Inligting

Mure van Ston


Die Walls of Ston is die langste volledige vestingstelsel in Europa (en tweede in die wêreld agter die Chinese muur) en staan ​​in die volksmond bekend as 'The Great Wall of Croatia'.

Die geïsoleerde muurstelsel op die Peljesac -skiereiland verbind Ston met die buurdorp Mali ('klein') Ston. Die mure is in die 14de en 15de eeu gebou met twee verskillende doeleindes in gedagte - eerstens om as die eerste verdedigingslinie vir Ston te dien, sowel as die strategies belangrike hawestad Dubrovnik, 60 km suid van die Dalmatiese kus, en tweedens om die hoogs winsgewende soutpanne in die omgewing wat tot vandag toe nog in werking is. Daar word gesê dat die sout wat in Ston geproduseer word, die suiwerste in die hele Mediterreense streek is.

Die kalkmure het die vorm van 'n onreëlmatige vyfhoek en is vandag 'n bietjie meer as vyf kilometer lank. Hulle is oorspronklik gebou met 40 torings en vyf vestings, hoewel slegs 20 van die torings vandag oorleef. Binne die mure is strate in 'n loodregte ontwerp uitgelê.

Na byna 50 jaar van herstelprojekte (vir egtheid, met dieselfde of soortgelyke tegnieke as wat die oorspronklike bouers gebruik het), het die mure weer in 2009. Dit lok 'n groeiende aantal toeriste, deels om 'n paar van die beste verdedigingsmure en vestings in Europa en deels waarskynlik die mooiste uitsig oor die Adriatiese See langs die Dalmatiese kus.

Daar is baie min geriewe op die terrein, afgesien van 'n aantal restaurante op 'n heuwel wat bedien word volgens die oesters ter wêreld, letterlik 'n paar meter van waar hulle geboer word. Die stad Ston bevat hotelle, woonstelle, winkels en kafees, sowel as wonderlike strande, watersport en geleenthede vir uitstappies verder.

Aanhangers van Game of Thrones herken moontlik die Walls of Ston as die versterkings wat King's Landing beskerm.


Mure in die geskiedenis

Hierdie geskiedenis beskryf die veldgrense en omheinings wat deur boere, landbouers en arbeiders gebou is, wat so 'n belangrike kenmerk is van die platteland wat hulle deurkruis, en wat vandag nog steeds gebruik word. Dit sluit nie die droë klipgeboue en versterkings van vroeëre tye in nie, soos die ystertydperk van Skotland of die dorpie Skara Brae in die Orkneys, waarvan baie gevorderde vakmanskap in droë klipwerk toon.

Die omsluiting van die rotsagtige hooglande van Brittanje het reeds in die voorgeskiedenis begin, gedurende die tydperk toe 'n nomadiese herders- en jaglewe geleidelik plek maak vir gevestigde boerdery. Dit het 'n permanente as flou merk op die land gelaat in die vorm van klipsirkels en omringende onreëlmatige lappies van slote en digte, wat die handelsmerk van die 'Keltiese' veldstelsel is. Hierdie vroeë nedersettings was gekonsentreer op die droër terrasse en heuwels, waar bosse en struikgewasse die maklikste verwyder kon word. Hulle bly nou, dikwels ver bo die huidige teelgrense, as bewys van 'n milder klimaat. In Ierland is die vroegste spore van ommuurde velde ontdek wat opgeneem is in megalitiese grafte van die laat Neolitiese era. Hier kan die patroon van klein, skynbaar ewekansige velde nog steeds gevind word rondom die verspreide plaasopstalle wat die ou 'clachans' of stam gehuggies vervang het.

In Brittanje word die oorblyfsels van nedersettings rondom die Suidwestelike heidene, in die Lake District en op die kalksteen- en steensterrasse van die westelike Pennines gewoonlik aan die Romano-Britse tydperk toegewys, hoewel af en toe bevindings tot 2000 vC gedateer is . Dit was beslis omstreeks die tyd van die Romeinse invalle toe redelik samehangende stamfederasies ontwikkel het, wat uitgebreide versterkings en verdedigende grondwerke kon oprig.

Die volgende hoofperiode van muurbou begin in die vroeë Middeleeue en duur stadig, met baie tempo-veranderinge, afhangende van die ekonomiese toestande van die tyd, tot in die post-Middeleeue. Dit is die deeglikste opgespoor in Yorkshire, waar dit verband hou met die Angelsaksiese en Skandinawiese nedersettings van die 6de eeu nC (Raistrick, 1966). Dit was toe dat die oop veldstelsel so kenmerkend van die Middeleeuse Engelse landbou werklik ontwikkel het. Gewoonlik het nedersettings hul besittings in drie afdelings verdeel. Op die vrugbare, plat en seisoenaal oorstroomde bodem is die 'lee' of 'inge' geleë, geskei van die droër grond deur 'n permanente sloot en heining, heining of droë klipmuur. Die twee of drie gemeenskaplike velde was op dieselfde manier van mekaar omhein en van die derde gedeelte, wat die gewone weiding of afval was wat tot by die grense van die volgende nedersetting strek. Daar was geen permanente afdelings binne die waterweide of die gemeenskaplike veld nie. Waar die middeleeuse mure bly, is dit groot kliphoute met min klippe, geen deursnee of stene nie, maar 'n bietjie beslag. Hulle volg redelik onreëlmatige belynings, in reaksie op onroerende struikelblokke of die griller van die muurer.

Alhoewel oop veldmure nog opgespoor kan word in sommige van die Yorkshire Dales-dorpe, veral Linton in Wharfedale, was die totale impak van hierdie omheinings beperk. Die meeste grond het buite die perke as afval gebly, hoewel weidingsgeskille sedert die 12de eeu in enkele gevalle tot die oprigting van mure tussen groot hoewes gelei het. Hierdie mure of slote is vandag selde naspeurbaar, maar hulle bly een van die vroegste heinings waarvoor skriftelike dokumente beskikbaar is (p10).

Intussen het die ouer binneveld-buitestelsel in die 'Keltiese rand' voortgeduur, selfs al is die vroeëre nedersettings laat vaar. In die granietgebiede van Cornwall en Devon, in dele van Wallis en Skotland, en deur 'n groot deel van Ierland, is die verhaal een van voortdurende nibble aan die oop grond. Klein tuinagtige erwe wat omring is deur massiewe opruimingsmure het elke plaasopstal omring, maar hierdie verbouingseilande het feitlik oorweldig gebly in die uitgestrekte oop heide.

Die volgende definieerbare muurperiode, wat veral die Pennine -streek geraak het, het in die 14de en 15de eeu begin en tot die 18de eeu voortgeduur. Dit was op sy hoogtepunt in die Elizabethaanse tydperk toe kothuise en huishoudings vir die eerste keer wettiglik toegelaat is om klein 'troppe' of privaat besighede in te sluit. Die vrugbaarheid van bewerkbare grond was teen hierdie tyd byna uitgeput. Om die grond te laat herleef, was dit nodig vir individuele huishoudings om hul eie vee te gebruik om hul besittings te mis en te verbeter. Die tuine was gemiddeld ongeveer 0,2 hektaar groot, met elke vier of vyf verspreide tuine in elke huis. Deur die betrokke individue is ommuurde mure gebruik om klip te gebruik wat uit die gewone afval verwyder is of daarvan verwyder is. Alhoewel die mure nog gehurk en swak gebuig was, was hul lyne meer gereeld as die ouer stukke. Teen die 16de eeu is gepoog om verbeterde skaaptipes vir hul wol te teel, en dele van die afval wat weg is, is ingesluit om hierdie werk makliker te maak. Omhulsels in die noorde was beperk tot die omgewing van die dorpe, terwyl uitgebreide omheining in die suide en Midlands plaasgevind het. In die Pennines het hierdie tydperk die voltooiing van die 'doolhof van klein omhulsels, tuine en klein veldjies, met amper 'n reguit muur', voltooi wat nog baie Dales -dorpe omring (Raistrick, 1966).

