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Medieval Warfare Vol VII, Issue 2: A War for England - The Battle of Lincoln, 1217


Medieval Warfare Vol VII, Issue 2: A War for England - The Battle of Lincoln, 1217

Medieval Warfare Vol VII, Issue 2: A War for England - The Battle of Lincoln, 1217

Die hooffokus van hierdie uitgawe is die Eerste Baron se Oorlog. Dit het begin nadat koning John geweier het om die voorwaardes van Magna Carta te aanvaar, wat 'n opstand deur baie van sy edeles veroorsaak het. Hulle het toe hulp van Frankryk ontbied en die steun gekry van prins Louis, die troonopvolger en die toekomstige Lodewyk VIII van Frankryk. Aanvanklik het Louis en sy ondersteuners oorheers, maar ondanks sy beste poging het koning John 'n paar bekwame ondersteuners behou. John se belangrikste bydrae tot die uiteindelike oorwinning van sy kant was om te sterf, en sy jong seun Henry III as koning agter te laat. John se dood het die hoofrede vir die oorlog verwyder, maar Louis blyk steeds in die sterker posisie te wees. Sleutelartikels hier kyk na twee van die drie belangrikste militêre oomblikke in die oorlog - die lang beleg van Dover, wat teen Louis uitgehou het, en die slag van Lincoln, waar 'n deel van sy leër wat noord gestuur is, vernietig is.

Sewe artikels fokus op die Eerste Baron se Oorlog - van die oorsake tot die slag van Dover, hoewel dit klaar was voor die laaste seestryd by Sandwich. 'N Agtste kyk na die ontwikkeling van die Engelse kasteel en die impak wat die kasteelontwerp op beleërings gehad het. Dit is 'n nuttige studie van hierdie belangrike Middeleeuse oorlog.

Weg van die hooftema is daar 'n blik op die gebruik van heuning as medisyne op die slagveld, die kruisboog en twee belangrike veldslae tussen die Bisantyne en die Fatamids in die noorde van Sirië, wat beide die Bisantynse leërs verslaan het.

Artikels
Omdat Magna Carta misluk het - die Eerste Baronoorlog (1215-1217)
The Siege of Rochester - hard onder druk en sterk verset
Hating John - Hoe Engelse kroniekskrywers die koning uitgebeeld het
The Siege of Dover - die sleutel tot Engeland
Van torings tot tonnels - Gamechangers in Engelse kasteelbou
Die Slag van Lincoln - 'n Dag wat deur ons tyd vereer moet word
'N Kryger vir koning en Christus - Peter de Roches tydens die slag van Lincoln
Krygsgevangenes - Die nasleep van die Slag van Lincoln
Die gevegte by Orontes en Aparmea
Die lieflike kant van die oorlog - Heuning en militêre medisyne
'N Duiwelse toestel - Die kruisboog



Roos van Sharon

Relevante geslagsregisters

Volgens plaaslike legendes het aandenkings wat Theobald IV van Champagne, die seun van Blanche van Navarra, gravin van Champagne, en die Troubadour genoem het, in 1240 teruggebring na die baronne se kruistog na Europa, wat die roos met die naam "Provins" uit Damaskus gebring het en vervoer het dit "in sy helm", tesame met 'n stukkie van die ware kruis, en miskien die Chardonnay -druif wat in die moderne tyd 'n belangrike komponent van sjampanje is. Daar word gesê dat Theobald IV die roos begin kweek het in die provinsie, waar dit wyd versprei het. Die roostuine van Provins het gou beroemd geword en die gebruik van die roos, ook bekend as die "Apteker se Roos" (Latynse naam rosa gallica 'Officinalis'), was baie gereeld in medisyne, tydens godsdienstige en sekulêre seremonies.

Dit was moontlik deur hul ondertrouery met die afstammelinge van Alfonso VI van Leon en Kastilië dat die Plantagenets die Sufi -simbool van die roos aangeneem het, wat volgens die Zohar, geskryf in Toledo in die tyd van Alfonso X van Kastilië, bekend as El Astroloog, simboliseer die 'Joodse gemeente'. Die naam "rose of Sharon" verskyn die eerste keer in Engels in 1611. In die Hooglied van Salomo, volgens King James Version van die Bybel, die geliefde - spreek vir die mistieke Shekhinah—Sê “Ek is die roos van Sharon en die lelie van die valleie.” Die Zohar open deur te sê dat die roos en die alternatiewe simbool van die lelie simboliseer Knesset Yisrael, "Die kollektiewe sielwortels van Israel ... Net soos 'n roos wat tussen die dorings voorkom, die kleure rooi en wit ook daarin bevat, Knesset Yisrael het oordeel en liefdevolle goedhartigheid in haar. ”[1] Die lelie het die koningshuis van Frankryk verteenwoordig, terwyl die roos die heraldiese simbool geword het van die twee mededingende takke van die koningshuis Plantagenet wat betrokke was by die Oorlog van die Roses : rooi roos van die House of Lancaster en die wit roos van die House of York.

Geslagsregister van die oorlewing van die Tempeliers

Sancha + ALFONSO II VAN ARAGON, die Troubadoer (beskermheer van Guyot van Provins, bron vir Wolfram von Eschenbach)

PETRUS II VAN ARAGON (vermoor by SLAG VAN MURET ondersteun CATHARS, stigter van die BESTELLING VAN SAINT GEORGE VAN ALFAMA) + Marie van Montpellier

JAMES I VAN ARAGON (grootgemaak deur TEMPLARE) + Gewelddadig van Hongarye

Gewelddadig + ALFONSO X VAN KASTEL, el Astroloog

Sancho IV van Kastilië (het 'n verhouding gehad met Rachel the Beautiful, Joodse van Toledo)

Beatrice van Kastilië + Afonso III van Portugal (sien hieronder)

Petrus III van Aragon + Constance, koningin van Sicilië (G-d. Van FREDERICK II, Heilige Romeinse keiser)

JAMES II ARAGON (stigter van die BESTELLING VAN MONTESA) + Blanche van Anjou

Elizabeth, koningin van Portugal + DENIS I VAN PORTUGAL (stigter van die OPDRAG VAN CHRISTUS)

FREDERICK III VAN SICILIE (gehuur Templar Roger de Flor) + Eleanor van Anjou (suster van CHARLES I VAN HONGARIJE, stigter van die BESTELLING VAN SAINT GEORGE)

Konstanz van Sicilië, koningin van Ciprus + HENRY II VAN LUSIGNAN (oorgedra eiendom van Tempeliers aan hospitaalgangers. In kontak met Ramon Llull)

James II van Mallorca (student van Raymond Llull) + Esclaramunda van Foix (haar oupa was 'n neef van Raymond-Roger Trencavel, geïdentifiseer met Waarskynlik)

Isabella van Aragon + Louis IX van Frankryk (b. van CHARLES OF ANJOU)

PHILIP IV “LE BEL” VAN Frankryk (beveel arrestasie van Tempeliers in 1312) + Joan I van Navarra (g-d van Theobald IV van Champagne)

Isabella van Frankryk + EDWARD II VAN ENGELAND

EDWARD III VAN ENGELAND (stigter van die BESTELLING VAN DIE GARTER)

Die Huis van Plantagenet, afstammelinge van die Huis van Anjou, die Huis van Luxemburg en die Franse Huis van Lusignan - almal volgens die Middeleeuse volks legendes afkomstig van die draakgees Melusine - was stigters van die Orde van die Draak en die Orde van die Kouseband, gebaseer op die legende van Saint George, wat deur soefies vereer is as Al Khir en Joodse Kabbaliste as Elia. Die Orde van Sint George van Hongarye is gestig deur Karel I van Hongarye, wat afstam van Peter II van Aragon, die stigter van die Orde van Sint George van Alfama, en 'n verdediger van die Katare wat in die Slag van Muret gedood is, laaste groot geveg van die Albigensian Crusade, wat hy saam met sy swaer, die Cathar-ondersteuner graaf Raymond VI van Toulouse, gevoer het. Peter II was die seun van Alfonso II van Aragon en Sancha, die dogter van Alfonso VII van Leon en Castilië en Richeza van Pole. Petrus II se suster, Constance, trou met Frederik II, die Heilige Romeinse keiser, wat deur Joachim van Fiore bevestig is as die vervulling van die profesie van Merlin. Petrus II se seun was Jakobus I van Aragon, bekend as die Veroweraar, wat getroud was met Eleanor, die dogter Alfsonso VIII van Kastilië, 'n beskermheer van die Orde van Santiago, en sy vrou Eleanor van Engeland, suster van Richard die Leeuhart.

