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Guillaume Apollinaire word gearresteer omdat hy die Mona Lisa gesteel het


Die Franse digter Guillaume Apollinaire word gearresteer en gevangenisstraf opgelê op die vermoede dat hy Leonardo da Vinci gesteel het Mona Lisa van die Louvre -museum in Parys.

Die 31-jarige digter was bekend vir sy radikale sienings en ondersteuning vir uiterste avant-garde kunsbewegings, maar sy oorsprong was gehul in geheimsinnigheid. Vandag word geglo dat hy in Rome gebore is en in Italië grootgemaak is. Hy verskyn op 20 -jarige ouderdom in Parys en meng vinnig in die boheemse stel van die stad. Sy eerste digbundel, Die verrottende towenaar, verskyn in 1909, gevolg deur 'n verhaalbundel in 1910. As 'n voorstander van kubisme publiseer hy 'n boek oor die onderwerp, Kubistiese skilders, in 1913. Dieselfde jaar publiseer hy sy mees gewaardeerde werk, Alcools, waar hy 'n verskeidenheid digvorme en tradisies gebruik het om daaglikse straatspraak te vang. In 1917, sy eksperimentele toneelstuk Die borste van Tiresias is vervaardig, waarvoor hy die term 'surrealisties' bedink het.

Die geheimsinnige agtergrond en radikale opvattings van Apollinaire het daartoe gelei dat die owerhede hom as 'n gevaarlike buitelander en hoofverdagte in die Mona Lisa heist, wat op 22 Augustus plaasgevind het. Geen bewyse het verskyn nie, en Apollinaire is na vyf dae vrygelaat. Twee jaar later is 'n voormalige werknemer van die Louvre, Vincenzo Peruggia, in hegtenis geneem terwyl hy die beroemde skildery aan 'n kunshandelaar wou verkoop.

LEES MEER: The Heist wat die Mona Lisa beroemd gemaak het


Misdade van die eeu

Sy was die geselsplek van Franse monarge. Francois ek het haar gekoop. Lodewyk XIV het haar in Versailles opgerig. Napoleon het haar in sy slaapkamer ingetrek. Sy was Italiaans, geskep deur Leonardo da Vinci vir meer as vier jaar in Florence, maar Frankryk was haar tuiste en daar het sy vier eeue gebly. Op 20 Augustus 1911 is die ruimte wat sy op die mure van die Louvre beset het, ontdek. Die diefstal het Frankryk geskud: die landsgrense is gesluit, administrateurs by die museum is ontslaan, vyande van tradisionele kuns word verdink van bose bedoelings. (Die avant-garde digter Guillaume Apollinaire is gearresteer as 'n verdagte dat hy Pablo Picasso betrek het. Beide is uiteindelik as moontlike skuldiges laat val). Met die verloop van maande het die vrees gegroei dat die Mona Lisa vernietig is. Toe ontvang die Louvre die boodskap van die Uffizi -galery in Florence. Die Italiaanse amptenare het gesê dat hulle 'n man met die naam Vincenzo Perugia gearresteer het, wat die Mona Lisa na 'n plaaslike antiekhandelaar gebring het om dit te verkoop en aan Italië te herstel. (Perugia, wat die meesterstuk uit sy eie gesteel het, was al dan nie deel van 'n erf om die pryse van die vervalste Mona Lisas op te blaas nie, hy het kontak met sy mede-samesweerders verloor en besluit om self die oorspronklike houtpaneel skildery te verkoop. ) Op 4 Januarie 1914 is die skildery na die Louvre terugbesorg. Perugia, wat as 'n patriot in Italië beskou is, het slegs 'n paar maande tronkstraf uitgedien, terwyl hy skuldig bevind is. Patriotisme is ook 'n toevlugsoord vir kunsdiewe.


Die Mona Lisa word uit die Louvre gesteel

Die diefstal van die bekendste skildery ter wêreld op 21 Augustus 1911 het 'n media -sensasie veroorsaak.

Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, ook bekend as La Gioconda, is die bekendste skildery ter wêreld. Die moeite en ink is oor die jare bestee aan die identifisering van wie sy was en besluit wat haar raaiselagtige glimlag beteken, wat sy sê oor vroulikheid, en wat ook al, en waarom sy geen wenkbroue het nie. Leonardo het die skildery saamgeneem toe hy in 1516 deur Francis I na Frankryk genooi is. Die koning het dit gekoop en tydens die Franse Revolusie is dit in die Louvre geplaas. Napoleon het dit weggeneem om in sy slaapkamer te hang, maar dit is daarna na die Louvre terugbesorg.

Die diefstal van hierdie wonderlike voorwerp in 1911 het 'n mediasensasie veroorsaak. Die polisie was so verbaas soos almal. Daar is gedink dat modernistiese vyande van tradisionele kuns betrokke moet wees en die avant-garde digter en dramaturg Guillaume Apollinaire is in September gearresteer en 'n week lank ondervra voordat hy vrygelaat is. Pablo Picasso was die volgende verdagte verdagte, maar daar was ook geen bewyse teen hom nie.

Twee jaar het verloop voordat die ware skuldige ontdek is, 'n Italiaanse klein misdadiger genaamd Vincenzo Perugia wat in 1908 na Parys verhuis het en 'n tyd lank by die Louvre gewerk het. Hy het na die galery gegaan in die wit rok wat al die werknemers daar gedra het en weggekruip totdat dit die nag gesluit het toe hy die Mona Lisa uit sy raam. Toe die galery weer oopgaan, stap hy onopvallend uit met die skildery onder sy klerekas, sonder om aandag te trek, en neem dit na sy verblyf in Parys.

Eers in November 1913, wat homself Leonardo Vincenzo noem, skryf Perugia aan 'n kunshandelaar in Florence met die naam Alfredo Geri om die skildery na Italië te bring vir 'n beloning van 500.000 lire. Hy reis die volgende maand per trein na Florence en neem die Mona Lisa in 'n kattebak, weggesteek onder 'n valse bodem. Nadat hy by 'n hotel ingeboek het, wat sy naam skerp verander het na die Hotel La Gioconda, het hy die skildery na die galery van Geri geneem. Geri het hom oorreed om dit vir deskundige ondersoek te verlaat en die polisie het Perugia later die dag gearresteer.

Perugia het blykbaar heeltemal verkeerdelik geglo dat die Mona Lisa deur Napoleon uit Florence gesteel is en dat hy 'n beloning verdien het om sy vaderlandse plig uit te voer en dit na sy ware tuiste in Italië terug te bring. Dit was ten minste wat hy gesê het. Baie Italianers het die meesterstuk verwelkom. Mense het by die huis gestroom om dit 'n rukkie in die Uffizi -galery te sien, sommige van hulle huil van blydskap, en Perugia dien slegs 'n kort tronkstraf uit. Die wonderlike skildery is behoorlik na die Louvre teruggestuur en het sedertdien veilig en raaiselagtig daar gehang.


Digter Guillaume Apollinaire gearresteer vir diefstal van die Mona Lisa, hy's saam met 'n polisieman en het boeie gehad, 1912

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Toe Mona Lisa ” in 1911 gesteel word, het die polisie Pablo Picasso gearresteer en ondervra

Mona Lisa of La Gioconda, by verre is Die bekendste, die mees besoekte, die mees geskrewe, die mees gesingde, die mees geparodieerde kunswerk ter wêreld ”. Tydperk.

Die halflengte portret van Lisa Gherardini, gemaak deur die Italiaanse Renaissance-kunstenaar Leonardo da Vinci, bevat ook 'n ryk geskiedenis van ongevalle. Die berugste was op 21 Augustus 1911, toe die skildery gesteel is.

