se opstand het 'n geweldige bedreiging vir die opvolgingslyn wat deur Alfred opgestel is, ingehou. Maar nou was Æthelwold dood, en sy opstand was verby.

In plaas daarvan om Wessex te oorheers en miskien sy eie dinastie te stig, was hierdie mislukte prins van Engeland uit die 10de eeu bestem vir onduidelikheid. Die stadium was nou duidelik vir die opvolgers van Alfred die Grote om die koning te wees.

Ryan Lavelle is leser in die vroeë Middeleeuse geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Winchester. Sy boeke sluit in Knot: Die Noordseekoning (Allen Lane, 2017).


Ray City History Blog

Edward “Ned ” HOLMES, was 'n soldaat van die 25ste Georgia Regiment, wat in die lente en somer van 1862 verskeie kampe rondom die Berrien Minute Men en die 29th Georgia Regiment in die lente en somer van 1862 met die garnisoenpligte gedeel het. In Junie het die kolonel van die 25ste Regiment, Claudius C Wilson, sou die bevel neem van Causton ’s Bluff, waar die Berrien Minute Men gestasioneer was.

Ned Holmes is gebore omstreeks 1834 in DeKalb County, Georgia, die jongste van twee seuns van James en Martha Thurman Holmes.

Ned ’ se pa, James Holmes, het volgens familie -tradisie die gesin in Atlanta verlaat om wes te gaan soek na grond vir opstal. Daar is nooit weer van hom gehoor nie, en die oudste seun van Ned … se broer Mike Holmes was die enigste ondersteuning van sy gesin en het vermoedelik as opsiener gewerk om hulle te ondersteun. Weereens sê die familie -legende dat Mike 'n wenperd in 'n wedloop in Atlanta gery het, waarvan die beursie genoeg was om sy ma, vyf susters en Ned na Alabama te trek. Omstreeks 1845 verhuis die gesin na Henry County, AL, naby Wesley, ongeveer 11 kilometer noordoos van Abbeville. – Gordon W. Holmes, Jr.

In Henry County het Mike Holmes eers as boer gewerk, en in 1858 is hy as 'n balju van Henry County verkies as 'n demokraat. Teen 1860 was Ned Holmes werksaam as opsiener en het hy uit sy broer se huis verhuis na 'n eie plek in Franklin, AL.

Toe die burgeroorlog uitbreek, het Mike Holmes op 11 Mei 1861 by Abbeville, AL, aangesluit by Kompanjie A (Kompanie B geword), 6de Regiment, Alabama Infanterie, CSA.

Edward “Ned ” Holmes is op 12 April 1862 in Henry County, Alabama, vir drie jaar by kaptein George W. Holmes (geen verhouding) aangewys in Kompanie E, 25ste Regiment, Georgia Infanterie, CSA. Ned het tuis gebly tot einde April 1862. In Mei het hy by sy eenheid in Camp Smith naby Savannah, Georgia, aangesluit. Nadat hy by die 25ste regiment aangesluit het, sou Ned Holmes aan 'n aantal aansteeklike siektes ly.

Kolonel Claudius C. Wilson het 'n petisie van die 29ste Georgia Regiment versamel waarin gevra word dat die lewe van Elbert J. Chapman gespaar word.

Die vyf-en-twintigste regiment van die vrywilligers van die regiment was georganiseer gedurende die somer van 1861. Claudius C. Wilson, 'n lid van die Georgia Bar en voormalige prokureur-generaal vir die oostelike kring van Georgia, is verkies tot kolonel en het die eenheid se eerste bevelvoerder aangestel. Die eenheid is vroeg in September 1861 in die Konfederale diens by Savannah, Georgia, opgeneem. bedien aan die kus van Georgië en Suid -Carolina. Teen September 1862 sou die 25ste Georgia Regiment saam met die 29th Regiment in Causton ’s Bluff, oos van Savannah, GA dien. Die aanvanklike offisiere van die regiment was: William Percy Morford Ashley, luitenant-kolonel William John Winn, majoor Rufus Ezekiel Lester, adjudant, en William DeLegal Bacon, kwartiermeester. Die kapteins was Alexander W. Smith, Company A Martin L. Bryan, Company B Jefferson Roberts, Company C Andrew J. Williams, Company D William Sanford Norman, Company E George T. Dunham, Company F William D. Hamilton, Company G W Henry Wylly, Company H Alexander Hamilton “Hamp ” Smith, Company I, [naoorlogse inwoner van Valdosta, GA] Mark Jackson McMullen, Company K, Robert James McClary, Company L.

Teen die tyd dat Ned Holmes in Mei 1862 by die Regiment aangesluit het, het die 25ste Georgia reeds agt maande op poste rondom Savannah gedien: by Camp Wilson met die 27ste, 31ste en 29ste Georgia Regiment by Camp Young Thunderbolt Battery Camp Mercer op Tybee Island en Camp Smith .

Die grootste deel van die 25ste Regiment het reeds 'n aantal oordraagbare siektes opgedoen. “Die feit dat 'n meerderheid van die soldate uit plattelandse gemeenskappe was, het hulle baie vatbaar gemaak vir 'stadssiektes' soos masels, waterpokkies en klein pokke. Die sterftesyfer van hierdie siektes was baie hoog. In die federale leërs was siektes en siektes verantwoordelik vir 7 uit elke 10 sterftes. Een owerheid het beraam dat onder die Konfederate drie mans aan siektes omgekom het vir elke man wat in die geveg gedood is. Geen wonder dat 'n burgeroorlogsoldaat sy gesin uit die kamp geskryf het nie: "Dit maak 'n man doodskrik om siek te word." – Die Burgeroorlog