James I van Aragon was getroud met Violant van Hongarye, die dogter van koning Andrew II van Hongarye en Gertrude van Merania. Andrew II was die seun van Bela III van Hongarye en Agnes van Antiochië, wat met Pontigny Abbey verbind was. Violant se stiefsuster was Elizabeth van Hongarye, ook bekend as Saint Elizabeth van Thüringen. Op vierjarige ouderdom is Elizabeth deur haar ma na die Wartburg -kasteel gestuur om groot te word om 'n gemeen te word van Landgraaf Ludwig IV van Thüringen (1200 - 1227). Wartburg -kasteel was een van die belangrikste voorhowe in die Heilige Romeinse Ryk toe dit behoort aan Hermann I, landgraaf van Thüringen (omstreeks 1217), die tweede seun van Lodewyk II, landgraaf van Thüringen (die yster) en Judith van Hohenstaufen, die suster van Frederick Barbarossa. Hermann I ondersteun digters soos Walther von der Vogelweide en Wolfram von Eschenbach wat 'n deel van sy Parzival daar in 1203, en figureer dus in die van Richard Wagner Tannhäuser[2] Na die dood van sy eerste vrou in 1195 trou Hermann I met Sophia, dogter van Otto van Wittelsbach (1117 - 11 Julie 1183), die Rooikop genoem. By haar het hy vier seuns gehad, waarvan drie Ludwig IV, Henry Raspe en Conrad I, grootmeester van die Teutonic Knights. [3]

Saint Elizabeth van Hongarye en die Miracle of the Roses

Na haar dood in 1231 word Saint Elizabeth algemeen geassosieer met die Derde Orde van Saint Francis, die hoofsaaklik tak van die Franciscan Order, wat gehelp het om haar kultus te versprei. Elizabeth is veral bekend vir wat bekend staan ​​as die 'wonder van die rose'. Volgens die fabel, terwyl Elizabeth in die geheim brood na die armes neem, ontmoet sy haar man Ludwig op 'n jagpartytjie. Om die vermoede te onderdruk dat sy skatte uit die kasteel gesteel het, het hy haar gevra om te onthul wat onder haar mantel versteek was, wat op daardie oomblik oopgeval het om 'n visioen van wit en rooi rose te openbaar, wat aan Ludwig bewys het dat God beskerm haar werk. [4] Vanuit haar steun aan die broeders wat na Thüringen gestuur is, is sy bekend gemaak aan die stigter, St Francis van Assisi, wat kort voor sy dood in 1226 vir haar 'n persoonlike seënboodskap gestuur het. By haar heiligmaking is sy die beskermheilige van die Derde verklaar Orde van St Francis.

Petrus II se stiefbroer, Ferdinand II van Leon, die seun van Alfonso VII en Berenguela, die dogter van die Tempelier Ramon Berenguer III, graaf van Barcelona, ​​was die stigter van die Orde van Santiago. Ferdinand II se seun, Alfonso IX van León, trou met Berengaria van Kastilië, die dogter van Alfonso VIII van Kastilië. Hulle seun, Ferdinand III van Kastilië, was deur sy huwelik met Elisabeth van Hohenstaufen, kleindogter van Frederick Barbarossa, die vader van Alfonso X, bekend as El Astroloog, wat met James I se dogter Violant getroud is.

Gewelddadig was die suster van Petrus III van Aragon wat met Constance II van Sicilië getrou het, kleindogter van Frederik II, die Heilige Romeinse keiser. Drie van hul kinders was betrokke by die voortbestaan ​​van die Tempeliers. Frederik III van Sicilië, wat die dienste van die beroemde Tempelier, Roger de Flor, gehuur het, trou met Eleanor van Anjou, die dogter van Karel II van Napels, wat veronderstel was om die oorblyfsels van Maria Magdalena in Saint-Maximin te vind. Eleanor se broer Charles Martel, prins van Salermo, was die vader van Charles I van Hongarye, wat die Orde van Saint George van Hongarye gestig het. Eleanor se suster Blanche van Anjou trou met Frederik se broer, James II van Aragon, wat die Templar -eiendomme opgeneem het in sy eie Orde van Montesa, wat saamgesmelt het met die Orde van Sint George van Alfama, oorspronklik gestig deur Peter II van Aragon.

James II en Frederick se suster Elizabeth trou met Denis I van Portugal, wat die Orde van Christus gestig het. Elizabeth van Aragon, meer algemeen bekend as Sint Elizabeth van Portugal, was 'n tersiêre van die Franciskaanse Orde en word vereer as 'n heilige van die Katolieke Kerk. 'N Ander verhaal van die "wonder van die rose" word vertel van Elizabeth, wat die niggie was van Elizabeth van Hongarye, wat ook liefdadig was teenoor die armes, teen die wil van haar man. Eendag deur Denis gevang terwyl sy brood in haar voorskoot gedra het, het die kos in rose verander.

Koning Edward I (1239 - 1307), ook bekend as Edward Longshanks en die Hamer van die Skotte

Philippe IV le Bel van Frankryk, wat beveel het dat die Tempeliers in 1312 gearresteer word, oupa van Edward III van Engeland wat die neo-Templar Order of the Garter gestig het

Deur sy huwelik met Joan, gravin van Ponthieu, was Ferdinand III ook die vader van Eleanor van Kastilië, die vrou van Edward I van Engeland. Edward I se broer, Edmund Crouchback, graaf van Lancaster (1245 - 1296), getroud met Blanche d'Artois, weduwee van Henri III graaf van Champagne, het die roos as sy embleem aangeneem en bekend geword as die rooi roos van Lancaster. [5] In 1271 vergesel Edmund sy ouer broer Edward I op die negende kruistog na Palestina. Edmund se kleinseun, Henry van Grosmont, 1ste hertog van Lancaster (ongeveer 1310 - 1361), die rykste en magtigste eweknie van die koninkryk, sou 'n stigter word van die Orde van die Kouseband. Die seun van Edmund se neef Edward II en Isabella, Edward III van Engeland (1312 - 1377), stig die Orde van die Kouseband in 1348 as "'n samelewing, gemeenskap en ridderskollege", geïnspireer deur King Arthur en Knights of the Round Tabel, wat bygedra het tot die voortbestaan ​​van die Templar -tradisies, hoewel dit sy oupa Philip IV le Bel was wat die arrestasie van die Tempeliers beveel het in 1312. Na die verbeuring van Simon de Montfort, 6de graaf van Leicester (ongeveer 1205 - 1265) , by sy dood in 1265, ontvang Edmund Crouchback die graafskap van Leicester en later dié van Lancaster.

Huis van Luxemburg

Die konteks van die stigting van die Orde van die Kouseband was die Honderdjarige Oorlog (1337–1453), 'n reeks konflikte wat tussen die Huis van Plantagenet en sy kadet House of Lancaster, die heersers van die Koninkryk Engeland en die Huis van Valois oor die reg om die koninkryk Frankryk te regeer. Die Huis van Valois was 'n kadettak van die Kapeniese dinastie wat die Franse troon opgevolg het, en was die koningshuis van Frankryk van 1328 tot 1589. Junior lede van die familie stig kadettakke in Orléans, Anjou, Bourgondië en Alençon. Die spanning tussen die Franse en Engelse krone het eeue teruggegaan na die oorsprong van die Engelse koninklike familie, wat afstam van Normandië en later Anjou. Engelse monarge het derhalwe histories titels en lande in Frankryk gehad, wat dit tot vasale van die konings van Frankryk gemaak het.