Dit was die Franse skilder, Louis Béroud, wat die volgende dag na The Louvre gekom het en gesien het dat die skildery vreemd ontbreek. Soos hy nodig het om syne te skets Mona Lisa op Louvre, het hy die wagte vir die skildery gevra, maar hulle vermoed dat dit gefotografeer word vir reklame van die museum.

Louis het 'n paar uur later teruggekeer na die Mona Lisa -afdeling, net om te sien dat die beroemde stuk nog ontbreek by die vier ysterpenne waar dit bedoel was om te staan. Mona Lisa is inderdaad gesteel. Die Louvre het 'n hele week gesluit en 'n ondersoek is onmiddellik geopen.

Bekersskoot van Vincenzo Peruggia.

Die polisie het die eerste keer gedink aan 'n kunstenaar met die naam Géry Piéret wat 'n geskiedenis van steel uit die Louvre gehad het. Die ondersoekers kon Piéret nie in die stad vind nie, en daarom het hulle na sy werkgewer, Guillaume Apollinaire, gegaan. Die Franse digter en voorvader van die surrealisme is as verdag gemaak weens vorige herhaalde openbare uitsprake dat die Louvre afgebrand moet word. Hy is gearresteer en opgesluit, en sy vriend Picasso is deur assosiasie 'n ongelukkige slagoffer van skuld gemaak. Die Spaanse skilder was onder verdenking omdat hy in die verlede ongelukkig genoeg was om 'n paar Iberiese klipkoppe van Piéret aan te skaf, heeltemal onbewus daarvan dat Piéret die items voorheen uit die museum gesteel het. Beide Picasso en Apollinaire was later vry van alle aanklagte.

Die ware dief is twee jaar later gevind, dit was Vincenzo Peruggia, wat by die Louvre gewerk het. Peruggia, gebore in Italiaans, het uitgevoer wat beskryf is as die grootste kunsdiefstal van die 20ste eeu. Dit was amper soos 'n riller -episode, want hy het da Vinci se meesterstuk tydens gewone werksure by die museum gesteel, tot na -ure in 'n besemkas weggekruip en weggestap terwyl dit weggesteek was onder sy jas. As 'n Italiaanse patriot was Vincenzo van mening dat die skildery teruggestuur moes word vir vertoning in 'n Italiaanse museum. Volgens die ondersoek is Peruggia moontlik gemotiveer om die skildery te steel weens 'n vriend wat kopieë van die oorspronklike besit het. Die kopieë sou vermoedelik hul prys dramaties verhoog as die skildery wegraak.

Die Mona Lisa te sien in die Uffizi Gallery, in Florence (Italië). Museumdirekteur Giovanni Poggi (regs) inspekteer die skildery.

In 1932 verskyn 'n koerantverhaal in die Saterdagaand Pos beweer dat die hoofbrein van die Mona Lisa -diefstal die Argentyn was, Eduardo de Valfierno, wat na bewering verskeie mans, waaronder Peruggia, betaal het om die kosbare skildery te steel. Volgens die verhaal het Valfierno die Franse kunsherstel en vervalser, Yves Chaudron, opdrag gegee om ses eksemplare van die Mona Lisa te maak, wat in die Verenigde State gestuur en verkoop sou word.

Die oorspronklike Mona Lisa het nietemin in Europa gebly en veilig in die Peruggia -woonstel gebêre. Hy is betrap nadat hy probeer het om die skildery aan die direkteure van die Uffizi -galery in Florence te verkoop. Die skildery is in werklikheid net langer as twee weke in die Italian Gallery uitgestal, waarna dit op 4 Januarie 1914 na die Louvre terugbesorg is.

“La Joconde est Retrouvée ” (“Mona Lisa word gevind ”), Le Petit Parisien, 13 Desember 1913.

Peruggia is ses maande gevangenisstraf opgelê vir diefstal, maar is gegroet vir sy patriotisme in sy geboorteland. Danksy hom het Mona Lisa ook baie bekend geword. Voor dit was die Renaissance -stuk nog min bekend buite kunskringe.

Meer skandale het in die dekades daarna rondom die skildery plaasgevind. In 1956 is 'n deel van Mona Lisa beskadig nadat 'n vandaal suur daarin gegooi het. 'N Stukkie pigment naby Mona Lisa se linker elmboog is ook op 30 Desember dieselfde jaar beskadig, nadat 'n klip daarop gegooi is, maar die skade is vinnig herstel.

In 1974, toe die skildery op 'n gasuitstalling in die Tokio Nasionale Museum vertoon word, het 'n vrou wat ontsteld was oor die museum se beleid vir gestremdes, dit met rooi verf bespuit. En in 2009 gooi 'n Russiese vrou, wat ontevrede was omdat sy nie 'n Franse burgerskap gekry het nie, 'n teekoppie by die Louvre. Gelukkig bly die beroemde skildery vir hierdie twee voorvalle onbeskadig en word beskerm deur koeëlvaste glas.


Great Art Heists of History: Die man wat die Mona Lisa gesteel het

Die Mona Lisa is 'n skildery wat geen inleiding nodig het nie. Maar die da Vinci en rsquos-ikoniese meesterstuk uit die Renaissance was nog nie altyd die wêreldbekende ikoon wat dit nou is nie, en 'n groot deel van die meisie met die geheimsinnige glimlag en die rsquos wat nou wyd gewild is, is te wyte aan 'n taamlik onkonvensionele rede. Op die oggend van 21 Augustus 1911 het die Mona Lisa is uit die Louvre gesteel, wat beskou is as een van die grootste kunsverslae in die geskiedenis.

20 Augustus 1911 was 'n Sondag, en die aand was miskien 'n rustiger tyd om die bekendste museum in Parys te besoek. 'N Man van geringe gestalte en wat 'n groot snor gedra het, het die Louvre binnegekom en onopvallend na die salon Carr & eacute gegaan, waar die Mona Lisa gehuisves is. Hier kruip hy weg in 'n besemkas en wag en wag.

Die oggend het aangebreek, en voordat die museum sy deure vir die publiek oopgemaak het, kruip die man van die besemkas se omslag af, geklee in 'n wit voorskoot, wat die standaardrok van Louvre -werknemers was. Nadat hy seker gemaak het dat die kus duidelik is, het hy die 16de -eeuse olieverf verkry van waar dit aan die muur hang, en dit na 'n nabygeleë trappie gebring. Hier haal hy die skildery uit die glasraam en draai dit versigtig in 'n wit laken. By 'n poging om die trap te verlaat, het die dief gevind dat die deur gesluit was. Hy was vasgekeer. Met 'n onwrikbare gelykheid het hy die Mona Lisa af en probeer om die hinderlike deurknop uitmekaar te haal. Voordat hy die taak kon voltooi en na vryheid kon ontsnap, word 'n loodgieter in die Louvre ontmoet wat ook van die trappe gebruik gemaak het. In 'n slag van ongelooflike geluk het die werker die brutale inbreker as 'n mede -werknemer geneem, 'n wapenbroer wat hulp nodig gehad het. Daarom het hy sy hulp aangebied om die geslote deur oop te maak. Die bedrieër bedank die werknemer en kom na die uitgang, die kosbare skildery wat onder die voue van sy voorskoot weggesteek is.