Isaac Gordon Bradwell, 'n soldaat van die 31ste Georgia Regiment in Camp Wilson, skryf: ”Ons was nog nie baie dae in hierdie kampe voordat ons deur masels binnegeval is nie, die vreeslike vyand van alle nuwe soldate, en baie van ons manne het gesterf of is ongeskik vir verdere diens. Ander siektes het ons geledere verdun, en 'n rukkie het 'n paar rekrute hul plek kom inneem. ” As nuwe rekrute soos Ned Holmes wel kom, kan masels binne enkele dae na die mans se aankoms opgedoen word. Masels het die 29ste Georgia Regiment en die Berrien Minute Men in Desember 1861 hard by Camp Security, GA, getref. Augustus H. Harrell ,, van die Thomasville Guards, het die masels by Camp Security huis toe geneem. William Washington Knight het van Camp Security geskryf: 'Byna almal in ons onderneming het masels. Capt [John C.] Lamb het dit, ” saam met 60 ander van die Regiment. William A. Jones is huis toe in Berrien County, GA, met die masels en sterf daar in Januarie 1862, 'n seun wat na sy dood gebore is, het aan 'n skynbare aangebore Rubella -sindroom gely.

Ned Holmes skryf op 7 Junie 1862 van Camp Smith af aan sy familie en vertel dat hy baie erg verkoue en hoes het, en dat daar baie siektes in die 25ste regiment was. Teen 11 Junie 1862 skryf hy dat hy siek is aan masels.

“Measles [Rubeola] -infeksie kom in opeenvolgende fases oor 'n tydperk van twee tot drie weke voor. Die eerste 10 tot 14 dae na infeksie inkubeer die maselsvirus. Daar is geen tekens of simptome van masels gedurende hierdie tyd nie. Maselsimptome begin gewoonlik met 'n ligte tot matige koors, wat dikwels gepaard gaan met aanhoudende hoes, loopneus, ontsteekte oë (konjunktivitis) en keelseer. Hierdie relatief ligte siekte kan twee of drie dae duur. Klein wit kolle met blou-wit middelpunte op 'n rooi agtergrond vorm binne-in die mond aan die binnekant van die wang-ook genoem Koplik's. 'N Veluitslag ontwikkel wat bestaan ​​uit groot, plat vlekke wat gereeld in mekaar vloei. In die volgende paar dae versprei die uitslag oor die arms en romp, dan oor die dye, onderbene en voete. Terselfdertyd styg die koors skerp, dikwels so hoog as 104 tot 105,8 F (40 tot 41 C). Die maselsuitslag verdwyn geleidelik, eers vervaag van die gesig en laaste van die dye en voete. 'N Persoon met masels kan die virus vir ongeveer agt dae aan ander versprei, begin vier dae voordat die uitslag verskyn en eindig wanneer die uitslag al vier dae voorkom. ”- Mayo Clinic

In Junie 1862 word die kolonel van die 25ste regiment, Claudius C. Wilson, as spesiale bevelvoerder van die pos by Causton ’s Bluff aangewys. Die bluf, ongeveer drie kilometer oos van Savannah, kyk uit oor St. Augustine Creek en Whitemarsh Island (uitgespreek Whitmarsh Island). 'Hierdie bluf van twintig tot dertig voet het die strategiese agterkant van Fort Jackson, aan die Savannah -rivier, en die benadering tot die deel van die oostelike lyne van die stad, beveel. " Causton's Bluff is sedert Desember 1861 deur die 13de Georgia Infanterie, ook bekend as die Bartow Light Infanterie, onder bevel van kolonel Marcellus Douglass beset. Nadat die Amerikaanse weermag Fort Pulaski op 11 April 1862 verower het, is die Berrien Minute Men en die 29ste Georgia Regiment opgevoer om die garnisoen te versterk. Binnekort verhuis die 25ste regiment van Camp Smith om by die garnisoen by Causton ’s Bluff aan te sluit. By Causton's Bluff sou die mans ly aan koors, malaria, masels, mangelontsteking, bof, wonde, tifus, disenterie, longontsteking, tuberkulose, sifilis, hepatitis en rumatiek, asook muskiete, vlooie en sandvlieë.

In 'n brief aan sy broer skryf Ned Holmes dat hy sy uitrusting uit die ou kamp gehaal het, en dat hy siek was met die bof.

Vroegoggend, 20 Junie 1862

Mike,
Aangesien ek gister nie van my brief af gekom het nie, skryf ek vanoggend 'n paar reëls vir u. Ek voel baie goed vanoggend. Ek is vanoggend sterk met bof, maar dit gee my maar min pyn. Ek sorg goed vir myself. Miskien dink u dat ek dit nie in die kamp kan doen nie, maar my tent is so droog soos enige huis. Gisteraand het ons 2 taamlike storms en swaar reën gehad en ek het nooit 'n druppel water of 'n windjie gevoel nie. Ek het gister daarin geslaag om my bed uit die ou kamp te haal. Dit is 'n goeie bed soos ek tuis sou wou hê. Ek dink ek sal nou heeltyd verbeter. Ek wil hê jy moet vir my skryf. Ek het nog niks van u gehoor sedert u op pad was na Richmond nie. Ek weet nie hoe ek sal hou van die stap wat ons gemaak het nie. Ek was nog nooit uit sedert ek by hierdie plek gekom het nie. Al wat ek weet, is dat dit baie vlak is waar ons kampeer.
Vertel die mense van Sim dat dit goed gaan met hom. Dick [Knight] is gesond. Maak seker dat u binnekort skryf. Dick het briewe van die huis af gekry dat Reuben Fleming huis toe geneem is. Ek wil daarvan hoor.