Die Valois stam af van Charles, graaf van Valois (1270–1325), die tweede oorlewende seun van koning Filips III van Frankryk (regeer 1270 - 1285). Charles trou met Margaret, gravin van Anjou, die dogter van Charles II van Napels. Hulle seun, Philip, graaf van Valois (1293 - 1350), was die naaste erfgenaam van die manlike geslag. Omdat sy vader die broer was van wyle Filips IV, was die graaf van Valois dus 'n neef van Filips IV. Die Kapeniese dinastie het veilig gelyk tot die dood van Philip IV, wat deur sy vrou Joan I, koningin van Navarra, drie oorlewende seuns Louis X, Philip V en Charles IV en 'n dogter Isabella nagelaat het. Elke seun word op sy beurt koning, maar elkeen sterf jonk sonder manlike erfgename, en laat net dogters agter wat die troon nie kon erf nie.

Toe Karel IV in 1328 sonder 'n manlike erfgenaam sterf, word die Franse opvolging problematieser as gevolg van 'n nuwe beginsel, toegeskryf aan die Merovingiese saliese wet, wat vroulike opvolging nie toegelaat het nie. Charles IV se naaste manlike familielid was sy neef Edward III van Engeland, wie se ma Charles IV se suster, Isabella van Frankryk, was. Isabella het die troon van Frankryk opgeëis vir haar seun deur die reël van nabyheid van bloed, maar die Franse adel is gekant en beweer dat sy nie 'n reg kan oordra wat sy nie besit nie. 'N Vergadering van Franse baronne besluit dat 'n inheemse Fransman die kroon moet ontvang, eerder as Edward. Die troon het dus oorgegaan na Charles se vaderlike neef, Philip, graaf van Valois, wat Philip VI geword het. Philip VI se eerste vrou was Blanche van Navarre, 'n vermeende grootmeester van die Priory of Sion. Die grootouers van Blanche was Philip IV le Bel en Joan I van Navarra, die agterkleindogter van Blanche van Navarra, gravin van Champagne.

Philip VI se seun en opvolger was Johannes II van Frankryk (1319-1364) wat met Bonne van Luxemburg getroud is en verskeie kinders gebaar het wat prominent in die ontwikkeling van die Melusina-legende verskyn het en wat verband hou met die Priory of Sion, pseudo-historiese organisasie wat beroemd was deur Dan Brown Die Da Vinci -kode as beskermers van die Heilige Graal. Bonne se familie beweer ook dat hulle van Melusine afstam deur hul voorvader Siegfried, die vader van Saint Cunigunde, wat met die kleinseun van die broer van Otto I die Grote, Henry II, die Heilige Romeinse keiser getroud is. [6] Beatrix was die dogter van Charles IV van Frankryk en Marie van Luxemburg, die dogter van Henry VII (c. 1273 - 1313), die Heilige Romeinse keiser. Die Luxemburgse familie het afstammeling geëis van die demoon Melusine deur hul voorouer, Sigfried, graaf van die Ardennen (c. 922-998), vader van Saint Cunigunde, vrou van Henry II, Heilige Romeinse keiser [7] Die gesinsstad Luxemburg is gestig rondom 'n kasteel wat ontwikkel is uit 'n Romeinse fort gebou op 'n rots genaamd "The Bock", wat bekend was as een van die kragtigste en verdedigbaarste kastele in Europa. Siegfried, wat die plek van die kasteel in 963 gekoop het, sou die oggend na haar troue met Melusina getroud gewees het, wat die kasteel van Bock magies laat verskyn het. Hul huwelik duur tot Siegfried sy gelofte verbreek het om nie elke maand haar privaatheid te steur nie. Toe hy bespied hoe sy gaan bad, ontdek hy dat sy 'n halfvrou, halfvis is. Terwyl hy geskok roep, sak Melusina onmiddellik onder die kasteel en verdwyn.

Geslagsregister van die Orde van Saint George, ORDE VAN DIE DRAGON EN PRIORIE VAN SION

Henry VII, Heilige Romeinse keiser (eerste keiser van die Huis van Luxemburg, van wie hulle afkoms afkomstig is Melusine) + Margaret van Brabant

Johannes die Blinde, Koning van Bohemen + Elizabeth van Bohemen (kleindogter van Rudolf I van Duitsland, die eerste koning van Duitsland uit die Huis van Habsburg, wat die einde van die Groot Interregnum wat begin het na die dood van die Hohenstaufen Frederik II, Heilige Romeinse keiser)

Bonne, hertogin van Normandië + Johannes II, koning van Frankryk (seun van Philip VI van Frankryk, van die Huis van Valois, wie se eerste vrou was Blanche van Navarre, grootmeester van die Priory of Sion)

Karel V van Frankryk + Joanna van Bourbon

Karel VI van Frankryk + Isabeau van Beiere (kleindogter van Frederik III van Sicilië en Eleanor van Anjou, dogter van Karel II van Napels)

Isabella van Valois + Richard II van Engeland (geen probleem)

Isabella van Valois + Charles, hertog van Orléans (sien onder)

Catherine van Valois + Henry V van Engeland (kleinseun van Johannes van Gaunt)

Henry VI van Engeland (opgevolg deur Edward IV wat sy enigste seun vermoor en in die Tower of London gevange gehou het) + Margaret van Anjou (dogter van René van Anjou)

Edmund Tudor, graaf van Richmond + Lady Margaret Beaufort

Henry VII van Engeland + Elizabeth van York (dogter van Edward IV van Engeland + Elizabeth Woodville, beskuldig van towery)

Hendrik VIII, koning van Engeland

Mary Tudor, koningin van Frankryk + Lodewyk XII van Frankryk

Karel VII van Frankryk

Louis I, hertog van Orléans + Valentina Visconti

Charles, hertog van Orléans + Isabella van Valois

Charles, hertog van Orléans + Marie van Cleves

Louis XII + Mary Tudor, koningin van Frankryk

Louis XII + Anne van Bretagne

Claude van Frankryk + Francis I van Frankryk

Renée van Frankryk + Ercole II d'Este

Louis I, hertog van Anjou + Marie van Blois

Louis II van Anjou (sien hieronder)

John, Hertog van Berry (versoek dat Jean d’Arras die Roman de Mélusine of die Chronique de Melusine deel van L.e Edele Hystoire de Lusignan)

Philip the Bold + Margaret III, gravin van Vlaanderen

Johannes die Vreeslose + Margaret van Beiere

Philip die Goeie (stigter van die BESTELLING VAN DIE GOLDEN FLEECE) + Isabella van Portugal (suster van Prins Henry die Navigator, Grootmeester van die OPDRAG VAN CHRISTUS)

Joan, koningin van Navarra + Karel II van Navarra

Karel III van Navarra + Eleanor van Kastilië

Blanche I van Navarra + Johannes II van Aragon (s. Van seun van Ferdinand I van Aragon)

Marie van Valois, Hertogin van Bar (Jean d'Arras toegewy die Roman de Mélusine of die Chronique de Melusine aan haar) + Robert I, hertog van Bar (g-seun van Edward I, graaf van Bar, grootmeester van die PRIORIE VAN SION)

Yolande van Bar + John I van Aragon (van Peter IV van Aragon + Eleanor van Sicilië)

Yolande van Aragon + Louis II van Anjou (sien hierbo)

Marie van Anjou + Karel VII van Frankryk (sien hierbo)

René van Anjou (Grootmeester van PRIORIE VAN SION) + Isabella van Lorraine

Margaret van Anjou + Henry VI van Engeland (opgevolg deur Edward IV, s. van Richard Duke van York)

Karel IV, Heilige Romeinse keiser + Elizabeth van Pommere

SIGISMUND, HEILIGE ROMANSE KEESER (stigter van die BESTELLING VAN DIE DRAAK) + (sien hieronder)

Elisabeth, hertogin van Oostenryk

Anne, koningin van Engeland + Koning Richard II (seun van Edward die Swart Prins, stigter van die Orde van die Kouseband)

Marie van Luxemburg + Karel IV van Frankryk (toe hy sonder 'n erfgenaam sterf, is die direkte House of Capet opgevolg deur Philip VI van Frankryk van sy tak, die Huis van Valois)

