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Die verlore siklus van tyd - Deel 1


Antieke kulture regoor die wêreld het gepraat van 'n groot siklus van tyd met afwisselende donker en goue eeue; Plato het dit die Groot Jaar genoem. Die meeste van ons is geleer dat hierdie siklus slegs 'n mite, 'n sprokie was, as ons iets daaroor geleer het. Maar volgens Giorgio de Santillana, voormalige professor in die geskiedenis van die wetenskap aan MIT, het baie antieke kulture geglo dat bewussyn en geskiedenis nie lineêr was nie, maar siklies, wat oor lang tydperke styg en daal. In hul belangrike werk, Hamlet's Mill , de Santillana en mede -outeur Hertha von Dechend, toon aan dat die mite en folklore van meer as dertig antieke kulture spreek van 'n tydsverloop met lang periodes van verligting verbreek deur donker eeue van onkunde, indirek gedryf deur 'n bekende astronomiese verskynsels, die presessie van die equinox. Dit is waar dit interessant word.

Ons ken almal die twee hemelse bewegings wat 'n diepgaande uitwerking op lewe en bewussyn het. Daaglikse beweging , Aarde se rotasie op sy as, veroorsaak dat mense elke vier-en-twintig uur van 'n wakker toestand na 'n slaaptoestand beweeg. Ons liggame het so goed by die aarde se rotasie aangepas dat dit hierdie gereelde bewussynsveranderings veroorsaak sonder dat ons eers die proses merkwaardig sou vind . Aarde se omwenteling rondom die son - die tweede hemelse beweging, wat Copernicus geïdentifiseer het - het 'n ewe beduidende uitwerking, wat daartoe lei dat triljoene lewensvorme uit die grond spring, blom, vrugte en dan verval, terwyl miljarde ander spesies massaal winterslaap, kuit of migreer . Ons sigbare wêreld word letterlik lewendig, verander sy kleur en pas heeltemal, en keer dan om met elke was en afname van die tweede hemelse beweging.

Die derde hemelse beweging, die presessie van die equinox , word minder verstaan ​​as die eerste twee, maar as ons antieke kulture van regoor die wêreld wil glo, is die effek daarvan ewe transformerend. Die impak van hierdie beweging is die tydsberekening daarvan. Soos die vliegvlieg, wat maar een dag per jaar leef en niks van die seisoene weet nie, het die mens 'n gemiddelde lewensduur wat slegs een 360ste van die ongeveer 24 000 jaar presessionele siklus beslaan. En net soos die maagvlieg wat op 'n bewolkte, windstil dag gebore is, geen idee het dat daar iets so pragtig soos sonskyn of 'n briesie is nie, so het ons, gebore in 'n era van materialistiese rasionaliteit, min bewustheid van 'n goue era of hoër toestande van bewussyn - alhoewel dit die voorvaderlike boodskap is.

Soos Giorgio en Hertha uitwys, was die idee van 'n groot siklus wat verband hou met die stadige presessie van die equinox algemeen voor talle kulture voor die Christelike era, maar vandag word ons niks daarvan geleer nie. Tog dui 'n toenemende hoeveelheid astronomiese en argeologiese bewyse daarop dat die siklus eintlik 'n basis kan hê. Belangriker nog, om die eb en vloed en die karakter van elke tydperk te verstaan, bied insig in die rigting van die beskawing. Tot dusver is die Ancients reg; Dit lyk asof die bewussyn besig is om uit te brei sedert die dieptes van die donker eeue, wat weerspieël word as groot verbeterings in die hele samelewing. Wat dryf hierdie veranderinge aan en wat kan ons in die toekoms verwag? Verstaan ​​die oorsaak van presessie is die sleutel.