Louis B & eacuteroud, Mona Lisa au Louvre, 1911, olieverf op doek, Onbekende versameling

Verbasend genoeg, die Mona Lisa was daardie dag nie gemis nie, want skilderye is dikwels verwyder om skoongemaak of gefotografeer te word, dus die feit dat dit nie was waar dit gewoonlik was nie, was nie noodwendig 'n groot rede tot kommer nie. Maar die dag daarna, toe die Franse skilder Louis B & eacuteroud die museum besoek het om sy skildery te skets Mona Lisa au Louvre, het hy slegs vier ysterpenne gevind waar die skildery moes gehang het. Verbaas soek hy na die afdelingshoof van die museumwagte, wat hom meedeel dat die skildery waarskynlik met die fotograwe geskiet is vir publisiteitsdoeleindes. Maar toe die kunstenaar 'n rukkie later weer by die seksiehoof aanmeld, is bevestig dat die Mona Lisa was nie by die fotograwe nie. Dit was toe museumpersoneel besef iets is vreeslik skeef. Die polisie is in kennis gestel, en 'n angswekkende soektog is tevergeefs uitgevoer; die enigste idee wat aan die lig gekom het, is die ontdekking van die skildery en rsquos-glasraamwerk wat in die trap weggegooi is. Daardie aand het 'n museumamptenaar die diefstal bondig opgesom in 'n amptelike verklaring: & ldquoDie Mona Lisa is weg. Tot dusver het ons geen idee gehad wie hierdie misdaad gepleeg het nie. & Rdquo

Om dit te ondersoek, was die Louvre die hele week gesluit na die verskriklike ontdekking. Speurders is afgewerk vir afdrukke en het museumpersoneel streng ondervra. Kontrolepunte is opgestel om voetgangers en voertuie te deursoek. En selfs plakkate wou hê, met nie die skoot van 'n misdadiger nie, maar die Mona Lisa haarself, versprei is. Ironies genoeg, die Mona Lisa het gewild geword by die algemene publiek, nie deur sy teenwoordigheid nie, maar deur sy afwesigheid. Toe die museum 'n week later heropen, het duisende deur sy deure gestroom om na die leë ruimte te kyk waar dit vroeër gehang het.

Die ruimte waar die Mona Lisa een keer gehang gedurende die tydperk van sy verdwyning. Skrywer onbekend. Die Century Magazine, Februarie 1914

Die ondersoek het 'n hoog aangeskrewe verdagte opgedaag. Die polisie het Guillaume Apollinaire in September gearresteer nadat hy die Franse digter verbind het met die vroeëre diefstal van twee beeldjies, wat hy met sy sekretaresse in die Louvre gehad het. Tydens die ondervraging het Apollinaire 'n ander hoog aangeskrewe verdagte met die saak verbind: Pablo Picasso, wat die gesteelde beelde gekoop het om dit as modelle vir sy werk te gebruik. Die polisie het albei ondervra in verband met die diefstal van die Mona Lisa, maar hul name is verwyder weens gebrek aan bewyse. Die ondersoek het 'n doodloopstraat getref.

Twee jaar later het Alfredo Geri, 'n Florentynse kunshandelaar, 'n brief per pos ontvang. Dit is met 'n posstempel uit Parys gestuur, en die sender daarvan was 'n geheimsinnige man wat die boodskap eenvoudig afgemerk het as 'lsquoLeonard & rsquo. Die skrywer beweer dat hy verantwoordelik was vir die diefstal van die Mona Lisa, en dat hy die meesterstuk wou sien terugkeer na Italiaanse grond. Geri het Giovanni Poggi, die direkteur van die Uffizi -galery, gekontak. Die paartjie twyfel oor die waarheid en die waarheid, maar het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hulle sou voortgaan met die aanbod wat in die brief aangebied word. Geri het die man na Florence genooi, en 'n paar dae later ontmoet die drie in die briefskrywer en hotelkamer. 'N Voorwerp toegedraai in rooi sy is vervaardig en eerbiedig op die beddegoed neergesit. Nadat die sluier eenkant toe gegooi is, was die Florentyne in ongeloof: die Mona Lisa lê daar en glimlag verleidelik na hulle. Die skildery is onmiddellik gereël om na die Uffizi geneem te word, en daar is ooreengekom op die vraprys van 500 000 lire. Die paartjie wou egter nooit die losprys betaal vir da Vinci & rsquos enigmatiese dame & mdash nie, terwyl die skildery in die galery geverifieer is en die owerhede daarna kontak gemaak het.

Polisie -opname van Vincenzo Peruggia, twee jaar voor die diefstal in 1909 geneem

Op 11 Desember 1913 is die man, bekend as & lsquoLeonard & rsquo, in sy hotelkamer in Florentyn gearresteer. Nie verrassend nie, die naam waarmee die brief afgeteken is, was 'n alias. Die werklike identiteit van die man was Vincenzo Peruggia, 'n voormalige Louvre -werknemer, wat eintlik gehelp het met die bou van die glaskas waarin die Mona Lisa. Peruggia sou baie vertroud gewees het met die roetines en protokolle van die museum, wat hom die perfekte kandidaat gemaak het vir 'n kunsroof wat daar uitgevoer word. Die polisie het hom selfs by twee afsonderlike geleenthede in verband met diefstal vir ondervraging ingebring. Die Italiaanse immigrant het die Mona Lisa gevangene in sy woonstel aan die buitewyke van Parys, veilig weggesteek onder die valse bodem van 'n houtstoomboot. Peruggia het later besin oor die bewaring van die Mona Lisa en rsquos: ek het die slagoffer geword van haar glimlag en elke aand my oë op my skat geslaan. Ek het verlief geraak op haar. & Rdquo

Peruggia is tot een jaar en vyftien dae gevangenisstraf gevonnis, hoewel hy slegs sewe maande uitdien. Alhoewel sy pogings heeltemal tevergeefs was. Die Mona Lisa is meer as twee weke lank in die Uffizi -galery uitgestal voordat hy na die Louvre teruggekeer is, en Peruggia word deur die Italiaanse volk as 'n nasionale held beskou. In die eerste twee dae na sy terugkeer, het na raming 120 000 mense die museum besoek om na die teruggekeerde meesterstuk te kyk, en die gewaarwording wat deur haar diefstal veroorsaak is, het die skildery aansienlik in die openbare kollig gedryf en die plek daarvan in die kollektief bevestig. bewussyn van die kunsliefhebber sowel as die Filistyn. Dit blyk dat misdaad soms, ten minste in hierdie geval, inderdaad vrugte afwerp.

Besoek ons ​​tydskrifblad vir meer inligting oor veilings, uitstallings en huidige tendense


Op die 21 Augustus 1911, die bekendste skildery ter wêreld, die Mona Lisa, is uit die Louvre gesteel. Die afwesigheid van die skildery is die eerste keer opgemerk deur die skilder Louis Beroud, wat in die oggend van 22 Augustus op pad was na die Salon Carré waar die Mona Lisa al vyf jaar te sien was. Maar in die plek van die beeld van die gemoedelike glimlag van La Gioconda, vind hy 'n leë muur. Hy het die voorval by een van die wagte aangemeld wat aangeneem het dat die skildery vir bemarkingsdoeleindes afgeneem is. Binne 'n paar uur het dit egter duidelik geword dat die kunswerke uit die Louvre verdwyn het!