Beatrix van Luxemburg + CHARLES I VAN HONGARIJE (stigter van die BESTELLING VAN SAINT GEORGE. Neef van Eleanor van Anjou, wat getroud is met Frederik III van Sicilië, wat diens van die Templar Roger "Jolly Roger" de Flor gehuur het. Hul dogter Constance van Sicilië is getroud Henry II van Lusignan, wat die eiendom van die Tempeliers aan Hospitaalmakers oorgedra het. Eleanor se suster Blanche van Anjou is getroud Jakobus II van Aragon, stigter van die Orde van Montesa)

Louis I van Hongarye + Margaret van Bohemen (Sigismund se halfsuster)

Louis I van Hongarye + Elizabeth van Bosnië

Mary, koningin van Hongarye + SIGISMUND, HEILIGE ROMANSE KEESER, stigter van die ORDE OF THE DRAGON

John of Berry (1340 - 1416), in opdrag van Jean d'Arras Roman de Mélusine of die Chronique de Melusine deel van Le Noble Hystoire de Lusignan

Die hemelvaart van die grawe van Luxemburg bereik 'n hoogtepunt toe Hendrik VII koning van die Romeine, koning van Italië en uiteindelik in 1312, die Heilige Romeinse keiser word. Henry VII was die seun van Henry V, graaf van Luxemburg, wat hulde gebring het aan koning Theobald II van Navarra, graaf van Champagne. Keiser Frederick Barbarossa het besluit dat Henry V se ma, Ermesinde, gravin van Luxemburg, die erfgenaam van die graafskap Luxemburg was. Ermesinde was aanvanklik verloof aan Henry II van Champagne, maar die verlowing is in 1189 gekanselleer. In plaas daarvan was Ermesinde se eerste man Theobald I van Bar (ongeveer 1158 - 1214), ook graaf van Luxemburg. Hul seun was Henry II van Bar (1190 - 1239) wat in die Barons 'Crusade vermoor is. Sy dogter Margaret van Bar was Henry VII se ma. Sy was ook die tante van Edward I, graaf van Bar, 'n vermeende grootmeester van die Priory of Sion. Gedurende sy kort loopbaan het Henry VII die keiserlike saak in Italië, wat deur die stryd tussen die Guelfs en Ghibelline geteister is, herleef en die lof van Dino Compagni en Dante Alighieri geïnspireer. Henry VII was die eerste keiser sedert die dood van Frederick II in 1250, wat die Groot Interregnum van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk beëindig het Met die hemelvaart van Henry VII as keiser, het die nuwe dinastie van die Huis van Luxemburg nie net die Heilige Romeinse Ryk begin regeer nie , maar het ook vinnig 'n groeiende invloed op ander dele van Sentraal -Europa begin uitoefen.

Keiser Henry VII se dogter Marie van Luxemburg trou met Charles IV van Frankryk, terwyl haar suster Beatrice met Charles I van Hongarye, stigter van die Orde van die Heilige George, trou. Hul broer, Johannes die Blinde (1296 - 1346), benewens die graaf van Luxemburg, het ook koning van Bohemen geword en bly 'n belangrike figuur in die geskiedenis en folklore van Luxemburg en word deur baie historici beskou as die toonbeeld van ridderlikheid in die Middeleeue. Johannes die Blinde trou met Elizabeth van Bohemen, die dogter van Wenceslaus II van Bohemen en Judith van Habsburg. Judith was die dogter van Rudolf I (1218 - 1291), die eerste koning van Duitsland uit die Huis van Habsburg. Wenceslaus II se vader, Wenceslaus I van Bohemen, was die seun van Béla III van Hongarye en Agnes van Antiochië wat met Pontigny Abbey verbind was. Luxemburg was 'n onafhanklike erfgenaam van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk, en in 1354 verhef Johannes se seun en opvolger Charles IV, keiser van die Heilige Romein (1316 - 1378) dit tot die status van 'n hertogdom met sy broer Wenceslaus I wat die eerste hertog van Luxemburg word . Charles IV se Goue Bul van 1356 het eeue lank as 'n grondwet van die Ryk gedien.

Bonne en Johannes II se kinders was Charles V van Frankryk, Jean de Berry, Philip the Bold en Marie van Valois. Dit was op versoek van Jean Duke Berry Jean d'Arras het 'n lang prosa -roman geskryf, genaamd die Roman de Mélusine of die Chronique de Melusine deel van Le Noble Hystoire de Lusignan. D'Arras het die werk opgedra aan Marie van Valois, hertogin van Bar, en het die hoop uitgespreek dat dit sou help met die politieke opvoeding van haar kinders. Marie trou self met Robert I, hertog van Bar, die kleinseun van Edward I, graaf van Bar (1307 - 1336), nog 'n beweerde grootmeester van die Priory of Sion. Edward I was die seun van Henry III, graaf van Bar en Eleanor van Engeland, die dogter van Edward I van Engeland en Eleanor van Castilië. Marie en Robert se dogter Yolande van Bar trou met John I van Aragon, die seun van Peter IV van Aragon (1319 - 1387) en Eleanor. Eleanor was die dogter van Peter II van Sicilië, die broer van Constance van Sicilië, die vrou van Henry II van Lusignan. Peter II en Constance was die kinders van Eleanor van Anjou, die dogter van Karel II van Napels en Frederik III van Sicilië.

Orde van die Kouseband

The Black Book of the Garter (detail)

Edward III stig die Orde van die Kouseband in 1348, omstreeks die tyd dat hy aanspraak maak op die Franse troon. Edward III is in 1327 op veertienjarige ouderdom gekroon nadat sy pa deur sy ma Isabella en haar minnaar Roger Mortimer (1287 - 1330) afgesit is. Op die ouderdom van sewentien het Edward III 'n suksesvolle leier geword staatsgreep teen Mortimer, die de facto heerser van die land, en begin sy persoonlike regering. Na 'n suksesvolle veldtog in Skotland verklaar hy homself as regmatige erfgenaam van die Franse troon in 1337, met die aanvaarding van die honderdjarige oorlog. Die oorspronklike stigters van die bevel was Edward III se oudste seun Edward, prins van Wallis (1330 - 1376), bekend as die Swart Prins, en Henry van Grosmont, 1ste hertog van Lancaster (ongeveer 1310 - 1361), die rykste en rykste van die koninkryk kragtige eweknie. Henry van Grosmont 'was die kleinseun van Edmund Crouchback, die seun van Henry III deur sy vrou Eleanor van Provence. Henry se ouma was Blanche van Artois. Na die verbeuring van Simon de Montfort, 6de graaf van Leicester by sy dood in 1265, ontvang Edmund die graafskap van Leicester en later dié van Lancaster. William Edington († 1366), biskop van Winchester, was die eerste prelaat van die orde, en sy amp is sedertdien beklee deur sy opvolgers in Winchester, tradisioneel 'n senior bisdom van die Church of England.

Die gewildste legende van die stigting van die bevel behels die 'gravin van Salisbury', wat na bewering haar kousband op die vloer gegly het. Toe die omringende hofdienaars snuif, het koning Edward dit vermoedelik opgetel en aan sy eie been vasgemaak en uitgeroep Honi soit qui mal y pense, wat beteken "kwaad vir wie dit dink." Hierdie frase het sedertdien die leuse van die Orde geword. Soos historikus Margaret Murray uitgewys het, is die kousband 'n simbool van heksery. Kousebande word in verskillende rituele gedra en word ook gebruik as rangskikkings. Die kousband word beskou as die ou embleem van die hoëpriesteres. In sommige tradisies voeg 'n hoëpriesteres wat koninginheks word oor meer as een verbond, 'n silwer gespe by haar kousband vir elke verbond onder haar. [8] Die leuse is ingeskryf, soos hony soyt qui mal pence, aan die einde van die Middel -Engelse Arthuriese romanse Sir Gawain en die Groene Ridder van die laat veertiende eeu.