Die bevolking het gedurende die 17de en 18de eeu steeds toegeneem, wat druk op die ou oopveldstelsel plaas. In die Pennines het hierdie vroeë industriële tydperk 'innames' ingesluit, wat reghoekige velde van 0,4-1,2 hektaar groot was, buite die ou gemeenskaplike velde. Die heidegrond was ongeskik vir gewasse, maar kon gekalk en gedreineer word om skape te onderhou. Hierdie innames het 'n bron van proteïene aan die mynbou- en tekstielarbeiders wat met hulle geboer is, voorsien, sowel as die buitelugwerk wat hul werkgewers as voordelig beskou het.

Hierdie tydperk het ook baie meer uitgebreide omheinings gehad om die belangrikste weivelde van die gemeenskap te vorm, dikwels honderde hektaar groot, en aangrensende townships van mekaar geskei. Hulle is met algemene toestemming gemaak en het alle aandeelhouers by die konstruksie en gereeld die herstel van die mure betrek. Gewoonlik is 'n herder betaal om die weiding te versorg, en soms moes hy mure en hekke herstel. Buitemuurders of messelaars was selde nodig, hetsy vir die bou of die onderhoud.

Omstreeks 1780 het die situasie drasties verander. Vanaf hierdie tyd is omheinings bevorder deur groot grondeienaars of een of twee privaat individue in elke gebied vir hul eie voordeel. Hierdie mense het die middele en invloed gehad om privaat parlementswette op te stel, wat die kleiner boere effektief van hul gemeenskaplike regte gestroop het. Elke wet het kommissarisse aangestel om die betrokke gebied te ondersoek en gedeeltes aan elke eiser toe te ken, tesame met proporsionele verantwoordelikheid vir die omheining van die besittings. Aangesien die vasgestelde perk vir die ommuur van die grense slegs 'n jaar of twee was, was die spesifikasies baie veeleisend en was die vereiste lengte dikwels baie myl, moes die kommissarisse muurmakers of mans wat van die grond af was, huur om die werk te verrig. Slegs die rykste partye kon betaal vir hierdie arbeid, die ander moes hul aandele aan die kommissarisse verbeur. Soos Raistrick (1966) tot die gevolgtrekking kom:

Die omhulsels was 'n tragedie vir die klein man: hy verloor sy weidingsreg op die gewone, verloor sy stuk grond en was verplig om 'n loonarbeider te word in 'n tyd van dalende lone en stygende lewenskoste. Dit het die slawerny van die arbeidersklasse verseker.

In 1801 is die situasie verder gerasionaliseer deur 'n algemene parlementswet, en teen 1820 is die meeste werk gedoen. Die ou gemeenskaplike veld is onderverdeel in klein reghoekige stukke reguit mure. In die Pennines is hierdie omhulselmure visueel onmiskenbaar, met hul presies geplaasde deursnee en onderstene, eenvormige beslag en ongeëwenaarde hoogte. Hierdie mure is beplan deur stadsmeeters en gebou deur professionele persone, wat gedurende die klemmaande in bendes gewerk het om die werk te voltooi.

Met die oog op Engeland as 'n geheel, was baie grond nog in sy moderne vorm, nog voor die omslagswette. In die Midlands, miskien die hart van die oopveldstelsel, was ten minste 30% van die grond omring deur 1700. In baie provinsies, waaronder Kent, Sussex, Devon, Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, Northumberland, Durham , Suffolk en Essex, die oopveldstelsel het nog nooit 'n sterk houvas gehad nie, en stuk-stuk omhulsel het vanaf die 12de eeu min of meer aaneenlopend plaasgevind.

In die suidweste van Engeland en 'n groot deel van Wallis het die ou Keltiese veldstelsel geleidelik ontwikkel tot een van die aparte plase wat omring is deur klein landerye, met groot gebiede wat as gewone heideveld oorgebly het. In Wallis bly die muur 'n saak van die kleinboer, selfs nadat hy 'n huurder by 'n afwesige verhuurder geword het. In 'n verslag van die Royal Commission van 1894 word gesê dat 'die klipmure in die buurt gewoonlik deur die huurder gebou is, behalwe naby die berge, waar die mure soms lang was, en dit is deur die verhuurder gebou'. huurders dat verhuurders die vergoeding vir hul werk oor 'n tydperk van slegs veertien of vyftien jaar 'uitgeput' het, terwyl die mure twintig of dertig jaar of langer so goed soos nuut was.

Volgens Rainsford-Hannay (1972) het omheinings in Skotland begin met 'n Besluitwet van 1710, wat betrekking het op 'n paar grond in die weste van Kircudbrightshire. Stukkies grond is gratis verhuur aan mense wat in die lente na hulle sou verhuis, hutte opgerig het wat aan die afdakke van die Highlanders herinner, hul erwe bewerk en in ruil daarvoor omheiningsmure gebou het. Binne 'n jaar of twee is baie myle seë opgevoer, wat die waarde van die grond aansienlik verhoog het. Hierdie voorbeeld is vinnig gevolg, maar nie sonder opposisie van groepe mense wat probeer het om die mure af te breek en die ingeslote diere te beseer nie. Die ringkoppe is tereggestel, en daarna het die omhulsels feitlik ongehinderd verloop.

Baie Skotse digte is volgens standaardspesifikasies gebou, die beste en hoogste is die marsdyke wat die groot landgoedere begrens het. Op sommige plekke het spesiale probleme ongewone mure tot gevolg gehad, soos die opruiming van monymusk of 'verbruik' -damme noordwes van Aberdeen. Rainsford-Hannay (1972) haal aan uit kontrakte van 1736 en 1741 waarin die huurder 'n sekere oppervlakte tot 'n hoogte van een ell, of 3 𔃻 ″ (940 mm), moes gebruik, met behulp van klippe wat van binne geneem is, so lank soos daar is, groot sowel as klein 'en' om nie 'n klip in die omhulsel te laat nie, wat drie mans nie kan rol nie, of vier mans in 'n kruiwa kan dra '. Die eerste kontrak het 'n hantering van 'faile' of turfsode bepaal, maar die latere kontrak het dit weggelaat, waarskynlik omdat dit die land van belangrike bogrond beroof het. In plaas daarvan is die huurder betaal om die muur op 'n hoogte van 4 𔄁 ″ (1,4 m) te verhoog, soos en wanneer hy wil, met klippe wat ontstaan ​​het nadat hy geploeg het. Die grootste verbruiksdyk is Kingswell West Dyke (p126).

Die omheinings in Lake District was oor die algemeen taamlik laat. Tot die Unie van 1603 het aanvalle oor die grens van Skotland die gebied so onveilig gehou dat daar voortgegaan word om op die grond te boer, wat dit vir sommige mans makliker gemaak het om die land op kort kennisgewing te verlaat vir tydelike militêre diens. Na die beëindiging van grensprobleme is baie van die gemeenskaplike dorpsgebiede omring deur privaat ooreenkoms, maar die boerdery het oor die algemeen agteruitgegaan in vergelyking met elders in die land. Die meeste Lakeland -mure is gebou na die Wet op die Parlementêre Omhulsel van 1801.