Die persdekking wat gevolg het, was enorm, en het vreemd genoeg bygedra tot 'n nog groter gewildheid van die skildery. 'Die koerante in Parys betreur die verlies van 'n nasionale skat en vul hul bladsye vir 'n paar weke met elke staaltjie en storie oor die skildery. Die Pétit Parisien, die topverkoper van die Franse hoofstad, verskyn daagliks met baniere in die geïllustreerde tydskrif, L'Illustrasie, 'n volledige weergawe van die kleur van die Mona Lisa, sowel as 'n prentjie van die leë muur waar dit eens gehang het. Die Londen Illustrated News het ook 'n dubbel-verspreide kleurweergawe van die skildery gepubliseer. Die diefstal was voorbladnuus in die New York Times en ander Amerikaanse koerante. Binnekort was die roof die onderwerp van liedjies, kabaret en selfs 'n film. Die internasionale persdekking oor diefstal het beteken dat baie wat nog nooit regtig kuns gestudeer het nie of die Louvre besoek het, kennis gemaak het met die skildery en die skepper daarvan. Die verhaal het die publiek aangemoedig om aan Leonardo se skildery te dink asof dit 'n persoon is. Die Franse pers - hoewel dit elders weerspieël word - het byna altyd na die prentjie verwys as 'sy'. Die Mona Lisa is nie soveel gesteel as ontvoer nie. ” (John Brewer, The American Leonardo: A Tale of Obsession, Art and Money). In die hedendaagse terminologie het die Mona Lisa eenvoudig die status van 'n 'beroemdheid' behaal.

Die vraag was: wie het dit gedoen? Wie het dit gewaag om Leonardo se kosbare meesterstuk te steel? Die eerste verdagte wat gearresteer is, was die Franse digter van Poolse afkoms Guillaume Apollinaire. Alhoewel geskinder en 'n reeks leidrade hom met diefstal verbind het, is Apollinaire werklik gearresteer vir sy betrokkenheid by die vorige Louvre -oproer van die Feniciese beeldjies. Die digter is 'n lang dag ondervra voordat hy toegegee het dat hy iets van die beeldjies en dief weet, maar hy ontken dat hy aan die diefstal van Mona Lisa deelgeneem het. Wanhopig om sy naam skoon te maak, het Apollinaire selfs sy vriend Pablo Picasso betrek, wat ook vir ondervraging ingebring is. Maar Picasso ontken dat hy enigsins Apollinaire geken het. Uiteindelik, weens gebrek aan bewyse, is Apollinaire vrygelaat ná 'n week in die La Santé -gevangenis. Die ervaring van hierdie gevangenisstraf was vir hom baie ontstellend, maar na bewering baie inspirerend. Volgens een van Apollinaire se goeie vriende, die komponis Alberto Savinio, die digter 'Het tien dae in die gevangenis deurgebring, gedrink eau de nénuphar wat die wagte by hom verbygesteek het om die vuur van die sintuie te demp, en in sy sel een van sy aangrypendste gedigte geskryf het: Prison la prison de la Santé. ” (Alberto Savino en Richard Pever, Apollinaire: From the New Encyclopedia, The American Poetry Review, Vol. 10, nr. 3, Mei/Junie 1981).

Hoe jammer die hele saak van Apollinaire ook was, die groot hoeveelheid publisiteit wat daarop gevolg het, het sy internasionale reputasie baie beïnvloed. 'Voor hierdie bisarre episode het relatief min mense nog ooit van die digter buite Frankryk gehoor. Skielik, danksy 'n vernietige voorval, het hy onmiddellik wêreldwye erkenning gekry. Sy loopbaan is nie net deur die Franse owerhede onder die loep geneem nie, maar ook deur die internasionale pers. So het die eerste verwysing na Apollinaire in die Verenigde State, soos in die meeste ander lande, die gevolg van diefstal van die Mona Lisa. ” (Wilard Bohn, Apollinaire and the International Avant-Garde). Of hierdie soort roem Apollinaire in sy loopbaan gehelp het, is twyfelagtig, feit is dat die tydperk tussen 1910 en 1920 toevallig 'n uiters vrugbare tyd vir die digter was. 'Gedurende hierdie jare publiseer hy twee groot digbundels, 'n boek met kortverhale, 'n baanbrekende studie van die kubistiese skilderkuns, 'n avant-garde roman, twee invloedryke manifeste en 'n revolusionêre toneelstuk, benewens 'n magdom ander werke. ” (Bohn)


Guillaume Apollinaire word gearresteer omdat hy die Mona Lisa gesteel het - GESKIEDENIS

Leonardo da Vinci het begin werk aan die Mona Lisa omstreeks 1503, vermoedelik 'n opdragskildery van Lisa Gherardini, die derde vrou van die syhandelaar Freancesco del Giocondo. Waarom da Vinci dit nooit afgelewer het nie, word bespiegel dat hy kort daarna 'n baie meer winsgewende opdrag ontvang het en dus die skildery destyds laat vaar het. 'N Ander hipotese is dat hy miskien twee weergawes van die skildery gemaak het, die een behou en die ander een. Hoe dit ook al sy, da Vinci het tot ongeveer 1517 aan die Mona Lisa (“Mona ” min of meer betekenis “Madam ”) aan die werk gegaan tot ongeveer 1517. Hoewel dit vandag algemeen as die bekendste skildery ter wêreld beskou word, was dit nie# 8217 totdat die Franse kunskritici dit in die middel van die 19de eeu as 'n model van Renaissance-skildertegnieke begin hou het, dat dit net meer as een van die vele groot werke van da Vinci begin trek het. Trouens, in die 18de eeu het koning Lodewyk XV die skildery eintlik sonder seremonie van sy prominente plek in Versailles laat verwyder en uit die weg geruim in die bewaarder van die koninklike geboue.

Aan die einde van die 19de eeu het die Mona Lisa egter 'n mate van bekendheid bereik onder kunsliefhebbers van die wêreld, maar vir die breër algemene publiek was dit nog min bekend. Dit het egter alles verander toe die skildery in 1911 gesteel is. Kort daarna is kunstenaar Pablo Picasso weens diefstal gearresteer.

Was Picasso werklik betrokke en hoe het hierdie diefstal daartoe gelei dat die Mona Lisa die bekendste skildery ter wêreld geword het?

Die verhaal begin vandag op Dinsdag 22 Augustus 1911. Die oggend het die Franse kunstenaar Louis Béroud by die Louvre aangekom met die doel om 'n kopie van die Mona Lisa te skilder. Die Louvre vermaak graag kunstenaars op hierdie manier, solank die afskrifte van enige werk nie dieselfde grootte as die oorspronklike maak nie.

Ongelukkig vir Béroud, toe hy die Salon Carré binnegaan, was daar 'n leë ruimte waar die Mona Lisa moes gehang het. Béroud het 'n nabygeleë sekuriteitswag uitgevra en gevra om te weet waar die skildery is. Die wag het aangeneem dat dit deur die fotografie -afdeling verwyder moes wees, aangesien hulle dit gereeld gedoen het sonder om dit aan iemand te vertel.

Béroud was nie tevrede met die verduideliking nie en het die wagte gevra om uit te vind waar die skildery is en wanneer dit teruggesit word. Na uitgebreide soektog kon die wag egter niemand opspoor wat iets weet van wat met die skildery gebeur het nie. Kort daarna is die Louvre gesluit terwyl personeel en Franse polisie meer as 1 000 kamers in die uitgestrekte museum gefynkam het. Maar tevergeefs- die Mona Lisa was weg.

In die nadraai het die wetstoepassers regoor Frankryk gesukkel om die grense te beveilig ingeval die dief die land met die skildery probeer verlaat en elke stuk bagasie deursoek wat die land verlaat het. Skepe wat na die diefstal gevaar het, maar voordat die soektog begin is, is daarna deursoek toe hulle hul bestemming bereik het.

Die owerhede het ook onderhoude gevoer met en ondersoek na elke werknemer by die Louvre. Die skildery was immers daar op Sondag, maar nie Dinsdag nie. Die enigste mense wat Maandag toegang tot die gebou moes gehad het, was werknemers wat die dag gewerk het. En al was dit nie 'n werknemer nie, sekerlik met soveel mense in die gebou, moes iemand iets gesien het. Maar hierdie ondersoekweg het ook nêrens gegaan nie.