Volgens een legende is koning Richard die Leeuhart in die twaalfde eeu geïnspireer deur die heilige George, die martelaar, terwyl hy in die kruistogte geveg het, om kousbandjies om die bene van sy ridders vas te bind, wat daarna die geveg gewen het. Saint George, die beskermheilige van Engeland, Georgië en Moskou, is ook die oorsprong van die ridderverhaal oor die redding van 'n meisie uit 'n draak, wat die eeue-oue motief van die stryd van die sterwende god met die Draak van die See simboliseer. Die kultus van Saint George het Engeland eers bereik toe die Tempeliers aan die kultus voorgestel is, vermoedelik deur hul kontak met die Rubeniede van Armeense Cilicië, teruggekeer uit die Heilige Land in 1228. Die heraldiese skild van die St. die linker skouer van die seremoniële mantel. Die kraag bestaan ​​uit goue heraldiese knope afwisselend met geëmailleerde medaljes, elk met 'n roos omring deur die kousband.

Johannes van Gaunt, hertog van Lancaster (1340 - 1399)

Geleerdes het 'n verband tussen die Orde van die Kouseband en die Middel -Engelse gedig geïdentifiseer Sir Gawain en die Groene Ridder. Een van die bekendste Arthur-verhale, dit beskryf hoe Sir Gawain, 'n ridder van King Arthur's Round Table, 'n uitdaging aanvaar van 'n geheimsinnige 'Green Knight' wat enige ridder waag om hom met sy byl te slaan as hy 'n terugslag sou kry in 'n jaar en 'n dag. Geleerdes het probeer om die Green Knight aan ander mitiese karakters te koppel, soos Jack in the green van die Engelse tradisie en Al-Khidr of the Sufis. [9] Die gedig bevat die eerste aangetekende gebruik van die woord "pentangle" (pentagram) in Engels, en die enigste voorstelling van die simbool op Gawain se skild in die Gawain -literatuur. [10] In reël 625 word die vyfhoek beskryf as ''n teken van Salomo'.

Twee kandidate word voorgestel as skrywers van die Sir Gawain en die Groene Ridder is Johannes van Gaunt, 1ste hertog van Lancaster, en Enguerrand VII de Coucy (1340 - 1397). In 1338 trou Enguerrand se vader, Enguerrand VI de Coucy (1313 - 1346), Catherine van Oostenryk, die oudste dogter van Leopold I, hertog van Oostenryk, die derde seun van koning Albert I van Duitsland en Catherina van Savoye, en die kleindogter van die magtige Amadeus V, graaf van Savoye. Die huwelik met die House of Habsburg en House of Savoy is gereël deur koning Philip VI self, wat op soek was na buitelandse bondgenote teen Engeland en om die lojaliteit van die baronie Coucy te verseker, strategies geleë in Noord -Frankryk en versterk met die Château de Coucy. [11] Young Coucy ontmoet Edward III vir die eerste keer in 1359, as een van veertig koninklike en edele gyselaars wat verruil is vir die vrylating van Johannes II van Frankryk wat in 1356 by Poitiers gevange geneem word. De Coucy was getroud met Edward III se dogter, Isabella, en is toegelaat om die Orde van die Kouseband op hul troudag. [12] De Coucy se dogter Marie I de Coucy, gravin van Soissons, trou met Henry van Bar, seun van Marie van Valois en Robert I, hertog van Bar, kleinseun van Priory of Sion Grootmeester, Edward I, graaf van Bar. Marie het 'n jonger suster gehad, Philippa de Coucy, wat getroud was met Robert de Vere, 9de graaf van Oxford, Markies van Dublin, hertog van Ierland, ook 'n kousebond.

Geoffrey Chaucer (omstreeks 1340 - 1400)

Johannes van Gaunt, hertog van Lancaster (1340 - 1399), was die derde van die vyf seuns van Edward III, en 'n Ridder in die Orde van die Kouseband. John of Gaunt was 'n goeie vriend van Geoffrey Chaucer (ongeveer 1340 - 1400), algemeen beskou as die grootste Engelse digter van die Middeleeue, veral bekend vir Die Canterbury -verhale, wat onder die beskerming van Lancaster gedien het. Edward III het Chaucer "'n liter wyn daagliks vir die res van sy lewe" toegeken op St George's Day in 1374. Volgens oorlewering studeer Chaucer regte in die Inner Temple, 'n Inn of Court, wat sy naam kry van die Tempeliers, wat het die grond oorspronklik verhuur tot hulle afgeskaf is in 1312, toe die grond deur die koning in beslag geneem is en aan die Hospitallers toegestaan ​​is. Chaucer het vermoedelik geskryf Die boek van die hertogin ter ere van Blanche van Lancaster, die oorlede vrou van Johannes van Gaunt, wat in 1369 aan die plaag gesterf het. [13] Teen die einde van hul lewens het Lancaster en Chaucer swaers geword toe Chaucer in 1366 met Philippa de Roet getroud is, en Lancaster in 1396 met Phillippa se suster Katherine Swynford. Philippa was 'n skoonvrou vir Edward III se koningin, Philippa van Hainault.

Because of his many trips to mainland Europe, numerous scholars have suggested that Chaucer came into contact with Petrarch or Boccaccio, who introduced him to the forms and stories of medieval Italian poetry which he would use. Chaucer’s stories imitate, among others, his Italian contemporaries Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio. For example, Chaucer imitated many the stories from Boccaccio The Decameron for his The Canterbury Tales.[14] Chaucer referred to astrology in The Canterbury Tales, and he commented explicitly on the subject in his Treatise on the Astrolabe, demonstrating personal knowledge of judicial astrology, with an account of how to find the ascendant or rising sign.[15] Persian Jewish astrologer Mashallah’s treatise on the astrolabe was a source of Geoffrey Chaucer’s Verhandeling.

The Prioress’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales is introduced with an invocation to the Virgin Mary, then describes a story Asia where a community of Jews, whom Satan, “That hath (built) in Jewes’ heart his waspe’s nest,” incites to murder a seven year-old boy. When the mother finds his body, he begins miraculously to sing the Alma Redemptoris (“Nurturing Mother of the Redeemer”). The boy is made to explain that although his throat was cut, he was visited by the Virgin Mary. The story ends with a reference to Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln.

The story is introduced with an invocation to the Virgin Mary, then sets the scene in Asia, where a community of Jews live in a Christian city. Satan, 'That hath (built) in Jewes' heart his waspe's nest', incites some Jews to murder the child and throw his body into a public cesspit. His mother searches for him and eventually finds his body, which begins miraculously to sing the Alma Redemptoris ("Nurturing Mother of the Redeemer"). The Christians call in the city magistrate, who has some of the guilty Jews drawn by wild horses and then hanged. The boy continues to sing throughout his Requiem Mass until the local abbot of the community asks him how he is able to sing. He replies that although his throat is cut, he has had a visit from Mary who laid a grain on his tongue and told him he could keep singing until it was removed and she would come for him. The abbot removes the grain and he becomes silent and passes away. The story ends with a reference to Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln, another child martyr whose death was blamed on Jews.

Chaucer’s The Parlement of Foules contains one of the earliest references to the idea that St. Valentine’s Day is a special day for lovers.[16] Chaucer also translated Boethius’ Troos van die filosofie en The Romance of the Rose by Guillaume de Lorris (c. 1200 – c. 1240). Throughout The Romance of the Rose, the word Rose is used both as the name of the titular lady and as an abstract symbol of female sexuality. Forty-five years later, circa 1275, Jean de Meun wrote additional lines, in which he glorified the victories of Charles of Anjou.

Order of the Dragon

Sigismund of Luxumbourg (1368 –1437), Holy Roman Emperor

The cause of the Wars of the Roses is traced to the question of succession after Edward III’s death in 1377.[17] Because his eldest son Edward, the Black Prince, had died the year before, Edward III was succeeded on the throne by the Black Prince’s only surviving son Richard II (1367 – 1400), who was only ten years old. According to contemporary sources, “the King of Castille, the King of Navarre and the King of Portugal” were present at his birth in Bordeaux in Aquitaine.[18] Richard’s posthumous reputation has been shaped to a large extent by Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed his misrule and his deposition as responsible for the Wars of the Roses. Richard II's reign was marked by increasing dissension between the King and several of the most powerful nobles. One of his first significant acts was in 1382 to marry Anne of Bohemia, the sister of Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg (1368 –1437), the founder of the Order of the Dragon.

