Inligting

Kores die Grote



Wie was Kores in die Bybel?

Kores is 'n koning wat meer as 30 keer in die Bybel genoem word en word geïdentifiseer as Kores die Grote (ook Kores II of Kores die oudste) wat tussen 539 en mdash530 vC oor Persië geheers het. Hierdie heidense koning is belangrik in die Joodse geskiedenis, want dit was onder sy heerskappy dat Jode eers na 70 jaar van ballingskap na Israel kon terugkeer.

In een van die wonderlikste profesieë van die Bybel, openbaar die Here Kores se besluit om die Jode vir Jesaja te bevry. Honderd -en -vyftig jaar voor Kores se lewe, noem die profeet hom by die naam en gee besonderhede van Kores se welwillendheid aan die Jode: “Dit is wat die Here vir sy gesalfde sê, aan Kores, aan wie se regterhand ek vashou om nasies te onderwerp voor hom. . . ‘Ek roep jou by jou naam en gun jou’ n eretitel, al erken jy my nie ’” (Jesaja 45: 1, 4, kyk ook 41: 2-25 42: 6). God bewys sy soewereiniteit oor alle nasies en sê oor Kores: “Hy is my herder en sal alles doen wat ek wil” (Jesaja 44:28).

Kores se bevel om die Joodse volk vry te stel, ter vervulling van profesie, is opgeteken in 2 Kronieke 36: 22 & ndash23: “Nou in die eerste jaar van Kores, die koning van Persië, sodat die woord van die HERE deur die mond van Jeremia vervul sou word, die HERE het die gees van Kores, die koning van Persië, opgewek, sodat hy in sy hele koninkryk verkondig het en dit ook op skrif gestel het: 'So sê Kores, die koning van Persië:' Die HERE, die God van die hemel, het my al die koninkryke gegee van die aarde, en hy het my beveel om vir hom 'n huis te bou in Jerusalem, wat in Juda is. Elkeen onder julle uit sy hele volk, mag die HERE sy God met hom wees. Laat hom opgaan. ”’ ”Ander Ou -Testamentiese boeke wat Kores noem, sluit in Esra en Daniël.

Koning Kores het die Jode aktief bygestaan ​​by die heropbou van die tempel in Jerusalem onder Serubbabel en Josua, die hoëpriester. Kores het die tempelskatte in Jerusalem herstel en toegelaat dat boukoste uit die koninklike skatkis betaal word (Esra 1: 4 & ndash11 6: 4 & ndash5). Kores se welwillendheid het gehelp om die tempelaanbiddingspraktyke wat gedurende die 70 jaar van die Jode se ballingskap weggeval het, weer te begin. Sommige kommentators wys op Kores se besluit om Jerusalem as die amptelike begin van Judaïsme te herbou.

Onder die Jode wat uit Juda gedeporteer is en later onder die heerskappy van Kores geplaas is, is die profeet Daniël. Ons word eintlik vertel dat Daniel gedien het tot ten minste die derde jaar van koning Kores, ongeveer 536 vC (Daniël 10: 1). In hierdie geval het Daniel waarskynlik persoonlike betrokkenheid by die besluit wat ter ondersteuning van die Jode gemaak is. Die historikus Josephus sê dat Kores in kennis gestel is van die Bybelse profesieë wat oor hom geskryf is (Oudhede van die Jode, XI.1.2). Die natuurlike persoon wat vir Kores die boekrolle gewys het, was Daniël, 'n hooggeplaaste amptenaar in Persië (Daniël 6:28).

Behalwe sy omgang met die Jode, is Kores bekend vir sy bevordering van menseregte, sy briljante militêre strategie en sy oorbrugging van die Oosterse en Westerse kulture. Hy was 'n koning van groot invloed en 'n persoon wat God gebruik het om 'n belangrike Ou -Testamentiese profesie te vervul. God se gebruik van Kores as 'n "herder" vir sy volk illustreer die waarheid van Spreuke 21: 1, "Die hart van die koning is in die hand van die HERE, hy lei dit soos 'n waterloop waar hy wil."


Van veroweraar tot jeug -ikoon: wie was Kores die Grote?

Waarom het 'n eenvoudige klipgraf in die suide van Sentraal-Iran, wat deur outoritêre leiers gebruik is om hul mag te regverdig, nou 'n fokuspunt geword vir ontevrede jeugdiges? Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones ondersoek die veranderende openbare beeld van 'n ou Persiese keiser

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 16 April 2020 om 12:25

Op 'n onbeskryflike plek ongeveer 50 kilometer noord-oos van die Iraanse stad Shiraz, styg 'n eensame, blokagtige struktuur uit 'n gruisvlakte. Ses trappe lei na 'n eenvoudige langwerpige boks, bedek met 'n skuins dak en gebou van heuningkleurige klip. Vir toevallige waarnemers is daar min wat daarop dui dat dit 'n plek van groot belang is. Tog, 23 eeue gelede, is Alexander die Grote gedryf om dit te soek na sy verowering van Persië - en vandag is die eensame, elegante graf van Kores die Grote, wat twee eeue voor Alexander se besoek by Pasargadae in sy stamland gebore is, die fokus van 'n ander soort aandag.

As professor in antieke geskiedenis het ek die afgelope 20 jaar die uitgebreide en uiteenlopende landskappe van Iran uitvoerig ondersoek, die ryk geskiedenis daarvan ontdek en sy gasvrye en gekultiveerde mense ontmoet. Gedurende die twee dekades was ek getuie van baie veranderinge in die Iraanse samelewing - sommige goed, sommige nie so welkom nie - maar ondanks die vele probleme en die vyandige beeld wat dit in westerse media uitbeeld, bly dit 'n plek waarheen ek kompulsief terugkeer. Daar is 'n paar plekke wat ek genoodsaak is om tydens elke reis te besoek: die glorieryke Naqsh-e Jahan ('Image of the World', bekend as 'Half the World') in Isfahan, die indrukwekkende 2500 jaar oue persepolis-perseel naby Shiraz , stad van rose en nagtegale en die opvallend eenvoudige graf in Pasargadae.

Selfs die vroeëre glans van sy godsdienstige omhulsel is ontneem, maar Cyrus se elegante begrafnismonument is 'n betowerende, atmosferiese plek. Aan die einde van die negentigerjare het ek daar heel alleen gestaan, af en toe onderbreek deur 'n handjievol inwoners wat 'n draai geneem het om 'n vinnige foto te neem voordat hulle net so haastig vertrek, of deur 'n bus toeriste wat na 20 minute van waansin die weer 'n plek om stil te word. Die afgelope ses jaar het die aantal besoekers egter toegeneem. Die busvragte toeriste het eksponensieel toegeneem, net soos die aantal Iraanse dagreisigers. Dit is deesdae selde om 'n oomblik se vrede in Pasargadae te vind.

Niks het my egter voorberei op die gebeure van 29 Oktober 2016 wat ek op sosiale media sien afspeel het nie. Op daardie dag het menigtes van 15 000–30 000 (presiese syfers moeilik bereikbaar) om die reghoekige platform van die graf gewemel, amper soos pelgrims wat die Kaaba in Mekka omring. En hierdie skare was hardop: "Iran is ons land!" brul hulle. “Kores is ons vader! Geestelike reël is tirannie! ” Dit is gevaarlike woorde in die Islamitiese Republiek - maar woorde wat volgens my simptomaties van die tyd is.