Die pers het 'n velddag gehad. Franse koerante het 'n biedoorlog begin om te kyk wie die grootste beloning kan bied vir inligting wat kan lei tot die veilige terugkeer van die skildery, soos die Paris-Journal wat 50,000 frank aangebied het (ongeveer € 198,000 euro of $ 220,000 vandag).

Toe die museum vroeg in September heropen, het besoekers ingestroom net om die plek te sien waar die Mona Lisa gehang het. Ontwikkelende skrywer Franz Kafka self sou die Louvre besoek om na die leë gedeelte van die muur te kyk, in sy joernaal, die opwinding en die knope van mense, asof die Mona Lisa pas gesteel is. ”

Tog was daar ondanks alles geen vaste leidrade nie en die roete was heeltemal koud.

Dit wil sê totdat die polisie op die hoogte gebring is van die ander items wat uit die Louvre gesteel is.

Dit bring ons by Pablo Picasso.

Toe Picasso in 1900 na Parys reis, was die digter Guillaume Apollinaire onder baie ander kunstenaars wat hy gemaak het. Apollinaire het op sy beurt 'n sekretaresse gehad met die naam Géry Pieret. Omdat hy Picasso se liefde vir die Iberiese beeldhouwerke uit die 3de en 4de eeu, wat toe in die Louvre te sien was, geken het, het Pieret besluit om eenvoudig na die Louvre te gaan en 'n paar daarvan te neem. Soos dit blyk, gegewe die lae digtheid van veiligheidswagte by die fasiliteit in verhouding tot die enorme omvang daarvan, was diefstal blykbaar nie moeilik nie.

Toe Pieret die beelde aan Picasso oorhandig, was hy mal daaroor, met Apollinaire en Picasso wat Pieret uiteindelik 100 frank (vandag sowat $ 440) betaal het vir die gesteelde items. Picasso sou eintlik die gesig van een van die standbeelde gebruik in sy beroemde meesterstuk uit 1907 Les Demoiselles d'Avignon.

Toe hy na 1911 gaan, bevind Pieret hom stukkend en besluit om meer dinge uit die Louvre te steel om op sy beurt te verkoop. Toe Apollinaire dit agterkom, het hy hom snaaks genoeg uit die woonstel geskop op die dag toe die Mona Lisa gesteel is.

Aangesien items uit die Louvre gesteel is en nou nuus op die voorblad was, het Apollinaire en Picasso 'n probleem gehad dat hulle hul besit van die gesteelde standbeelde nie juis geheim gehou het nie, terwyl Apollinaire dit eintlik 'n geruime tyd op sy kaggel toon, waargeneem deur talle gaste, waaronder sommige joernaliste. Dit was net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat die owerhede bel.

Dinge het erger geword, miskien net om wraak te neem of om geld uit die koerant te verdien as hy die inligting bekend maak, het Pieret aan die Paris-Journal dat hy weet waar 'n paar ander gesteelde items uit die Louvre rus.

Nodeloos om te sê, op hierdie stadium was Apollinaire en Picasso effens paniekbevange. Soos meesteres Fernande Olivier van Picasso se jarelange opmerk,

Ek kan hulle albei sien: berouvolle kinders, verstom deur vrees en planne beraam om uit die land te vlug. Hulle het besluit om onmiddellik van die kompromie -voorwerpe ontslae te raak. Uiteindelik het hulle besluit om die aand uit te gaan en die tas met die beeldhouwerke in die Seine te gooi - hulle het ongeveer middernag te voet vertrek en die tasse gedra. Hulle het tweeuur die oggend teruggekeer, absoluut moeg vir die hond. Hulle het nog steeds die tasse en die inhoud daarvan. Hulle het op en af ​​rondgedwaal, nie in staat om hul pakkie te bevry nie. Hulle het gedink hulle word gevolg. Hulle verbeelding het duisend moontlike voorvalle gedroom, elk fantastieser as die vorige.

Apollinaire het dit nie reggekry om van hierdie besondere stukke geskiedenis ontslae te raak nie, maar besluit om dit aan die redakteur van die Paris-Journal, Andre Salmon. Despite a condition of giving them back being that editor was to keep a secret his knowledge of who had possessed them, when the police grilled Salmon, he spilled the beans.

Apollinaire was promptly arrested and became prime suspect #1 for the theft of the Mona Lisa. Not long after this, Picasso was implicated by Apollinaire and in turn brought in by the police, with his apartment thoroughly searched for the missing painting. As the two were being held, newspapers had a field day about the supposed gang of radical artists led by Picasso and Apollinaire who were running an international group of art thieves on the side.

On September 8th, the two men appeared before Judge Henri Drioux. Both would devolve into hysterics, telling the judge stories that conflicted with things they’d said even moments before. At one point Picasso became so desperate he pulled a Peter, randomly proclaiming to the judge that he didn’t even know Apollinaire, despite that it was well known they were close friends.

Of this statement, decades later Picasso would state in an interview, “When the judge asked me: ‘Do you know this gentleman?’…I answered: ‘I have never seen this man.’…I saw Guillaume’s expression change. The blood ebbed from his face. I am still ashamed.”

Both men at various points broke down and wept, begging the court’s forgiveness. Ultimately the judge had seen enough, and correctly surmised that the pair had had nothing to do with the theft of the Mona Lisa and knew nothing about who had stolen it. While they had technically knowingly purchased and kept stolen goods, he let them off and they were released 4 days later, on September 12th.

Over the following two years, Louvre officials gave up hope of the Mona Lisa’s return and after briefly hanging a replica of the painting, replaced it with Baldassare Castiglione by Raphael.

During this span, reports still occasionally filtered in that the painting had been sighted or was being offered for sale, but none of them panned out. It wasn’t until November of 1913 that the story picks up. It was then that art dealer Alfredo Geri of Florence, Italy received a letter from a man identifying himself as “Leonard”.

Leonard claimed to have the Mona Lisa in his possession and wanted to meet to hand it over. After an exchange of letters, Geri involved Giovanni Poggi of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. As to why, Poggi had detailed photographs of the real Mona Lisa which, most importantly, showed the crack lines from the paint drying over the centuries, as well as markings on the back that few knew about. With these photographs, they’d be able to easily tell if the painting Leonard had was the real thing, or simply yet another forgery among many that had popped up since the painting was stolen.

After a series of delays, Leonard agreed to meet the two men. However, before the scheduled meeting, he showed up at Geri’s gallery unexpectedly. While there, he reaffirmed he had the Mona Lisa and that he knew for a fact it was the real one. When asked how he could be so sure, he brashly revealed he’d taken it from the Louvre himself. When Geri then asked him if he’d done it alone, he states Leonard, to quote, “was not too clear on that point. He seemed to say yes, but didn’t quite do so,” and that his answer was “more ‘yes’ than ‘no.’”

They then negotiated a fee for Leonard to sell the painting for 500,000 lire (about €1.8 million or $2 million) to the Italian government- a bargain given newspapers at the time estimated the Mona Lisa to be worth approximately ten times that amount.

Later, Geri and Poggi met Leonard at his hotel where he pulled out a white trunk. When he opened it, no Mona Lisa could be seen, which confirmed Geri’s suspicions that the whole thing was a hoax, as all the trunk appeared to contain was “wretched objects: broken shoes, a mangled hat, a pair of pliers, plastering tools, a smock, some paint brushes, and even a mandolin.”