The decline of the House of Luxembourg began under Emperor Charles IV’ son Wenceslaus IV (1361 – 1419), deposed by the prince-electors in 1400. In 1410, rule was assumed by Wenceslaus’ brother Sigismund who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417. When Sigismund succeeded in convincing Antipope John XXIII to convene of the Council of Constance in 1414 to settle the Western Schism, which had resulted from the confusion following the Avignon Papacy, he had travelled to France, England and Burgundy in a vain attempt to secure the abdication of the three rival popes. The Council of Constance also condemned Jan Hus (c. 1372 – 1415) as a heretic and facilitated his execution, despite the fact that Sigismund had granted him a safe-conduct and protested against his imprisonment.[19] As King of Bohemia, Sigismund’s brother, Wenceslaus sought also sought to protect Hus and his followers against the demands of the Roman Catholic Church. A note in the Book of Acts of the Theological Faculty of the University of Vienna of 1419 mentions a conspiracy between the Waldensiens, Jews and Hus’ followers.[20] According to Louis I. Newman, in Jewish Influence on Christian Reform Movements, there was distinct Jewish influence in Hus’ thought. Hus made use of the works of the Jews of Prague, and quotes from Rashi, the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel and the commentary of Gershom ben Judah. He makes extensive use of the Postilla of Nicholas of Lyra, which in turn is based on Rashi.[21] Not only was Hus stigmatized as a “Judaizer,” but when he was about to be burned at the stake for heresy in 1415, he was denounced with the words: “Oh thou accursed Judas, who breaking away from the counsels of peace, hast consulted with the Jews.”[22] Thus, while the Council of Constance ended the Papal Schism, the latter period of Sigismund’s life was dominated the Hussite Wars, fought between the Hussites and the combined Christian Catholic forces of Sigismund, the Papacy, European monarchs loyal to the Catholic Church.

Execution of Jan Hus (c. 1372 – 1415)

Sigismund’s first wife was Mary, Queen of Hungary, the grand-daughter of Charles I of Hungary, whose Order of Saint George served as a model for his own Order of the Dragon. The Order of the Dragon was founded in 1408 by Emperor Sigismund and his wife Barbara of Cilli (1392 – 1451). Barbara inherited a unique genetic marker, Haplogroup T, which suggests likely secret Jewish ancestry. Barbara of Cilli belonged specifically to subclade T2, whose distribution varies greatly with the ratio of subhaplogroup T2e to T2b, from a low in Britain and Ireland, to a high in Saudi Arabia.[23] Within subhaplogroup T2e, a very rare motif is identified among Sephardic Jews of Turkey and Bulgaria and suspected Conversos from the New World.[24] Barbara became popularly known as “The German Messalina,” because she was accused of adultery and intrigue.[25] Aeneas Silvio Piccolomini, later to be elected Pope Pius II, chronicled Barbara in his Historia Bohemica written in 1458, and accused her of associating with “heretics.” He claimed that Barbara and her daughter Elizabeth used to profane the Holy Communion by drinking real human blood during the liturgy. Barbara was also accused of maintaining a female harem and staging huge sexual orgies with young girls.[26]

Sigismund and his wife were responsible for the creation of the Order of the Dragon in 1408. The Order of the Dragon was founded to protect the royal family of the Holy Roman Empire and to fight the Ottoman Turks. Its statutes, written in Latin, call it a society whose members carry the signum draconis, though no name was assigned to it. Contemporary records, however, refer to it was the Order of the Dragon. It was to some extent modelled after the Order of St. George, founded by Charles I of Hungary, the grandfather of Sigismund’s first wife, Mary, Queen of Hungary. The Order of Saint George flourished during Charles I’s reign and achieved greater success under the reign of Charles I’s son, King Louis the Great of Hungary and Poland (1326 – 1382). Louis always had a good and close relationship with Sigismund’s father Emperor Charles IV, and Sigismund was betrothed to Louis’ eldest daughter, in 1374, when he was six years old.

The Order of the Dragon adopted Saint George as its patron saint, whose legendary defeat of a dragon was used as a symbol for the military and religious ethos of the order. The Order adopted the red cross and the Gnostic symbol of the Ourobouros, or serpent—in this case a dragon—biting its own tail. Alchemically, the Ourobouros symbolizes the union of opposing energies and is one of the primary symbols of the philosopher’s Stone. Dragons are important alchemical symbols representing the properties of mercury and the application of life force or energy. Like lions, the alchemical dragon is black, green or red according to its level of transformation. The Red Dragon is the chaotic energy of the First Matter at the beginning of the work that becomes the Philosopher’s stone. The First Matter is a basic tenet of the Hermetic philosophy. Die Emerald Tablet refers to the “First Matter” as the “One Thing,” the primordial chaos of the universe fashioned into material reality by the thoughts or Word of the One Mind. Chemically, the Red Dragon is the pure red oil of lead in its initial state and the red power of projection in its perfected or tamed state.[27]

Siege of OrlÉans

Joan of Arc at the siege of Orléans

Henry V of England (1386 – 1422), knight of the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Dragon

The close relationship that developed between Henry V of England (1386 – 1422) and Emperor Sigismund resulted in Sigismund being inducted into the Order of the Garter, who returned the favor by inducting Henry V into his own Order of the Dragon. When Henry V’s father, Henry Bolingbroke (1367 – 1413), the son the Black Prince’s brother, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (1340 – 1399), returned from exile in 1399, initially to reclaim his rights as Duke of Lancaster, he took advantage of the support of most of the nobles to depose Richard II and was crowned King Henry IV, establishing the House of Lancaster on the throne. The House of Lancaster derive their name from John of Gaunt’s primary title of Duke of Lancaster, which he held by right of his spouse, Blanche of Lancaster, the daughter of Garter founder Henry of Grosmont. Henry IV’s son and successor, Henry V, inherited a temporary period of peace, and his military success against France in the Hundred Years' War strengthened his popularity, enabling him to reinforce the Lancastrian claim to the throne.

Henry V had seized the opportunity presented by the mental illness of Charles VI of France and the French civil war between Armagnacs and Burgundians to revive the conflict. Resounding victories at Agincourt in 1415 and Verneuil in 1424 as well as an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy raised the expectations of an ultimate English triumph in France, and persuaded the English to continue to pursue the war. John of Berry’s brother, Philip the Bold (1342 – 1404), was the founder of the Burgundian branch of the House of Valois, which began after his father John II of France granted him the French Duchy of Burgundy in 1363. Philip ruled as Duke Philip II of Burgundy from 1363 to 1404.

Already upon death of their brother Charles V in 1380, his brothers Philip and Jean de Berry, and Duke Louis I of Anjou (1372 – 1407), had acted as regent for his minor son Charles VI of France (1368 –1422). As Charles VI suffered from increasing mental illness, Philip tried to spread his influence across the French kingdom, meeting with the fierce resistance by Charles VI’s younger brother Louis. Philip the Bold’s son, John the Fearless (1371 – 1419) succeeded him in 1404. Charles V married Isabeau of Bavaria, the daughter of Stephen III, Duke of Bavaria and Taddea Visconti, the eldest child of Bernabò Visconti, of the Visconti of Milan, a noble Italian family. Stephen III was the son of Stephen II, Duke of Bavaria and Elisabeth of Sicily, the daughter of Frederick III of Sicily and Eleanor of Anjou, the daughter of Charles II of Naples.

René of Anjou (1409 – 1480), purported Grand Master of the Priory of Sion

Charles VI and Isabeau’s son, Charles VII of France (1403 – 1461), married Marie of Anjou, the sister of René of Anjou (1409 – 1480), King of Naples, known in France as Good King René, also purported to have been a Grand Master of the Priory of Sion. René was the great-grandson of Marie of Valois. Marie of Valois’ daughter, Yolande de Bar (c. 1365 – 1431), married John I of Aragon, who was descended from Charles II, King of Naples. René’s interests also included Arthurian and Grail romances, and devoted a great part of his life to art, and especially to the collection of the poetry of the Provençal troubadours. René, who was well-versed in the occult, included at his court a Jewish Kabbalist known as Jean de Saint-Remy, who, according to some accounts, was the grandfather of Nostradamus.[28] According to Nostradamus’ son César, “There was in the city of Saint Maximin a Hebrew, very learned and widely known in medicine, a celebrated philosopher named Abraham Solomon, who, despite the fact that he was a Jew, stood in high favor with the grandees of his day, especially with René of Anjou. As the king desired to keep him in his service, he was excused from paying the taxes usually levied upon the Jews.”[29] It was probably Abraham Solomon and other Jewish physicians who drew René of Anjou’s attention to the condition of the Jews in his kingdom. René’s ancestor Charles I of Anjou accorded numerous concessions to his Jewish but his son and successor Charles II curtailed many of these projections. René issued a decree in 1454, which lessened the hardships brought about by the proclamation of Charles II forcing all Jews to wear the wheel-shaped badge. It also confirmed the right of Jews to practice medicine. René set an example by making Abraham his personal physician and exempting him from all taxes levied on Jews.[30]

"The Vision and Inspiration" by Louis Maurice Boutet de Monvel.