Die meeste Ierse mure is ook redelik onlangs. Van die middel van die 18de eeu af is grondhervormers 'n omheining, maar daar was baie plaaslike weerstand teen permanente mure. In plaas daarvan is sooggrense van een jaar gebou, wat dan na die oes neergegooi is sodat hulle die grond kon aanvul. Hierdie praktyk het op baie gebiede tot in die 18de eeu voortgeduur. Die antieke megaliete van Ierland het hoofsaaklik onaangeraak gebly, selfs tydens periodes van ommuurde aktiwiteite, aangesien daar 'n sterk bygeloof teen die skeuring van groot klippe was.

Die geskiedenis van mure met droë klip eindig nie heeltemal met die 19de eeu nie, alhoewel min grond nog onderverdeel moet word. Mynbedrywighede het tydelike mure in sekere gebiede veroorsaak, soos sommige van die Yorkshire Dales. In die 20ste eeu het die verbreding en bou van paaie die behoefte aan die bou van baie kilometers mure meegebring. Gedurende die dertigerjare is herbou van die mure langs die pad in die West Riding of Yorkshire gebruik om plaaslike werkloosheid te verlig. In onlangse tye was die nasionale parke en ander owerhede wat betrokke is by die bewaring van die platteland, aktief in die bevordering van droë klipmure deur middel van toelaes en ander skemas (hoofstuk 2). Aangesien daar in die middel van die 20ste eeu baie min voltydse muurmakers werk, neem die getalle nou weer toe, aangesien die belangrikheid van die behoud van die ommuurde landskap duidelik geword het. Soos uiteengesit in hoofstuk 2, is baie mure in 'n swak toestand, en dit sou 'n belegging soortgelyk aan dié van die omhulselstyd benodig om dit te herbou. Die ommuurde landskap van Groot -Brittanje is 'n monument vir eeue se geduldige arbeid, en dit is te belangrik om te laat verval.


Kom meer te wete oor Trump se muur

Lees verder om meer te wete te kom oor ander beroemde mure wat hul stempel op die geskiedenis getrap het.

Die Berlynse muur was een van die beroemdste mure in die moderne geskiedenis, wat 'n nasie vir 28 jaar verdeel het en 'n belangrike rol gespeel het in 'n konflik genaamd die Koue Oorlog.

In die 1950's is Duitsland in twee verdeel - Oos -Duitsland en Wes -Duitsland.

Die land se hoofstad Berlyn was eintlik in Oos -Duitsland geleë, maar die stad was ook tussen oostelike en westelike moondhede verdeel - en 'n muur tussen die twee.

Aanvanklik was dit net 'n heining, maar dit is gou gevul met beton en was soms tot 3,6 meter lank.

Die idee was dat die muur mense sou verhinder om uit armer, kommunistiese Oos -Berlyn (en Sowjet -bewind) na Wes -Europa te vlug.

Talle honderde mense het gesterf in die poging om dit oor te steek in die hoop op 'n beter lewe aan die ander kant.

Die Berlynse muur het 'n simbool geword van onderdrukking en beheer wat Oos -Duitsland en die Sowjets sy burgers toegedien het.

Met die aankoms van die Amerikaanse president Ronald Reagan in 1980 en die Sowjet -leier Mikhail Gorbatsjof in 1985 het die ooste en die weste meer begin saamwerk om hul verskille te sorteer en te leer om saam te bestaan.

In November 1989 is die grens oop verklaar en het mense in Berlyn die muur begin afbreek.

Tot vandag toe bly die Berlynse muur - en wat daarvan oorgebly het - 'n kragtige simbool van die impak van verdeeldheid. Miljoene toeriste besoek elke jaar wat oorbly van die muur.


New England word deurkruis met duisende myl van klipmure

Concord

Loop 'n stuk bos in New England binne, en die kans is goed dat u amper 'n klipmuur sal loop. Dik hoog, miskien, is dit saamgesteek met klippe van verskillende vorms en groottes, met spatsels korstmos en sponsagtige mos in plaas van mortel. Die meeste van die klippe is wat 'n twee-handers genoem word#lig genoeg om op te lig, maar nie met net een hand nie. Die muur kronkel teen 'n heuwel af en buite sig. Volgens Robert Thorson, 'n landskapgeoloog aan die Universiteit van Connecticut, is hierdie mure oral oral in die woude van die platteland van New England.

Hy skat dat daar meer as 100 000 myl ou, ongebruikte klipmure is, of genoeg om vier keer om die aardbol te draai.

Wie sou 'n klipmuur, wat nog te sê honderde duisende kilometers daarvan, in die middel van die bos bou? Niemand. Die mure is nie in die bos gebou nie, maar in en om plase. Teen die middel van die 19de eeu is New England meer as 70 persent ontbos deur setlaars, 'n golwende landskap van kleinhoewes so ver as wat die oog kan sien. Maar teen die einde van die eeu het industrialisasie en grootskaalse plase daartoe gelei dat duisende lande laat vaar het om 'n stadige herbossingsproses te begin.

Nuwe Engeland het wonderlike weivelde gehad, ”, sê Thorson. Dit was 'n ekonomie met vleis-botter-spek. ”

Terwyl boere die woude in New England skoongemaak het, het hulle klippe gevind en baie daarvan. Die gletsers wat aan die einde van die laaste ystydperk teruggetrek het, het miljoene ton klip in verskillende groottes agtergelaat. New England -gronde bly vandag berug klipperig.

Klipmure in Block Island, Rhode Island, c. 1880. Block Island Historical Society, gedruk deur Robert Downie

As die lewe jou klippe gee? Bou 'n muur. Boere het hierdie ploegbelemmerende klippe uit hul lande getrek en op die rande gestapel. Die belangrikste belangstelling van die boer was sy landerye, sê Thorson. Die mure is eenvoudig 'n weggooipaal. Dit was roetine plaaswerk. ” Hierdie proses is herhaal op duisende plase regoor die streek en#8212 'n kollektiewe arbeidshandeling op 'n ysige skaal.

Die voorraad klip lyk eindeloos. 'N Veld sou in die herfs skoongemaak word, en in die lente 'n nuwe klipoes. Dit is te wyte aan 'n proses wat bekend staan ​​as “vriesstapel. ” Namate ontboste gronde vries en ontdooi, verskuif klippe en migreer na die oppervlak. Mense in die noordooste het gedink dat die duiwel hulle daar neergesit het, ” sê Susan Allport, skrywer van die boek Sermons in Stone: The Stone Walls of New England and New York. Hulle het net aanhou kom. ”

Klipmuur in Old Manse, Concord, Massachusetts. Robert Thorson

Muurbou het in die middel van die 1800's 'n hoogtepunt bereik toe Thorson skat dat daar ongeveer 240 000 myl in New England was. Dit beloop ongeveer 400 miljoen ton klip, of genoeg om die Groot Piramide van Giza meer as 60 keer te bou.

Niemand spandeer meer tyd om aan hierdie mure te dink as Thorson, wat 'n kinderboek, 'n veldgids en talle artikels daaroor geskryf het sedert hy in 1984 na New England verhuis het nie. Thorson, kaal en bebaard, 'n klipsteen homself, is 'n landskapsgeoloog, en hy onthou duidelik sy eerste wandelinge in die bos van New England en kom oor die een klipmuur na die ander. Sy gedagtes was vol vrae oor wat hulle is en wie dit gebou het, en dit was 'n buitengewone verskynsel, sê hy. Een ding het tot 'n ander gelei, en ek het obsessief geraak oor die onderwerp ”.

Thorson begin die Stone Wall -inisiatief in 2002, wat daarop gemik was om die publiek op te voed oor hierdie kenmerkende kenmerk van hul woude, benewens die behoud van die mure en die bestudering van hoe dit die landskap rondom hulle beïnvloed. Thorson het 'n reputasie opgebou as die uiteindelike kenner van hierdie verskynsel. Weet u hoe 'n natuurhistoriese museum 'n persoon sou hê wat goed vir u identifiseer? Ek is soort van die man vir klipmure, en hy sê.