Ned

Volgens die CDC is “Mumps 'n aansteeklike siekte wat deur 'n virus veroorsaak word. Simptome verskyn gewoonlik 16-18 dae na infeksie, maar hierdie tydperk kan wissel van 12-25 dae na infeksie. Dit begin gewoonlik met 'n paar dae koors, hoofpyn, spierpyn, moegheid en eetlus. Dan sal die meeste mense swelling van hul speekselkliere hê. Dit is wat die wollerige wange en 'n sagte, geswelde kakebeen veroorsaak. Sommige mense wat bof kry, het baie ligte simptome (soos verkoue), of geen simptome nie, en weet moontlik nie dat hulle die siekte het nie. Pampoentjies kan soms komplikasies veroorsaak, veral by volwassenes. By mans kan komplikasies die volgende insluit: ontsteking van die testikels (orgitis) by mans wat puberteit bereik het, dit kan lei tot 'n afname in testikelgrootte (testikulêre atrofie) ontsteking in die pankreas (pankreatitis) ontsteking van die brein (enkefalitis) ontsteking van die weefsel wat die brein en rugmurg (meningitis) doof is. Daar is nie bewys dat ontsteking van die testikels wat deur bof veroorsaak word, tot onvrugbaarheid kan lei nie. ” – CDC
Pampoentjies duur gewoonlik ongeveer tien dae.

Omtrent die tyd dat Ned Holmes herstel het van die bof, skryf hy dat hy siek is aan diarree.

30 Junie 1862

Liewe Mike
Ek het u brief van 26. teruggevind, ek was bly om te hoor dat dit goed gaan met u. Ek is nie so goed soos toe ek jou gesien het nie. 2 dae gelede was my ingewande 'n bietjie buite werking, maar nie sleg nie, maar net genoeg om 'n week te hou en niks te doen nie. Ek is die hele tyd op, maar het nie die krag om iets te doen nie. U hoef nie onrustig oor my te wees nie; as ek sleg siek word, sal ek u laat weet. Ek dink ek sal binne een of twee dae diens kan doen. Sê vir Mary sy hoef nie onrustig te wees oor my dat ek huis toe kan kom as ek baie siek word en ek dit gaan doen nie. 'N Siek man is baie neerslagtig en kan hier 'n ruk kry. Ek wil dit nou nie hê nie, ek hoef nie huis toe te gaan nie. Ek sou nie nou gaan as ek 'n tydperk het nie. Ek skryf vir u al die besonderhede wat ek binne 'n paar dae kan versamel. Ek skryf elke tweede dag. Ek sal dit doen totdat ek pruim gesond word. Dit gaan goed met Morris en Simm Schick en Zuch. Ek het tans nie meer om te skryf nie.

Skryf my gereeld.

E. [Ned] Holmes

In Julie het Ned Holmes geskryf dat hy 'n terugval van die masels gehad het. In die tyd van die burgeroorlog is daar min onderskeid getref tussen masels (Rubeola) en Rubella, soms 'Duitse masels' genoem. Dit blyk dat Ned ’s “valle ” moontlik Rubella was. Die briewe van Ned ’ uit Julie 1862 dui aan dat hy na Camp Smith teruggekeer het om te herstel. Soldate wat siek geword het, het voorkeur gegee aan sorg in 'n kamphospitaal of siekafdeling as om na 'n hospitaal in Savannah gestuur te word.

Die hospitale in Savannah is deur die soldate gevrees as sterfhuise. Om hierdie vrees die hoof te bied, het luitenant -kolonel Anderson, [bevelvoerder van die Savannah River Batteries,] 'n aparte hospitaal in Deptford opgerig. Die minder kritiek siekes kan daarheen gestuur word, deur hul kamerade dopgehou word en nie al hul persoonlike besittings gesteel word nie - wat sou gebeur as hulle na Savannah gestuur word. – Fort Jackson Interpretive Materials

Maar selfs terwyl hy by Camp Smith herstel het, het Ned Holmes gevind dat sy persoonlike items gestamp word.

Camp Smith, Savannah, Ga., Julie 1862

(Aan Mat en die gesin)
Ek het gedink ek was sekerlik gesond van die masels tot gister, dit was 'n bewolkte nat dag en die masels het soos altyd op my verskyn. Dit het vanoggend skoongemaak en dit lyk soos September. Dit is koel en aangenaam, die lug roer kort en is 'n baie aangename tyd. Ek sal dit soggens klaarmaak en vertel hoe ek oor die weg kom. Dick het die bof. He took them yesterday. I hope he will get well soon. Tell Mama somebody has stolen one of my socks and I have an old one and if she sees any chance to send me one, to do it. I shall get out of socks before long anyway.

“Rubella, also called German measles or three-day measles, is a contagious viral infection best known by its distinctive red rash. Rubella is not the same as measles (rubeola), though the two illnesses do share some characteristics, including the red rash. However, rubella is caused by a different virus than measles, and is neither as infectious nor usually as severe as measles. The signs and symptoms of rubella are often so mild they’re difficult to notice, especially in children. If signs and symptoms do occur, they generally appear between two and three weeks after exposure to the virus. They typically last about one to five days and may include: Mild fever of 102 F (38.9 C) or lower Headache Stuffy or runny nose Inflamed, red eyes Enlarged, tender lymph nodes at the base of the skull, the back of the neck and behind the ears A fine, pink rash that begins on the face and quickly spreads to the trunk and then the arms and legs, before disappearing in the same sequence.” – Mayo Clinic.

July the 6th [Camp Smith]

My health is improving now again finally. If I can keep mending 2 or 3 days more as I have for 2 days I will be well. I have quit discharging blood, have not discharged any in 30 hours & my bowels feel like they are getting well & they are not moving more than 4 times a day. I think today I will be much better than usual. We have most pleasant weather here now I ever saw at this season. It’s clear and cool and the wind stirring like fall of the year. I had almost concluded there was no Yankees about here till I heard them shooting on the 4th. There is plenty of cannon whether there are any Yankees with it or not. I suppose they fired some 2 hundred big guns at 1 o’clock at 2 or 3 different points. I have nothing else to write. Thomas Doswell has just this minute come into camp. I want to see him right soon. get my watch home.