Ver van die rewolusie af

'N Interessante feit: ongeveer 70% van die Iraniërs is jonger as 40 jaar. Iran het 'n besonder jong demografie, die gevolg van 'n regering-gesteunde vrugbaarheidsdrang na die uitgerekte en verwoestende oorlog tussen Iran en Irak van die 1980's. Baie van die jongmense in Iran voel al hoe meer verwyderd van die oorlog en van die Islamitiese Revolusie wat die DNA van Iran so drasties verander het. Die mullahs wat Iran regeer, verteenwoordig nie die lewenskragtigheid van Iran se jong opstaan-en-goers nie, en Islam het min of geen beroep op die meerderheid van die jeug in die stede en dorpe nie. Islam word eintlik verplaas deur 'n herlewing van die pre-Islamitiese Iraanse identiteit. Die neiging na nasionalisme word weerspieël in 'n styging in pre-Islamitiese Persiese name (Cyrus, Darius, Anahita) vir babas, in plaas van tipiese Moslemname soos Hussain, Ali en Fatemeh, en in die ewige teenwoordigheid faravahar, die Zoroastriese simbool wat op juweliersware, T-hemde, tatoeëermerke en bufferplakkers gedra word. Die pre-Islamitiese Persiese verlede is wakker gemaak in die hedendaagse Iraanse bewussyn, en Iraniërs word gegalvaniseer om die heersende regime te kritiseer.

Iran het 'n ryk geskiedenis wat meer as 2500 jaar lank strek tot by die Achaemenidiese dinastie (559–330 vC). Kores die Grote en Achaemenidiese opvolgerkonings word eeue lank deur Iraniërs as heldhaftige figure beskou - mans wat 'n ryk geskep het wat gebou is op (of so glo die Iraniërs) verdraagsaamheid en respek vir almal. Hierdie 'geskiedenis' bied 'n volop kanon van verhale waarop die Iraanse nasionale trots gegrond is. Die verhale en legendes van Islam het 'n minder vaste houvas op die Iraanse psige, want dit was natuurlik buitelandse invoer.

Die historiese Kores II (gebore omstreeks 590–580 v.C.) was die heerser van die klein suidwestelike Persiese koninkryk Anshan, 'n vrugbare land wat te perde grootmaak aan die voetheuwels van die Zagros-berge in Iran. Ondersteun deur 'n koalisie van Persiese stamme, marsjeer Kores na die noorde van Iran om die Mede aan te val, 'n stam wat die noorde van Persië beset het. Daarna het hy sy aandag gevestig op die lande wat aan Media grens, insluitend die magtige koninkryk Lydia in Klein -Asië (Anatolië). Daar het Kores se sak van die Griekssprekende stad Sardis die Persiese leier in staat gestel om ander belangrike stede langs die Ioniese kus te neem. Teen 540 vC was Kores gereed om die ou deelstaat Babilonië aan te val en het sy leër na Mesopotamië verplaas. Hy het Babilon binnegegaan op 29 Oktober 539 v.C., nadat hy sy koning, Nabonidus, reeds verslaan het. Kores het sy seun, Cambyses, as die stad se regent aangestel, alhoewel hy die status quo behou het deurdat Babiloniese amptenare in hul regerings- en godsdienstige ampte kon voortgaan.

Baie van ons kennis van die val van Babilon kom van die sogenaamde Cyrus-silinder, 'n klei-artefak wat in Akkadies geskryf is en in die fondamente van die stadsmuur van Babilon geplaas is. Dit is in 1879 in die suide van Irak ontdek naby die heiligdom van Marduk, hoofgod van die Babiloniese panteon, en is sedertdien in die British Museum gehuisves. Op teks van Kores, is die teks uit 'n Babiloniese oogpunt geskryf, maar as 'n werk van keiserlike propaganda: die silinder poog om Kores se verowering van Babilon te legitimeer deur die koning as die kampioen van Marduk voor te stel. Dit is 'n skitterende stuk van self-ontspanning, waarin Cyrus die verowering van Mesopotamië met vrymoedigheid voorstel as 'n soort 'Operation Babylonian Freedom'. Die silinder beklemtoon hoe die Babiloniërs baat gevind het by Kores se 'bevryding' van hul stad en stel voor dat hulle hom moet eer. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat ander stede nie so goed gevaar het onder Kores nie. Die burgers van Opis ('n ander ou Babiloniese stad naby die moderne Bagdad) is vermoor, terwyl die verslane bevolking van Sardis later massaal gedeporteer is.

In die jare na sy verowering van Babilonië, bou Kores 'n groot internasionale ryk wat strek van die weskus van Turkye tot Afghanistan. En by Pasargadae het hy 'n imperium-in-miniatuur gebou in die vorm van 'n weelderige formele tuin-a pairidaêza (uit die Grieks paradeisos), 'n aardse paradys beplant met flora uit sy verowerde lande as 'n fisiese verklaring van die steeds groeiende keiserlike mag van Persië. Die kompleks het paleise en die vat-gewelfde mausoleum ingesluit, waarin Cyrus in die dood omstreeks 530 vC teen die oostelike Massagetae ('n stam uit Bactria, nou in Afghanistan) gesterf het.

Trotse erfenis

Die pre-Islamitiese Persiese geskiedenis word slegs oppervlakkig by skole geleer, dus, verbasend genoeg, is die Iraniërs relatief naïef oor die realiteite van die bou van die ryk van Kores (bloedvergieting en al), maar dit is nietemin duidelik dat hulle baie trots is op hul ou erfenis. Opeenvolgende leiers van Iran het hierdie trots benut en die figuur van Kores die Grote gebruik om hul eie agendas te bevorder.

In die sewentigerjare het Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, die laaste Sjah van Iran, homself openlik en entoesiasties met Kores die Grote vergelyk. Hy verklaar 1971 as die jaar van Kores en vier die nalatenskap van die keiserbouer met weelderige, ietwat hubristiese feeste in Persepolis en Pasargadae, waar hy die spook van Kores in die leë graf spreek: “Kores, groot koning, Shahanshah, Achaemenidiese koning, koning van die land Iran, van my af, Shahanshah van Iran en uit my volk, ek stuur groete ... u, die ewige held van die Iraanse geskiedenis, die stigter van die oudste monargie ter wêreld, die groot vryheidsgewer van die wêreld, die waardige seun van die mensdom, ons stuur groete! Cyrus, ons het vandag hier by u ewige graf vergader om vir u te sê: slaap in vrede, want ons is wakker en ons sal altyd wakker wees om na ons trotse erfenis om te sien. ”

Die sjah het Cyrus ook geprys omdat hy die eerste menseregtewet ooit gemaak het. Dit is 'n langdurige en gedeelde misverstand van die teks van die Cyrus-silinder, waarin 'n enkele reël praat oor die indringer se behandeling van die inwoners van die stad: "Ek het hul vermoeidheid verlig en hulle van hul diens bevry." Dit is skaars 'n kreet vir vryheid. Dat Kores die Jode daarna uit hul Babiloniese ballingskap bevry het (en die profeet Jesaja met die titel 'messias' geskenk het) en toegelaat het dat sommige, hoewel nie almal nie, na hul vaderland terugkeer, het sy reputasie versterk 'n voorstander van menseregte. Verre daarvan: Kores was so brutaal soos enige ander heerser in die Nabye Ooste.