Saint Margaret released from the dragon (satan)

René’s mother Yolande played a crucial role in the struggles between France and England, influencing events such as the financing of Joan of Arc’s army in 1429 that helped tip the balance in favor of the French. As Charles VI, the French king at the time of Joan's birth, suffered from bouts of mental illness, his brother Louis, Duke of Orléans, and the king’s cousin John the Fearless, quarreled over the regency of France and the guardianship of the royal children. The young Charles of Orléans (1394 – 1465), the son of Louis and Valentina Visconti, the daughter of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan, succeeded his father as duke and was placed in the custody of his father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac (1360 – 1418). Bernard’s wife was Bonne, the daughter of John, Duke of Berry, and widow of Count Amadeus VII, Count of Savoy. Charles married Bernard’s daughter, also named Bonne.

Bernard d’Armagnac became the nominal head of the faction which opposed John the Fearless in the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War, and the faction came to be called the “Armagnacs,” and the opposing party led by the Duke of Burgundy was called the “Burgundian faction.” Taking advantage of these internal divisions, Henry V of England he invaded France in 1415, winning a dramatic victory at Agincourt, and subsequently capturing many northern French towns in 1417. In 1418, Paris was taken by when the Burgundians defeated Bernard and his followers. After all four of his older brothers had died in succession The future French king, Charles VII, assumed the title of Dauphin—the heir to the throne—at the age of fourteen. His first significant official act was to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Burgundy in 1419. This ended in disaster when Armagnac partisans assassinated John the Fearless during a meeting under Charles's guarantee of protection.

Philip the Good (1396 – 1467)

The new duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good (1396 – 1467), son of John the Fearless, blamed Charles for the murder and renewed his father’s alliance with Henry V, who married Philip’s second cousin, Catherine of Valois, the sister of Charles VII. Philip however declined membership in the Order of the Garter in 1422, which would have been considered an act of treason against the king of France. The allied forces conquered large sections of France. During Philip the Good’s reign, the Burgundian State reached the apex of its prosperity and prestige, and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, his patronage of Flemish artists such as van Eyck and Franco-Flemish composers such as Guillaume Du Fay, and, ultimately, the capture of Joan of Arc.

In 1420, the queen of France, Isabeau of Bavaria, the wife of Charles VI of France, signed the Treaty of Troyes, which granted the succession of the French throne to Henry V of and his heirs instead of her son Charles VII of France (1403 – 1461). Henry V and Charles VI died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England (1421 – 1471), the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V of England and Charles VI of France died within two months of each other in 1422, leaving an infant, Henry VI of England, the nominal monarch of both kingdoms. Henry V's brother John of Lancaster 1389 – 1435) led the English forces against Joan of Arc, while he acted as regent of France for his nephew Henry VI. By the time Joan of Arc began to influence events in 1429, nearly all of northern France and some parts of the southwest were under Anglo-Burgundian control. The English controlled Paris and Rouen while the Burgundian faction controlled Reims, which had served as the traditional site for the coronation of French kings.

René d’Anjou was “Reignier” in Shakespeare’s Henry VI, where he pretends to be the Dauphin to deceive the French heroin Joan of Arc (c. 1412 – 1431), who later claims to be pregnant with his child. Joan of Arc claimed to have received visions of the archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine of Alexandria instructing her to support Charles VII­ and recover France from English domination late in the Hundred Years’ War. Volgens die Golden Legend, Saint Margaret was a native of Antioch and the daughter of a pagan priest named Aedesius. When mother having died soon after her birth, Margaret was nursed by a Christian woman. Having embraced Christianity and consecrated her virginity to God, Margaret was disowned by her father, adopted by her nurse. Olybrius, Governor of the Roman Diocese of the East, asked to marry her, but with the demand that she renounced Christianity. Upon her refusal, she was cruelly tortured, during which various miraculous incidents occurred. One of these involved being swallowed by Satan in the shape of a dragon, from which she escaped alive when the cross she carried irritated the dragon’s innards.

Illustration of Gilles de Rais Disposing of the Corpse of a Woman

Jeanne of Arc’s companion and guide was Gilles de Rais (1405 – 1440), became Maréchal of France, career ended in a famous trial for Satanism, abduction, and child murder. When his family secured a decree from King Charles VII in 1435, restraining him from selling or mortgaging the rest of his lands, he turned to alchemy. He also developed an interest in Satanism, hoping to gain knowledge, power, and riches by invoking the devil. He was later accused of having abducted, tortured, and murdered more than 140 children. The killings came to an end in 1440, when an ecclesiastical investigation that brought Rais’ crimes to light. Rais’ bodyguard Étienne Corrillaut, known as Poitou, testified that his master stripped children naked and hung them with ropes from a hook to prevent him from crying out, and then masturbated upon their belly or thighs. Rais then either killed the child himself or had the child killed. In his own confession, Rais testified that “when the said children were dead, he kissed them and those who had the most handsome limbs and heads he held up to admire them, and had their bodies cruelly cut open and took delight at the sight of their inner organs and very often when the children were dying he sat on their stomachs and took pleasure in seeing them die and laughed.”[31] Rais was condemned to death and hanged.

With his court removed to Bourges, one of the few remaining regions left to him. However, his political and military position improved dramatically with the emergence of Joan of Arc as a spiritual leader in France, who led French troops to lift the siege of Orléans in 1429. This led to the reconquest of other strategic cities on the Loire river, and a defeat of the English at the battle of Patay. With the local English troops dispersed, the people of Reims opened their gates, which enabled the coronation of Charles VII in 1429 at Reims Cathedral. A few years later, he ended the English-Burgundian alliance by signing the Treaty of Arras in 1435, followed by the recovery of Paris in 1436 and the steady recapture of Normandy in the 1440s. Following the battle of Castillon in 1453, the French expelled the English from all their continental possessions except for the Pale of Calais.

John of Lancaster’s first wife was Anne of Burgundy, the sister of his ally Philip the Good. John’s second wife was Jacquetta of Luxembourg, a fourth cousin twice removed of Emperor Sigismund. Jacquetta’s first husband was John of Lancaster 1389 – 1435), an ally of Philip the Good. Jacquetta’s uncle, John II of Luxembourg (1392 – 1441), an ally of Philip the Good, was the head of the military company that captured Joan of Arc, whom he kept at Beauvoir and later sold her to the English, who burned her at the stake for heresy.

Tudor Rose

King Henry VII of England (1457 – 1509), Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, and Elizabeth of York (1466 – 1503)


THIS WEBSITE has a guestbook page where you can say hello and ask questions. A recent visitor was Guido from Switzerland who wanted to know more about the kind of equipment I use to make sound recordings.

The only substantial bit of kit I’ve bought recently is a Sony PCM D100 recorder. In brief, it’s a slightly chunky stereo handheld recorder with excellent on-board mics that can be swivelled inwards or outwards. This makes the D100 suitable for many different recording situations and it’s generally easy and fun to use. At the time of writing it costs in the region of £550.

The D100 weighs about 14oz or 400gm and is 3” wide by 6” high by 1¼” deep, or 72 by 157 by 33mm. It’s too big to put in any pocket except a large coat pocket and even then its mass may become irksome. The D100 belongs in a bag: a courier bag, a handbag, a sports bag &ndash any kind of small shoulder bag where you can get at it quickly.