Presessie waargeneem

Die waarneming van die drie bewegings van die aarde is redelik eenvoudig. In die eerste, rotasie, sien ons die son in die ooste opkom en elke vier en twintig uur ondergaan. En as ons net een keer per dag na die sterre kyk, sou ons 'n soortgelyke patroon oor 'n jaar sien: die sterre styg in die ooste en sak in die weste. Die twaalf sterrebeelde van die zodiac - die ou tydmerkers wat langs die eklipties, die pad van die son - verbygaan teen 'n snelheid van ongeveer een per maand en keer terug na die beginpunt van ons hemelse waarneming aan die einde van die jaar. En as ons net een keer per jaar kyk, sê ons oor die herfs -equinox, sou ons sien dat die sterre retrograde beweeg (teenoor die eerste twee bewegings) teen ongeveer een graad elke sewentig jaar. Teen hierdie tempo val die equinox ongeveer een keer elke 2 000 jaar op 'n ander sterrebeeld, en dit neem ongeveer 24,000 jaar om sy siklus deur die twaalf sterrebeelde te voltooi. Dit word die presessie (die agteruitbeweging) van die equinox relatief tot die vaste sterre.

Presessie van die aarde se rotasie -as as gevolg van die gety -krag wat deur die swaartekrag van die maan en die son op die aarde opgewek word (Bron: Wikipedia).

Die standaardteorie van presessie sê dat dit hoofsaaklik die swaartekrag van die maan wat op die plat aarde is, die oorsaak moet wees van die veranderende oriëntasie van die aarde na die traagheidsruimte, ook bekend as "presessie". Hierdie teorie is egter ontwikkel voordat sterrekundiges geleer het dat die sonnestelsel kan beweeg en dat die Internasionale Astronomiese Unie dit nou in stryd met die dinamiese teorie bevind. Antieke oosterse sterrekunde leer dat 'n equinox wat stadig beweeg of deur die twaalf sterrebeelde van die dierenriem beweeg, bloot te wyte is aan die beweging van die son wat deur die ruimte om 'n ander ster krom, wat ons standpunt van die sterre van die aarde verander. By die Binary Research Institute het ons 'n bewegende sonnestelsel gemodelleer en gevind dat dit inderdaad beter is om die waarneembare presessie te produseer terwyl ons 'n aantal onreëlmatighede in die sonnestelsel oplos. Dit dui sterk daarop dat die antieke verklaring die aanneemlikste is, alhoewel sterrekundiges nog nie 'n metgesel vir die aarde se son ontdek het nie.

Buiten die tegniese oorwegings, blyk 'n bewegende sonnestelsel 'n logiese rede te wees waarom ons 'n wonderlike jaar kan hê, om die term van Plato te gebruik, met afwisselende donker en goue eeue. Dit wil sê, as die sonnestelsel wat die aarde dra werklik in 'n groot wentelbaan beweeg en die aarde blootstel aan die elektromagnetiese (EM) spektrum van 'n ander ster of EM -bron langs die pad, en die subtiele elektriese en magnetiese velde waardeur ons beweeg, vorm, kan verwag dat dit ons magnetosfeer, ionosfeer en heel waarskynlik alle lewe in 'n patroon sal beïnvloed wat ooreenstem met die baan. Net soos die aarde se kleiner daaglikse en jaarlikse bewegings die siklusse van dag en nag en die seisoene van die jaar produseer (beide as gevolg van die aarde se veranderende posisie in verhouding tot die EM -spektrum van die son), kan die groter hemelse beweging 'n siklus wat die lewe en bewussyn op groot skaal beïnvloed.

Net onlangs het NASA (Maart 2014) ontdek dat die aarde se rotasie en beweging deur die ruimte die elektrone in die stralingsgordel in 'n sebrapatroon herrangskik! Dit was heeltemal onverwags. Daar word altyd geglo dat hierdie deeltjies te vinnig beweeg om deur die aarde se beweging beïnvloed te word.

'N Hipotese oor hoe bewussyn deur so 'n hemelse siklus beïnvloed kan word, kan voortgebou word op die werk van dr. Valerie Hunt, 'n voormalige professor in fisiologie aan UCLA. In 'n aantal studies het sy gevind dat veranderinge in die omringende subtiele elektriese, EM- en magnetiese velde (wat ons altyd omring) die menslike kognisie en prestasie dramaties kan beïnvloed. In kort blyk dit dat die bewussyn deur subtiele ligvelde beïnvloed word, of soos kwantumfisikus dr. Amit Goswami impliseer: "Bewussyn verkies lig." In ooreenstemming met mite en folklore, is die konsep agter die Groot Jaar of die sikliese model van die geskiedenis gebaseer op die beweging van die son deur die ruimte, wat die aarde aan sterrevelde laat waai en kwyn (alle sterre is groot kragopwekkers van EM -spektra) en lei tot die legendariese opkoms en val van die eeue oor groot tydperke.