Tog het die reputasie van Kores as die skepper van die eerste menseregtewet gebly. Die laaste shah wou in dieselfde trant bewonder en onthou word, en hy gebruik die Cyrus -silinder as die amptelike ikoon van sy vieringe in 1971, en plak dit op banknote en muntstukke, en hy hervorm selfs die Iraanse kalender sodat dit in ooreenstemming was met die bewind van Kores die Grote 2 500 jaar vroeër. Om aan die wêreld te wys dat hy Cyrus wedergebore is, het Mohammad Reza Pahlavi tot vandag toe 'n faks van die silinder aan die Verenigde Nasies geskenk, wat in 'n glaskas in 'n voorportaal in die VN se hoofkwartier in New York City verskyn.

Meer onlangs, in die nasleep van die betwiste presidentsverkiesing in 2009, het die destydse president van Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iran, in die hoop om 'n mate van legitimiteit terug te kry, homself heroorweeg as 'n nasionalis wat 'n stryd teen buitelandse vyande lei. Hy het iets van 'n diplomatieke triomf behaal toe die British Museum ingestem het om die oorspronklike silinder aan die National Museum of Iran te leen vir 'n spesiale uitstalling oor Kores en sy nalatenskap. Duisende Iraniërs het na Teheran gestroom vir die kans om dit een keer in 'n leeftyd te sien, ondanks die feit dat dit 'n Babiloniese dokument is wat in Akkadies geskryf is en na 'n Mesopotamiese gehoor gerig is, maar hulle beskou dit tog as 'n ikoon van Iraniërs.

"Om oor Iran te praat, praat nie van 'n geografiese entiteit of ras nie," verklaar president Ahmadinejad, terwyl hy 'n erepenning op die bors van 'n akteur geklee in 'n kleurvolle Kores die Grote -kostuum tydens 'n seremonie in Teheran vasgepen het. "Om oor Iran te praat, is gelykstaande aan praat oor kultuur, menswaardes, geregtigheid, liefde en opoffering."

Die Cyrus -gier

Iraniërs is moontlik swak ingelig oor die werklikhede van die antieke Persiese bou van ryke en inderdaad die inhoud van die teks van die Cyrus-silinder, maar dit het nie verhinder dat die Cyrus-rage versprei het nie. Azadeh Moaveni, 'n Iraans-Amerikaanse joernalis, weerspieël die gevoelens van baie toe sy inskryf Tyd tydskrif in 2007: “Die Achaemenidiese konings [insluitend Kores], wat hul majestueuse hoofstad in Persepolis gebou het, was buitengewoon wonderlik vir hul tyd. Hulle het die vroegste aangetekende menseregteverklaring ter wêreld geskryf en was gekant teen slawerny. ”

Baie van hierdie valse begrip van die dokument spruit uit 'n magdom valse vertalings wat oor die jare op die internet verskyn het. Een van die gewildste slagoffers van die silinderbedrog was dat die Iraanse prokureur Shirin Ebadi, die Nobelprys vir vrede, die toekenning in 2003 aanvaar het. van die nasies van my ryk en laat nooit een van my goewerneurs en ondergeskiktes op hulle neersien of beledig nie, solank ek nog lewe. Van nou af ... sal ek my nasie nie opdwing nie. Dit staan ​​elkeen vry om dit te aanvaar, en as een van hulle dit verwerp, sal ek nooit besluit om oorlog te heers nie. ” Sy is vermoedelik doodgemaak toe sy haar gaffe ontdek.

Die nuutste wending in die verhaal is die massiewe aanneming van die beeld van Kores deur aktiviste, 'n situasie wat by sy graf in 2016 tot 'n punt gekom het. Die datum van die betoging, 29 Oktober, word nou deur Iraniërs gevier as Kores die Grote Dag , maar dit is 'n nie -amptelike vakansie wat nie deur die regering erken word nie. Trouens, die Islamitiese regime is verward, verbysterd en kwaad oor sy gewildheid. Een eerbiedwaardige mulla, Grand Ayatollah Noori-Hamedani, woed teen die Pasargadae-vieringe. 'Die sjah het altyd gesê:' O Kores, slaap in vrede terwyl ons wakker is ',' het hy gesê. 'Nou het 'n groep mense byeengekom rondom die graf van Kores, en hulle omseil dit en het hul sakdoeke uitgehaal en gehuil [soos vir die Sjiïtiese Imam Hussein] ... Hierdie [mense] is kontra-revolusionêr. Ek is verbaas dat hierdie mense bymekaar kom rondom die graf van Kores. Wie aan bewind was so nalatig om toe te laat dat hierdie mense bymekaarkom? Ons is in 'n revolusionêre en Islamitiese land, en hierdie revolusie is die voortsetting van die optrede van die profeet en die imams. " Sy gevoel van vrees is byna tasbaar. Waarheen sal hierdie beweging lei? Wie weet - maar dit lyk asof dit hier is om te bly.

In die afgelope 60 jaar is Kores die Grote deur twee regimes gebruik om hul magsterkte te versterk. Die sjah het die standpunt van die Pahlavi -monargie geskilder as 'n natuurlike voortsetting van Kores se beleid van verdraagsaamheid, hoewel Pahlavi -bewind in werklikheid alles behalwe verdraagsaam was. Ahmadinejad was bereid om die feit oor die hoof te sien dat Kores 'n heiden was om 'n broodnodige nasionalisme te aktiveer, om die aandag van sy betwiste verkiesing af te lei, en hy het Kores 'n soort Shia-heilige gemaak.

Nou het die jongmense van Iran beweer Cyrus as hul eie, wat hom van sja's en mullahs skei, en hulle neem hom die strate in met hul slimfone en tablette. Die mite van Kores is besig om te swel en sy kultus groei. Die feit word verplaas deur die behoefte om Cyrus as 'n nuwe bevryder te werp. Die Iraanse gebruik van die Persiese verlede is 'n diepgaande bewys dat die antieke geskiedenis nie dood is nie: die oudheid is lewendig en is vandag nog steeds lewensbelangrik.

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones is professor in antieke geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Cardiff


Droomvisies en botsende kronieke

Die Neo-Babiloniese koning Nabonidus, in sy eerste jaar as heerser (ongeveer 556 of 555 vC), verklaar in sy kroniek dat hy 'n droom gehad het wat die god Marduk aan hom gegee het:

Aan die begin van my blywende koningskap het hulle (die groot gode) my 'n visioen in 'n droom gewys ... Marduk het vir my gesê: 'Die Umman-manda van wie jy praat, hy, sy land en die konings wat langs hom gaan, sal nie meer lank bestaan ​​nie. Aan die begin van die derde jaar sal Kores, die koning van Anshan, sy jeugdige dienskneg, na vore kom. Met sy paar magte sal hy die talle magte van die Umman-manda verwoes. Hy sal Astyages, die koning van die Umman-manda, vang en hom gevange neem na sy land.