Robert Thorson met 'n klipmuur, Kettle Pond National Wildlife Refuge, Rhode Island. Liam Nangle

Elke jaar neem hy sy studente na 'n maple-beech forest stand in Storrs, Connecticut, wat hy noem “ The Glen, ” om na 'n klassieke plaasmuur te kyk. Hierdie muur is heuphoog en meestal gebou uit gneis en skerp, metamorfe gesteentes wat algemeen voorkom in die vallei-flanke van Sentraal-New England. Met Thorson se hulp, begin 'n mens 'n bietjie struktuur sien in hoe die klippe in morsige vlakke gestapel is, deur 'n boer wat een vrag op 'n slag bygevoeg het.

Thorson is veral versot op die mure, maar hy is nie alleen in die belang nie. Hy word voortdurend uitgenooi om te praat by tuinklubs, historiese verenigings, openbare biblioteke en meer. “Die rente val nie af nie, ” sê hy. Twintig jaar later gaan dit nog steeds voort. ”

Sy veldgids, Verken klipmure, is 'n gids van sommige van die mees ongewone, interessante of kenmerkende mure in die streek. Die hoogste voorbeeld is 'n mortier seewand onder die Cliff Walk in Newport, Rhode Island, wat meer as 100 voet groot is. Die oudste muur in Popham Point, Maine, dateer uit 1607. Thorson se gunsteling histories belangrike muur is by die Old Manse, 'n historiese huis in Concord, Massachusetts. Dit bied dekking vir minute wat tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog op die Britte losgebrand het. Thorson beklemtoon ook Robert Frost ’s “Mending Wall, ”, geleë op sy plaas in Derry, New Hampshire, die inspirasie vir die beroemde lyn, en#8220 Goeie heinings maak goeie bure. ”

The “Mending Wall ” on Robert Frost's farm in Derry, New Hampshire. Robert Thorson

Thorson weet soveel as wat 'n mens kan weet oor die wêreldwye skaal van mure regoor die noordooste, maar daar moet nog baie geleer word, veral wat dit vir ekosisteme beteken, soos hul rol as habitat en belemmering vir wild en die uitwerking daarvan op erosie en sedimentasie. “Dit klink dom, ” sê hy, “ maar ons weet amper niks daarvan nie. ”

Geograaf en landskapsargeoloog Katharine Johnson het haar doktorsgraad verwerf met die kartering van klipmure van bo, met behulp van lidar (ligopsporing en omvang) tegnologie. Lidar is soortgelyk aan radar, maar in plaas van om radiogolwe te gebruik om voorwerpe op te spoor, gebruik dit lig. Laserpulse en duisend duisende per sekonde word uit 'n spesiaal toegeruste vliegtuig uitgestraal. Daar is soveel van hierdie polse dat sommige die klein spasies tussen blare kan tref en tot by die bosvloer kan dring, selfs deur dik boombedekking. Die lidar -beelde van Johnson onthul die omvang van die steenmure wat oorskry, op 'n manier wat niks anders kan nie.

'N Lidar -beeld wat die versteekte mure onder 'n woud in Eastford, Connecticut, toon. USDA NRCS, CTECO, Katharine Johnson en Will Ouimet

Haar navorsing toon dat die mure, gestroop van die herlewende woude van die streek, 'n momentopname van die geskiedenis van die 19de eeu bied en 'n kaart van watter land destyds skoongemaak en geboer is. Gekombineer met ander gegewens oor die woude self, kan dit spesialiste help om historiese bosbedekkings te modelleer en op hul beurt ekoloë te help verstaan ​​hoe woude terug groei nadat hulle versteur of heeltemal skoongemaak is. Die mure kan die sleutel tot die sosiale geskiedenis van New England bevat, insluitend nedersettingspatrone en boerderystyle. Dit bied 'n statiese agtergrond waarteen verandering gemeet kan word.

“ Klipmure is die belangrikste artefakte in die platteland van New England, sê Thorson. Hulle is 'n visuele verbinding met die verlede. Hulle is net so seker 'n oorblyfsel van 'n voormalige beskawing as 'n ruïne in die Amazone -reënwoud. ”

Elkeen van die miljoene klippe waaruit New England -klipmure bestaan, is gehou deur 'n persoon, gewoonlik 'n bestaansboer, of miskien 'n huurling -inheemse Amerikaner of 'n slaaf. Wat oorbly, is 'n spoor van tallose individuele handelinge wat op die landskap geëtste is. Hulle werk, en#8221 sê Allport, en honderde jare later verduur hulle. ”


Die geskiedenis wat in die mure versteek is

As u eers begin grawe-of u nou langbevolkte stedelike grond vir 'n kommersiële projek opgrawe of die mure van 'n huis afbreek-weet u nooit wat u sal vind nie. Dit is moontlik 'n rituele voorwerp wat daar geplaas is om bose geeste 300 jaar gelede, of 'n paar dekades gelede, af te weer. Dit is moontlik doelbewus daar geplaas of per ongeluk gelos. Tensy dit 'n tydkapsule is met 'n nota hierby, weet u dit nooit met sekerheid nie.

Elke gebou dra geskiedenis binne sy mure, plafonne, vloere en fondamente. Die hout, gips en klip kan kragtige geheime bevat, selfs talismans, waarvan sommige daar geplaas is om toekomstige inwoners te vind - 'n draad wat verlede en toekoms verbind.

Beskou Michelle Morgan Harrison, 'n interieurontwerper wat haar huis opknaap, 'n huis wat in 1816 in New Canaan gebou is, Conn. 'Eers het ek gedink: Dit is menslik!' sê mev Harrison, wat verlig was om te ontdek dat dit nie so was nie. Toe dink hulle dat dit 'n perdskedel kan wees, een van die voorwerpe wat Ierse bouers tradisioneel in huise geplaas het.

Dit blyk die van 'n hond te wees, hoewel die helfte van die skedel ontbreek.

'Ek het 'n bietjie van alles gesien' tydens die opknapping, sê meneer Kennedy, 'n kontrakteur en timmerman vir 20 jaar. 'Maar die skedel was uniek, en daar kon nie 'n manier wees waarop dit begrawe is nie. Dit was amper presies in die middel onder die deuropening geplaas, en daar was geen ander bene daarmee nie. Ek het dadelik gedink dit is iets bygelowig. ”

Hy het gesê dat hy beplan om dit op dieselfde plek in die huis te herbegrawe nadat die opknappings voltooi is.

Beeld

"Die gebruik om items in die struktuur van 'n huis te begrawe of te verberg, word immuun genoem," sê Joseph Heathcott, 'n argitektoniese historikus en stedeling wat aan die New School in New York klas gee.

'Dit is eintlik 'n ou praktyk wat oor baie kulture en beskawings strek,' het dr Heathcott bygevoeg. Die bekendste voorbeelde is artefakte wat met Egiptiese farao's in die piramides begrawe is, maar hy het gesê dat rituele voorwerpe dikwels tydens die argeologiese opgrawings in die mure van Romeinse villa's en gewone huise gevind is. 'Die geskiedenis van die Vrymesselary het sy oorsprong in die rituele van verberging deur messelaars, wat geheime in hul geboue versluit,' het hy gesê.