Deel 2 - 'N Historiese perspektief

Deel 3 - 'n Ou blik op die toekoms

Deur Walter Cruttenden


Renaissance vir kinders

Die Renaissance was 'n tydperk van die 14de tot die 17de eeu in Europa. Hierdie era oorbrug die tyd tussen die Middeleeue en die moderne tyd. Die woord "Renaissance" beteken "wedergeboorte".

Kom uit die donker

Die Middeleeue begin met die val van die Romeinse Ryk. Baie van die vooruitgang in die wetenskap, kuns en regering wat deur die Grieke en Romeine gemaak is, het gedurende hierdie tyd verlore gegaan. 'N Deel van die Middeleeue word eintlik die Donker Eeue genoem, omdat soveel van wat vroeër geleer is, verlore gegaan het.

Die Renaissance was 'n tyd van "uit die donker kom". Dit was 'n hergeboorte van onderwys, wetenskap, kuns, letterkunde, musiek en 'n beter lewe vir mense in die algemeen.

'N Groot deel van die Renaissance was 'n kulturele beweging wat humanisme genoem word. Humanisme was 'n filosofie dat alle mense daarna moet streef om opgevoed en geleer te word in die klassieke kunste, letterkunde en wetenskap. Dit het gesoek na realisme en menslike emosie in kuns. Dit het ook gesê dat dit goed is dat mense troos, rykdom en skoonheid najaag.


Die Mona Lisa -
miskien die wêreld se bekendste skildery -
is tydens die Renaissance deur Leonardo da Vinci geskilder

Die Renaissance begin in Florence, Italië en versprei na ander stadstate in Italië. 'N Deel van die rede waarom dit in Italië begin het, was as gevolg van die geskiedenis van Rome en die Romeinse Ryk. 'N Ander rede waarom dit in Italië begin het, was omdat Italië baie ryk geword het en die rykes bereid was om hul geld te bestee om kunstenaars en genieë te ondersteun.

Stadstate het destyds 'n groot rol gespeel in die heerskappy van Italië. Hulle is dikwels regeer deur 'n magtige gesin. Enkele belangrike stadstate was Florence, Milaan, Venesië en Ferrara.

Die term Renaissance Man verwys na 'n persoon wat kundig en talentvol is op baie gebiede. Die ware genieë van die Renaissance was goeie voorbeelde hiervan. Leonardo da Vinci was 'n meester -skilder, beeldhouer, wetenskaplike, uitvinder, argitek, ingenieur en skrywer. Michelangelo was ook 'n uitstekende skilder, beeldhouer en argitek.

  • Een van die gewildste Griekse filosowe was Plato. Baie mans bestudeer Plato se geskrifte aan die Akademie in Florence.
  • Venesië was beroemd om sy glaswerk, terwyl Milaan beroemd was om sy ystersmede.
  • Francis I, koning van Frankryk, was beskermheer van die kunste en het gehelp om Renaissance -kuns van Italië na Frankryk te versprei.
  • Kunstenaars is aanvanklik as vakmanne beskou. Hulle het in werkswinkels gewerk en behoort aan 'n gilde.
  • Twee van die grootste veranderings aan kuns uit die Middeleeue was die konsepte van proporsie en perspektief.
  • Michelangelo en Leonardo het teenstanders geword toe Michelangelo vir da Vinci gespot het omdat hy nie 'n standbeeld van 'n perd klaargemaak het nie.
  • Jag was 'n gewilde vorm van vermaak vir die rykes.
  • Kunstenaars en argitekte sou dikwels meeding om 'n werk of opdrag om 'n kunswerk te skep.