Nabonidus het duidelik intelligensieverslae ontvang dat Kores bedoel was om in opstand te kom en onafhanklikheid van Astyages te verklaar. Let op dat Nabonidus in die inskripsie praat van die Umman-manda as 'n las vir sy eie koninkryk. Aan die ander kant was sy drome egter hoop en vrees vir die onbekende. Nabonidus was bekend met Astyages, maar Kores was nog steeds 'n raaisel.

In die sewende jaar van Nabonidus het hy dit te sê gehad oor die konflik tussen Kores en Astyages:

[Astyages] mobiliseer [sy leër] en hy marsjeer teen Kores, die koning van Anshan, om te verower ... die leër het in opstand gekom teen Astyages en hy is gevange geneem. Hulle het hom aan Kores […] oorhandig. Kores het opgeruk na Ecbatana, die koninklike stad. Silwer, goud, goedere, eiendom, […] wat hy as buit van Ecbatana aangegryp het, het hy aan Ansan oorgedra. Die goedere [en] eiendom van die leër van […].

Hierdie inskripsie skets 'n heel ander verhaal as dié van Herodotus. Die verskil is dat Astyages die een was wat Anshan binnegeval het om die opstand te beëindig, maar op sy beurt het sy leër in opstand gekom en hom aan Kores oorgegee. Dit wil egter nie sê dat Herodotus verkeerd is nie. Dit is net die teenoorgestelde van wat gebeur het, aangesien Herodotus sê dat Kores die media binnegedring het wat gedeeltelik reg is - maar slegs daarna die stryd en gevangenisstraf van Astyages het Cyrus op Media opgeruk om die hoofstad van Umman-Manda, Ecbatana, in te neem.

Marduk en die draak Marduk, hoofgod van Babilon, vernietig met sy donderstorms Tiamat, die draak van die oorspronklike chaos. Uit verligting getrek ( Publieke domein )

U moet nie vergeet dat dit nie die einde van die oorlog was nie. Alhoewel Astyages nou 'n gevangene was, was daar nog drie jaar se bloedvergieting wat eers ongeveer 550 vC sou eindig.

Dit is 'n gratis voorskou van 'n eksklusiewe artikel uit Ancient Origins PREMIUM.

Om die res van hierdie artikel te geniet sluit by ons daar aan . As u inteken, is u kry onmiddellike en volledige toegang tot alle Premium -artikels , gratis e -boeke, webinars deur kundige gaste, afslag vir aanlynwinkels en nog baie meer!


BYBELGESKIEDENIS: Kores die Grote, die stigter van die Persiese Ryk en die veroweraar van Babilon

Die seun van die vroeëre Cambyses, van die koninklike ras van die Achemeniërs. Sy geslagsregister, soos deur homself gegee, is soos volg: “Ek is Kores, die koning van die leër, die groot koning, die magtige koning, die koning van Tindir (Babilon), die koning van die land Sumeru en Akkadu, die koning van die vier streke, seun van Cambyses, die groot koning, koning van die stad Ansan, kleinseun van Kores, die groot koning, koning van die stad Ansan, agterkleinseun van Sispis (Teispes), die groot koning, koning van die stad Ansan, die ewige koninklike saad wie se soewereiniteit Bel en Nebo liefhet, ” ens. (WAI, V, meervoud 35, 20-22).

Soos in die Babiloniese inskripsies verduidelik word dat Assan (Ansan, Anzan) verduidelik word dat Elam die stad in werklikheid die hoofstad van die land was, en dit is waarskynlik dat die naam van Kores Elamiet was, maar die betekenis daarvan twyfelagtig is. Die Griekse etimologie wat dit verbind met khor, “the sun ” in Persies, kan dus verwerp word. Volgens Strabo is hy eers Agradates genoem, die naam waarmee hy algemeen bekend was, afkomstig van dié van die rivier die Kores. Dit is egter meer waarskynlik die rede waarom sy oupa (na wie hy waarskynlik vernoem is) Kores genoem is.

Verskeie weergawes van sy geboorte en opgang tot mag word opgeteken. Herodotus (i.95) noem drie. In dit wat hy aanhaal (i.107 ev), word gesê dat Mandane die dogter was van die Median -koning Astyages, wat, as gevolg van 'n droom wat hy gehad het, die uiteindelike triomf van haar seun oor sy dinastie voorspel het haar getroud met 'n Perse met die naam Cambyses, wat nie een van sy eweknieë was nie. 'N Tweede droom het hom laat kyk na haar verwagte nageslag, en toe Cyrus in die wêreld kom, het Astyages die kind by sy familielid, Harpagus, afgelewer met bevele om dit te vernietig. Omdat hy nie bereid was om dit te doen nie, het hy die baba oorgegee aan 'n herder met die naam Mitradates, wat, nadat sy vrou 'n gebore kind gebaar het, ingestem het om die lewe van die baba Kores te spaar. Later, as gevolg van sy keiserlike dade, word Kores herken deur Astyages, wat die hele verhaal leer leer het, en het hom gespaar omdat die Magiërs eenmaal koning geword het deur sy metgeselle in die spel, die voorspellings oor sy uiteindelike koninklike staat gehou het vervul is. Die wraak wat Astyages op Harpagus geneem het vir sy skynbare ongehoorsaamheid aan bevele, is welbekend: sy seun is doodgemaak, en 'n gedeelte, vermom, het hom gegee om te eet. Alhoewel Harpagus bedroef was, verberg hy sy gevoelens en vertrek hy met die oorskot van sy seun se liggaam, en Cyrus word mettertyd gestuur om by sy ouers, Cambyses en Mandane, te bly. Later het Harpagus Kores oorreed om die Perse tot opstand te dwing, en Astyages het Harpagus blindelings die opperbevelhebber van die mediane leër aangestel, en die laasgenoemde het na die kant van Kores gegaan. Die gevolg was 'n maklike oorwinning vir laasgenoemde, maar Astyages het die Magiërs wat hom aangeraai het om sy kleinseun te spaar, versorg. Nadat hy 'n ander, maar kleiner weermag bymekaargemaak het, het hy die veld persoonlik aangeneem, maar is verslaan en gevange geneem. Cyrus, wat koning van Media sowel as van Persië geword het, het hom eerbaar en goed behandel.

Volgens Xenophon het Cyropedia i. afdeling 2, Cambyses, die vader van Kores, was koning van Persië. (OPMERKING: Hy het moontlik Persië by sy heerskappy gevoeg, maar volgens Kores self was hy koning van Ansan of Elam.) Tot sy 12de jaar is Kores opgevoed in Persië, toe hy saam met sy ma deur Astyages gestuur is , aan wie hy tegelyk baie liefde betoon het. Astyages word opgevolg deur sy seun Cyaxares, en Cyrus word toe sy opperbevelhebber, onder andere onder die Lydiërs. Hy het die Assiriërs (= Babiloniërs) twee keer verslaan, sy laaste verowering van die land was terwyl die Mediane koning nog gelewe het. Aangesien die Cyropedia egter 'n romanse is, is die historiese besonderhede nie van groot waarde nie.