But under a false bottom to the trunk, Leonard removed an object wrapped in red silk. Said Geri, “To our astonished eyes, the divine Mona Lisa appeared, intact and marvelously preserved.”

The men then convinced Leonard to come with them to the Uffizi Gallery so they could compare the painting to the photographs to confirm that it indeed was the missing masterpiece. When they did so, they found everything matched perfectly. They had the Mona Lisa.

The two experts then requested Leonard leave the painting at the gallery and return to his hotel while they worked on collecting his payment. Naturally, they instead notified the police, who arrested Leonard at his hotel almost immediately after he arrived back at his room. As for Geri, he received a tidy sum of 25,000 francs (about $110,000 today) as a reward from the Les Amis du Louvre and was given the Legion of Honor from the French government… Of course, he followed this up by suing the French government for 10% of the value of the painting, but the French courts ruled against him on that one.

So who was Leonard really and how did he manage to get a hold of the Mona Lisa?

Leonard turned out to be one Vincenzo Perugia. Italian by birth, in his 20s he decided to move to Paris with his brothers. When he wasn’t occasionally getting in trouble with the law, including at one point attempting to rob a prostitute which landed him in the slammer, he took odd jobs, including working construction.

He supposedly even helped construct the protective case around the Mona Lisa. This was done in 1910 after museum officials received a letter threatening the safety of the Mona Lisa. They then contracted with a firm called Cobier to come construct glass faced protective cases for certain of the more valuable paintings. Perugia, at the time, just so happened to work for Cobier, and as a result ended up working at the Louvre from October of 1910 to January of 1911, helping him become extremely familiar with its layout.

As for how he stole the painting, many of the details are still up in the air as Perugia’s account varied considerably on several points throughout the interrogation process and trial, and some parts of his story don’t make any sense at all. This was all considered curious because he’d already confessed to the crime both to Geri and the authorities after, so there was little point in lying about how he did it, unless he was perhaps protecting others who may have been involved.

Whatever the case, the generally accepted story is that Perugia slipped into a nearby storage closet on Sunday and spent the night there. After emerging from the closet on Monday dressed in a white smock to blend in with other workers, Perugia states he targeted the Mona Lisa because it “was the smallest painting and the easiest to transport.”

The 5 ft 3 inch (1.6 meter) Perugia then supposedly managed to lift the nearly 200 pound (91 kg) frame and painting off the wall, despite that it weighed significantly more than he did- one of many factors that have led some to speculate that he probably wasn’t actually working alone.

And if you’re now wondering why the painting wasn’t secured to the wall in any way, ease of removal was considered a good thing by museum officials in case of a fire.

In any event, once out in a nearby stairwell, Perugia claims he removed the painting from its casing, wrapped a white cloth around it and supposedly somehow slipped the 21吚 inch (53呈 cm) painting under his smock despite that this is about half his height and significantly wider than the man himself… Color us skeptical on that one.

If you’re wondering why he didn’t try rolling it up, this wasn’t possible as the Mona Lisa is not painted on a canvas, but on slabs of wood.

Walking down the stairs to the first floor, Perugia ran into a big problem- the door at the bottom was locked and the key he had somehow acquired for it didn’t work. Using the screwdriver he had on hand, he managed to get the door knob off, at which point he was discovered by a plumber by the name of Sauvet. Apparently not seeing anything suspicious about a missing door knob, nor the giant square bulge that was supposedly under Perugia’s smock at the time, if Perugia is to be believed, helpfully, Sauvet had some pliers on him that made the task of finishing the job of opening the door easier.

Perugia was then able to leave the museum altogether when the guard at the main entrance briefly left his post to get a bucket of water to use to clean the lobby. Once outside, Perugia tossed aside the doorknob, which was later found by police, and went home.

Smart enough not to leave Paris with the painting while the heat was on, Perugia waited 28 months to bring it back to Italy, ultimately making that trip with the painting stored in the hidden compartment in his trunk.

Despite strong suspicions that he must have had help, Perugia maintained that he worked alone and only wanted to return the Mona Lisa to her rightful home in Italy.

He seemed to be under the mistaken impression that the painting had been stolen and taken to France by Napoleon. In fact, da Vinci himself brought it with him to the French court a couple hundred years before Napoleon, with his assistant eventually selling it to King Francis I. After the revolution, the painting became the property of the new government.

While the general public in Italy seemed to eat up the patriotic angle to the story, with some proclaiming Perugia a hero, the presiding judge wasn’t buying it. For example, consider this exchange:

Judge: Is it true. that you tried to sell the Mona Lisa in England?

Perugia: Me? I offered to sell the Mona Lisa to the English? Who says so? It’s false!

Judge: it is you yourself who said so, during one of your examinations which I have right here in front of me.

Perugia: Duveen didn’t take me seriously. I protest against this lie that I would have wanted to sell the painting to London. I wanted to take it back to Italy, and to return it to Italy, and that is what I did.

Judge: Nevertheless, your unselfishness wasn’t total—you did expect some benefit from restoration.

Perugia: Ah benefit, benefit, certainly something better than what happened to me here…

In the end, Perugia was convicted, but given a relatively light sentence of just a year and fifteen days in prison. Upon appeal, his lawyers managed to get the sentence reduced to seven months.

Because he had already served more than that time since being arrested, he was immediately released and eventually returned to France where he would live out the rest of his life working, among other things, as a house painter until his death in 1925 at the age of 44.

As for the Mona Lisa, initially there was some debate among members of the Italian government as to whether they should return the painting to France or keep it, but they ultimately decided, to quote a statement issued:

The Mona Lisa will be delivered to the French Ambassador with a solemnity worthy of Leonardo da Vinci and a spirit of happiness worthy of Mona Lisa’s smile. Although the masterpiece is dear to all Italians as one of the best productions of the genius of their race, we will willingly return it to its foster country … as a pledge of friendship and brotherhood between the two great Latin nations.

In thanks, the French government allowed the Mona Lisa to be displayed at certain museums in Italy before taking it back.

In the aftermath, with the painting gracing the front pages of newspapers the world over in the hoopla after the initial theft, and then again when it was found, and yet again during the well publicized return to France, it had now come to be considered the world’s best known, and most valuable painting. The Louvre saw a reported 100,000 people come view the painting in the first two days after its return alone, and it’s been one of the biggest draws at the massive facility ever since. As art critic Robert Hughes would lament, “People came not to look at the painting, but to say they that they’d seen it… The painting made the leap from artwork to icon of mass consumption.”

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Apollinaire, the Immigrant Poet Who Shaped the Parisian Avant-Garde

Marie Laurencin, “Apollinaire et ses amis” or “Une réunion à la campagne” (1909), oil on canvas, Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée national d’art moderne (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Jean-Claude Planchet © Fondation Foujita / ADAGP, Paris 2016) (click to enlarge)

PARIS — On September 7, 1911, French police arrested poet Guillame Apollinaire for stealing the Mona Lisa. Apollinaire hadn’t actually taken the iconic treasure however, a few days prior to his arrest, he had attempted to anonymously return a pair of ancient Iberian busts stolen for him and Pablo Picasso by their associate, Géry Piéret. Picasso, who modeled the central figures of “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” on the bust Piéret procured for him, was also brought in for questioning. Miraculously, neither the painter nor the poet was charged with receiving stolen goods. If they had been, their status as foreigners in the French Republic would most certainly have resulted in their deportation. Luckily, lack of evidence and pressure from the Parisian art and literary establishments forced the police to release Apollinaire six days later — thereby consigning the episode to one of the wilder footnotes of art history rather than to one of its major chapters.

