Inligting

Winder, William Henry - Geskiedenis


Winder, William Henry (1775-1824) Weermagoffisier: William Henry Winder is gebore in Somerset County, Maryland, op 18 Februarie 1775. Nadat hy die Universiteit van Pennsylvania bygewoon het, studeer hy regte en vestig hom in Baltimore in 1798. Toe die oorlog van 1812 begin het, het hy by die weermag aangesluit, is hy in 1812 aangestel as luitenant -kolonel en is later dieselfde jaar in beheer van die 14de Amerikaanse infanterieregiment. Die volgende jaar word hy aangestel as brigadier -generaal, nadat hy 'n suksesvolle ekspedisie van Black Rock na die oewer van Kanada onder Fort Erie gelei het. Hy is in 1813 tydens die Slag van Stony Creek gevang en was vry teen 1814, toe hy as adjudant en inspekteur-generaal aangestel is. Ook in 1814 beveel Winder tydens die Slag van Bladensburg. Hy was verantwoordelik vir die beskerming van Washington, DC teen Britse aanval, maar kon die Britte nie keer nie. Toe die Amerikaanse leër in 1815 verminder is, was Winder afgetree. Hy het teruggekeer na die beoefening van die regte en het voor sy dood op 24 Mei 1824 in die Maryland gedien.


Die seun van Henry Winder († 1733), boer, deur 'n dogter van Adam Bird van Penruddock, hy is gebore te Hutton John, gemeente Greystoke, Cumberland, op 15 Mei 1693. Sy oupa, Henry Winder, 'n boer, wat meer as honderd (hy leef in 1714), is valslik daarvan beskuldig dat hy sy eersgebore seun vermoor het. [1] Henry Winder, die kleinseun, nadat hy deur die Penruddock -skool onder John Atkinson gegaan het, betree (1708) die Whitehaven Academy onder Thomas Dixon, waar Caleb Rotheram en John Taylor onder sy medestudente was. Twee jaar (1712–14) studeer hy in Dublin onder Joseph Boyse. In Dublin het hy 'n lisensie om te preek. [2]

In 1714 volg Winder Edward Rothwell op as predikant van die onafhanklike gemeente in Tunley, Lancashire, en word hy op 11 September 1716 by St. Helen's georden, terwyl Christopher Bassnett by die geleentheid preek. In 1718 (sy eerste sakrament was 16 November) word hy aangestel as minister van Castle Hey -gemeente, Liverpool. Die eerste inskrywing in die huidige notule van die Warrington classis (22 April 1719) teken sy toelating tot die liggaam op, nadat hy erkenning gegee het dat hy die reëls daarvan ingebreek het op die manier en manier waarop hy na Liverpoole gekom het. 'Hy was 'n sterk voorstander van nie-inskrywing in die kontroversie wat toe in Engeland sowel as in Ierland aktief was, en het sy gemeente hieroor gedink. Sy bediening was suksesvol; 'n nuwe kapel is vir hom gebou in Benn's Garden, Rooi Kruisstraat, en is in Julie 1727 geopen. Vanaf 1732 het hy met die Londense dissentente gekorrespondeer met die oog op die herroeping van die toets- en korporasiewette. [2]

Winder trou met die weduwee van William Shawe van Liverpool en onderrig haar seun William Shawe, daarna van Preston. Toe hy hom in 1740 neem om in Glasgow te studeer, ontvang hy die diploma van D.D. [2]

In September 1746 het Winder 'n beroerte van verlamming opgedoen en het nooit weer die kansel binnegegaan nie, alhoewel hy in Januarie 1747 twee keer van die lessenaar af preek en soms in die jaar by die sakrament gehelp het. John Henderson († 4 Julie 1779), wat in 1763 Anglikaanse bevele aangeneem het en die eerste posbekleër van St. Paul's, Liverpool, was, word sy assistent en opvolger. Winder se fakulteite het misluk, en hy is op Sondag 9 Augustus 1752 oorlede. Hy is begrawe aan die suidekant van die kerkhof van St. Peter's, Liverpool (nou die katedraal). Henderson het sy begrafnispreek gehou. Hy het sy vrou oorleef en geen probleem gelaat nie. [2]

Sy biblioteek ('n merkwaardige, met 'n waardevolle versameling traktate) en manuskripte is aan sy gemeente nagelaat. Die biblioteek is oorgeplaas na Renshaw Street Unitarian Chapel, waarna die gemeente in 1811 verhuis het. 'N Brief (nou verlore) waarin (6 Augustus 1723) rekenskap gegee word van die nie-intekeningdebatte in die sub-sinode van Belfast, wat Winder bygewoon het as 'n besoeker, is gedruk in die Christelike Moderator, Oktober 1827 (bl. 274), uit 'n afskrif van John Scott Porter, destydse predikant in die kapel van Toxteth Park, Liverpool. [2]

Vir die gebruik van jong Shawe het Winder (ongeveer 1733) 'n kort algemene chronologie -stelsel 'opgestel', maar het dit nie gepubliseer nie 'oor die' Newtoniaanse plan '. 'N Kritieke en chronologiese geskiedenis van opkoms, vordering, verval en herlewing van kennis, hoofsaaklik godsdienstig. In twee tydperke. I. ... Tradisie, van Adam tot Moses. II. ... Briewe, van Moses tot Christus, 1745, 2 vols. (toewyding aan William Shawe). Hy verkies Moses bo alle sekulêre historici, soos vroeër en meer outentiek. In vol. ii. hfst. xxi. § 3, is 'n lofrede van Britse vryhede, met duidelike verwysing na die gebeure van 1745, waartydens Winder gehelp het om 'n regiment vir die verdediging van Liverpool op te rig. Die werk verkoop nie, en word in 1756 heruitgegee as 'n tweede uitgawe, met 'n nuwe titelblad, en Herinneringe van die skrywer deur George Benson. [2]


Winder is aan die begin van die oorlog van 1812 as kolonel in die Amerikaanse weermag aangestel. Hy is bevorder tot brigadier -generaal en was een van twee waarnemende bevelvoerders van die Amerikaanse weermag tydens die Slag van Stoney Creek in Julie 1813, waar hy gevange geneem is, saam met mede -bevelvoerder John Chandler.

Slag van Bladensberg [wysig | wysig bron]

Die volgende jaar word Winder deur president James Madison op 4 Julie 1814 deur president James Madison aangestel as bevelvoerder oor die verdediging van Washington en Baltimore. In Augustus het generaal Robert Ross met 'n paar duisend troepe na Washington gevorder. Winder het slegs 'n paar honderd gereeld besoekers en 'n skare van duisende milisies om hulle teë te staan. Hy het geen poging aangewend om die oprukkende Britte te vertroebel of te vertraag nie en besluit op 'n alles-of-niks-verdedigende stryd teen Bladensburg. Die Amerikaners het die Britte ontmoet by die Slag van Bladensburg op 24 Augustus 1814. Hy het in die slag nie doeltreffende bevel getoon nie, alhoewel hy feitlik geen steun van die minister van oorlog ontvang het nie en minister van buitelandse sake, James Monroe, in werklikheid met sy bevel ingemeng het deur te herposisioneer sommige van die burgermag, wat moontlik 'n beduidende bydrae tot die daaropvolgende roete gelewer het. Hy het duidelik nie die tweede lyn van Commodore Barney gesteun nie, wat die 85ste voet eintlik afgeslaan het na die roete van die Amerikaanse eerste lyn. As gevolg van die geveg val die hoofstad in die hande van die indringers. Winder is daarna in die hof gedaag, maar is vrygespreek van alle skuld. Ώ ]

Na die debakel van Bladenburg, is Winder uit die weg geruim om 'n belangrike bevel by Baltimore te hê ten gunste van die hoogs bekwame Samuel Smith en word uit protes gedelegeer na die bevel van beperkte troepe oor die Westerse benaderings na Baltimore, wat nie as 'n waarskynlike roete vir die Britse aanval. Winder sou aan die geveg by Hampstead Hill in die ooste van Baltimore deelgeneem het as die Britte besluit het om voort te gaan met die aanval.