Nicolaus van Damaskus beskryf Kores as die seun van 'n Mardiese bandiet met die naam Atradates, sy moeder se naam is Argoste. Terwyl hy in die paleis van Astyages diens gedoen het, is hy aangeneem deur Artembarks, skinkers, en het hy dus prominent geword. Cyrus het nou sy bandiet-vader satrap van Persië gemaak, en met basiese ondankbaarheid bedink hy sy koning en weldoener. Nadat hy en sy generaal Oibaras voorberei het op 'n opstand, het hy op Hyrba seëvier, maar is hy verslaan in Parsagadae, waar sy vader Atradates gevange geneem en later gesterf het. Kores het nou sy toevlug geneem in sy berghuis, maar die bespotting van die vroue het hom en sy helpers weer uitgestuur, hierdie keer na oorwinning en heerskappy.

Ctesias verklaar ook dat daar geen verhouding was tussen Cyrus en Astyages (Astyigas), wat, toe Cyrus Media verower het, na Ecbatana gevlug het en daar verborge was deur sy dogter Amytis, en haar man Spitamas. As Astyages nie toegegee het nie, sou Cyrus hulle, saam met hul kinders, gemartel het. Kores bevry daarna Astyages en trou met sy dogter Amytis, wie se man hy doodgemaak het omdat hy 'n leuen vertel het. Daar word gesê dat die Bactrians so tevrede was met die versoening van Kores met Astyages en sy dogter, dat hulle vrywillig ingedien het. Volgens Ctesias word Kores deur die Sacae gevange geneem, maar hy is losgekoop. Hy sterf aan 'n wond wat hy in die stryd met die Derbices gekry het, bygestaan ​​deur die Indiërs.

Te midde van soveel onsekerheid, is dit 'n verligting om na die hedendaagse dokumente van die Babiloniërs te kyk, wat, hoewel hulle nie in detail van Cyrus ’ praat nie, slegs verwys na ander tydperke van sy loopbaan waarin hulle meer was onmiddellik geïnteresseerd is, mag dit egter steeds eiesoortig wees, maar het 'n heeltemal spesiale gesag. Volgens die inskripsies het die konflik met Astyages in 549 vC plaasgevind. Uit die silinder van Nabonidus leer ons dat die Mede baie suksesvol was in hul oorlogsgetroue operasies en selfs so ver gegaan het as Haran, wat hulle beleër het. Die Babiloniese koning Nabonidus wou die instruksies van Merodach, wat in 'n droom geopenbaar is, uitvoer om die tempel van Sin, die maangod, in daardie stad te herstel. Dit kon hy egter nie as gevolg van die beleg doen nie, en in 'n droom is dit aan hom geopenbaar dat die mag van Astyages aan die einde van drie jaar omvergewerp sou word, wat gebeur het soos voorspel. Hulle (die gode Sin en Merodach) het toe veroorsaak dat Kores, die koning van Anzan, sy jong dienskneg (Merodach ’s) met sy klein leër opstaan ​​teen hom (die mediaan), en hy vernietig die uitgebreide Umman-manda (Medes) ), Istuwegu (Astyages), koning van die Mede, het hy gevange geneem en (gevange) na sy (eie) land geneem. ), is soos volg: .

Kores het na die land Ecbatana, sy koninklike stad, gegaan. Hy het silwer, goud, meubels, handelsware van Ecbatana afgevoer en die meubels en handelsware wat hy gevang het, na Ansan geneem. ”

Bogenoemde is die inskrywing vir die 6de jaar van Nabonidus, wat ooreenstem met 549 vC, en dit sal opgemerk word dat hy hier genoem word “king of Ansan. #8217 9de jaar (546 vC), waar daar gesê word dat “ Cyrus, die koning van die land Parsu (Persië) sy leër versamel het, en die Tigris onder Arbela oorgesteek het, en#8221 en in die daaropvolgende maand (Iyyar) binnegekom die land Is- …., waar dit lyk asof iemand omkoopgeld geneem het, die plek beset en daarna het 'n koning daar regeer. Die gedeelte is egter onvolmaak en daarom onduidelik, maar ons kan miskien 'n voorbereidende stap van Kores sien om besit te kry van die traktaat waaroor Nabonidus heerskappy opgeëis het. Die volgende jaar (545 vC) blyk daar 'n ander beweging van die Perse af te gewees het, want daar word na die Elamitiese goewerneur (?) Verwys en blykbaar 'n paar onderhandelinge met die goewerneur van Ereg gehad. Dit lyk asof die hele tyd dieselfde was in Babilonië, die seun van die koning (hy word nie genoem nie, maar blykbaar word Belsasar bedoel) en die soldate wat in Akkad oorgebly het (moontlik in die ou sin van die woord gebruik) om aan te dui distrik rondom Sippar), waar daar skynbaar verwag is dat die hoofaanval gelewer sou word. Die verwysing na die goewerneur van Erech kan impliseer dat 'n sameswering te voet meer na die suide was, waarvan die inheemse owerhede moontlik in onkunde gebly het.

Na 'n gaping wat vier jaar onaangeraak gelaat is, het ons spore van vier reëls wat die godin Ishtar van Erech en die gode van die land Par … noem. (? Persië) word verwys. Hierna kom die lang inskrywing, wat, hoewel die datum weggebreek is, moet verwys na die 17de jaar van Nabonidus. Daar word verwys na 'n koninklike besoek aan 'n tempel, en daar word melding gemaak van 'n opstand. Sekere godsdienstige seremonies is toe uitgevoer, en ander is weggelaat. In die maand Tammuz blyk dit dat Cyrus 'n geveg in Opis gevoer het en daarin geslaag het om die leër van Akkad aan die Tigris aan te val. Op die 14de van die maand is Sippar geneem sonder om te veg, en Nabonidus het gevlug. Op die 16de Ugbaru (Gobryas) goewerneur van Media, het hy Babilon binnegekom met die leër van Kores, sonder om te veg, en daar is Nabonidus saam met sy volgelinge gevange geneem. Op die oomblik blyk dit dat E-saggil en die tempels van die land gesluit is, moontlik om te verhoed dat die volgelinge van Nabonidus daar heiligdom inneem, of om te voorkom dat plotters uitkom en op die 3de Marcheswan (Oktober) kom Cyrus binne Babilon. Skare wat voor hom versamel is en vrede voorstel vir die stad Kores, beveel alles oor die vrede van Babilon. , is na hul heiligdomme teruggegee. Die nag van die 11de Marcheswan het Ugbaru teen ('n deel van Babilon) gekant gegaan, en die seun van die koning is dood en daar was rou oor hom van die 27ste van Adar tot die 3de van Nisan (ses dae). Daar bestaan ​​'n twyfel of die teks van die koning of die seun van die koning praat, maar aangesien daar 'n verslag is dat Nabonidus na Karmania verban is, lyk dit waarskynlik dat die dood van Belsasar in die nag ” is here referred to. The day after the completion of the mourning (the 4th of Nisan), Cambyses, son of Cyrus, performed ceremonies in the temple E-nig-had-kalamma, probably in connection with the new year’s festival, for which Cyrus had probably timed his arrival at Babylon. According to Herodotus (i.191), Babylon’ was taken during a festival, agreeing with Dan. 5:1 ff.