Voorwerpe is dikwels weggesteek as 'n manier om inwoners geluk te bring. Dit was die geval in Ierland, "het hy gesê," waar dit algemeen was by die bou van 'n huis om 'n perdeskedel in die vloer of onder die haard te begrawe, 'n Keltiese praktyk wat eeue terug dateer. Soms is dit die hele skedel, ander kere net die voorkant of die bokant sonder die onderkaak. ”

In Engeland en Ierland was dit ook in baie streke gebruiklik om dooie katte in die mure of onder vloere van huise te begrawe om kwaadwillige geeste af te weer, het dr Heathcott bygevoeg.

Dit klink alles na antieke geskiedenis - totdat jy of jou werkspan iets vind.

Toe Rob DeRocker, 'n bemarkingskonsultant in Tarrytown, New York, begin om sy huis in 1843, bekend as die Ice House, op te knap-dit is in die 19de eeu gebruik om ys te stoor-het verskeie voorwerpe verskyn. Hy het 'n kleipyp en 'n tabaksakkie in 'n vensterraam gevind, 'n klavierrol in 'n plafon, 'n kind se alfabetkaart en verskeie met die hand geverfde keramiekteëls. Hy het gedroom van die rykdom van "Antiques Roadshow", maar hy het ontdek dat die items meer histories as waardevol is. Desondanks geniet meneer DeRocker die materiële geskiedenis van sy huis: "Toe hierdie huis gebou is, was Abraham Lincoln nog steeds 'n advokaat," het hy gesê.

Mense wat dink dat hulle iets oud en waardevol gevind het, kontak gereeld die New-York Historical Society, sê Margaret K. Hofer, 'n vise-president van die genootskap en direkteur van die museum. 'Ons kry altyd sulke oproepe,' het sy gesê. Museumpersoneel vra gewoonlik 'n foto per e -pos voordat hulle besluit om van naderby te kyk.

'Sommige dink beslis dat hulle dit ryk sal maak - hulle is gewoonlik heeltemal verkeerd,' het sy gesê. Algemene vondste sluit in ou koerante, wat soms vir isolasie gebruik word, en vuurwapens en ammunisie, soos die kanonskogel van die Revolusionêre Oorlog wat verlede Augustus in 'n Brooklyn -agterplaas gevind is. Die een het inderdaad histories waardevol geblyk te wees, het sy gesê, wat 'n belangrike stryd was, al was dit ''n groot verlies vir die Amerikaanse weermag'.

'N Paar jaar gelede het me. Hofer 'n tydkapsule uit 1914 geopen wat deur die Lower Wall Street Business Men' s Association opgerig is en destyds aan die historiese samelewing vir bewaring gegee is, wat later geopen kan word.

Die 1914 -kapsule, omhul in 'n aantreklike koperbak, was tot 2000 by die genootskap gestoor, het van 2000 tot 2014 ongeopend in sy Luce -sentrum vertoon, "en daarna met groot fanfare geopen in Oktober 2014, toe dit weer verseël is," het mev. Hofer gesê. 'Dit bevat baie publikasies van die dag, insluitend koerante, tydskrifte en jaarverslae,' het sy gesê.

In 2015 het tienermuseumgangers hul eie tydskapsule geskep deur e-sigarette, 'n selfoon, 'n Starbucks-beker en 'n paar konsertkaartjies by te voeg.

Een van die rykste voorwerpe van die museum was die Ear Inn, 'n huis wat omstreeks 1770 gebou is en steeds staan ​​- hoewel dit die afgelope 20 jaar 10 duim gesink het - in Spring Street 326 in Lower Manhattan. Vandag beslaan 'n kroeg en restaurant die eerste verdieping. Die huis het baie aandenkings van die vroeë New York vervaardig toe die eienaars, Martin Sheridan en Richard Hayman, die kelder opgegrawe het.

'Daar is baie wonderlike dinge daarin', het mev. Hofer gesê, 'die doel van die alledaagse lewe. Dit is 'n momentopname van 'n tydperk en 'n klas mense. " Die hok het 'n kamerpot en whiskykanne ingesluit.

'Ons het in die kelder gegrawe om poste in die huis te sit,' het mnr. Hayman gesê. "Die gebou het ses voet gesink sedert dit gebou is."

'N Huis het nie revolusionêre geloofsbriewe nodig om 'n troon te wees nie.

“In my 30 years of architectural practice we’ve found many different things under floors and inside of walls, most left there inadvertently,” said Marvin J. Anderson, a Seattle architect. “Newspapers were used for years as insulation, and regularly help us date when an addition was built or an improvement was made.” In a recent renovation of a 1914 Seattle house, he found a layer of 1924 newspapers under the floorboards in a maid’s room.

“While renovating a 1902 house several years ago, we came across a fire-scorched red corset inside a wall,” he said. “It certainly stopped construction for several hours and raised many eyebrows, but we never figured out the story behind it.”

Some homeowners and some work crews choose to leave signatures and items behind as well, Mr. Anderson added. “When we renovate houses we encourage clients and their families to create and leave time capsules inside the house somewhere, something to be discovered when walls and ceilings are opened up in 50 to 100 years.”

Construction crews also routinely sign wall framing, knowing it will be covered up. “Years ago a client told me of the tradition of placing foreign coins under the basement floor slab that it would bring wisdom from around the world into the home,” Mr. Anderson said. “I’ve never researched the tradition, but we’ve done this on numerous projects, as an opportunity to pause and celebrate a moment or milestone during construction.”

When Mr. Kennedy began working on Ms. Harrison’s 1816 house, a carpenter’s signature from 1921 was found on an attic window frame. Also discovered: a time capsule from the 1990s that included a note from the 9-year-old girl then living there.

Kim Gordon, a designer in Los Angeles who specializes in renovating 1920s-era homes, collects items she finds in the process and creates a small package she places in a wall when the project is done, sometimes with the owner’s knowledge, sometimes not. Inside a wall in a house from 1905, the oldest she’s yet renovated, she found a small sterling-silver medallion of the Virgin Mary, on a bit of chain. “It was very detailed, a beautiful, beautiful piece,” she said. After completing the renovation, she placed it into a small fabric pouch, added some crushed seashells, pebbles and a clay figure, and tucked it back inside a wall.

She collects small objects at flea markets “that speak to me” and keeps them for use in future packages during renovations. “It’s an anchor in the space,” she said. “I’ve given the house an intention.”

And, of course, commercial projects that require major excavation routinely unearth all kinds of things. But the 19th-century ship discovered in May 2016 in Boston, and the ancient elephant bones found in November of that year in Los Angeles during excavation work on the Wilshire/La Brea Station for the Purple Line Extension subway, were of jaw-dropping significance. The subway extension, a Skanska-Traylor-Shea project, produced teeth, tusks and a partial skull of at least two of the extinct mammals.

In Boston, another Skanska team at work on a 17-story office tower had been on site for more than eight months, and was six to eight weeks into the excavation phase when it revealed a ship, sunk between 1850 and 1880, that still contained barrels of lime and items including knives, forks and plates. It was about 20 feet down and approximately 500 yards from the current shore by the Institute of Contemporary Art.

It’s in “the heart of Boston and the heart of a major development” said Shawn Hurley, the chief executive and president of Skanska USA commercial development. “We didn’t know what it was at first, but the employee who saw it was smart enough to stop construction.”

It was a sunny day. Skanska’s offices overlook the site and excitement grew as staff members realized, “We’ve got the real deal!” he recalled.

Suddenly encountering a piece of history can be a shock.

“I felt kind of amazed. I’ve never seen anything like it,” said Mr. Hurley, who then immediately faced a host of questions: “What do we need to do here? What are the next steps?”

The importance of their accidental find was confirmed, he said, as city and state archaeologists agreed it was the most significant find of their careers. “We probably had a team of seven or eight archaeologists on-site for a week. They were ecstatic.”