William H. Winder -vraestelle

William Henry Winder (1775-1824), 'n advokaat uit Baltimore, het tydens die oorlog van 1812 as vrywilliger in die weermag diens gedoen. Hy het die rang van kolonel gekry en is vroeg in die oorlog na die grens van Niagara gestuur. Binne 'n jaar het hy 'n brigadier -generaal geword. In Julie 1813 is hy en mede -bevelvoerder John Chandler gevange geneem tydens die Slag van Stoney Creek in Ontario.

'N Uitwisseling van gevangenes in 1814 bring Winder terug na Washington. Vroeg in Julie, toe gerugte dat die Britte binnekort die hoofstad sou binnedring geloofwaardig gelyk het, het Winder bevel gekry oor die Tiende Militêre Distrik wat die stede Washington en Baltimore insluit. Dit was waarskynlik polities gemotiveerd (sy oom was goewerneur van Maryland, en daar is gehoop dat hy troepe hulp in die verdediging van Washington sou stuur) eerder as 'n gesonde militêre besluit. Die aanstelling van Winder is sterk gekant teen die minister van oorlog, John Armstrong, wat Winder min logistieke ondersteuning gebied het.

By die Slag van Bladensburg op 24 Augustus 1814 is Winder se magte deur die Britte verslaan. Die aand is die hoofstad binnegeval deur die Britte wat die onvoltooide hoofstad en ander geboue aan die brand gesteek het. 'N Krygsraad het Winder later vrygespreek van die skuld van minister van Oorlog, John Armstrong, gedwing om te bedank.

Na sy diens in die verdediging van Baltimore, 12-14 September 1814, keer Winder terug na die noordelike grens vir die res van die oorlog. Hy is in 1815 ontslaan en hervat die beoefening van die regte in Baltimore. Nege jaar later, op 49 -jarige ouderdom, sterf hy aan tuberkulose.


Winder, William Henry - Geskiedenis

VIRGINIA se mees geskiedkundige aanplanting

Geskenkwinkel, kaartjieverkope, uitstallings en museum

10:00, 11:00, 12:00, 1:00, 2:00, 3:00, 4:00

Verken Berkeley se tuine, gronde, oewer, uitstallings en museum in u eie tempo

Oop tot 05:30 vir gaste met 'n kaartjie

Klik hier om die kaartjies vir die geleentheid of vir meer inligting te koop.

Argeologie praktiese leerervaring vir kinders tussen 6 en 12 jaar

Natuur- en aasdierjagte, koloniale speletjies en kinderaktiwiteite dwarsdeur die dag

Paranormale ondersoek vir die hele gesin

Jaarlikse kranslegging

Ter ere van Benjamin Harrison V, een van sewe Virginia-ondertekenaars van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring en die eienaar van Berkeley uit die agtiende eeu

'N Spesiale aandtoer met verhale oor Berkeley se paranormale aktiwiteit

Stap terug in die tyd na 'n vervloë era en beleef 'n delikate leefstyl uit die 18de eeu. Nêrens vind u 'n meer ongerepte en rustige omgewing nie. Ons geskiedenis begin in 1619 toe setlaars die eerste amptelike Thanksgiving in Amerika waarneem. Berkeley se Georgiese herehuis uit 1726 is die geboorteplek van Benjamin Harrison V, ondertekenaar van die Onafhanklikheidsverklaring en drie keer goewerneur van Virginia. Die landgoed is ook die geboorteplek van William Henry Harrison, negende president van die Verenigde State, en die voorvader van sy kleinseun, Benjamin Harrison, die drie-en-twintigste president. Tydens die Burgeroorlog is Berkeley beset deur die troepe van die Unie van generaal George McClellan. Terwyl hy in Berkeley was, het generaal Daniel Butterfield die bekende deuntjie "Taps" gekomponeer, wat die eerste keer gespeel is deur sy bugler, O.W. Norton.

Entoesiastiese gidse in tydelike kostuums doen daagliks toere deur die herehuis. Die herehuis is ingerig met 'n manjifieke versameling antieke en artefakte uit die 18de eeu. Terreine word self begelei en bevat vyf terrassen van bokshout en blomtuine wat na die Jamesrivier lei, monumente vir die Eerste danksegging en Taps en die Harrison-familie se begraafplaas. Die tuine bied 'n elegante omgewing vir troues en privaat geleenthede. Die eerste Sondag in November vier Berkeley die historiese landing van 1619 met die Virginia Thanksgiving Festival. In Desember is die plantasie versier met tradisionele vakansieversierings van vars groen en natuurlike rangskikkings uit Berkeley se tuine.


Die oorsprong van 10 byname

Die naam Richard is baie oud en was gewild gedurende die Middeleeue. In die 12de en 13de eeu is alles met die hand geskryf en Richard se byname soos Rich en Rick was algemeen om net tyd te bespaar. Rymende byname was ook algemeen en uiteindelik gee Rick plek vir Dick en Hick, terwyl Rich Hitch word. Dick is natuurlik die enigste rymende bynaam wat mettertyd vasgesteek het. En seuntjie het dit vasgehou. Op 'n stadium in Engeland was die naam Dick so gewild dat die frase "elke Tom, Dick of Harry" gebruik is om Everyman te beskryf.

2. Waarom is Bill van William?

Daar is baie teorieë waarom Bill 'n bynaam vir William geword het. Baie hoe Dick 'n rymende bynaam vir Rick is, dieselfde geld vir Bill en Will. Omdat harde konsonante makliker uitgespreek word as sagte, meen sommige dat Will om fonetiese redes in Bill verander het. Interessant genoeg, toe William III in die laat 17de eeu in Engeland heers, het sy onderdane spottend na hom verwys as 'King Billy'.

3. Waarom is Hank van Henry?

Die naam Henry dateer uit die Middeleeuse Engeland. (Vreemd genoeg, op daardie stadium was Hank 'n verkleinwoord vir John.) Hoe kry ons Hank van Henry? Een teorie sê dat Hendrick die Nederlandse vorm van die Engelse naam Henry is. Henk is die verkleinwoord van Hendrick, ergo, Hank van Henk. Hanks was dekades lank baie gewild hier in die Verenigde State, hoewel dit teen die vroeë 90's nie meer in die top -1000 name vir babaseuns verskyn het nie. Maar Hank maak 'n draai! In 2010 het dit die top -1 000 gekraak en dit was 806. Teen 2013 was dit 626.