Lees meer oor die Renaissance:

Oorsig
Tydlyn
Hoe het die Renaissance begin?
Medici -gesin
Italiaanse stadstate
Ouderdom van verkenning
Elizabethaanse era
Ottomaanse Ryk
Hervorming
Noordelike Renaissance
Woordelys
Kultuur
Daaglikse lewe
Renaissance Art
Argitektuur
Kos
Klere en mode
Musiek en dans
Wetenskap en uitvindings
Sterrekunde
Mense
Kunstenaars
Bekende Renaissance -mense
Christopher Columbus
Galileo
Johannes Gutenberg
Henry VIII
Michelangelo
Koningin Elizabeth I
Raphael
William Shakespeare
Leonardo da Vinci

Werke aangehaal

Gaan hierheen om u kennis te toets met 'n Renaissance -blokkiesraaisel of woordsoektog.


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Wat is Takt Time?

Volgens die Takt Time -definisie is Takt Time die 'takt' -tempo waarteen u moet werk en die produksieproses moet voltooi om aan die vraag van die kliënt te voldoen.

Kom ons kyk na 'n rowwe voorbeeld om dit te illustreer:

As een klant elke 2 uur 1 produk koop, het u 2 uur om 1 produk klaar te maak - 2 uur is u eie Taktyd. In ooreenstemming daarmee is u produk elke 2 uur klaar takt koers.

As u u Takt Time ken, sal u u produksieproses so optimaliseer dat u voldoen aan die realistiese vraag van die kliënt - as u die verwagte taktempo volg, maak u nie minder of meer produkte wat u eintlik nodig het nie.

Takt Time het sy oorsprong in die Duitse vliegtuigbedryf laat in 1930. Die naam vir hierdie konsep is afkomstig van die Duitse woord "takt", wat staan ​​vir "klop", "ritme" of "pols" - die hele frase is afkomstig van die Duitse woord "Taktziel" (wat letterlik vertaal word na "Takt Time"). Die onderneming Toyota het die konsep aangeneem wat deur die Duitse vliegtuigbedryf gebruik is, en dit herontdek volgens die Takt Time -konsep wat ons vandag ken en implementeer.

Hoe om die taktyd te bereken?

Daar is twee komponente wat van kardinale belang is vir u Takt Time -berekening:

Die netto produksietyd (NPT) is die skoon tyd wat u span tot hul beskikking het om 'n produk af te handel. Om u NPT te bereken, kan u die tyd wat u span aan stilstand (middagete, ander pouses, vergaderings, masjienonderhoud en#8230) afneem, aftrek van die totale tyd wat u span by die werk spandeer. So gaan die formule gewoonlik.

Dit sou egter vinniger wees as u slegs die skoon tyd wat u aan die produksieproses bestee. U kan ons tydspoorsnyer Clockify gebruik om u netto produksietyd vir 'n produk op te spoor en dit van u stilstand te skei. Die dop van die tyd wat u aan stilstand bestee, is miskien nie deurslaggewend vir u Takt Time -berekeninge nie, maar dit kan op sy eie nuttig wees - u kan vind dat u baie tyd mors, tyd wat u moontlik beter kan gebruik.

U kliënte se vraag is die aantal produkte wat u kliënte gereeld koop - gewoonlik word u kliënte se vraag daagliks getel.

Taktyd = netto produksietyd/klantevraag

Hierdie formule is nou eenvoudig genoeg. U berekening sal egter ingewikkelder wees as u onderneming verskillende produkte vervaardig, elk met sy eie behoefte aan kliënte. In so 'n geval moet u u dag verdeel oor verskillende produksieprosesse of aparte spanne vir elke tipe produk skep.

Takt Time -voorbeeld ( + Takt Time -sakrekenaar in Excel)

Gestel u bestuur 'n vieslike popfabriek, en u wil weet hoe u die taktyd vir span 1 kan bereken, wat daagliks verantwoordelik is vir die maak van pop #1 (Jessica).