I bought mine in the summer of 2019 after another handheld recorder developed a fault in one of the channels. At first I just used the D100 piggy-backed on my Sound Devices MixPre-D mic pre-amp, connected via the D100’s line-in socket. This kind of arrangement has been used by several recordists who wanted the quality of a Sound Devices pre-amp but couldn’t afford one of their 7-series recorders. It saves money but it’s cumbersome. In recent years it’s been made obsolete by more affordable high-quality recorders such as the Zoom F6 and the Sound Devices MixPre-3.

The D100 has a solid-feeling metal body, takes 4 AA batteries, has 32 GB of internal memory and takes SD cards and Sony Memory Sticks too. It has line-in and mic sockets, the latter providing plug-in power for use with small external mics, such as a binaural pair. So ver so goed.

The on-board mic capsules are very sensitive to being buffeted by the wind and to vibration from the recorder’s body. These weak points can be remedied in part by buying some inexpensive accessories.

First, wind noise. You cannot use the Sony D100 outdoors without a windshield except on a completely still day. You’ll also need a windshield if you want to use it for recording outdoor interviews, otherwise the speaker’s plosive buh en puh sounds can sound distorted. Even with a windshield it’s a good idea not to hold the mic very close to the speaker’s mouth.

The Sony comes with a windshield but it’s not very effective as the furry fibres are a bit short. I bought a better one with longer wind-taming fur off Amazon, sent by a supplier called Songbadger or DucklingPower or similar. Alternatively, Zoom make a Universal Windshield for their own recorders which also happens to fit the D100 and that too is an improvement.

The second drawback is the D100’s susceptibility to handling noise and this takes some getting used to. You have to grasp the recorder securely and then be continually mindful not to flex your hand or move any of its fingers by even the smallest amount. If it was any more sensitive it’d pick up your pulse.

One solution is to buy a cheap camera handle of the kind that are meant for video shooting with smartphones or compact cameras. The handle likely won’t cancel any vibrations from your hand but it will make it easier to hold the recorder comfortably for longer periods of time while keeping a steady grip. The one pictured below (along with the non-Sony windshield) has a lanyard so you won’t drop the damn recorder into a stream and costs £10 on Amazon.

This setup is lightweight and very portable, but it isn’t discreet. Holding the recorder by a handle and pointing it towards some interesting sound is an assertive, purposeful gesture which will attract attention. As well as the eye-catching windshield, which some passersby will have the urge to touch, you may be using headphones or earbuds to monitor your recordings as you make them. Many people will know what you’re up to. Often that’s not a problem, but in others it will be a better policy to keep the recorder out of sight and connect it to a pair of binaural mics or some other kind of headworn arrangement which isn’t too noticeable.

After the smoking ban in pubs everyone liked to remark how you could, for the first time, smell the toilets. With lockdown the streets are now so quiet that you can properly hear all the air conditioning units at work. The other day I went to try out the D100 in Cambridge city centre. In normal times the narrow pavements are packed full of shoppers, students and tourists. A recording made at the junction of a passageway and a small back street gives some idea of how well suited the D100 is to quiet environments.

Two cyclists talk as they come down the passageway towards the recording point before turning left close by, there’s a constant aircon hum from some university building, birds sing and the bells of different colleges and churches strike the hour. Self-noise is low, and the stereo image feels open with quite good localisation of sound sources. I feel the lower frequencies could do with a bit more oomph but this is a personal thing, and may be a positive feature if you want to downplay the presence of traffic.

What was happening in that environment was pretty straightforward. During a later outing the recorder didn’t do so well in the complex environment of Cambridge Market. Sitting on the edge of the old fountain in the middle of the market, I saw and heard all kinds of activity going on around me. Refuse collectors were banging and shifting bins behind me, to my right food was being fried on a griddle, ahead of me people were talking to the owner of a fruit-and-veg stall, to my left people were walking past.

I tried recording with the D100 facing two different ways, but neither effort yielded a very coherent stereo image and it didn’t seem worth uploading them to Soundcloud. Take my word for it! Too much seemed to be going on all around, a confusion. In many similar situations I’ve found that headworn and binaural-style mic arrays do much better in giving a compelling and realistic sound &ndash the Street Life 2017 section here has dozens of street market recordings made that way.

Here is a constraint in using the D100. It seems best to have the most prominent audible action going on in front of you and perhaps to the sides, but not close by all around. The recorder makes you more a spectator of events than a participant, just as a camera often does.

The other mic position is with the capsules facing inwards towards each other. This should be better for isolating particular sound sources, as you might need to do during an outdoor vox pop or when making focused effects-stype recordings. It might also be usuable for indoor podcasts. Although you can’t speak into the D100 from too close (a pop filter might help), I found that at home it picked up very little reverberant tone in a room with a fitted carpet, drawn curtains and some hard surfaces covered with towels.

The second recording presented here is a comparison between the D100 and my homemade acoustic baffle with its two Sennheiser MKH 8020 omni mics and Sound Devices MixPre-D. It was made in an overgrown cemetery at around 4.45 in the morning when the air seemed to ripple like old glass with the dawn chorus.

The D100 occupies the first half of that recording. It doesn’t sound as refined or as natural as the Sennheiser setup, but I think it’s pretty decent and for much lower cost and weight.

I recommend the Sony PCM D100 recorder for its good sound quality, versatility and ease of use. It’s ideal for taking on holiday or on speculative recording trips where you don’t want to be weighed down with gear. This isn’t a comprehensive review so there’s no mention here of the recorder’s more advanced features. On Paul Virostek’s Creative Field Recording blog there’s a detailed write-up with several sample recordings to hear.


Open Access (electronic)

Repository: Georgia State University Library Digital Collections

Planned Parenthood Southeast Records are comprised primarily of files, 1955-2011, from the office of Planned Parenthood Southeast, and its predecessors, Planned Parenthood of the Atlanta Area and Planned Parenthood of Georgia. The records are organized in 13 series, which reflect Planned Parenthood Southeast’s organization, its activities (both internal and external), as well as special formats of the records. The series are: I. Administrative Files II. President/CEO Files III. Legislative Files IV. Office Files V. Legal VI. Campaigns and Projects VII. Media and Publicity Files VIII. Event Files IX. Training Files X. Development Files XI. Subject Files XII. Artifacts and Textiles XIII. Audio-Visual Materials and Scrapbooks. Margaret Sanger, a practicing nurse, began Planned Parenthood New York in 1916 to provide family planning services for low income and immigrant women. Decisive legislation in the 1930's legalized birth control in New York, Vermont and Connecticut, and gradually, as legislation allowed, Sanger was able to disseminate information on birth control methods through opening health clinics across the nation. The Atlanta, Georgia affiliate of Planned Parenthood was founded in 1964 by Mrs. Herbert (Esther) Taylor. Mrs. Taylor brought together representatives of churches, professionals and businesses to organize what was then called the Planned Parenthood Association of the Atlanta Area, Inc., (PPAA) and later (in the 1980's) simply referred to as Planned Parenthood of Atlanta. At the time of PPAA's founding, Fulton County had one of the highest rates of infant mortality in the nation: statistics showed 50,000 women in greater Atlanta between the ages of 15 and 45 needed family planning services but could not afford a private physician. In 1966, the first Planned Parenthood clinic opened at the Bethlehem Community Center, and by 1974 Planned Parenthood of Atlanta was operating nine clinics throughout the Atlanta area, serving 7,000 patients a year. In 1997, clinic outreach was further expanded when Planned Parenthood of East-Central Georgia joined with Planned Parenthood of the Atlanta Area to become Planned Parenthood of Georgia. In 2010, Planned Parenthood Georgia combined with the Alabama and Mississippi affiliates, and together they became Planned Parenthood Southeast. The Planned Parenthood Action Fund of Georgia is a pro-choice advocacy organization. A separate entity from Planned Parenthood Southeast, the Action Fund's mission is to advance and defend reproductive freedom for all through fund raising for lobbyists to elect pro-choice leaders, tirelessly advocating on behalf of women, men and young people who rely on Planned Parenthood to provide reproductive choice.


Kyk die video: The Battle of Lincoln 1217 (Januarie 2022).