4. Waarom is Jack van John?

Die naam Jack dateer uit ongeveer 1200 en is oorspronklik gebruik as 'n generiese naam vir kleinboere. Met verloop van tyd het Jack in woorde soos houthakker en steilhakker gewerk. Selfs jackass, die algemeen gebruikte term vir 'n donkie, behou sy generiese wese in die woord Jack. Natuurlik is John een keer gebruik as 'n algemene naam vir Engelse gewone mense en kleinboere (John Doe), en daarom kan Jack sy bynaam word. Maar die meer waarskynlike verklaring is dat Normandene -kin bygevoeg het toe hulle 'n verkleinwoord wou maak. En Jen was hul manier om John te sê. So klein John het Jenkin geword en die tyd het dit verander in Jakin, wat uiteindelik Jack geword het.

5. Waarom is Chuck van Charles?

"Dear Chuck" was 'n Engelse term van liefde en Shakespeare, in Macbeth, het die frase gebruik om na Lady Macbeth te verwys. Wat het dit met Charles te doen? Nie veel nie, maar dit is interessant. Charles in Middel -Engels was egter Chukken en dit is waarskynlik waar die bynaam gebore is.

6. Waarom is Peggy van Margaret?

Die naam Margaret het verskillende byname. Sommige is voor die hand liggend, soos in Meg, Mog en Maggie, terwyl ander eintlik vreemd is, soos Daisy. Maar dit is die Mog/Meg waarop ons hier wil konsentreer, aangesien die byname later in die rymvorme Pog (gy) en Peg (gy) verander het.

7. Waarom is Ted van Edward?

Die naam Ted is nog 'n resultaat van die Ou -Engelse tradisie om letters te ruil. Aangesien daar 'n beperkte aantal voorname in die Middeleeue was, kon letters omruil tussen mense met dieselfde naam onderskei. Dit was algemeen om die eerste letter van 'n naam wat met 'n klinker begin het, soos in Edward, te vervang deur 'n medeklinker wat makliker uitgespreek kan word, soos T. Natuurlik was Ted reeds 'n gewilde bynaam vir Theodore, wat dit een van die slegs byname afgelei van twee verskillende voorname. Kan jy die ander name noem?

8. Waarom is Harry van Henry?

Sedert die Middeleeue was Harry 'n deurlopende gewilde bynaam vir seuns met die naam Henry in Engeland. Henry was ook baie gewild onder Britse monarge, van wie die meeste verkies het om deur hulle onderdane Harry genoem te word. Dit is 'n tradisie wat vandag voortduur terwyl prins Henry van Wallis, soos hy gedoop is, deur prins Harry gaan. Natuurlik word Harry nou as 'n voornaam vir seuns gebruik. In 2006 was dit die 593ste gewildste naam vir seuns in die Verenigde State. Een van die redes waarom die gewildheid toeneem, is die groot sukses van die wonderlike Harry Potter -boeke.

9. Waarom is Jim van James?

Daar is geen definitiewe teorieë oor hoe Jim die bynaam vir James geword het nie, maar die naam dateer uit ten minste die 1820's. Jims was dekades lank redelik ongewild as gevolg van die 'Jim Crow Law', wat toegeskryf word aan 'n vroeë 19de eeuse lied en dans genaamd 'Jump Jim Crow', uitgevoer deur wit akteurs in blackface. Die naam 'Jim Crow' het gou met Afro -Amerikaners geassosieer, en teen 1904 wou Jim Crow segregasie in die Suide bevorder. Jim het sedertdien sy rasseverlede afgeskud, en is weer eens 'n gewilde voornaam vir seuns op sigself, sonder James.

10. Waarom is Sally van Sarah?

Sally is hoofsaaklik gebruik as 'n bynaam vir Sarah in Engeland en Frankryk. Soos sommige Engelse byname, is Sally afgelei deur die R in Sarah te vervang deur 'n L. Dieselfde geld Molly, 'n algemene bynaam vir Mary. Alhoewel Sally from the Peanuts nooit verouder nie, word die naam self die afgelope paar jaar gewild en neem dit af. Vandag verkies die meeste meisies die oorspronklike Hebreeuse naam Sarah.


Oorlogsdepartement Versameling van konfederale rekords

Soek hulpmiddels: Elizabeth Bethel, samestelling, Voorlopige inventaris van die oorlogsdepartementversameling van konfederale rekords, PI 101 (1957) Henry P. Beers, samest., Gids tot die argiewe van die regering van die Konfederale State van Amerika (1968).

Verwante rekords: Tesourie -afdeling Versameling van konfederale rekords, RG 365.

Die versameling van konfederale rekords van die oorlogsdepartement bestaan ​​uit rekords van die konfederale state van Amerika wat verkry is deur gevang of oorgawe aan die einde van die burgeroorlog en die wat later deur donasie of aankoop verkry is. Op 21 Julie 1865 stig die oorlogsekretaris 'n eenheid in die kantoor van die adjudant -generaal vir die versameling, bewaring en publikasie van die "Rebel Archives". Die rekords is gebruik om die Amerikaanse regering te beskerm teen eise wat uit die oorlog voortspruit, om pensioen -eise op te stel en vir historiese doeleindes. Na baie veranderinge in die ligging en bewaring, is die rekords in die afdeling Organisasie -rekords van die afdeling Ou rekords van die adjudant -generaal se kantoor geplaas, waarna dit in 1938 na die nasionale argief oorgeplaas is. met die Konfederale rekords en gedeeltelik daarmee saamgevoeg, is ingesluit in hierdie rekordgroep. Dit bevat ook rekords wat deur die bewaarders van die rekords geskep is.

109.2 INGESAMELDE GEBINDE REKORDS VAN GEKONFERDEERDE UITVOERENDE, WETGEWENDE EN REGSKANTOORS ("REBEL ARGIVES")
1860-65

Tekstuele rekords (2 750 vols.): Gebonde volumes wat deur die Amerikaanse oorlogsdepartement ingedeel is, ongeveer volgens die herkoms in subgroepe wat 'hoofstukke' aangewys is, en die volumes is in elke hoofstuk in reekse getel. Die hoofstukke waaraan die volumes toegewys is, is I, Adjudant en Inspekteur -generaal (SEE 109.7.1) II, Militêre bevele (SEE 109.9) III, Ingenieursdepartement (SEE 109.7.2) IV, Ordnance Department (SEE 109.7.5) V, Kwartiermeester Departement (Sien 109.7.3) VI, Mediese Departement (Sien 109.8) VII, Wetgewende Rekords (Sien 109.4) VIII, Diverse Rekords (Sien 109.13) IX, Kantoor van die Sekretaris van Oorlog (Sien 109.6) X, Tesourie Departement (Sien 109.10) XI, departement van poskantore (kyk 109.11) en XII, regbank (sien 109.5).

Let wel: Rekords wat in hierdie volumes ingesluit is, word beskryf in die toepaslike subgroepe wat volg. Sien die verwysings hierbo vir spesifieke plekke.