Sê dat span #1 gedurende 'n skof van 10 uur 55 poppe moet bymekaarmaak-en u tydsopsporingsresultate toon dat u 'n skoon 9 uur en 10 minute (550 minute) van die 10-uurskof aan produksie spandeer:

Netto produksietyd = 550 minute

Daaglikse klantevraag = 55 poppe

Taktyd = netto produksietyd/ daaglikse klantvraag

Taktyd = 550 minute/ 55 poppe = 10 min/pop

Volgens hierdie berekening word van span 1 verwag om een ​​pop #1 (Jessica) per 10 minute (600 sekondes) bymekaar te sit om aan die kliënt se vraag te voldoen.

Takt Tyd sakrekenaar in Excel - U kan hierdie sakrekenaar gebruik om die tempo waarteen u moet werk te bereken om aan die vraag van die kliënt te voldoen.


Die grootste beleggingsaanhalings van alle tye: Deel 1

Sommige van die diepste, insiggewendste gedagtes in die sakewêreld is nie so ingewikkeld nie. Heck, baie van hulle is duidelik soos die dag. U sal miskien verbaas wees oor hoeveel u van iets so eenvoudig soos 'n eenlyn-aanhaling kan wegneem. Kom ons kyk na die eerste vyf aanhalings in hierdie tweedelige reeks.

"Ek sal jou vertel hoe om ryk te word. Maak die deure toe. Wees bang as ander gulsig is. Wees gulsig as ander bang is."
--
Warren Buffett

Ons weet almal hoe warm en vaag dit voel om te sien hoe ons aandele styg, daarom belê ons in die eerste plek. om geld te maak. Helaas, die menslike ego is 'n kragtige ding, en as ons goed vaar in die mark, voel ons die onoorwinlikste, en as ons in die mark voel dat ons al ons geld wil uittrek, in die fetale posisie opkrul, en skree.

Moet my nie verkeerd verstaan ​​nie. As u die mark probeer tyd kry, sal u waarskynlik nie baie ver kom nie, maar dit is nie die punt nie. As u 'n langtermynbenadering tot belegging volg, koop aandele wat geklop is en goedkoop lyk gebaseer op grondbeginsels - terwyl ek geen verwagtinge het nie wanneer hulle moet begin opstaan ​​- dit sal u waarskynlik mooi langs die pad laat sit.

"Op grond van my eie persoonlike ervaring - beide as 'n belegger in die afgelope jaar en 'n deskundige getuie in die afgelope jare - tel selde meer as drie of vier veranderlikes werklik. Alles anders is geraas."
--
Marty Whitman

Ons word voortdurend gebombardeer met eindelose hoeveelhede triviale stukke data vir ons beleggings. Ongelooflike hoeveelhede rykdom het verlore gegaan in die naam van paniek wat veroorsaak word deur 'n algehele oorreaksie op gebeure wat in die groot skema nie saak maak nie.

Neem 'n onderneming soos olietenkskip Voorlyn (NYSE: FRO). In 2002 het die waardebelegger Mohnish Pabrai begin om aandele te koop nadat die maatskappy 'n pak slae gekry het toe ander beleggers paniekerig was, en probeer om hul kop om 'n verskeidenheid faktore te draai, soos waarheen die toekomstige olieprys op pad was en wanneer olie tenkpryse sal weer styg. Pabrai het 'n meer vereenvoudigde standpunt ingeneem en gefokus op iets baie duideliker: die likwidasieprys van die onderneming. Deur sy aandag op die groot, belangrike faktore te vestig terwyl hy die geraas om hom ignoreer, kon Pabrai in net twee jaar 'n veelvoud aanteken. Hou dit eenvoudig, het sy voordele.

"Moet nooit daarop reken om 'n goeie verkoop te maak nie. Laat die koopprys so aantreklik wees dat selfs 'n matige verkoop goeie resultate lewer."
- Warren Buffett

Heck, niemand is perfek nie. Af en toe maak selfs die beste beleggers ter wêreld foute. Dit is belangrik dat u nie op 'n volledige katastrofe wag nie. Maatskappye met 'n groot kontantsaldo wat 'n aansienlike deel van hul markkapitalisasie uitmaak, soos K-Switserse (NASDAQ: KSWS), gee 'n vloer op die voorraad sodat u die prys van die "ergste scenario" kan merk.