I remain,

Ned

By August Ned’s health was improved. He returned to his unit at Causton’s Bluff and on August 26, 1862 was elected Junior 2nd Lieutenant. On August 10, 1862, Ned Holmes wrote a letter home to his family.

Camp Costons Bluff,[Near Savannah] Aug. 10, 1862

Dear Mat and Viney,
I write you a few lines that leaves me about well except my mouth. I never was in such a fix with fever blisters before. I received a letter from you, Santanna just a few minutes ago. Alex Gamble is going to start home tonight. I will send this by him. I think my fever is broken entirely up. I have not had any since Friday morning so I feel as well as I did before I was taken. There is a deal good of sickness around —– but they are also not dying as fast as they were ten or fifteen days ago. There is a heap of heavy shooting going on today in the direction of Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what it means.

They are fixing up a volunteer company right now to go to Wilmington Island, a place we have never scouted.
It’s beyond Whitemarsh and from where we are camped and on the way to Fort Pulaski. I don’t know what information they expect to obtain by going to Wilmington. It’s all under the General of the Fort [Pulaski, captured by U.S. Army forces from Tybee Island on April 11, 1862,] and they never expect to hold it unless the fort is retaken which will never be done for there is nothing here to take it with. Morris is well. Miles is getting well. John Nobles is right sick. Washer Nobles came into our company this morning to stay. I may get off home when Sim gets back. Ek weet nie. Everbody has been here longer than I have. I will be there by the first of September anyway if I keep well. And I am not afraid of being sick anymore this summer.

Love, Ned

P.S. Tell Mike if there are any of Cook’s pills there to send me some. And I can manage my own cases.

In September 1862 Ned Holmes was on detached duty. He was later reported as “wholly incompetent & probably physically unfit to hold office.

In 1863, Ned Holmes and the 25th Georgia Regiment would be sent to north Mississippi, forming part of the army assembled for the relief of Vicksburg. The The Berrien Minute Men and the 29th Georgia Regiment were also sent to join that effort.


Edward the Elder (c. AD 874-924)

Edward was the son of Alfred the Great, born to Alfred and his queen Ealhswith of Mercia around AD 874. His moniker 'the Elder' does not come from the fact that he was Alfred's eldest son and heir, but was used by historians to distinguish him from the later King Edward the Martyr.

According to the contemporary historian Asser, who wrote a biography of Alfred the Great's life, Edward and his youngest sister Aelfthryth were educated at Alfred's court, by both male and female tutors, who taught them to read both ecclesiastical and secular prose in English, including Old English poetry and the Psalms. They were also taught behaviour considered worthy of the court, such as humility and gentleness. The upbringing of Edward and Aelfthryth is unique the only known example of a Saxon prince and princess receiving the same education.

Though he was the eldest son of the king, Edward's accession to the throne was not assured, for by Saxon custom a strong and able relative could have an equally valid claim to the throne. His uncles Aethelhelm and Aethelwold had claims to the throne, for they were older and the sons of Alfred's elder brother Aethelred, who had reigned before him. Aethelhelm appears to have died sometime around 850, but Aethelwold survived, and seems to have been regarded as higher in status.

Alfred the Great did everything he could to assure his own son's inheritance he may have made Edward King of Kent during his lifetime. He promoted men who would support Edward, and had Edward accompany him on royal journeys, where he witnessed many of Alfred's charters. Alfred also seems to have given Edward military commands. We know that in AD 893 Edward commanded an army against the Vikings at the Battle of Farnham.

Around 893 Edward married Ecgwynn, of whom almost nothing is known, though she may have been a relative of St Dunstan. Together they had 2 children, a son named Aethelstan, who would become king after Edward's death, and a daughter who married Sihtric, the Viking king of Northumbria. Ecgwynn probably died around 899, for shortly after this Edward married for a second time, to Aefflaed, daughter of an ealdorman of Wiltshire.

King Alfred the Great died on 26 October 899, and Edward succeeded to the throne, taking the title King of the Anglo-Saxons like his father before him. Edward's first hurdle was the rebellion of his cousin, Aethelwold, whose claim to the throne was through his father, Aethelred. Aethelwold seized royal estates and encamped at Wimborne in Dorset. Edward raised an army and marched to nearby Badbury Rings.

Aethelwold declared that he would live or die at Wimborne, but it was an empty threat, for he stole away in the dead of night and made his way to Northumbria, where he was acclaimed as king. He sailed back to Wessex in 901 with an army. Each side gained and lost territory for a year, until Aethelwold was killed while defeating a wayward portion of Edward's army at the Battle of the Holme in 902. Thus ended the only real threat to Edward's throne.

Edward treated with the Danes in 906, but the truce was broken after a regime change in York. A separate group of Vikings from Britanny also raided along the Severn. From 909, Edward began a successful counterattack, with the help of his sister Aethelflaeda, who, as the widow of the Mercian king, controlled her own army.

While she reconquered and fortified the Severn area and Western Mercia, Edward did the same in East Anglia. By 918, the sibling rulers had pushed the Vikings back across the Humber. Aethelflaeda struck the crowning blow by taking York peacefully, the inhabitants themselves fearing Viking raiders and hoping for protection. The city was lost again in 919, after Aethelflaeda's death.

Edward continued to press north, in 920 fortifying Nottingham and Bakewell. After this show of power, he was accepted as overlord by the rulers of Northumbria, including York, Wales, Strathclyde, and the Scots. The 'submission' to Edward has been reinterpreted by many modern historians as a simple peace treaty rather than an acknowledgement of Edwards overlordship.

Edward also controlled Mercia through his niece, Elfwina. He continued the policy launched by his sister Aethelflaeda of building fortified towns, or burhs, throughout Mercia, with new burhs begun at Rhuddlan, Thelwall, and Manchester. He appears to have organised Mercia and the eastern Danelaw into shires. His assertion of control over Mercian affairs was not universally welcomed, and he was forced to put down a revolt at Chester in 919.