109.3 ALGEMENE AANTEKENINGE VAN DIE GEKONFEDEERDE REGERING
1861-65

Tekstuele rekords: Jefferson Davis-vraestelle, 1861-65. Opbrengste van kiesers vir president en vise-president, 1861. Tydskrif vir die konstitusionele konvensie van die voorlopige kongres, 1861. Voorlopige en permanente grondwette van die voorlopige regering en die Konfederale State, 1861-1862. Groot statute van die voorlopige regering, 1861-1862. Wette vir die weermag en vloot van die Konfederale State, 1861. Tarief van die Konfederale State, 1861. Indiese verdrae, 1861.

109.4 AANTEKENINGE VAN DIE GEKONFERDEERDE KONGRES
1861-65

Tekstuele rekords: Huisjoernaalaantekeninge, 1862. Tydskrifte en notules van die Voorlopige Kongres, Senaat en Huis van Verteenwoordigers, 1861-1865. Gedenktekens en petisies, 1861-1865, met registers. Wetsontwerpe en besluite, 1861-65. Diverse rekords van die Konfederale Kongresse, 1861-1865. Boodskappe van die president aan die kongres, 1861-1865. Kongresboodskappe, 1862-1865. Getuigskrifte van lede van die kongres, 1861-1865. Referate oor verkiesings, 1862-1863, insluitend 'n bestrede verkiesing. Benoemings tot die kongres en verwante referate, 1861-1864. Bevestigings- en opdraglyste, 1861-65. Diverse briewe en verslae, 1861-65. Afskrifte van wysigings, 1862-63. Ramings van fondse, 1861- 65. Handtekeninge van lede van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers, 1862- 65. Pamflette, 1861-64.

109.5 AANTEKENINGE VAN DIE GEKONFEDEERDE REGTER
1861-64

Tekstuele rekords (in Atlanta): Dossiere van sekwestrasie van die distrikshof in Suid-Carolina en verwante rekords, 1861-1864, met 'n dossier. Diverse rekords, 1861-64.

109.6 REKORDS VAN DIE KANTOOR VAN DIE SEKRETARIS VAN OORLOG
1861-65

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe en telegramme gestuur, 1861-65. Briewe en telegramme ontvang, 1861-65, met indeks. Rekords met betrekking tot personeel en rekeninge, insluitend die betaalstaat van die oorlogsdepartement en versoeke om fondse, 1861-1865. Arresregisters en ander rekords van die Richmond-kantoor van die Provost Marshal, 1862-64. Rekords met betrekking tot paspoorte, insluitend rekords van die paspoortkantoor te Richmond, 1861-65, en rekords van paspoorte wat op verskillende plekke uitgereik is, 1862-64. Gestuurde briewe, 1862-65, en ander rekords van die agent vir die uitruil van gevangenes, insluitend rolle van afgedankte en uitgeruilde konfederate, 1863-65, en briewe en verslae oor die Konfederale gevangenis in Andersonville, GA, 1864-65. Diverse rekords, 1861-65, insluitend 'n rekordboek van persone wat die Konfederale eed afgelê het, n.d., en afskrifte van militêre en vlootwette en regulasies, 1861-64.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M409, M437, M522, M523, M524, M618, M901.

109.7 AANTEKENINGE VAN GEKONFEDEERDE OORLOGSDEPARTEMENT PERSONEELDEPARTEMENTE
1861-76 (grootmaat 1861-65)

109.7.1 Rekords van die adjudant en inspekteur -generaal
Departement

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe en telegramme gestuur, 1861-65. Briewe ontvang, 1861-65, met registers en indeks. Telegramme ontvang en konsepte van telegramme gestuur, 1861-65. Rekord van telegramme ontvang, 1862-65. Rekeningboek met betrekking tot telegramme gestuur, 1862-64. Inspeksieverslae, 1863-65, met indekse, n.d. Rekords met betrekking tot krygshowe, 1861-1865. Algemene en spesiale bestellings, 1861-1865. Versamel en betaal rolle van die Konfederale militêre eenhede, 1861-65 (510 voet). Ongevalle lyste, 1861-1865. Rekords met betrekking tot die aanstelling van militêre offisiere, 1861-1865, met registers, roosters van offisiere en lyste van kwartiermeesters. Rekords met betrekking tot weermagorganisasie, n.d., met register. Rekords met betrekking tot diensplig, vrystelling en besonderhede, 1862-1865. Register van slawe beïndruk, 1864-1865. Diverse rekords, 1861-76, insluitend volmag, 1861-65 rekords van opnames, 1861-65 en troepe wat aan die konfederale oorlogsdepartement, 1876.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M410, M474, M627, M836, M935.

109.7.2 Rekords van die ingenieursafdeling

Tekstuele rekords: Skets- en kasboeke, 1862-64. Diverse vraestelle, 1862-65. Briewe en telegramme gestuur, 1861-64, met registers. Rekord van bepalings uitgereik uit die kommissaris van die ingenieursdepartement, Richmond, 1862-1864.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M628.

109.7.3 Rekords van die kwartiermeesterafdeling

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe gestuur, 1861-65. Briewe ontvang, 1861-65, met registers en aantekeninge. Telegramme ontvang, 1864. Bestellings en omsendbriewe, 1861-64. Rekords van die betaalburo, insluitend ontvangde briewe, 1864, en rekeninge van betaalmeesters en rekord van betalings aan militêre personeel, 1861-65. Kleredrag, kommutasie en diverse rolle, 1861-1865. Spesiale rekwisisies, 1861. Diverse kwartiermeester- en kommissarisse, 1861-65. Rekeninge met spoorweë, 1861-65. Bounty rolls, 1862-65. Lone van die oorlogsdepartement burgerlike werknemers, 1861-65, met indeks, 1861-63. Slawe-betaalstate, 1861-65, met indeks. Loonstate van ekstra diens mans, 1861-65. Rekords met betrekking tot die waardasie van perde en hul toerusting, 1861-1865. Telegramme ontvang met betrekking tot vervoer, 1862-1864. Beramings, 1864 en ander rekords met betrekking tot die belasting in natura, insluitend opsommings van ramings, aanslae en invorderings van belasting in natura wat ontvang is van assessore in Aberdeen, MS en Tuscaloosa, AL, 1864-65. Beskrywing van uniform en kleredrag van die Konfederate State Army, 1861. Belastingwette, 1863-64.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M410, M469, M900.

109.7.4 Rekords van die bestaansafdeling

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe, telegramme en bestellings ontvang en gestuur, 1861-1863. Regulasies, 1861-64.

109.7.5 Rekords van die Ordnance Department

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe gestuur en ontvang, bestellings, rekeningboeke en ander rekords van die Central Laboratory, Arsenal en Armory (Macon, GA), 1862-65 arsenale in Nashville, TN, 1861-62, en Atlanta, GA, 1862-64 Richmond Arsenal en Virginia State Armory (Richmond, VA), 1861-65 Augusta Powder Factory (Augusta, VA), 1862-65 munisipale offisier en depot in Savannah, GA, 1861-63 ordonnansedepot in Dalton, GA, 1861-63 New Orleans Arsenal (New Orleans, LA), 1861-62 ordonnansdepots in Corinth en Columbus, MS, 1862 munisipale kantoor en ordnansiewerk in Tyler, TX, 1862-65 en die Little Rock Arsenal (Little Rock, AR), 1862-65. Korrespondensie en verslae van die Nitre and Mining Bureau, 1862-65.

Mikrofilm -publikasie: M119.