The other inscription of Cyrus, discovered by Mr. H. Rassam at Babylon, is a kind of proclamation justifying his seizure of the crown. He states that the gods (of the various cities of Babylonia) forsook their dwellings in anger that he (Nabonidus) had made them enter within Su-anna (Babylon). Merodach, the chief divinity of Babylon, sought also a just king, the desire of his heart, whose hand he might hold–Cyrus, king of Ansan, he called his title–to all the kingdoms together (his) name was proclaimed.

The glory of Cyrus’ conquests probably appealed to the Babylonians, for Cyrus next states that Merodach placed the whole of the troops of Qutu (Media) under his feet, and the whole of the troops of the Manda (barbarians and mercenaries). He also caused his hands to hold the people of the dark head (Asiatics, including the Babylonians)–in righteousness and justice he cared for them. He commanded that he should go to his city Babylon and walked by his side like a friend and a companion–without fighting and battle Merodach caused him to enter Su-anna. By his high command, the kings of every region from the upper sea to the lower sea (the Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf), the kings of the Amorites, and the dwellers in tents, brought their valuable tribute and kissed his feet within Su-anna (Babylon). From Nineveh(?), the city Assur, Susa, Agade, the land of Esnunnak, Zamban, Me-Turnu, and Deru, to the borders of Media, the gods inhabiting them were returned to their shrines, and all the people were collected and sent back to their dwellings. He finishes by soliciting the prayers of the gods to Bel and Nebo for length of days and happiness, asking them also to appeal to Merodach on behalf of Cyrus “his worshipper,” and his son Cambyses.

Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos,

Inscriptions. The famous cylinder of Cyrus found by Hormuzd Rassam in the nineteenth century is in remarkable agreement with the royal edict as set forth in the Bible. “From … Ashur and Susa, Agade, Ashnunnak, Zamban, Meturnu, Deri, with the territory of the land of Gutium, the cities on the other side of the Tigris, whose sites were of ancient found—the gods, who dwell in them, I brought back to their places and caused them to dwell in a habitation for all time. All their inhabitants I collected and restored them to their dwelling places … may all the gods whom I brought into their cities pray daily before Bel and Nabu for long life for me” (R. W. Rogers, Cuneiform Parallels to the Old Testament [1912], p. 383). This royal edict shows that Cyrus reversed the inhumane policy of displacing whole populations, as practiced by Assyrian and Babylonian conquerors. Thus his clemency and religious toleration with regard to the Jewish captives are readily understood. Further, it is clear how the Hebrew prophet sang of Cyrus as the deliverer whom Jehovah would raise up (Isa. 45:1–4). Although the Hebrew prophet spoke of the great conqueror as anointed by the Lord for the particular task of restoring the Jewish captives, Cyrus claimed to be commissioned by the god Marduk. The famous inscription of the victor, preserved on a clay cylinder, contains the amazing story of triumphs of one who plainly saw himself as a man of destiny and gives background to the prophetic message of the Hebrew seer. “Marduk … sought a righteous prince, after his own heart, whom he took by the hand, Cyrus, king of Anshan, he called by name, to lordship over the whole world he appointed him … to his city Babylon he caused him to go … his numerous troops in number unknown, like the water of a river, marched armed at his side. Without battle and conflict he permitted him to enter Babylon. He spared his city Babylon a calamity. Nabunaid, the king, who did not fear him, he delivered into his hand” (Rogers, op. cit., p. 381). [1]

It was probably between the defeat of Astyages and the capture of Babylon that Cyrus defeated Croesus and conquered Lydia. After preparing to attack the Greek cities of Asia Minor, he returned to Ecbatana, taking Croesus with him. The states which had formed the Lydian empire, however, at once revolted, and had again to be reduced to submission, this time by Harpagus, his faithful general, after a determined resistance. It was at this period that Cyrus subdued the nations of Upper Asia, his next objective being Babylonia (section 9 and the two preceding paragraphs). In this connection it is noteworthy that, in the Babylonian official account, there is no mention of his engineering works preparatory to the taking of Babylon–the turning of the waters of the Gyndes into a number of channels in order to cross (Herod. i.189) the siege of Babylon, long and difficult, and the final capture of the city by changing the course of the Euphrates, enabling his army to enter by the bed of the river’ (Herodotus i.190-91). There may be some foundation for this statement, but if so, the king did not boast of it–perhaps because it did not entail any real labor, for the irrigation works already in existence may have been nearly sufficient for the purpose. It seems likely that the conquest of Babylon opened the way for other military exploits. Herodotus states that he next attacked the Massagetae, who were located beyond the Araxes.

One-third of their army was defeated, and the son of Tomyris, the queen, captured by a stratagem but on being freed from his bonds, he committed suicide. In another exceedingly fierce battle which followed, the Persian army was destroyed, and Cyrus himself brought his life to an end there, after a reign of 29 years. (He had ruled over Media for 11, and over Babylonia (and Assyria) for 9 years.) According to the Babylonian contract-tablets, Cambyses, his son, was associated with him on the throne during the first portion of his 1st year of rule in Babylon.

According to Ctesias, Cyrus made war with the Bactrians and the Sacae, but was taken prisoner by the latter, and was afterward ransomed. He died from a wound received in battle with the Berbices. Diodorus agrees, in the main, with Herodotus, but relates that Cyrus was captured by the Scythian queen (apparently Tomyris), who crucified or impaled him.

It is strange that, in the case of such a celebrated ruler as Cyrus, nothing certain is known as to the manner of his death. The accounts which have come down to us seem to make it certain that he was killed in battle with some enemy, but the statements concerning his end are conflicting. This absence of any account of his death from a trustworthy source implies that Herodotus is right in indicating a terrible disaster to the Persian arms, and it is therefore probable that he fell on the field of battle–perhaps in conflict with the Massagetae, as Herodotus states. Supposing that only a few of the Persian army escaped, it may be that not one of those who saw him fall lived to tell the tale, and the world was dependent on the more or less trustworthy statements which the Massagetae made.

That he was considered to be a personage of noble character is clear from all that has come down to us concerning him, the most noteworthy being Xenophon’s Cyropedia and Institution of Cyrus. The Babylonian inscriptions do not reproduce Babylonian opinion, but the fact that on the occasion of the siege of Babylon the people trusted to his honor and came forth asking peace for the city (apparently with every confidence that their request would be granted) and that the Babylonians, as a whole, were contented under his rule, may be regarded as tacit confirmation. Nabonidus, before the invasion of his territory by the Persian forces, was evidently well disposed toward him, and looked upon him, as we have seen, as “the young servant of Merodach,” the patron deity of Babylon.