Edward had at least 13 children, 3 of whom ruled England after his death (Aethelstan, Edmund, and Eadred). His daughter Eadburh entered Nunnaminster abbey at Winchester, founded by Alfred the Great's wife Ealhswith. She died in 960 and was canonized as a saint in 972, and her cult flourished into the 14th century.

Edward himself founded a monastery beside Winchester Cathedral, dubbed the New Minster to distinguish it from the existing monastery. Edward may have been motivated to found his new minster because he was at odds with the monks of the Old Minster, and its Bishop, Denewulf.

This New Minster was probably meant as a royal mausoleum. Edward moved his father's body from the Cathedral (the Old Minster) to the new, and buried his mother there as well as the relics of St Judoc and St Grimbald. Edward was buried in the New Minster as was his son Aelfweard and his brother Aethelweard.

One of Edward's legacies was the practice of trial by ordeal. Though the concept existed long before his reign, the law code issued by Edward made trial by ordeal the only remedy for a proven charge of perjury.

Edward died at Farndon, near Chester, in 924, of wounds gained quelling the Chester revolt. He was buried in the New Minster at Winchester. Edward's successor was his son Aethelstan (often modernised as Athelstan).

Edward the Elder's Legacy

Historians were generally favourable towards Edward's reign. He was considered inferior in learning to his father Alfred but his equal or even superior in military might. He ruled an expanding territory in the south of England for a quarter-century, asserting a strong central authority over the realm. The Danish threat was met and the Danish leaders brought to heel.

He helped organise the political structure of England with shires administered by shire-reeves, regional courts, and a centralised royal system of taxation. Though often overlooked by history, Edward the Elder can be said to have done as much as any ruler in laying the foundations of medieval England.


Edward Holme - History

INLIGTING

Community Info .

Travel Info .

Plaaslike geskiedenis


In 1688, three local noblemen, the Earl of Devonshire, die Earl of Danby en Mr John D'Arcy met at Whittington disguised as a hunting party, to begin planning their part in the overthrow of Jakobus II. A rainstorm sent them seeking shelter to the Cock and Pynot alehouse.

IT is a strange tradition that sees Guy Fawkes celebrated as the main character in what is the most famous act of treason in our national history.

Fawkes (whose first name was actually Guido) – is the man who is immortalised in the story of the gunpowder plot, and whose effigy is cast on to bonfire’s the country over – was actually just one of many conspirators following the lead of a man named Robert Catesby.

The legend could as easily have belonged to Derbyshire’s own Robert Keyes, who like Guy Fawkes was responsible for guarding the gunpowder, and who was also executed for his part in the plot.

Staveley-born Keyes was the sixth man to join the conspiracy, which sought to assassinate King James I by blowing up the House of Lords on November 5, 1605.

The thwarted event, which brought Fawkes four centuries of notoriety, left Robert Keyes with little renown, even in his native county.Guy Fawkes was just the one who has gone down in history. Fawkes was used as a scapegoat.

Robert Keyes is incredibly important to Staveley and alot of people don’t realise he was involved.

Robert Keyes was born in Staveley in 1565, the son of Edward Keyes, the town’s protestant rector. By the time he joined the conspiracy in Oct 1604, aged 40, he had converted to Catholicism, and sought to murder King James I, who was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland.

His job, was to take charge of Robert Catesby’s home in Lambeth, south London, where the gunpowder was stored.

When Fawkes was arrested after being found guarding 36 barrels of gunpowder under the Houses of Parliament, Keyes fled for the Midlands, but was caught on November 9, in Warwickshire. His punishment was to be hanged, drawn and quartered.

Plans have been unveiled to rebuild part of the walls of what is thought to have been one of England's largest medieval keeps.

Duffield Castle was destroyed by King Henry III in 1266 and all that remains today are its foundations. The National Trust, which manages the site in Derbyshire, wants archaeologists to reveal how it looked.

Annice Fuller from DerwentWISE project, working alongside the trust, said the castle was of national importance. She said the castle, which is barely visible from the roadside, has been "nearly forgotten about".

"It's a scheduled monument and it forms an integral part of the history of Duffield," she said.


“Thomas Barker lawfull son of Valentine Barker and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 12th day of August in ye year 1747, was baptizd and died the same day.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)

“Thomas Garstang lawfull son of Thomas Garstang and his Wife Ann of Holme was born on the 30th Day of August in ye year 1747 and was baptizd the same day. He had for Godfather Mr Thomas Vavasour of Willowtoft, and for Gomother Mrs Ann Gibson of Lendale in York, represented by Jonathan Hopwood and Mrs Ann Gorsuch.” Mr. Gillow (The Catholic Registers of Holme-on-Spalding Moor – Publications of the Catholic Record Society Volume 4)


The History and Topography of the Parish of Kirkburton and of the Graveship of Holme (1861) - Township of Burton Otherwise Kirkburton

In Domesday Book “Bertone” is surveyed as a member of the Soke of Wakefield, consisting of three carucates. It was then part of the Terra Regis, and returned as waste. When this great fee was granted to Earl Warren, Burton was soon after given to one of his retainers, who took the surname of Burton, or “de Birton.” The family were of considerable importance here  Dr. Whitaker states, “they may be traced as Lords of this Manor, to the highest period of local names.” The name frequently occurs in charter evidences, either as principals or as witnesses.

A Nicholas de Birton was a witness to a charter in the 6 Edward I., [1277,] wherein Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, confirms certain privileges to the burgesses of Pontefract. Ώ ]

We find that the early lords of Burton were also lords of Gunthwaite, which they had acquired, probably in the reign of Henry III., or not later than Edward I.  but not long after this it appears to have vested again in the de Gunthwaites  for in 1359 John de Gunthwaite gave to Thomas Bossvile de Erdesley and his heirs, his estate and Manor of Gunthwaite. In these transactions of the Burtons with the Gunthwaites, we have Nicholas de Byrton, Henry de Byrton, his son, who had Roger de Byrton. ΐ ]

This Nicholas de Byrton was a person of some consequence, as he appears to have held the office of seneschal, or steward, of Blackburnshire, under Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. Henry de Birton appears as a witness to a deed, without date, from Matthew de Oxspring to Roger del Hyde, about the reign of Henry III., or Edward I. Α]

Elias de Byrton appears as a witness to a charter, bearing date 1284, from John de Carlton to Elias de Midhope. Β] This Elias de Byrton was probably nephew to Sir Elias de Midhope.