109.8 REKORDS VAN DIE MEDIESE DEPARTEMENT, GEKONFERDEERDE OORLOGSAFDELING
1861-65

109.8.1 Rekords van die kantoor van die chirurg -generaal

Tekstuele rekords: Hospitaalversameling en kledingrolle, 1861-65. Briewe gestuur, 1861-65. Uitgawes, 1861-65. Regulasies, 1861-1863. Lyste van mediese beamptes, 1863-1864.

109.8.2 Rekords van mediese direkteure

Tekstuele rekords: Rekords van die direkteur in Richmond, VA, bestaande uit korrespondensie, 1862-65 lyste van mediese beamptes, 1861-64 registers en lyste van pasiënte in verskillende hospitale, 1862-63 registers van afstortings en ontslag, 1862-64 statistiese verslae, 1862- 65 en rekordboeke, 1862-65. Rekords van die direkteur in Raleigh, NC, bestaande uit statistiese verslae oor pasiënte en hulpverleners, 1863-1865.

109.8.3 Rekords van mediese verskaffers

Tekstuele rekords: Rekords van die kantoor van die verskaffer in Richmond, VA, bestaande uit rekeninge van mediese en hospitaalbenodigdhede wat ontvang en uitgereik is, 1862-65 en klerekeninge, 1863. Rekords van die kantoor van die verskaffer in Macon en Savannah, GA, bestaande uit briewe wat gestuur is, 1862- 64 briewe, telegramme en bestellings ontvang, 1862-65 en rekords, fakture, voorrade, opsommings en rekeninge van mediese en hospitaalbenodigdhede, 1862-65. Briewe gestuur deur die kantoor van die mediese verskaffer, Macon, GA, en Montgomery, AL, 1863-65.

109.8.4 Rekords van hospitale

Tekstuele rekords: Registers van pasiënte se ontvangs-, rekening- en voorraadboeke korrespondensie-uitreikings en algemene rekordboeke van hospitale in Alabama, insluitend Fort Morgan-hospitaal, 1862-64, Ross General Hospital (Mobile), 1861-65, Shelby Springs General Hospital, 1864- 65, en Rock Hotel Hospital, Little Rock, AR, 1862-63 hospitale in Georgië, insluitend Walker General Hospital (Columbus), 1864-65, General Hospital No. 1 (Savannah), 1862-64 en verskeie hospitale in Dalton, 1862-63, en Macon, 1862-65 Bowling Green Hospital, KY, 1861-62 Shreveport General Hospital, LA, 1864-65 hospitale in Mississippi, insluitend Lauderdale Springs General Hospital, 1862-63, Way and Yandell Hospitals (Meridian), 1865, en St. Mary's Hospital (West Point), 1864-65 hospitaal in Fort Fillmore en Dona Anna, NM, 1861-62 hospitale in Noord-Carolina, insluitend General Hospital No. 7 en Pettigrew Hospital (Raleigh), 1861-65, Militêre gevangenishospitaal (Salisbury), 1864-65, algemene hospitale nr. 4 en 5 (Wilmin gton), 1862-65 en ander hospitale in North Carolina in Charlotte, Fort Fisher, Goldsboro, Greensboro en Wilson, 1863-65 Overton General Hospital, Memphis, TN, 1861-62 Algemene hospitale in Franklin en El Paso, TX, 1862 , en Galveston en Houston, TX, 1861-65 hospitale in Richmond, VA, insluitend General Hospitals No 1-27, 1861-65, Chimborazo Hospital en Chimborazo Hospitals No 1-5, 1861-65, Howard's Grove Hospital, 1862 -65, Jackson Hospital, 1861-65, en Camp Winder General Hospital, 1861-65 en ander Virginia-hospitale, insluitend Danville, 1862-65, Orange en Farmville, 1861-65, Petersburg, 1861-65 en Williamsburg, 1861- 64.

109.8.5 Diverse rekords

Tekstuele rekords: Rekord van Virginia mediese beamptes, 1861-65. Opname van inentings, 1864-65. Voorskrifboeke, 1864-1865. Kwitansies, fakture en rekwisisies vir mediese en hospitaalbenodigdhede, 1861-1865. Eiendomsopgawes, 1861-1865. Verslae van siekes en gewondes, 1861-65.

109.9 REKORDS VAN GEKONFERDEERDE MILITARYRE ORGANISASIES
1861-65

109.9.1 Algemene rekords rakende militêre bevele

Tekstuele rekords: Algemene bevele, Hoofkwartier van die leërs van die Konfederale State, 1865. Pos-, departement- en weermagopgawes, roosters en lyste, 1861-1865. Slagverslae, 1862-1864.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M861.

109.9.2 Rekords van leërs en geografiese bevele

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe en telegramme gestuur, registers van briewe ontvang, uitreikings en ander rekords van die Army of the Potomac (Confederate), 1861-62 Army and Department of Northern Virginia, Army 1862-65 and Department of the Peninsula, 1861-62 Department of Richmond, 1864-65 Department of Henrico, 1862-63 Department of North Carolina, 1861-62 Department of North Carolina and Southern Virginia, 1862-65 Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, 1861-65 Department and District of Georgia, 1861-65 Army of Pensacola, 1861-62 Central Division of Kentucky, 1861-62 Central Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of Kentucky, 1861-62 Army of the Kanawha, 1861 Department of East Tennessee and Western Virginia, 1861-64 Weermag en Departement van Tennessee, 1862-65 Departement van Alabama en Wes-Florida, 1861-62 Distrik van die Golf, 1862-65 Departement van Mississippi en Oos-Louisiana, 1864-65 Departement van Alabama, Mississippi en Oos-Louisiana, 1864-65 Army of Louisiana, 1861 Army of the Mississippi, 18 62-65 Departement van die Weste, 1862-63 Army of the West, 1861-62 Westelike Departement, 1861-63 Militêre Afdeling van die Weste, 1864-65 Departement van Texas, 1861-62 en Trans-Mississippi Departement, 1862-65 .

Mikrofilm -publikasies: M921.

109.9.3 Rekords van die bevele van individuele algemene offisiere

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe, telegramme en bestellings gestuur en ontvang rekordboeke en ander opdragrekords van P.G.T. Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, J.C. Breckinridge, James R. Chalmers, T.H. Holmes, James Longstreet, Gideon J. Pillow, Leonidas Polk, Sterling Price, Earl Van Dorn, en ander, 1861-65.

109.9.4 Rekords van konfederale mobiele eenhede

Tekstuele rekords: Kompanjieboeke, registers van siekes en gewondes, klerekasboeke, roosters, kwartiermeesterrekords, bestelboeke, briefboeke, beskrywende lyste en ander rekords van regimente, bataljons en kompanie van die Konfederale Weermag wat in die state AL, AR, GA, KY, LA, MS, MO, NC, SC, TN, TX en VA, 1861-65.

Verwante rekords: Versamel en betaalstate van konfederale eenhede in rekords van die departement van adjudant en inspekteur -generaal ONDER 109.7.1.

109.9.5 Rekords van plaaslike opdragte

Tekstuele rekords: Rekords, hoofsaaklik briewe wat gestuur en ontvang is en bevele, van offisiere wat by vaste installasies dien, of van troepe wat uitsluitlik vir diens in 'n enkele staat, 1861-1865.