These infamous busts are among the more than 305 paintings, sculptures, and artifacts from Apollinaire’s personal and professional life that are on display in Apollinaire, le regard du poète (or “Apollinaire, the Vision of the Poet”) at the Musée de l’Orangerie.

Giorgio de Chirico, “Portrait (prémonitoire) de Guillaume Apollinaire” (1914), oil on canvas, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne — Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Adam Rzepka © ADAGP, Paris 2016) (click to enlarge)

Born Wilhelm Apollinairs de Kostrowitzky in Rome in 1880, Apollinaire was the illegitimate grandson of a Polish nobleman in the service of the Pope. In France he came into writing, first in the south, where he spent his adolescence, and then in Paris, where the young poet spent the first decade of the 20th century struggling to support himself with a series of odd jobs, including as a bank teller, tabloid journalist, and editor of a volume of “erotica” (read: pornographer).

An early champion of extra-European and Post-Impressionist visual art, Apollinaire published the first-ever body of critical writing about Cubism, Méditations esthétiques, les Peintres cubistes, in 1913. Work by artists that Apollinaire talks about in this seminal text make up the nucleus of the show, which explores the poet’s relationship to the Parisian avant-garde, from his first texts in 1902 to his untimely death from Spanish flu in 1918.

A room modeled on the interior of his apartment on Boulevard Saint-Germain reveals an eclectic mix of military memorabilia, African figurines, theater posters, and circus puppets. The items expose bits of both Apollinaire’s personal history and taste for aesthetic alterity. The circus paraphernalia in particular points to the poet’s friendship with the playwright and provocateur Alfred Jarry, whom he met in 1903 and who was responsible for bringing the young poet into the bohemian milieu of the circus and vanguard theater.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Another room, titled after “Méditations esthétiques,” presents the work of the artists Apollinaire discusses in the text: Picasso, Georges Braque, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Fernand Léger, Francis Picabia, Robert Delany, and Marcel Duchamp. Together, this impressive group makes for a stunning installation, however Apollinaire’s art writing itself leaves much to be desired. For instance, a review in which Apollinaire compares the performance of le Coq d’or by the Ballet Russes to Italian Futurism is perplexing, especially after examining Natalia Goncharova’s costume designs (there are eight on view in the exhibition’s second room), which evoke more the bright colors and patterns of Matisse the figures invented to fill them suggest more the disproportioned bodies of Rousseau’s figures than the sweeping geometries of Gino Severini or Boccioni.

Similarly, in the chapter of Médiations devoted to Marie Laurencin — an artist with whom Apollinaire had a turbulent five-year affair — the poet is unable to comment insightfully beyond the occasional mention of the “grace and charm” of her “feminine arabesques.” The writing is awkward, especially in the middle of the chapter, where Apollinaire inexplicably interrupts his own analysis to devote the next several pages to a description of Rousseau’s work. Add in the fact that Laurencin’s slender, reduced forms, while indeed enchanting, constitute a style that is anything but Cubist, and we are left with a graphic affirmation of the cliché that love is blind.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

On the other hand, these gaffes and incongruities can feel like real missed opportunities, especially when one considers that Goncharova and Laurencin are among the few women to be found anywhere in the Apollinaire narrative. The curators revealingly excluded Laurencin from the room dedicated to Médiations, but otherwise play down the limits of Apollinaire’s art writing, preferring to focus on his role as a loyal friend and impresario for the many artists in his entourage.

Robert Delaunay, “Portrait de Guillaume Apollinaire” (ca 1911–12), gouache and paint on canvas, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne—Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Georges Meguerditchian) (click to enlarge)

Portraits of Apollinaire are the most present index of friendship, with at least one in each of the show’s seven galleries. The portraits capture the poet in a variety of states. An etching by Louis Marcoussis shows him behind bars after his arrest. Metzinger’s “Study for the Portrait of Guillaume Apollinaire” portrays him seated at a café with a pipe in his mouth. Two group portraits by Laurencin place Apollinaire at the center of his cortège, Picasso (with whom Apollinaire enjoyed a particularly intense fellowship) at his side. A small drawing by Picasso depicts the poet in profile, his head wrapped in a bandage. The latter image is echoed by several anonymous photographs that show Apollinaire in his military fatigues, his head encased in gauze after a piece of shrapnel pierced his helmet on the front lines of the First World War.

Within a year of his head injury, Apollinaire joined the staff of a number of vanguard literary journals, wrote and produced the play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, and coined the term “sur-realist.” Apollinaire it seemed had entered into a soothsaying phase. In November 1917, he gave a lecture on “L’Esprit nouveau et les poètes” (“The new spirit and poets”) in which he predicted the importance of new technology, particularly “cinema and phonography,” in the future of the arts.

Guillaume Apollinaire, “La Mandoline, l’Œillet et le Bambou,” calligram from the series ‘Étendards’ (1914–15), ink on threee pieces of paper including one with a headline from the newspaper ‘Le Sciècle’ on the verso, Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne—Centre Georges Pompidou (© Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais / Adam Rzepka) (click to enlarge)

In the final year of his life, Apollinaire married Jacqueline Kolb and inaugurated an innovative genre of poetry that blended visual and textual elements in his collection Calligrammes — two of which, “Il pleut” and “La colombe poignardée et le jet d’eau,” are displayed in the first room of the exhibition. Affixed to the wall with vinyl lettering, these poems rub shoulders with Gris’s “Man in a Café,” a Yourbi fetish statue, and a “Harlequin” bust by Picasso — much in the same way that their author might have installed them.

The final section of the exhibition explores Apollinaire’s relationship to Parisian gallerist Paul Guillaume. Their correspondence, published for the first time on the occasion of the exhibition, reveals that Apollinaire was instrumental in guiding young Guillaume’s vision and developing his taste. In the 1950s, Guillaume’s widow bequeathed her late husband’s collection to the Orangerie, where it now constitutes a major part of the permanent collection. In that sense, Apollinaire also deserves credit for determining the character of the museum that now hosts his retrospective.

Collector, critic, friend, soothsayer, and founding father, Apollinaire was also, as the episode of his arrest reminds us, an immigrant whose status was at one point as precarious as that of many living in France today. At a time when foreigners in Europe and other parts of the world face ever-increasing scrutiny and resentment, the wealth of Apollinaire’s contribution to French literature and art history is particularly worth remembering. Luckily, Apollinaire, le regard du poète is just the reminder that was needed.

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Installation view of ‘Apollinaire, le regard du poète’ at the Musée de l’Orangerie (© Musée de l’Orangerie, photo by Sophie Boegly) (click to enlarge)

Apollinaire, le regard du poète continues at the Musée de l’Orangerie (Jardin des Tuileries, 1st arrondissement, Paris) through July 18.


Mona Lisa was stolen in 1911 police arrested and questioned Picasso

The painting’s fame was emphasized when it was stolen on 21 August 1911. The next day, Louis Béroud, a painter, walked into the Louvre and went to the Salon Carré where the Mona Lisa had been on display for five years. However, where the Mona Lisa should have stood, he found four iron pegs. Béroud contacted the section head of the guards, who thought the painting was being photographed for marketing purposes. A few hours later, Béroud checked back with the section head of the museum, and it was confirmed that the Mona Lisa was not with the photographers. The Louvre was closed for an entire week to aid in investigation of the theft.

French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who had once called for the Louvre to be “burnt down”, came under suspicion he was arrested and put in jail. Apollinaire tried to implicate his friend Pablo Picasso, who was also brought in for questioning, but both were later exonerated.