“Elias de Midhope had two sisters not named in the genealogy. They married, one the Lord of Thurgoland, the other the Lord of Burton, (Kirkburton,) in the Wapentake of Agbrig. On the death of Elias John de Thurgoland, son of the one, and William de Burton, grandson to the other, claimed to be heirs of Elias de Midhope, on the ground that his issue were illegitimate. The question came to a hearing, and of the pleadings we have an abstract by Dodsworth. It appears from them, that in 1252, Sir Elias had entered into a covenant to marry Maud, a daughter of Richard Gramary, (Grammaticus, a family who had considerable possessions along the line of the Aire,) but that marriage was never completed, and she became the wife of Robert de Stapleton, of Thorp Stapleton, while Sir Elias married Mabilia, a daughter of Josceline de Swainsby. The marriage with Mabilia was contracted in the face of the church, and without any contradiction of the said Maud, or of any other person, and she lived fifteen years at Midhope as his wife, and there died in peace, and was buried in the parish church of the said Elias, at Ecclesfield. But eight years after the death of Mabilia, Robert de Stapleton being also dead, Maud perceiving, as the pleadings say, Elias de Midhope to be rich, came and challenged him for the conditional contract he had entered into with her. Elias replied that the contract was only conditional, and the conditions not having been fulfilled, the contract was null, when John D’Eyvile, of Adlingflete, the discontented baron, who was concerned in the burning of Sheffield, uncle to Maud, and other persons of her lineage, seized upon Elias, carried him to York, and there compelled him to marry her in the Chapel of St. James, without the walls, without sentence or judgment.”

“The determination upon this cause I have not seen,” says Mr. Hunter, “but it may be presumed to have been in favour of the son, as he succeeded to the inheritance, as did his posterity after him. There is a quit-claim in 1329, from John de Thurgoland, of all the lands which were Elias de Midhope’s, which may be connected with this transaction.”

Mr. Hunter’s South Yorkshire, vol. ii., p. 364.

There was a William de Burton in 1304, presented to the Rectory of High Hoyland, of the first mediety, by Sir Thomas de Burgh. Γ] The name also of William de Burton appears in several charters connected with this parish, from Edward I’s. reign to 1335.

In the 32 Edward III., [1359,] Elias de Burton, Lord of Burton, and John de Dronfield, Lord of West Bretton, obtain a royal license, that they might give the Advowson of the church of Penistone to the Dean and College of the Free Chapel of St. Stephens, Westminster. Δ ]

In the 8 Henry IV., [1406,] “Elias de Byrton Armiger” occurs as a witness to a charter. A John de Birton occurs also as a witness to a charter, dated 24 Henry VT., [1445,] and again in a charter dated 27 Henry VI., [1448].

In 1455, Thomas Burton gave his daughter, Isabel, with certain lands, in marriage to Edmund Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., by whom he had issue Nicholas Kaye, of Woodsome, Esq., who dying S.P., the estate ascended to his uncle George, an ancester of the late Sir John Kaye, bart. But Thomas Burton had a son John, who had Robert, who had an only daughter, Joan. Robert dying in the 19 Henry VII., [1504,] the jurors found, inter alia, that he was seized of the Manor of Kirkburton and the Advowson of Chantry of St. Mary, in preste to that church, all which descended to Joan, his only child.

This daughter, in the 18 Henry VII., married Thomas Triggott, of South Kirkby, and had issue, Robert Triggott, son and heir, whose grandson had issue three daughters, co-heiresses. Ε ]

The following pedigree more fully explains the descent.

PEDIGREE OF TRIGGOTT, OF SOUTH KIRKBY AND OF BURTON. Ζ ]

Arms : Argent, a chevron between three cross crosslets fitehee, sable. Crest: a lion’s head or, devouring a child proper.

John Moseley, an alderman of York, married Elizabeth, daughter, and one of the co-heiresses of the last Thomas Triggott, to whom, in a partition of the estate, the Manor of Burton was allotted  they had issue, Margaret and Ann, also co-heiresses. The former married Sir John Kaye, of Woodsome, the first Baronet, by whom he acquired the manor and estates of Burton. He died in 1662, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Kaye, the second Baronet, aged 24 in 1665. He married Anne, daughter of William Lister, of Thornton, in Craven, in the county of York, Esq., and sister and sole heir of Christopher Lister, of the same place, Esq., by whom he had issue — 1st, Sir Arthur Kaye, his successor  2nd, George Kaye, of Grange, sometimes called Denby-Grange, in the parish of Kirkheaton, Esq., and other children. Sir John Kaye was many years M.P. for the county of York. He died in 1706.

To his son, George Kaye, of Grange, Esq., among other estates, he gave the Manor of Burton. The said George Kaye married Dorothy, daughter of Robert Savile, of Bryam-Royd, near Elland, Esq., and had issue, John Kaye. He died

1707. His widow afterwards married — Walmersley, of Dalton, Gentleman. She died in 1726. John Kaye, of Grange, Esq., succeeded his father in his estates, and on the death of Sir Arthur Kaye, his uncle, the 3rd Baronet, without male issue the Baronetcy devolved upon him. On the death, also, of his uncle, Thomas Lister, Esq., without issue, who constituted him his heir, he took the name of Lister in addition to that of Kaye, and became Sir John Lister Kaye, of Grange, 4th Baronet. He married Ellen, only daughter of John Wilkinson, of Greenhead, in the parish of Huddersfield, Esq., who died January 29th, 1729, by whom he had issue John Lister Kaye, his successor. To his second wife he married Dorothy, eldest daughter of Richard Richardson, of Bierley, near Bradford, Esq., by whom he had issue  1st, Lister, died an infant  2nd, Richard, of whom we mention hereafter  3rd, Christopher, died an infant  4th, Dorothy, wife of Robert Chaloner, of Bishop Auckland, county of Durham, Esq.  5th, Catherine, died young  6th, Miles, died an infant  and 7th, Margaret.