109.10 AANTEKENINGE VAN DIE GEKONFERDEERDE SKATTE -DEPARTEMENT
1854-65

Verwante rekords: Bykomende rekords van die konfederale tesourie -afdeling in RG 365, tesourie -afdeling versameling konfederale rekords.

109.10.1 Rekords van die kantoor van die sekretaris van die tesourie

Tekstuele rekords: Briewe en telegramme gestuur, 1861-65. Briewe ontvang, 1861-65, met register. Bestellings, omsendbriewe en regulasies, 1863-1865. Aansoeke oor die tesourie-afdeling vir fondse van die oorlogsdepartement, die vlootafdeling en die doeane, 1861-1864. Uitbetalingsjoernaal, 1861-62. Rekord en stompies van oorlogs- en vlootafdelings, 1861-1864. Rekord van die saldo's byderhand in bewaarplekke van openbare geld, 1861-1864. Rekeninge van kapt. En assistent -kwartiermeester John H. Parkhill by die tesourier, 1862.

Mikrofilm -publikasies: T1025.

109.10.2 Rekords van die Hoofklerk

Tekstuele rekords: Kwitansies vir die betaling van voorwaardelike uitgawes van die tesourie-afdeling, 1862-1863.

109.10.3 Rekords van die uitbetalende klerke

Tekstuele rekords: Grootboek van rekeninge, 1861-1863.

109.10.4 Rekords van die kantoor van die eerste ouditeur

Tekstuele rekords: Grootboek van rekeninge vir die vloot en mariniers, 1861-1862. Memorandum of moneys received from depositories and list of certificates issued by the Funding Committee, 1863-64.

109.10.5 Records of the Office of the Second Auditor

Tekstuele rekords: Register of rolls, 1861-62. Registers of requisitions for army expenses, 1861-65. Register of letters received at Pay Division, 1862-65. Register of payments to officers and soldiers, 1861. Records of payments to soldiers, discharged soldiers, and troop units, 1861-64. Payrolls of officers, 1861-63. Letters sent relating to claims of deceased soldiers, 1862-65. Registers of claims, 1861-65. Returns of deceased soldiers and soldiers from hospitals, regimental and company officers, and others, 1861-65. Record of accounts reported to and returned from the comptroller, 1861-62. Record of bonded quartermasters and commissaries, 1861-65.

109.10.6 Records of the Office of the Comptroller

Tekstuele rekords: Accounts of disbursing officers of the Confederate States Army, 1861-65. Register of money received and counted, 1863-65. Digest of the comptroller's decisions, 1863.

109.10.7 Records of the Office of the Register

Tekstuele rekords: Letters sent, 1861-65. Journals and ledgers of various loans, 1861-65. Record cards of subscribers to Confederate States loans, 1861-64. Registers of loan subscriptions and unclaimed dividends, 1861. Records of loan interest dividends, 1861-64 maturing stock, 1864 issued coupon bonds, 1861 transferable stock, 1861 and interest issued, 1865.

109.10.8 Records of the War Tax Office and the Office of the Commissioner of Taxes

Tekstuele rekords: Letters received, 1861-65, with register. Letters sent, 1861-65. Returns of collectors and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Reports of the Commissioner of Taxes, 1863. Miscellaneous records, 1861-65. List of collectors, sureties, and assessors of the War Tax, 1861-65. Sales tax registers for District No. 10, Richmond, VA, 1863-65.

109.10.9 Records of the Treasury Note Bureau

Tekstuele rekords: Registers of treasury notes, 1861-63. Schedule of note plates, 1861-64. Record book of treasury notes signed by J. Walter Jones, 1862. Memorandum of treasury notes, 1862-63. Record book of treasury note redemption, 1862-65. Certifications relating to the counting of notes returned for redemption, 1865. List of schedules of interest paid on 7/30 notes, 1864-65.

109.10.10 Records of depositories of public funds

Tekstuele rekords: Records of treasury depositories in various states, 1864-65. Letters received by the depository at Savannah, GA, 1863-64. Record book of cash on hand at Macon, GA, depository, 1863-64. Order book of the Macon, GA, depository for the five hundred million loan, 1864. Schedule of certificates for 4-percent registered bonds received by the depository at Columbus, MS, 1864.

109.10.11 Records relating to Confederate Customs

Tekstuele rekords: General records ("Custom Papers"), 1861. Account of bonds taken in the district of Savannah for duties on merchandise warehoused, 1860-62. Account book of the surveyor of the port of New Orleans, LA, 1854-61. Account book of B.F. McDonough, collector at Sabine, TX, 1861-64. Registers of vessels, port of Savannah, GA, 1856-64.

109.10.12 Miscellaneous records

Tekstuele rekords: Account of William B. Johnston for bonds sold, 1863-64. Statement book of funded debt for Mississippi, 1864. List of claims, 1861-63. Index to circulars and decisions, n.d.

109.11 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT
1861-65

Tekstuele rekords: Military telegraph accounts, 1864. Papers relating to unpaid accounts of mail contractors for carrying U.S. mail, 1861-62. Mail contracts and related records, 1864-65. Letters received by the Post Office Department in the Trans- Mississippi Department, 1864-65. Instructions to postmasters and special agents, 1861. List of post offices, n.d. Route books, 1861-65. Dead letter register, 1864-65.

109.12 RECORDS OF THE CONFEDERATE NAVY DEPARTMENT
1861-65

Tekstuele rekords: Letters sent by the Office of Ordnance and Hydrography, 1864-65. Records of a Board for Examining Midshipmen, 1861-62. Printed registers of naval officers, 1862- 64. Payroll for the crew of the steamer Alabama, 1863. Miscellaneous records relating to the navy, 1862-64.

Microfilm Publications: M909.

Verwante rekords: For additional records of the Confederate Navy, SEE RG 45, Naval Records Collection of the Office of Naval Records and Library.

Engineering Drawings (3 items): Plans of the C.S.S. Alabama, 1861. SEE ALSO 109.15.

109.13 MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS
1825-65

109.13.1 Records relating to states

Tekstuele rekords: Records relating to various states, 1861-65. Proceedings of a convention of the commissioners of appraisement, 1864. Copies of state constitutions legislative journals, statutes, and ordinances of secession correspondence, reports, and accounts of state officials and other records relating to AL, 1858-64 AR, 1859-61 FL, 1860-62 GA, 1858-65 KY, 1847-48 LA, 1856-65 MS, 1861-65 MO, 1861 NC, 1861-65 SC, 1825-63 TN, 1861 TX, 1859-64 and VA, 1859-65.

Microfilm Publications: M359, M998, T731.

109.13.2 Collections of papers of Confederate general officers

Tekstuele rekords: Letters and telegrams received by Robert E. Lee, 1861-65. Papers relating to J.B. Floyd, 1861. Papers of P.G.T. Beauregard, 1862-64 J.R. Chalmers, 1861-65 Jubal A. Early, 1861-65 S.G. French, 1861-65 T.C. Hindman, 1861-64 J.B. Hood, 1862-64 B.R. Johnson, 1862-65 Sam Jones, 1861-64 St. John R. Lindell, 1865 J.B. Magruder, 1862-64 Lafayette McLaws, 1861-65 J.C. Pemberton, 1862-64 G.J. Pillow, 1861-64 Leonidas Polk, 1861-64 C.L. Stevenson, 1863-65 E.C. Walthall, 1863-64 Joseph Wheeler, 1863-64 and W.H.C. Whiting, 1862-65.