At the time, the painting was believed to be lost forever, and it was two years before the real thief was discovered. Louvre employee Vincenzo Peruggia had stolen it by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed. Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed Leonardo’s painting should be returned to Italy for display in an Italian museum. Peruggia may have also been motivated by a friend whose copies of the original would significantly rise in value after the painting’s theft. A later account suggested Eduardo de Valfierno had been the mastermind of the theft and had commissioned forger Yves Chaudron to create 6 copies of the painting to be sold in the United States while the location of the original was unclear. But the original remained in Europe and after having kept the Mona Lisa in his apartment for two years, Peruggia grew impatient and was finally caught when he attempted to sell it to the directors of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence it was exhibited all over Italy and returned to the Louvre in 1913. Peruggia was hailed for his patriotism in Italy and served six months in jail for the crime.

In 1956, the lower part of the painting was severely damaged when a vandal threw acid at the painting. On 30 December of that same year, a young Bolivian named Ugo Ungaza Villegas damaged the painting by throwing a rock at it. This resulted in the loss of a speck of pigment near the left elbow, which was later painted over.

The use of bulletproof glass has shielded the Mona Lisa from more recent attacks. In April 1974 a “lame woman”, upset by the museum’s policy for disabled people, sprayed red paint at the painting while it was on display at the Tokyo National Museum. On 2 August 2009, a Russian woman, distraught over being denied French citizenship, threw a terra cotta mug or teacup, purchased at the museum, at the painting in the Louvre the vessel shattered against the glass enclosure. In both cases, the painting was undamaged.


Who Stole the Mona Lisa?

The art whodunit that made the entire 20th century gasp! On August 21, 1911, the famed Mona Lisa was stolen off the walls of the Louvre. The scandal was called “the most colossal theft of modern times.”

Newspapers worldwide covered the story. Sixty police agents were put on the case. To no avail. Two years of investigation proved fruitless. Plenty of suspects and leads, but no Mona. Can you guess who stole her?

LEONARDO DA VINCI STOLE THE MONA LISA

Nah, Leonardo is the Renaissance artist who painted this most famous portrait. Art historians dither on the specifics but roughly agree the Mona Lisa was created between 1503-1516, with years of time in between during which the artist abandoned work on the painting.

It’s believed that Leonardo brought the portrait with him when he was invited to France by King Francis in 1516. And, he continued to hone his most famous muse there.

KING FRANCIS I STOLE THE MONA LISA

Nope, but Francis did invite the maker of La Joconde to visit his court and country in 1516. After Leonardo’s death in May 1519, the painting was bought by Francis for 4,000 écus.

The Mona Lisa was hung in all the right places: the Château de Fontainebleau, Versailles and even in the bedroom of Napolean Bonaparte after the French Revolution. But it ended up in the Louvre, from which it was stolen in 1911.

However, Francis’ acquisition of the painting does explain how the Italian Renaissance masterpiece ended up on French soil, to the consternation of some die-hard Italian nationalists…hint hint.

LOUIS BÉROUD STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not him either. Someone absconded with Mona on Aug. 21, but the theft wasn’t discovered until the next morning. Louis Béroud is actually the one who raised the hue and cry.

He strolled into the gallery of the Louvre and was met, not with that enigmatic smile, but four iron pegs marking where the Mona Lisa should have hung. He alerted guards who initially assumed the painting had been taken off exhibit to be photographed for promotional purposes by the staff.

Béroud followed up hours later. That’s when security discovered the painting was indeed missing. The Louvre closed for a week to investigate.

Béroud’s persistence might have been on-point citizenship at work, but he also had a vested interest in the return of the Mona Lisa.

He was painting his own version of the Leonardo masterpiece in situ on the walls of the Louvre’s salon and was likely looking to get his model restored to her rightful place so he could finish his homage.

GUILLAUME APOLLINAIRE STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not guilty. But on Sept. 7, 1911, writer and critic Guillaume Apollinaire was arrested and imprisoned on suspicion of the theft of the Mona Lisa and several other Egyptian figurines from the Louvre.

At one time, Apollinaire called for the Louvre to be burned down, which probably didn’t endear him to the authorities. He was released a week later. But during his time in the slammer, he managed to implicate his friend Pablo Picasso in the theft. Thanks, buddy.

Apollinaire was exonerated of all charges but it does turn out that one of his former assistants, Honoré Joseph Géry Pieret, was responsible for the theft of the Egyptian statuettes that had gone missing from the Louvre.

PABLO PICASSO STOLE THE MONA LISA

Not really, but he was in the right place — Paris — at the right time — 1911. Turns out Picasso was close friends with one of the suspects of the heist, Guillaume Apollinaire (said party mentioned above), who blubbered about Picasso to the police while being interrogated.

Police followed up and brought young Pablo in for questioning. No surprise, given that Picasso had been involved in buying stolen art from the Louvre before! Naughty artist!

But innocence will out and two years after the theft, when the true thief was caught red-handed, Picasso was fully exonerated. Whew! Close call, Pablo!

VINCENZO PERUGGIA STOLE THE MONA LISA

J’accuse! Correctly! Two years after the notorious gank of the Mona Lisa, the thief was caught trying to sell the priceless painting to an art dealer in Florence, Italy. Peruggia was a handyman and a former employee of the Louvre.

The heist involved nothing more than him hiding in a broom closet until the museum closed. Then he sidled up to the legendary portrait, pulled it off the wall, slipped it under his coat and walked out the door.

EDUARDO DE VALFIERNO STOLE THE MONA LISA…AND YVES CHAUDRON FORGED SIX COUNTERFEITS OF HER

Kan wees. History paints Vincenzo Peruggia as an Italian nationalist whose most ardent wish was to see the artistic legacy of his Renaissance forefathers returned to native soil. The reality might be a tinge more corrupt.

Peruggia is rumored to have been in the employ of Argentine hustler Eduardo de Valfierno, who was working with forger Yves Chaudron (whose identity has never been confirmed) on a scheme to create and sell six counterfeit copies of the Mona Lisa while the real version conveniently went missing.

This account comes from an uncorroborated article published in the Saterdagaand Pos in 1932 by journalist Karl Decker. Decker was known for his embellished style of reporting, so his credibility has been called into question. He claimed this story came to him from Valfierno on his deathbed.

Questions still stand around the existence of Valfierno and Chaudron, who have never been identified, and the fact that the alleged six fake paintings have never surfaced.

But how did Peruggia get caught?

ALFREDO GERI AND GIOVANNI POGGI STOLE THE MONA LISA

Actually, no, these two are the heroes of this tale. In December 1913, after two years of keeping the painting hidden in the false bottom of a trunk in his Paris flat, Peruggia was skittish and looking to offload Mona once and for all.

He’d never heard from Valfierno after their initial agreement and decided to take matters into his own hands. He smuggled the painting to Italy. Then he attempted to sell the work to art dealer Alfredo Geri and Uffizi Gallery director Giovanni Poggi in Florence. Suspicious of the deal, one of the museum officials called the authorities.

The Mona Lisa on display in the Uffizi Gallery, in Florence, 1913. Museum director Giovanni Poggi (right) inspects the painting.

One irony about this art heist is that Peruggia was initially a suspect. The French police tossed his place looking for evidence in 1911 but never found a clue. Peruggia’d had brushes with crime before. Once for trying to rob a prostitute and another incident involving possession of a gun.

His criminal past didn’t beef up his sentence for the Mona Lisa heist, however, which amounted to a slap on the wrist. He was jailed for six months and then pretty much hailed as a hero in Italy for trying to bring Mona back to the motherland.

It’s also interesting to note that the Mona Lisa wasn’t really known worldwide until after the theft. It wasn’t until all the news coverage that went along with the heist that the status of the Mona Lisa started to reach legendary proportions.


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