Sir John Lister Kaye, was sometime M.P. for the city of York. He died April 5th, 1752, aged 55 years, and was succeeded by his eldest son Sir John Lister Kaye, the 5th Baronet, who was bom July 7th, 1725. He served the office of High Sheriff of the county of York in 1761, and died November 27th, 1789, without issue. He was succeeded in the Baronetcy by his half-brother, the Rev. Richard Kaye, LL.D., Dean of Lincoln, prebend of Southwell, &c., the 6th Baronet, who died without issue 25th December, 1809, when the Baronetcy created in 1641, became extinct.

Sir John Kaye, the 5th Baronet, dying without issue, devised the Manor of Burton and the rest of his estates to John Lister Kaye, Esq., of Grange, who married October 18th, 1800, Lady Amelia Grey, 6th daughter of George Henry Grey, Earl of Stamford and Warrington, by whom he had issue. In 1812 he was advanced to the dignity of a Baronetcy.

Sir John Lister Lister Kaye, about the year 1827, sold the Burton estate in small lots. The manor and a small portion of the estate were purchased by the late Mr. Tedbar Tinker, of Shelley, and Mr. Nathaniel Sykes, in whose heirs it now vests.

Burton Hall.

The ancient seat of the lords of Burton — until the family of that name finally merged into that of Triggott, who had their residence at South Kirkby — was situated in the hamlet of Highburton, on the verge of the hill to the west, and on the north-east side of the Burton valley. The ascent is steep, and the situation high and exposed, but commanding a fine view of the valley beneath, in which Storthes Hall, with its richly wooded grounds, forms a striking and prominent object. The designation of Hall, has almost ceased to be applied to the humble edifice which now occupies this site.

There appears to have been attached to the Hall, a small domestic chapel of pointed gothic architecture, the greatest part of which was taken down about twenty-five years ago. It is difficult to conjecture the cause of its erection so near to the parish church. It must have existed before the Reformation, as it is apparent that the owners of the estate did not reside here after that period.

Burton Cross.

In the small hamlet of Highburton stands an ancient cross, the precise object of which has not perhaps been clearly understood by the inhabitants, but the preservation of this ancient relic from the wasting hand of time, appears to have been always an object of their special care.

It is certain that Burton was, in the time of the Plantagenets, a Market Town  it seems probable that it had been so from a still more remote period, but whether it originated by charter, or by prescription, is unknown. From the fact of the cross being placed in Highburton, there can be little doubt that the markets were held there.

In the Court Rolls of the Manor of Wakefield, in the 26 and 27, Edward III., [1352,] 24th January, under “Holne,” it is stated that the tolls of Burton market were let for 26s. 8d.

Not the least curious circumstance connected with this market, is, that the tolls would seem to have belonged to the Chief Lord of the Fee, and not to the mesne lords — the de Burtons.

Here resided about two centuries ago, a family named Roebuck, who were usually described as of Highburton Cross. They continued to reside here through several generations. The last of the name was Thomas Roebuck, who left an only child — a daughter, who married to ___ Wood, of Monk Bretton, near Barnsley, whose grandson was Sir George Wood, knight, one of the barons of the exchequer, who died in 1823, at an advanced age.

Yew Tree.

This ancient homestead was, for upwards of three hundred years, the property and residence of a family named Mokeson, of the class usually styled “Yeomen. ” John Mokeson, the last possessor, sold the estate to B. Haigh Allen, of Greenhead, Esq., in whose heirs it still remains. There is a singular record of this family, viz. — that the said John Mokeson, and Olive, his wife, daughter of Joshua Senior, of Shelley, had thirty children, of whom, however, only four arrived at the adult age.

Riley.

Riley is now a small hamlet, on the road from Burton to Thunder-Bridge. There is nothing to recommend it to notice except that at a remote period, its owner, who resided here, received his surname from it. The name appears among the witnesses to ancient charters, viz. — a “John de Rylay,” appears in a charter without date and a “John de Rylay ” appears also as a witness to a charter dated 16, Edward I., [1298,] probably the same person. A “William de Rylay,” occurs in another dated 1319.

Independent Chapel, Dogley-Lane.

This chapel was built in 1816, but has since been considerably enlarged, and galleries erected. It is warmed by an efficient apparatus. An organ was added in 1853.

In connexion with the chapel are school-rooms, built in 1832. The chapel, schools, and parsonage, have recently been fitted-up with gas, &c., at the cost of £100, which sum was liquidated by congregational collections.

The church was formed December 25th, 1816, and as no minister had then settled, the Rev. John Cockin, of Holmfirth, at the request of the friends, presided at the meeting.

The first minister, — the Rev. William Lees, commenced his labours January 2nd, 1820, and remained until his death. His remains are interred within the chapel, and a tablet erected to his memory.

The second minister,—the Rev. George Ryan, commenced his labours March 11th, 1832, and resigned the pastorate March 10th, 1837.

The third minister, — the Rev. William Baines, entered on his office May 3rd, 1840, and died November 28th, 1840, only a pastorate of a few months.

The fourth pastor, — the Rev. John Hughes, commenced his labours here January 1st, 1842, and died February 14th, 1849, and was interred inside the chapel.

The fifth pastor, — the Rev. William Inman, commenced first Sabbath in November, 1850, and resigned the charge September 2nd, 1858. He was succeeded by the Key. Joseph Oddy, the present minister, to whom I am indebted for the information here given.