It is not altogether clear, however, why the Babylonians submitted to him with so little resistance–their inscriptions contain no indication that they had a real reason to be dissatisfied with the rule of Nabonidus–he seems to have been simply regarded as somewhat unorthodox in his worship of the gods but could they expect an alien, of a different religion, to be better in that respect? Dissatisfaction on the part of the Babylonian priesthood was undoubtedly at the bottom of their discontent, however, and may be held to supply a sufficient reason, though it does not redound to the credit of Babylonian patriotism. It has been said that the success of Cyrus was in part due to the aid given him by the Jews, who, recognizing him as a monotheist like themselves, gave him more than mere sympathy but it is probable that he could never have conquered Babylonia had not the priests, as indicated by their own records, spread discontent among the people. It is doubtful whether we may attribute a higher motive to the priesthood, though that is not altogether impossible. The inner teaching of the Babylonian polytheistic faith was, as is now well known, monotheistic, and there may have been, among the priests, a desire to have a ruler holding that to be the true faith, and also not so inclined as Nabonidus to run counter to the people’s (and the priests’) prejudices. Jewish influence would, in some measure, account for this.

If the Jews thought that they would be more sympathetically treated under Cyrus’ rule, they were not disappointed. It was he who gave orders for the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem (2Ch 36:23 Ezra 1:2 5:13 6:3), restored the vessels of the House of Jehovah which Nebuchadnezzar had taken away (Ezra 1:7), and provided funds to bring cedar trees from Lebanon (Ezra 3:7). But he also restored the temples of the Babylonians and brought back the images of the gods to their shrines. Nevertheless, the Jews evidently felt that the favors he granted them showed sympathy for them, and this it probably was which caused Isaiah (Isa. 44:28 compare Rom. 4:17) to see in him a “shepherd” of Jehovah, and an anointed king (Messiah, to Christo mou, Isa. 45:1, 2, 5)–a title suggesting to later writers that he was a type of Christ.

God Initiates His Redemptive Program through Cyrus (44:24–45:25). Identifying Himself as the sovereign Creator, who alone controls the events of history, the Lord announced that He would use Cyrus the Persian to restore His people to the land and rebuild the ruined cities. A commissioning account follows, in which the Lord promised Cyrus military success in order that he, and eventually the whole world, might recognize the incomparability of Israel’s God. The mention of Cyrus by name is startling since this ruler did not come on the scene until the sixth century b.c., over a hundred years after Isaiah died. However, such a precise prediction is certainly consistent with the theme of God’s ability to predict and fulfill (see 44:26).

Though God had great plans for His exiled people, some grumbled about their condition and questioned God’s ways. The Lord reminded such individuals that they had no right to question their Creator’s sovereign decisions. To do so would be as absurd as a piece of pottery criticizing the potter who forms it.

The Lord reiterated His plan to use Cyrus as His instrument of redemption. Israel would return from Babylon and rebuild Jerusalem. Foreigners would recognize Israel’s privileged position and the incomparability of Israel’s God.

Once more declaring His sovereignty and superiority to the pagan gods, the Lord exhorted all nations to turn to Him for salvation. It is wise to submit to God now, for He has issued an unchangeable decree that all will someday bow before Him and acknowledge His sovereignty.

Exhorting Israel in Light of Babylon’s Fall (46:1–48:22). Here announcements of Babylon’s fall are coupled with exhortations to the exiles.

Babylon’s idols would be carried away into captivity, unable to rescue themselves, let alone their worshipers. These useless idols were stationary and a burden to the animals that carried them. In contrast, God had always been active in Israel’s history and had, as it were, carried His people. He urged those exiles who remained rebellious in spirit to recall His past deeds and to recognize His sovereign hand at work in the career of Cyrus. For those who were willing to trust His promises, a new era was approaching. [2]

From Persia we do not get any help as to his character, nor as to the estimation in which he was held. His only inscription extant is above his idealized bas-relief at Murghab, where he simply writes: “I am Cyrus, the Achaemenian.” The stone shows Cyrus standing, looking to the right, draped in a fringed garment resembling those worn by the ancient Babylonians, reaching to the feet. His hair is combed back in the Persian style, and upon his head is an elaborate Egyptian crown, two horns extending to front and back, with a uraeus serpent rising from each end, and between the serpents three vase-like objects, with discs at their bases and summits, and serrated leaves between. There is no doubt that this crown is symbolical of his dominion over Egypt, the three vase-like objects being modifications of the triple helmet-crown of the Egyptian deities. The king is represented as four-winged in the Assyro-Babylonian style, probably as a claim to divinity in their hierarchy as well as to dominion in the lands of Merodach and Assur. In his right hand, which is raised to the level of his shoulder, he holds a kind of scepter seemingly terminating in a bird’s head–in all probability also a symbol of Babylonian dominion, though the emblem of the Babylonian cities of the South was most commonly a bird with wings displayed.

Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos,

Conquests. Cyrus II extended his conquests with lightninglike rapidity, defeating Croesus, king of Lydia c. 546 B.C. Babylon fell to him in 539 B.C. Thus he laid the foundations for the vast Persian Empire under whose dominion Judea was to remain a province for the next two centuries. Cyrus established his capital at Pasargadae in the land of Parsa. On a ruined palace there the repeated inscription can still be read, “I, Cyrus, the king, the Achaemenid.” From this palace comes the earliest extant Persian relief, a four-winged genius, perhaps representing the deified Cyrus.

Decree. This edict recorded in 2 Chron. 36:22–23 and Ezra 1:2–3 gave permission to the Hebrew captives to go back to Palestine to rebuild their Temple. “Thus says Cyrus king of Persia, ‘The Lord, the God of heaven, has given me all the kingdoms of the earth, and He has appointed me to build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Whosoever there is among you of all His people, may his God be with him! Let him go up to Jerusalem … and rebuild the house of the Lord.’”

End. Cyrus was slain in battle 530 b.c. and buried in a still extant tomb at Pasargadae. In the small burial chamber a golden sarcophagus received Cyrus’s body. Plutarch (a.d. 90) says the tomb bore this inscription: “O man, whosoever thou art and whencesoever thou comest, for I know that thou wilt come, I am Cyrus and I won for the Persians their empire. Do not, therefore, begrudge me this little earth which covers my body.” [3]

[1] Merrill F. Unger and Howard F. Vos, “Cyrus,” ed. R.K. Harrison, The New Unger’s Bible Dictionary (Chicago: Moody Press, 1988).

[2] Robert B. Chisholm, “The Major Prophets,” in Holman Concise Bible Commentary, red. David S. Dockery (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1998), 284–285.


Military ability and Statesman

Cyrus had immense military abilities and he was very clever in commanding and conducting wars. But that was only one side facet of this great man. Great trait of Cyrus was the gentle character of his rule. He was very tolerant of local religions and local customs, and he was disinclined to the extreme brutality and cruelty, which characterized so many other conquerors.

Tactic of war of Cyrus is demonstrated in his war with the Lydian king Croesus.


Achievements of Cyrus the Great

Military Conquest

Cyrus took over the leadership of the Persian Tribes after the death of his father Anshan and he ruled as a vassal king for the Medians who controlled the region. Cyrus founded the Achaemenid Empire and even as a subordinate to the Medians, he had ambitions to gain power of the entire region.

The Achaemenian Dynasty was the first Empire of the world and Sorat asserts that this was the largest Empire of the old-Fashioned world and its length spanned from Anatolia from Egypt across western Asia to northern India and center Asia (1). The Achaemenian Empire eventually conquered Egypt and became the most dominate dynasty in the world.