Transkripsie

BASCOMB: The colonists in New England faced an uphill battle in turning the region&rsquos vast forests into farmland. They had to fell massive trees and contend with rocks strewn throughout the soil they aimed to plow. So, stone by stone, they stacked the rocks left over from glaciers into waist-high walls. Each year frost heaves pushed still more stones to the surface, which some of those early farmers said was the work of the devil.

Generations later, farmers returned time and again to repair the walls as the years went by. That&rsquos the subject of Robert Frost&rsquos famous poem, The Mending Wall, read here by the poet himself.

FROST: Mending Wall
Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun
And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.
The work of hunters is another thing:
I have come after them and made repair
Where they have left not one stone on a stone,
But they would have the rabbit out of hiding,
To please the yelping dogs. The gaps I mean,
No one has seen them made or heard them made,
But at spring mending-time we find them there.
I let my neighbour know beyond the hill
And on a day we meet to walk the line
And set the wall between us once again.
We keep the wall between us as we go.
To each the boulders that have fallen to each.
And some are loaves and some so nearly balls
We have to use a spell to make them balance:
"Stay where you are until our backs are turned!"
We wear our fingers rough with handling them.
Oh, just another kind of out-door game,
One on a side. It comes to little more:
There where it is we do not need the wall:
He is all pine and I am apple orchard.
My apple trees will never get across
And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him.
He only says, "Good fences make good neighbours."
Spring is the mischief in me, and I wonder
If I could put a notion in his head:
"Why do they make good neighbours? Isn't it
Where there are cows? But here there are no cows.
Before I built a wall I'd ask to know
What I was walling in or walling out,
And to whom I was like to give offence.
Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That wants it down." I could say "Elves" to him,
But it's not elves exactly, and I'd rather
He said it for himself. I see him there
Bringing a stone grasped firmly by the top
In each hand, like an old-stone savage armed.
He moves in darkness as it seems to me,
Not of woods only and the shade of trees.
He will not go behind his father's saying,
And he likes having thought of it so well
He says again, "Good fences make good neighbours."


A New Hampshire stone wall in winter. (Photo: Steve Curwood)

CURWOOD: Those stone walls of Robert Frost&rsquos verse still exist in Southern New Hampshire, as do thousands like it across New England. Made mostly of granite, these walls serve as windows into the geological and cultural history of the region. I went for a walk through an old farmstead with a stone wall expert to learn more.

CURWOOD: So, we're here in Nottingham, New Hampshire, at a 1755 farmhouse. It's surrounded by stone walls, and we're joined now by Robert Thorson. He's a professor of geology at the University of Connecticut. And he's author of &ldquoStone by Stone: The Magnificent History in New England's Stone Walls&rdquo. Welcome to Living on Earth, Professor.

THORSON: Thank you. It's a pleasure to be here.

CURWOOD: So, how did you first get involved studying stones?

THORSON: Well, I moved here from Alaska, and I had grown up in the sort of Scandinavian Midwestern upper Midwest heritage where you don't see any stone walls whatsoever and I moved here from Alaska in 1984. And I thought, well, I'm hired as a landscape archaeologist and a geologist and a scientist to teach. And I thought, I better go get myself a look at stone walls. And so I went to the Natchaug State forest, which is nearby in eastern Connecticut where I was working. And I just started walking a traverse. And I was going up over one after another, and another and another stone walls, and it just struck me that day. What are these things? Why are they the size they are, the color they are, the mass they are, the continuity they are, the pattern they are. all those questions that a trained scientists would ask about them.

CURWOOD: So, stone walls are all over the region. Who made these walls?

THORSON: If you're talking about the abandoned field farm landscape of the 19th and 18th century, then almost entirely, it's the people who own the land and were using money from the land to do things. If you're talking about the Gilded Age or 1920s or Edwardian or even late Victorian, when you get past the zenith of New England's agriculture, then most of the walls are being built by immigrant work parties for very low pay, but the money came from somewhere else. And so you end up with a nice, tidy, long, uniform degree of construction that an architect might recognize. The walls that I like are the ones built by the people on the land, because there's an ecological component to them, a human ecological component.


Robert Frost (1874 &ndash 1963) was a prolific American poet whose work included, &ldquoThe Road Not Taken,&rdquo &ldquoFire And Ice,&rdquo and &ldquoMending Wall.&rdquo (Photo: Walter Albertin, Wikimedia Commons via U.S. Library of Congress)

CURWOOD: Let's go up the wall a little further, because I want to ask you about the ecology of what's in these walls today.

CURWOOD: So, many of these stone walls obviously were abandoned. This farm stopped farming livestock probably a century and a half ago. But you say that these are important parts of our ecosystem. What makes them so important in the ecosystem?

THORSON: Well, if you look at the stone wall right in front of us, you don't see any surface moisture, and you never will, unless it's raining or you're getting snow melt. These are very, very dry. They're effectively deserts. They're hollow, open spaces that animals can live that don't exist on the woodland floor. It's also a corridor. If you wanted to move along your territory and you were a fox, or you were a squirrel, or you were a cat, a bobcat or a fisher cat, you could cruise along the top of the wall and see more. You would be more exposed if you were a predator. If you were prey, you'd likely scurry along beneath the edge of the wall, and you get cover. So, as boundaries, as corridors, and as habitat, stone walls have a life all their own.

CURWOOD: And the geologic story here?

THORSON: Well, if you accept that human beings are geologic agents - which I do, being the strongest one - then they're part of that geologic story. If you were to just say, OK, what happened here since glaciation, we're about it. I mean, glaciation and then human activity, those are the two dominant events that have happened here on the landscape to shape and change the landscape. It's not to say that other people didn't live here for a long time, but these are the main shapers, and one is glacial in origin, climatically driven, and one is human in origin, economically driven.

CURWOOD: Thor, talk to me about the famous stone walls here in New England.

THORSON: I think the most famous one is Robert Frost&rsquos Mending Wall, because people in Iowa know about that wall. People in Florida know about that wall, and it's one of New England's real treasures, that poem. And I've been to Derry a number of times, and I've talked there and explored and investigated the mending wall. It turns out the Mending Wall is a combination of two different walls. That poem was written when Frost was in England. It was one of his earliest ones and he's writing it from memory. And he garbled together two things, whether intentionally or not, that are really important to the New England psyche. One of the ideas, the maintenance, structure, order, you know, keeping stone on stone, mending the wall, and the other, of course, is territorialism, the fences that we erect between ourselves in our communities and otherwise. And he really dwells nicely on both of those. The Mending Wall, the poem, has both the boundary wall and the precarious stones as round as balls are loaves, but the actual walls on that property are very distinct. One is a boundary and one is a place where you can hardly stack a stone, and they don't map on top of each other.

CURWOOD: Philosophically, what do you think if his point that there's something that doesn't like a wall?

THORSON: That something is all of nature itself that doesn't like a wall, because a wall is created with intent by human beings. For whatever reason, it's going to come down, and to me, that's nice. I love the old, abandoned, lichen-crusted closed canopy forested walls in the age of the Anthropocene because they tell us that in some places, the Anthropocene impact is already being re-healed. And the wildness seeking person in me likes seeing that.


Robert Thorson (left) and Host Steve Curwood examine a rock from a wall in New Hampshire. (Photo: Jenni Doering)

CURWOOD: So some would say that stone walls helped win the American Revolution. Why would they say that?