Die beste situasie waarin u uself kan bevind, is wanneer u beleggings so 'n groot veiligheidsmarge bied selfs as u nie reg is nie, jy sal nog steeds regkom. Dit is soos om Russiese roulette met 'n spuitpistool te speel.

"Die vier duurste woorde in die Engelse taal is: 'Hierdie keer is dit anders'."
- Sir John Templeton

Elke buitensporige oplewing in die aandelemark, of dit nou die hele mark of 'n individuele aandeel is, deel hierdie algemene kenmerk. Mense weet dat pryse handuit ruk. Hulle weet elke keer dat dit in die verlede gebeur het, het mense verbrand. Tog kan beleggers vasgevang word in die gedagte dat die buitensporigheid hierdie keer geregverdig is en vir altyd hier sal wees.

U kan beslis sê dat die buitensporige waardasies op sommige Chinese aandele - soos die Chinese soekenjin Baidu (NASDAQ: BIDU) of die onlangse markkapitalisasie van triljoen dollar PetroChina (NYSE: PTR) - is geregverdig omdat 'China hierdie keer anders is'. Ja, China het baie positiewe faktore wat ten gunste daarvan is, maar dit is nie in staat om ooit 'n oorwaardasie te regverdig nie. Ons sal nooit leer wat ons nooit leer nie.

"Die aandelemark is gevul met individue wat die prys van alles ken, maar die waarde van niks."
- Philip Fisher

Te veel mense fokus op die aandeelprys van hul aandele, en het min - indien enige - kennis van wat hulle eintlik vir daardie aandeel kry. Om dieselfde rede dat 'n T-hemp van $ 1,000 absurd duur is, maar 'n nuwe motor van $ 1,000 'n winskopie kan wees, vind u baie meer waarde in 'n gevestigde onderneming, soos Berkshire Hathaway (NYSE: BRK-A) (NYSE: BRK-B) teen $ 135,000 per aandeel (of byna $ 5,000 vir sy B-aandele) as wat u in 'n pennievoorraad sal hê waarna u buurman u gewys het.

Daar het jy dit. Sommige van die kortste, eenvoudigste en mees reflektiewe kwotasies deur sommige van die grootste beleggers van alle tye. Kyk gou weer na Deel 2 van "Die grootste aanhalings vir alle tye."


Waarom 'n obsessie met eskatologie 'n vermorsing van tyd is, deel 1

Naakte Bybel -entoesiaste (en veragters) onthou moontlik dat ek lanklaas gepos het 'n lys van voorveronderstellings wat na die Bybel gebring word, wat uiteindelik 'n mens se standpunt oor eskatologie bepaal (“ end times ”). Ek het dit geplaas omdat al te veel Christene aanvaar dat hulle siening vanselfsprekend uit die Bybel blyk (dit wil sê dat dit so duidelik geleer is dat hulle wonder hoe iemand anders eindtyd op 'n ander manier kan sien). Ek sou sê dat die posisie wat die skuldigste hieraan skuldig is, die opvatting voor die verdrukking is (die siening wat in die romanreeks Left Behind aangebied word).

My doel in die poste wat volg is om uit te brei op my oorspronklike lys en die items 'n bietjie uit te pak. My doel is om geen posisie te ontken of te onderskryf nie. Ek hou nie van of haat nie een van hulle nie. Daar is dinge waarvan ek hou. Ek kan al getroudes met een siening hoor: “hoe kan hy dit sê ?! Dit is nie moontlik nie! Ja dit is. En dit is die beste perspektief. (Ek is seker dit sal iemand afmerk). Ek sal my eie denke aan die einde van die reeks verduidelik. Vir nou . . . trommelrol, asseblief. . . laat ons duik.

Vooronderstellingskwessie #1 Verskil Israel en die Kerk van mekaar, of vervang die Kerk Israel in God se program vir die eeue? As hulle onderskei is, wil dit voorkom asof Israel nog steeds 'n nasionale toekoms het, afgesien van die kerk. Om Israel en die Kerk onderskei te hou, is die sleutel tot enige siening van 'n wegraping (omdat die Kerk ingeneem word, nie Israel nie).