109.13.3 Other records

Tekstuele rekords: "Citizens File," 1861-65 (1,300 ft.). Papers of and relating to military and civilian personnel, 1861-65 (480 ft.). Papers relating to Confederate sympathizers, deserters, guerrillas, and prisoners, 1861-65. "Vessel Papers," 1861-65. Manuscripts, 1861-65, with an index. Papers of George N. Sanders, 1860-63 Clement C. Clay, 1861-65 and Lt. Col. John Withers, 1840-60. Intercepted letters, 1861-65. Collection of Union, Confederate, British, and other foreign pamphlets, publications, and reprints, 1854-64. Original documents, 1860-65, selected for publication in The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington: Government Printing Office, 128 volumes, 1889-1901).

Microfilm Publications: M346, M347, M909.

109.14 RECORDS OF THE U.S. WAR DEPARTMENT RELATING TO CONFEDERATES
1850-1900

109.14.1 Records of the Adjutant General's Office relating to
military and naval service of Confederates

Tekstuele rekords: "Carded" records showing army service, 1861-65 (5,474 ft.), with indexes. Naval and Marine Corps service records, 1861-65. Hospital and prison records of persons serving in the navy and the Marine Corps, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publications: For a detailed list of microfilm publications of Confederate compiled service records and indexes, please consult the current edition of the National Archives microfilm catalog.

109.14.2 Records relating to prisoners, oaths, and paroles

Tekstuele rekords: Letters and orders sent and received relating to prisoners, 1861-65. Records of Confederates in Union prisons, 1861-65 (227 ft.). Registers, rolls, lists, and other records of Confederate, federal, political, and civil prisoners received, transferred, escaped, paroled, died, buried, discharged, and released, 1861-65. Descriptive lists of prisoners, 1862-65. Records relating to Confederates in Union hospitals, 1861-65. Hospital registers, 1864-65. Morning reports of prisoners, 1862- 65. Ledgers of prisoners' accounts, 1862-65. Cash books, 1863-65. Mess books, 1862-63. Records of articles received for and delivered to prisoners, 1864-65. Stubs, receipts, and records of prisoners' money received, 1862-65.

Microfilm Publications: M598.

Verwante rekords: Confederate records relating to Union prisoners of war in RG 249, Records of the Commissary General of Prisoners.

109.14.3 Records of the Archive Office

Tekstuele rekords: Letters sent, 1865-80. Letters received, 1865- 81, with register. Report of Francis Lieber, Chief of the Archive Office, 1866. Record of answers to inquiries, 1882-94. Orders and regulations relating to the Archive Office, 1865-81. Memorandum relating to Confederate Archives, 1865-80. Time book of clerks, 1891-94. Newspaper clippings, 1874-94. Report and papers of Marcus J. Wright, 1876-86. Catalogs of Confederate military records, 1878-1900. Records relating to the exchange and treatment of prisoners in southern prisons, 1861-65, with schedules. List of accounts received by the Archive Office, 1865. Copies of miscellaneous correspondence for the period 1862-65, n.d. Index to local Confederate military organizations, n.d. "Index to Field Returns, Morning Reports, Organizations, Etc., C.S. Army, 1861-65," n.d.

109.14.4 Miscellaneous records

Tekstuele rekords: "Union Provost Marshal Citizens File," 1861-67 (479 ft.). Correspondence concerning property taken by Confederates in Missouri, 1864-65. Letters sent by Jacob Thompson, U.S. Secretary of the Interior, 1857-60. Ships' papers for vessels operating from various southern ports, 1850-60. Register of maps in possession of or prepared by the Engineer Office of the Department of Virginia and North Carolina (Union), 1865.

Microfilm Publications: M345, M416.

109.15 CARTOGRAPHIC RECORDS (GENERAL)
1861-65

Kaarte: Civil War campaigns and fortifications, 1861-65.

SEE Engineering Drawings UNDER 109.12.

Bibliografiese nota: Webweergawe gebaseer op Guide to Federal Records in die National Archives of the United States. Saamgestel deur Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 bladsye.

Hierdie webweergawe word van tyd tot tyd bygewerk om rekords wat sedert 1995 verwerk is, in te sluit.


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The Storm That Saved Washington From The British In 1814

In 1814, several European armies invaded France to put an end to Napoleon – the very year that the British attacked the American capital, Washington, DC. This was done in retaliation for US attacks on Canada, which was then British territory. As the city burned, however, the heavens seemed to side with the Americans – an event known as the “Storm that Saved Washington.” But did it really?

It all began with the War of 1812. Though America became independent in 1776, it was still at the mercy of Britain’s powerful navy. America insisted on remaining neutral during the Napoleonic wars and continued to trade with both sides, which infuriated the British.

The British also kidnapped American sailors for their navy (known as impressment) because they needed men for their war against France. Things came to a head on 22 June 1807 when the HMS Leopard stopped the USS Chesapeake off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia demanding to board in search of four deserters. The Americans refused, so the British opened fire – killing 4 and wounding 17.

Die Chesapeake surrendered and the British took back the deserters, executing one of them. In their defense, they considered any citizen who became American to still be a British citizen. In their eyes, they weren’t kidnapping anyone, only taking back valuable subjects.

The British also armed the native Indians to harass colonists and slow down their westward expansion. Finally, their ownership of Canada meant that they would always remain a threat to US independence and sovereignty.

James Madison, Jr., 4th US President

On 1 June 1812, President James Madison addressed the US Congress and urged them to declare war. This was no easy matter, since Britain was a superpower, while the US was a new country that didn’t even have an army – merely a largely untrained militia.

Across the Atlantic, the British parliament banned impressment on June 16, but it took a while for the news to reach America. On June 18, the US Congress finally came to a decision – and thus began the War of 1812. Their first order of business was to invade Canada, which turned out to be an embarrassing failure.

The 1914 watercolor painting of The Battle of York by Owen Staples

To everyone’s surprise, however, they scored a victory at the Battle of York (now Toronto) on 27 April 1813. Over the next three days, the Americans burned and looted the city, destroyed the Legislative Assembly, and stole the Parliamentary Mace of Upper Canada (which was only returned in 1934). Emboldened, they went on to attack Port Dover from May 14 to 16, razing it to the ground, and sealing the fate of Washington.

Napoleon was finally defeated in April 1814, leaving the British free to avenge this insult. Their treasury was exhausted, and their troops were devastated, so they weren’t interested in retaking America, only punishing it. The man put in charge was Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy’s North America and West Indies Station.

Admiral Sir Alexander Inglis Cochrane

Cochrane raided the Atlantic seaboard to draw American troops away from Canada. That done, he ordered Rear Admiral George Cockburn to attack Baltimore, Washington, and Philadelphia, but Cockburn suggested Washington for greater impact. Cochrane agreed.

Washington’s only defense lay with its under-equipped and badly trained militia under William Henry Winder, a soldier and lawyer who did the best he could with what he had. Winder positioned his men at Bladensburg, some six miles from Washington on the eastern branch of the Potomac River on August 24. Facing him were veterans of the Napoleonic Wars under Major-general Robert Ross.