THORSON: The number one reason that they would say that would be because the colonists, the ragtag Minutemen, used the walls for cover, and they were very hard to pick off by the British marching in columns down the road. On a deeper level, you could argue that the walls are expedient parts of the farms that gave the beef and the butter and the bacon and the bread that fed those armies. We know that armies don't march on an empty stomach. Also, I think there's a territorial boundary element. I think that just seeing a stone wall, makes you feel more secure, it makes you feel enclosed. It makes you feel contained. It makes you feel separate. So, you could say that, at a psychological bedrock level, they helped with the idea of separateness.

CURWOOD: Robert Thorson is a professor of geology at the University of Connecticut. Thor, thanks so much for taking the time with us.

THORSON: It's been a pleasure. What could be nicer than being in the woods with surrounded by stone walls?


Dry Stack Walls: A Disappearing Piece of American History - 2002-03-05

Old rock walls, many dating to the 19th century, line roads and divide pasture land throughout the American mid-south states of Kentucky and Tennessee. But many of these stone structures, which were built without any mortar, are being torn down and, as Terri Smith reports, local activists fear the picturesque charm of their region will disappear with them.

George Patterson knows how to make dry-stack rock walls. It's a craft he learned in his native Scotland. Since moving to Nashville five years ago, he has found a niche as one of the few masons who practice this mortarless method of building rock walls. Like a house of cards that relies on perfect balance to remain standing, these walls some of which are 150 years old - consist of rocks sculpted and placed so that they stand solely due to weight and surface friction. On this breezy day, Mr. Patterson works on restoring a dry stack wall in a history-rich suburb of Nashville.

"It's a craft that's been going on throughout the world for hundreds of years, really. You know, some of the Incas were great builders of dry stack walls. It's a pity that people don't keep them up - that's the big thing," Mr. Patterson says.

Often referred to as "slave walls," most of the rock walls in middle Tennessee were actually built by Irish and Scottish immigrants in the 19th century. When masons built walls for plantation owners, they were probably assisted by slaves who gathered stones and helped with digging. Many of those slaves went on to become masons themselves after they were freed. Although no one knows exactly how many of these walls remain, historians and preservationists agree that a count needs to be made. Mary Alisons Haynie, a Doctor of Arts student at Middle Tennessee State University, says the walls were originally erected to divide property and contain animals.

"They have to be high enough that a horse won't jump over them or deep enough they are built on top of a foundation that goes into the ground so pigs wouldn't root through them. Beyond that there are significant differences. As you can see, the stone wall we're looking at is 2 layers deep, so they can come in different depths and different heights and the stones here are very thick and heavy and they're very much the same size throughout," Ms. Haynie explains.

Because they are such a central part of this region's traditional landscape, many Tennesseans feel if the walls disappear so will much of the state's charm.

"Rock walls, old hedgerows of trees, fence roads - these are integral parts of the tapestry of Tennessee. If we don't do things [to protect them], we will look like anywhere, USA," Laura Turner says.

Two years ago, activist Laura Turner helped shepherd a resolution through the state legislature, which recognized the historic value of rock walls. The resolution called on the Tennessee Historical Commission to identify stone walls worthy of preservation and to develop criteria for their protection. The commission was also asked to come up with standards for moving and rebuilding walls when saving them wasn't an option. But a resolution is not a law, so there are no Penalties for tearing down walls and no state resources to pay for a survey of the walls that are left.

About a year after the resolution passed, Ms. Turner began an effort to convert the document's sentiment into legislation to protect stone walls along public roads. She says the Tennessee Department of Transportation or T-DOT voiced its opposition.

"They assured us that they did not take down rock walls and that they were very careful about that and that we did not need this bill. A few months later, I got an emergency call, 'The wall on Hillsboro Road is being bulldozed down' and within three hours, TDOT took down a wall that experts say dates back to 1850," Ms. Turner says. That dramatic event inspired Senator Douglas Henry to step up to the plate again. He had sponsored the original resolution, and now encouraged the Tennessee Historical Commission to act on it to quickly draft standards for protecting Tennessee's rock walls. While the discussions of what those standards should be have been progressing smoothly, T-DOT's Assistant Chief Engineer Dennis Cook says everyone agrees the day to day use of the criteria will be the challenge.

"The criteria can't say no stone walls shall be removed. We can't live with that because of safety and other things. The criteria have to have some flexibility," Mr. Cook says.

For now, T-DOT has agreed that anytime road surveyors find a long stretch of well-preserved rock wall with historic value, the department will inform the community before proceeding.

Those who admire Tennessee's stone walls agree that until legislation is passed that mandates their protection, public pressure will be just as important in keeping these walls standing as the artfully crafted pressure between the rocks themselves.


Walls of Ston - History

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History of the Walls of Jerusalem
The First Walls Were Built by the Canaanites

Long before the Israelites entered the Promised Land, the Jebusites lived securely within the walls of Jerusalem. The city was blessed with natural valleys around it that made it easy to defend. The city walls and its fortress provided additional protection.

mv2.png/v1/fill/w_191,h_124,al_c,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/City%20Walls%20Canannite%20Period%20(Medium).png" />

David Conquered the Jebusite City and Enlarged the City Walls

God was with David and allowed him to capture Jerusalem from the Jebusites. Later, he built additional walls to fortify the city. The Gihon Spring was outside the city at this time. The city would become known as the City of David.

2 Samuel 5:6&ndash10: And the king and his men went to Jerusalem against the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land, who said to David, &ldquoYou will not come in here, but the blind and the lame will ward you off&rdquo&mdashthinking, &ldquoDavid cannot come in here.&rdquo 7 Nevertheless, David took the stronghold of Zion, that is, the city of David. 8 And David said on that day, &ldquoWhoever would strike the Jebusites, let him get up the water shaft to attack &lsquothe lame and the blind,&rsquo who are hated by David's soul.&rdquo Therefore, it is said, &ldquoThe blind and the lame shall not come into the house.&rdquo 9 And David lived in the stronghold and called it the city of David. And David built the city all around from the Millo inward. 10 And David became greater and greater, for the Lord, the God of hosts, was with him.

mv2.png/v1/fill/w_186,h_121,al_c,usm_0.66_1.00_0.01,blur_2/City%20Walls%20time%20of%20David%20(Medium).png" />

Solomon Adds to the Walls of the City

After David died, Solomon built the temple upon the threshing floor of Araunah. He enlarged the Temple Mount Platform and added walls from the City of David to the Temple Mount.

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Hezekiah Builds a Large Broad Wall

In 701 BC, the Assyrians, headed by Sennacherib invaded Judah, the Southern Kingdom of Israel, because of their disobedience to God. According to an Assyrian stele found in the ruins of the royal palace of Nineveh, Sennacherib conquered 46 cities in Judea prior to attempting to conquer Jerusalem.

God allowed most of Judah to be conquered but protected Jerusalem because of Hezekiah&rsquos obedience to Him. As Hezekiah began to prepare for what he knew would be a terrible siege by a merciless Assyrian war machine, he had to figure out how to protect his people. This meant building new defenses.
During the time of Hezekiah, Jerusalem&rsquos urban population had grown far outside the old walls of the city and were unprotected. King Hezekiah fortified the existing walls of the city and built a new wall in a rapid manner to protect those living outside the city walls.

2 Chronicles 32:5: He set to work resolutely and built up all the wall that was broken down and raised towers upon it, and outside it he built another wall, and he strengthened the Millo in the city of David. He also made weapons and shields in abundance.


Hezekiah&rsquos new wall measured about 22 feet wide (7 m.) by 25 feet high (8 m.). It was a massive undertaking and measured around 2.5 miles (4 km.) in length.
A portion of the wall was discovered in the 1970s by Israeli archaeologist Nahman Avigad and dated to the reign of King Hezekiah (716&ndash687 BC). It was called &ldquoHezekiah&rsquos Broad Wall&rdquo by archaeologists because of its width.