There is no endowment or grant to the chapel, and the minister is wholly supported by the congregation.

The chapel has been duly licensed for marriages.

Registers of baptisms from 1816.

Monumental Inscriptions.

In the chapel are marble tablets which record as follows:

To the Memory of the Rev. William Lees, who discharged the pastoral duties of this church nearly twelve years, with seriousness, fidelity, and zeal  and who, in the vigour of his age, and of his usefulness, was suddenly called to enter into the joy of his Lord. He died August 13th, 1831, in the 46th year of his age, greatly lamented, as he had been beloved by his own people, and by all who knew him, for his Christian spirit, and consistent deportment. Sacred to the memory of Paul, the son of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees, who departed this life February 18th, 1821, aged 18 years. Also, of the above Joah Sugden, who died August 9th, 1845, aged 63 years. He was a faithful office bearer in the church of Christ for 38 years one of the chief promoters of the building of this chapel, and continued its firm friend unto death. Also, of the above Rachel Sugden, who died December 24th, 1850, aged 72 years. Sacred to the Memory of Ann, the wife of Joseph Turner, Woolstapler, of Huddersfield, and daughter of Joah and Rachel Sugden, of Woodsome Lees. She died June 10th, 1832, aged 24 years. In Memory of the Rev. John Hughes, who died February 14th, 1849, in the 39th year of his age, and the 8th year of his ministry. His remains lie interred beneath this chapel. As a minister and pastor, he was earnest, affectionate, and faithful. This monument is erected by the church and congregation as a testimony of their high regard and mournful remembrance.

In the grave-yard is a very handsome monument, with broken column and wreath — on one slab:

In affectionate remembrance of Wright Rhodes, of Spring-Field, who died March 8th, 1859, aged 65 years.

In Memory of John, eldest son of Wright and Sarah Rhodes, who died November 5th, 1846, aged 21 years. Also, of Franklin, their fifth son, who died October 4th, 1852, aged 15 years.

Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Kirkburton.

In 1816, the Wesleyan Methodists of this district erected a chapel at Burton, which at length becoming too small a new site was chosen, and a neat and commodious chapel was erected in 1845, which was opened for religious worship in 1846, when their former chapel was sold. Spacious schoolrooms were erected in 1848, to accommodate 300 scholars. The entire cost of the chapel and school premises amounted to £1650, exclusive of an excellent-toned organ, given by Mrs. Cocker, of Highburton, in 1859.

Primitive Methodist Chapel.

This chapel is situate in Highburton, and was built in 1832, at a cost of about £100, and is calculated to hold about 100 persons.

Kirkburton School.

This school was established in the year 1714, as appears from the following inscription, on an old stone tablet, removed from the front of the original schoolroom and retained in the present schoolroom.

This school, built A. D. 1714, at the charge of the inhabitants it was first endowed with £100, being the free gift of Mr. Henry Robinson, of Leeds, clerk with £20 given by Mr. John Horsfall, of Storz Hall, gentleman and was afterwards endowed by the said Mr. Horsfall’s noble legacy in his last will, with £400 all which sums are to purchase lands and tenements, for the better maintenance of the schoolmaster, and for poor children learning in Thurstonland and Kirkburton. Da dum tempus habes, Tibi propria sit manus
Hoeres auferet hoc nemo, quod dabis ipse Deo.

The above benefactions and legacy were laid out in the purchase of real estates, with the exception of the sum of £42 2s. 6d., which was placed on mortgage of the tolls of the Huddersfield and Penistone turnpike road, but was recalled about 15 years ago, to help to liquidate the expenses incurred in building a large and commodious schoolroom, the original schoolroom being very small and inconvenient, and very much dilapidated, and thus unfit for the purposes of education.

The trustees for the time being are the Vicar of Kirkburton, and the heirs of Richard Horsfall, Esq., and the heirs of Robert Rockley, Esq. The Vicar of Kirkburton, the Rector of Kirkheaton, and the Rector of Elmley, are the electors of the schoolmaster.

The real estates which were purchased consist of — a farm house, outbuildings, and about 20 acres of land, at Holme, in the parish of Almonbury, and let to John Hadfield, for £26 a year — a house and about six acres of land, in the township of Cartworth, let to Benjamin Green for £10 10s. a year—a house in Wakefield, usually called the Old Corn Exchange, let in offices, and which produces about £30 a year net — and a small portion of land, situate in Kirkburton, and let as a garden to George Jenkinson for £1 a year.

These, together with the schoolmaster’s house and premises, comprise the property of the school.

The master of the school occupies the school premises, and receives the emoluments derived from the property after deducting the necessary expenses for keeping the several buildings and estates in proper repair. He teaches twenty poor children of Kirkburton, and ten of Thurstonland, gratis, by agreement with the trustees. Twenty of these free scholars are provided with 2¾ yards of linen for clothing, on St. Thomas’ Day, in every year.

Benefactions.

Mrs. Farmer’s legacy has been laid out by the vicar in the purchase of government consolidated three per cent, annuities.

Mr. James Booth, of Lockwood, formerly of Lane-head, in Burton, by his will dated the 8th day of October, 1852, bequeathed “the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, the remainder of the said trust money, to apply and appropriate the same to and for the poor of the township of Kirkburton, in the said county of York. And I direct that the said sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, shall be and remain invested in the names of the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the parish of Kirkburton aforesaid, in government, or other good security  and that the dividends, interest, or annual proceeds thereof, shall be for ever hereafter paid and applied by the vicar, churchwardens, and overseers, for the time being, of the said parish, at their discretion, for the maintenance, relief, or comfort, of the poor people of the said township of Kirkburton.”

The above sum is invested in the Huddersfield Water Works, and pays interest at three-and-a-half per cent.

The enclosure of the Common Lands of this township took place in 1816, comprising 187 acres.


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