When he took power from his Father, Cyrus was a subject of the Median Empire who lorded over the Persians. While his predecessors had been content to pay tribute to the Medians, Cyrus had greater ambitions. He therefore undertook a revolt that resulted in the defeat of the Medians and a new kingdom that combined the Median and Persians was established. Cyrus was the King of this new Empire but he chose to retain the title of “King of Persia”.

Despite having considerable territorial extent and duration, the Persian Empire did not have nearly as great an impact on history as did such longer-lived empires as the Roman, British, or Chinese empires. However, one should consider that the great accomplishments made by the Persians could never have been achieved without Cyrus’s influence.

A century before the rule of Cyrus no one would have suspected that within a century the entire ancient world would be under the rule of a previously obscure tribe from southwest Iran. In retrospective, historians can appreciate the fact that the rise of Persia into an Empire with worldwide reach could not be attributed to preexisting social or economic factors. It is highly unlikely that Persia would have risen to the great heights it did over time. Therefore, the great military ambitions of Cyrus actually altered the course of history.

Cyrus was an expansionist to the end and history records that he died in a campaign to defend and expand the Northeastern borders of his Empire. After his death while doing battle against the Massagetea, Cyrus was succeeded by his son Cambyses II whose rule was short.

Treatment of Subjects

While the military might of Cyrus was unquestionable, this king is best remembered for his extraordinary patience kindly attitude towards those he defeated. Cyrus had great respect for the local practices of the people he conquered and he sought to ensure that local customs were propagated.

When he defeated a province through military means, Cyrus appointed a governor to represent him there. However, he ensured that the management of each province was the responsibility of a satrap who was a local ruler. The satrap knew the cultural and religious views of the conquered and hence made sure that they were respected even as the people became subject to the Persians.

Cyrus in his mercy is also reputed to have abolished forced labor. This was especially the case after his conquest of Babylon which was well known for making slaves from the conquered people. When Babylon invaded and took over the Jewish land in 586, they forced the Jews to go to Babylon where they lived as captives. History records that after conquering Babylon, Cyrus gave the Jewish slaves permission to return to their homeland (Sorat 1).

This was after decades of living as captives in Babylon. If it was not for the mercy exhibited by Cyrus the Great, there is a high possibility that the Jewish people would never have returned to their homeland. While there were some obvious political motivations behind Cyrus’ mercy and generosity, it is undisputed that he was one of the most humane rulers of his time. Sorat notes that even among the Greeks who regarded Cyrus as a big threat to their independence, he was hailed as a great and just ruler and the people admired him.

For all his military ambitions, Cyrus did not have a liking for extreme brutality and cruelty which was the hallmark of other conquests of the time. For example, the Babylonians were renowned for slaughtering entire villages and the made a habit of taking people into exile to avoid rebellions rising against them by the conquered people.

Cyrus took a different approach and treated his subjects with dignity and mercy. Sorat notes that by engaging in a policy of generosity as opposed to repression which was common among many conquerors, Cyrus gained the respect and allegiance of the conquered subjects (1).

The legendary “cylinder of Cyrus the Great” which was discovered by archaeologies at a site in Babylon contains detailed accounts of how Cyrus treated his conquered subjects in a human manner and let them continue with their local customers as long as they paid him allegiance. Sorat declares that Cyrus the great was the most merciful ruler of his times (1). His Empire was characterized by showing charity to the conquered states which in turn made Cyrus’ kingdom greater.


Early Life

Little is known about Cyrus&rsquo early life his date of birth ranges anywhere from 600 to 580 BC depending on the account you read. There is a legend about Cyrus&rsquo early years attributed to the historian Herodotus. Apparently, soon after Cyrus&rsquo birth, his grandfather, the King of the Median Empire, Astyages, had a dream.

Syne magi interpreted it as a sign that Cyrus would eventually usurp him. Astyages wasted no time in telling his steward to murder the boy, but instead of following orders, the steward asked a herdsman to do it. The herdsman decided to hide the boy and raise him as his own son. After ten years, Cyrus&rsquo behavior was clearly not like that of an ordinary boy, so the suspicious king questioned the herdsman and found out the truth. He tricked the unfortunate man into eating his own son&rsquos flesh but allowed Cyrus to return to his parents.

Bust of Cyrus the Great. Classical Wisdom Weekly


For Cyrus specifically, the closest to a contemporary image I could find is this bas-relief found at Pasargadae. I think the best we can really draw from it is that he most likely had a beard. There isn't really any other racially identifying characteristics, and its monochrome so you can't really guess at the hair or skin color that is being portrayed.

As for the ancient Iranians, our first record of them moving into their ancestral homeland is around 800 BC. At that point they likely physically resembled other early Indo-Europeans. The question is what that was.

It is surprisingly difficult to find references to studies of physical appearance outside of sketchy sites pushing racial agendas. What I did dig up tended to agree that skin and hair color appears to have undergone a surprising amount of selection pressure, meaning that these would be among the absolute first features to evolve to match what works best at the latitude a people are living. So skin color is actually about the worst thing to look at to ascertain relations between peoples.

The best I was able to dig up was this Science story. I could be misinterpreting, but it appears to be saying that the PIE people who moved into Europe carried multiple light-skin traits, one of which nearly disappeared in central Europe, but later came back into prominence amongst those that proceeded into northern Europe. The PIE people also appeared to have a tendency to be a bit taller.

Exactly how fast this process evolves I'm not sure. However, Cyrus was only about 2 centuries removed from the Iranian descent into their homeland, so I'd think it fairly likely he was a bit fairer than your typical human being living in the subtropics. But we really don't know.


Cyrus II, better known as Cyrus the Great, was a Persian ruler who established the official Persian Empire. Here is a short backstory:

The Assyrian Empire fell in 612 BC and was split in half between the Babylonians and the Medes. Achaemenes was the first ruler of what later became Persia. Followed by Teispes, Cyrus the first, and Cambyses the first. According to Herodotus (a Greek Historian), Cambyses had a dream and then wanted to prevent his son from taking the throne. Cyrus II survived, however, and was later in life recognized by his grandfather, the king of Media and took over the throne in 559 BC.

At first, Cyrus submitted to the Medes, who governed most of the small kingdoms. But in 553 BC, he led a revolt against Media and captured it’s capital, Ecbatana. The Median Empire was ended in 549 BC. Cyrus now claimed lordship over all the Median and Persian kingdom . After Cyrus the Great conquered the Lydians, he occupied all of Asia Minor. The conquests of Lydia and Asia Minor were completed in 542 BC.

Cyrus Declaration Stamp

Cyrus the Great is also mentioned in the Bible. In 538 BC, he issued a decree that the Jews could return back to their homeland. This event was very important to the Jews they even had “Cyrus Declaration Stamps” in 2015!

Hierdie Achaemenid Empire, as it is called, was the largest single empire the world had seen to this point, and the Dynasty lasted for 200 years until Alexander the Great conquered it.


Kyk die video: Blue. Dream SMP Animatic. Ghostbur Animatic (Januarie 2022).