God se mense in die eerste gedeelte van die Bybel (die Ou Testament) was Israel (en 'n paar heidense bekeerlinge hier en daar wat as Israeliete en#8212 volgelinge van Yahweh by die volk moes aansluit). God het 'n reeks verbonde met Israel gesluit om daardie band te skep en te bevestig. Hierdie verbonde het almal sekere beloftes gehad. Toe Israel uit Egipte kom en die beloofde land binnegaan, het die nasie sekere van hierdie beloftes geërf, of was dit ALLES? (daardie item #2 vir volgende keer). Hier is 'n lys van die beloftes:

Abrahamitiese verbond (Gen 12: 1-3 Gen 15: 6-7)

1. Hulle sou 'n nasie word wie se bevolking soos die sand van die see en die sterre van die hemel sou wees.
2. Hulle sou voorspoedig wees en 'n seën wees vir almal wat hulle geseën het (of 'n vloek vir diegene wat hulle vervloek het).
3. Hulle sou 'n land wat aan hulle beloof is, erf (“van die Eufraat af na die Egiptiese rivier en nog meer daaroor in ander paaiemente).

Sinai (“Mosaic ”) Verbond (Exod. 20-24)

God se verbond met die nasie by Sinai is gegee in Eksodus 20-24. Die fokus daarvan is die Mosaïese Wet. God bestempel Israel as '' 'n besondere skat '', '' 'n koninkryk van priesters '' en '' 'n heilige nasie '' en gee hulle die bepalings (wette) wat die voortbestaan ​​van die gemeenskap tussen hulle en hulle God kan verseker (vervolg van die Abrahamitiese verbond) . Die verbond is bekragtig deur 'n verbondsoffer en die besprenkeling van bloed (Eks. 24: 4-8). Verskeie Sinai -verbondsvernuwings word in die Ou Testament opgeteken. Die belangrikste was dié op die vlaktes van Moab (Dt. 29), in Sigem in die dae van Josua (Jos. 24), toe Jojada die Joodse koningslyn onder Joas kon herstel (2 K. 11), die dae van Hiskia (2 Ch. 29:10), en in die dae onder die heerskappy van Josia (2 K. 23: 3).

Dawidiese verbond (2 Samuel 7)

God het Dawid belowe dat sy nageslag 'n ewige dinastiese heerskappy oor die beloofde land moet he en as sy seuns bekend moet staan ​​(2 Sam 7: 12–17 Psalm 89 Jes. 55).

Die Nuwe Verbond

Verskeie gedeeltes in die profete, maar die duidelikste in Jeremia, spreek van 'n nuwe verbond in die messiaanse tyd (Jes 42: 6 Jes 49: 6–8 Jes 55: 3 Jes 59:21 Jes 61: 8 Jer 31:31 , 33 Jer 32:40 Jer 50: 5 Eseg 16:60, 62 Eseg 34:25 Eseg 37:26).

Hierdie gedeeltes neem aan dat 'n volk in ballingskap weens sy sondes en sy oortredings van die Sinai -verbond. Hierdie verbond beweer dat, hoewel die Sinai -verbond verbreek is, die belofte van God nie sou faal nie. Daar sou 'n oorblyfsel wees deur wie God sy beloftes sou eerbiedig. Hy sou 'n nuwe verbond sluit. Sy wet sou op harte van vlees geskryf wees. Op daardie dag sou die troon van Dawid deur een van Dawid se linies beset word (dit neem 'n situasie aan as dit nie die geval was nie, soos in ballingskap) en die mense sou 'n ewige vredesverbond geniet waarin die nasies ook sou deel (Jes. 42: 6 Jes 49: 6 Jes 55: 3–5 vgl. Sag 2: 11 Sag 8: 20–23 14:16 ens.). In daardie dae sou aanbidding gesuiwer word (Eseg. 40–48), ware teokratiese regering sou tot stand kom en vrede sou universeel wees.

Het jy dit alles? Goed. Nou is die vraag: Is die volk Israel (die nasionale etniese entiteit) steeds die fokus van hierdie verbondsbeloftes (voor en na die finale Nuwe Verbond) of is die kerk nou hul fokus?