Hezekiah also built a water tunnel in order to keep the water from the Gihon Spring inside the city walls so the Assyrians couldn&rsquot cut off the water supply (2 Chron. 32:3&ndash4). The curving tunnel is 583 yards (533 m.) long and has a fall of 12 inches (30 cm.) between its two ends. It was chiseled from both ends to the middle at the same time. It took the water from the Gihon Spring under the mountain to the Pool of Siloam below the city.

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Nehemiah Rebuilds the Walls

When the Babylonians conquered and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC, they also destroyed the walls and burned the gates with fire. However, God sovereignly moved in the heart of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, to allow Nehemiah to rebuild the walls later on.

Nehemiah 1:1&ndash3: Now it happened in the month of Chislev, in the twentieth year, as I was in Susa the citadel, 2 that Hanani, one of my brothers, came with certain men from Judah. And I asked them concerning the Jews who escaped, who had survived the exile, and concerning Jerusalem. 3 And they said to me, &ldquoThe remnant there in the province who had survived the exile is in great trouble and shame. The wall of Jerusalem is broken down, and its gates are destroyed by fire."

The rebuilding and repair of the wall was a miracle.
Nehemiah 6:15&ndash16: So the wall was finished on the twenty-fifth day of the month Elul, in fifty-two days. 16 And when all our enemies heard of it, all the nations around us were afraid and fell greatly in their own esteem, for they perceived that this work had been accomplished with the help of our God.

Nehemiah didn't change the existing walls of Hezekiah, but just repaired those that existed.

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Hasmonean Wall Addition

The Jews gained their independence from the Seleucid Empire in 164 BC. under the Maccabees and Hasmoneans.

At this time, Jerusalem began to be rebuilt along with its walls. During the Hasmonean period 164&ndash63 BC, a wall was added to the northern part of the existing wall. It would be this city layout that would exist during the time of Christ.

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Agrippa I Wall Addition

Agrippa I began the construction of an additional wall of the city which was completed just at the beginning of the First Jewish&ndashRoman War in 66 AD. This would be the largest area the city walls would encompass.

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The City Walls Today

In the 16th century, Suleiman decided to rebuild the city walls on much of the remains of the ancient walls that already existed. They were completed in 1538 and are the walls that exist today.

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New England Stone Wall History

Most fences in early colonial Massachusetts were a combination of stone and wood, usually reaching four to five feet high. These stonewalls were dry, made without mortar, as the limestone needed for the bonding mortar was an extremely limited commodity. Any available limestone was used either for house plaster or for restoring soil.

A stone fence surrounding the colonial animal pound in Atkinson, NH.

Stone fences typically surrounded cemeteries, cow pastures , farms, or animal pounds According to Allport, by the early 1650’s the colony of Massachusetts had already enacted legislation mandating farmers to build fences to a minimum height to separate their livestock from other farmers’ crops or a neighbor’s prized livestock. Most towns in colonial Massachusetts had fence requirements between four and five feet. Aan

enforce these regulations each town was to employ at least two “fence viewers”. (for example, see the Town Minutes in Sarah O’Shea’s research paper). The responsibility of the fence viewer was to monitor all fences in the community in regards to both height and condition. Fines would be levied if the standards were not maintained. Eventually, town pounds were built for livestock that strayed onto other farmers’ properties. The pound keeper set the fine to be paid before the offending livestock could be “bailed out” to its owner.

Using a rope, students recreated a Gunther’s chain that would be used to measure the amount of stone necessary to build their wall.

In colonial Massachusetts all fence measurement requirements were in units called “chains” or “perches”. The term “chain” originated from the surveying invention of Englishman Edmond Gunther in 1620. Gunther’s chain is a predecessor of the tape measure. The chain was sixty-six feet long, consisting of 100 links measuring approximately 7.92 inches apiece. Many modern day units of measure, including furlongs, acres, and miles, are based on Gunther’s sixty-six foot chain. (See Gunther’s chain conversion chart).

Kommentaar

Looking for some-one to talk to a small group about stone walls at the Historic WInslow House Marshfield MA in 2020. We are a 501c3 non profit and our membership is dedicated to the mission to preserve and protect the c1699 Historic House. We hols lectures during our season May-Oct. We do not have much of a budget but I would be able to pay a small stipend.

Hi Regina,
The Hamilton-Wenham Garden Club hosted a fabulous talk on stone walls with author and stone wall builder Kevin Gardner. It was FANTASTIC. He’s a spell binding speaker and built a mini stone wall during his presentation. I took pictures of stone walls in our community and he analyzed and dated them.


The story behind our stone walls

Driving on the Massachusetts Turnpike recently after a light snowfall, I noticed a lot of stone walls in the woods. Snaking across hills and valleys, they stood out in stark contrast to the rest of the landscape. What struck me was how many long-abandoned walls there were.

Driving on the Massachusetts Turnpike recently after a light snowfall, I noticed a lot of stone walls in the woods. Snaking across hills and valleys, they stood out in stark contrast to the rest of the landscape. What struck me was how many long-abandoned walls there were.

I began to look for them and I wondered who could have made the obviously great effort to move all of those stones in an area that seemed to be in the middle of nowhere.

Curiosity led me to Robert Thorson's book, "Exploring Stone Walls: A Field Guide to New England's Stone Walls." In it, Thorson explains the purpose and types of the many stone walls that line the land around us. He sorts them by age, style, materials and function, and he explains why stone walls were important in our early history. Thorson also makes the case that ancient walls are still significant today, serving to maintain and preserve a healthy ecosystem.

I do a lot of walking in remote areas of the Cape, and I'll occasionally come upon an old stone wall with no apparent connection to any human habitation. But nearby, I'll spot a cellar hole or perhaps a group of lilac bushes or some clumps of iris — a giveaway that the place was once a family farm. I'll sit on the stones and try to imagine the lives of the people who long ago worked to build a life in the woods.

In their day, the atmosphere of their work place wasn't broken by a single sound that wasn't part of nature. No trucks, power saws, or tractors. In my mind, I see a man hauling pieces of granite cobble on a wooden sled behind a draft animal and levering them carefully into a boundary of stone. He works with quiet determination to complete a section before the last remnant of daylight is gone.

Most of the stone walls on Cape Cod are found north of the Mid-Cape highway. Geologists tell us that the glacier that shaped the peninsula thousands of years ago dropped the bulk of rocks and boulders along the spine of Cape Cod. Similar rock deposits are also found along the western edge of the Cape from Pocasset south toward Falmouth. Much lighter materials comprise the south coast of the Cape and that is why there are fewer old stone walls there.

Dig a hole in East Dennis or Brewster and you will find rock. In South Yarmouth or Harwich Port, there will be very few. One of the finest examples of a well-maintained stone wall complex is at the Jenkins farm in West Barnstable off Pine Street. Here, tons of cobbles comprise an almost chest-high stone barrier enclosing old fields and pastures. Deeper in the woods south of Shawme Pond in Sandwich, the remnant of an old wall, now almost covered with decayed material, defines a woodland path near a stone foundation. Once it was a homestead. Now it is place for squirrels and an occasional red fox.

New England saw the rise of many small farms in the 18th century. Abundant stone provided material for walls to close off fields and define land holdings. After the Civil War, there was an out-migration of people from these farms to the newly opened American west. Abandoned buildings fell into ruin and trees reclaimed the pastures. Today, there are more trees in New England than there were 200 years ago. The farms are gone but the stone walls remain, causing the occasional hiker who might happen by to question who it was that built them.

In a sense we can think of these walls as our pyramids, not dedicated to the Gods but rather, standing as testaments to the strength and endurance of the ordinary people who first came to settle this land.


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