The Americans stood no chance. Winder ordered a retreat which turned into a route. Legend has it that the Americans ran so fast that the British suffered heat stroke trying to catch up. Now nothing lay between them and the capital.

John James Halls’ 1817 oil on canvas depiction of Rear-Admiral George Cockburn posing before a burning Washington

The US government fled, while Madison spent the night in the town of Brookeville, now called the “US Capital for a Day.” First Lady Dolly Madison received word of the invasion and stayed in the White House long enough to save what valuables she could, including the official portrait of George Washington.

Four thousand British troops arrived at the capital that evening. Ross entered first at 8 PM to offer the remaining inhabitants his terms of surrender, but someone shot at him from a house on the outskirts. They missed him, but everyone inside was slaughtered before the house was burned.

Ross convened a mock legislation, and everyone agreed that the city was to burn. First to go was the Senate House. Next, they went to the White House (then called the President’s Palace) at 10:30 PM and found a dinner set for 40 people. Ross and his men dined on that, then looted the building. A search of the office found Madison’s love letters to his wife, which Ross pocketed before razing the building.

William Henry Winder

Cockburn also ordered the office of the National Intelligencer paper burned because they had written badly of him, but some women begged him not to because they lived next to it. Acceding to their wishes, he had his troops tear it apart and destroy its equipment.

The following morning, the Library of Congress was in flames, as was the House of Representatives, the Treasury, the War Office, the Arsenal, and the Dockyard. Three rope factories met a similar fate, as well as a bridge on the Potomac, a frigate, and a sloop.

Major-general Robert Ross

At 2 PM, things changed. A strong wind broke out suddenly, followed by a downpour which put the fires out. As the rain eased up, a tornado formed and smashed through Constitution Avenue lifting two cannons and dropping them many yards away, leaving people dead in its wake.

Then it stopped. Cockburn turned to a dazed resident and asked if this was typical American weather, to which the woman replied that it was god’s punishment upon the British. The admiral snorted and pointed out that god had done far more damage to the city than his men had, before riding off. The British suffered only one fatality from the tornado and six injured.

An 1876 lithograph entitled, “Capture and burning of Washington by the British, in 1814.”

Many Americans urged the president to relocate the capital, but he insisted that it remain in Washington. Though badly damaged, the White House was made of stone and rebuilt, though not in time for Madison to move back into.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Winder, Henry

WINDER, HENRY (1693–1752), dissenting divine and chronologist, son of Henry Winder (d. 1733), farmer, by a daughter of Adam Bird of Penruddock, was born at Hutton John, parish of Greystoke, Cumberland, on 15 May 1693.

His grandfather, Henry Winder, farmer, who lived to be over a hundred (he was living in 1714), was falsely charged with murdering his first-born son. The accusation was supported by two of his wife's sisters, and the case attained some celebrity (see Winder , Spirit of Quakerism, 1698, 16mo, and Penitent Old Disciple, 1699, 16mo Audland , Spirit of Quakerism Cloven-footed, 1707, 4to, drawn up by Henry Winder secundus, and prefaced by Thomas Dixon, M.D. [q. v.] on the other side, Coole , Quakers Cleared, 1696, 16mo Camm , Old Apostate, 1698, 16mo, Truth prevailing with Reason, 1706, 16mo, and Lying-Tongue Reproved, 1708, 16mo). ​ Henry Winder, the grandson, after passing through the Penruddock grammar school under John Atkinson, entered (1708) the Whitehaven Academy under Thomas Dixon, where Caleb Rotheram [q. v.] and John Taylor (1694–1761) [q. v.], the hebraist, were among his fellow students. For two years (1712–14) he studied at Dublin under Joseph Boyse [q. v.] In Dublin he was licensed to preach. In 1714 he succeeded Edward Rothwell [q. v.] as minister of the independent congregation at Tunley, Lancashire, and was ordained at St. Helen's on 11 Sept. 1716, Christopher Bassnett [q. v.] preaching on the occasion. In 1718 (his first sacrament was 16 Nov.) he was appointed minister of Castle Hey congregation, Liverpool. The first entry in the extant minutes of the Warrington classis (22 April 1719) records his admission to that body, ‘upon his making an acknowledgment of his breaking in upon the rules of it, in the way & manner of his coming to Liverpoole.’ A strong advocate of non-subscription in the controversy then pending both in England and in Ireland, he brought round his congregation to that view. His ministry was successful a new chapel was built for him in Benn's Garden, Red Cross Street, and opened in July 1727. From 1732 he corresponded with the London dissenters, with a view to the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts.

He married the widow of William Shawe of Liverpool, and educated her son William Shawe, afterwards of Preston. On taking him in 1740 to study at Glasgow, he received the diploma of D.D. For young Shawe's use he had drawn up (about 1733), but did not publish, ‘a short general system of chronology’ on ‘the Newtonian plan.’ This was the germ of his bulky work, the result of twelve years' labour, ‘A Critical and Chronological History of the Rise, Progress, Declension, and Revival of Knowledge, chiefly Religious. In two Periods. I. … Tradition, from Adam to Moses. II. … Letters, from Moses to Christ,’ 1745, 2 vols. 8vo (dedication to William Shawe). He prefers Moses to all secular historians, as earlier and more authentic. In vol. ii. chap. xxi. § 3, is an animated eulogy of British liberties, with evident reference to the events of 1745, during which Winder had exerted himself in helping to raise a regiment for the defence of Liverpool. The work did not sell, and was reissued as a second edition in 1756, with new title-page, and ‘Memoirs’ of the author by George Benson [q. v.]

In September 1746 he had a stroke of paralysis, and never again entered the pulpit, though he preached twice from the reading-desk in January 1747, and occasionally assisted at the sacrament in that year. John Henderson (d. 4 July 1779), who took Anglican orders in 1763, and was the first incumbent of St. Paul's, Liverpool (see Memoirs of Gilbert Wakefield, 1804, i. 204), became his assistant and successor. Winder's faculties failed, and he died on Sunday 9 Aug. 1752. He was buried on the south side of the churchyard of St. Peter's, Liverpool (now the cathedral) the memorial stone was earthed over when the churchyard was laid out as a garden. Henderson preached his funeral sermon. No portrait of Winder is known he outlived his wife, and left no issue. His library (a remarkable one, with a valuable collection of tracts) and manuscripts were bequeathed to his congregation. The library was transferred to Renshaw Street chapel, to which the congregation removed in 1811 of the manuscripts, a catalogue with excerpts was drawn up by the present writer in 1869 between 1872 and 1884 the papers were scattered and the bulk of them lost. A very important letter (now lost) giving an account (6 Aug. 1723) of the non-subscription debates in the Belfast sub-synod, which Winder had attended as a visitor, was printed in the ‘Christian Moderator,’ October 1827 (p. 274), from a copy by John Porter (1800–1874), then minister at Toxteth Park chapel, Liverpool.

[Memoirs by Benson, 1756 Thom's Liverpool Churches and Chapels, 1854, p. 67 Halley's Lancashire, 1869 ii. 323 Nightingale's Lancashire Nonconformity [1892] iv. 28, 1893 vi. 112 Addison's Graduates of the University of Glasgow, 1898, p. 655 Winder's manuscripts in Renshaw Street chapel library, Liverpool.]


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