Argumente kan vir beide kante aangevoer word, afhangende van voorveronderstellings. Ons sal ingaan op die besonderhede in items 2 en 3, so laat ons 'n voorbeeld van die items kry. Die twee kante van hierdie nommer 1 -kwessie hang af van die vraag of 'n mens glo dat die beloftes van die Abrahamitiese, Sinaï en Dawidiese verbond VOORWAARDELIK was. Dit wil sê, as daar voorwaardes was om die beloftes te ontvang (“ Israel moet doen/wees X ”) of die beloftes gemaak is sonder enige voorwaardes (“ maak nie saak wat Israel doen in die weg van sonde nie, God sou hulle steeds die beloftes ”)? As daar toestande was, is dit duidelik dat Israel misluk het (hulle het in ballingskap gegaan by die hand van God). As daar geen voorwaardes was nie, is dit waaroor die Nuwe Verbond gaan? Is die Nuwe Verbond die antwoord?

Hierdie vrae is belangrik vir nommer 1, omdat dit 'n konstruksie skep waarmee hierdie eerste vraag ’s vraag ontleed kan word: Is Israel en die kerk van mekaar onderskei, of vervang die Kerk Israel in God se program vir die eeue?

Jesus het baie duidelik gekom om die Nuwe Verbond tot stand te bring (“dit is die nuwe verbond in my bloed ” – sien Lukas 22:20 1 Kor 11:25 2 Kor 3: 6 Heb 8:13 Heb 12:24). En die Gees kom oor die dissipels en hulle bekeerlinge na Pinksterdag (Handelinge 2 sien die boek Handelinge daarna). Die kerk was 'n besnydenis neutraal en dit was nie net Jode nie, maar ook heidene, wat ook 'n nuwe verbond was. Maar as die Kerk — en nie Israel as nasie nie — die fokus van die Nuwe Verbond was, watter doel is daar dan vir die nasionale Israel (behalwe om Jesus te omhels en in die Kerk opgeneem te word)? Dit beteken ook dat die Dawidiese heerser Jesus is, en die Beloofde Land groter is as Israel en dat dit die hele wêreld is, dus die Groot Opdrag. Laat ons dit so vra: Is daar 'n deel van die Nuwe Verbond wat * nie * deur die Kerk verantwoordelik is nie? 'N Mens kan sê die “alle nasies ” deel —, maar dit is presies die punt van die Groot Opdrag – wat aan die jong KERK gegee word, nie Israel nie (Matt. 28: 18-20).

Op hierdie punt is die algemene beswaar die land dat die kerk nie 'n teokratiese koninkryk is nie. Maar dit is die hoof van Christus en sy land is die hele aarde (terug na die Groot Opdrag). Waarom sou ons daarop aandring dat die landbeloftes vervul moet word in 'n klein gedeelte van die aarde (Israel) eerder as op die hele aarde? Die antwoord sou wees: die Abrahamitiese verbond het die beloofde land gewaarborg en spesifieke afmetings, en Israel het nooit al die grond gekry nie, en hulle kry óf * daardie * land as 'n nasionale entiteit, of anders het God &# 8217s se beloftes het misluk. Dit is ook 'n voorveronderstelling. Dit veronderstel dat God se plan nie * slaag * deur die Nuwe Verbond en die wêreldwye, nie-Joodse Kerk. Dit veronderstel ook dat Israel nooit die grond volgens die afmetings van Gen 15 gekry het nie (sien later daaroor). Maar as die verbonde voorwaardelik was, dan het Israel die landbeloftes weggedraai (dit het God nie gedoen nie), en hierdie beswaar oor 'n letterlike koninkryk binne die parameters van Genesis 15 is moontlik heeltemal 'n goeie idee.

Nog 'n opmerking oor die verskil en eendersheid van Israel en die Kerk, Galasiërs 3 (lees die hele hoofstuk), is glashelder dat Christene die beloftes wat aan Abraham gegee is, geërf het. Moet ons die grond van grond uitsluit? As “ die beloofde land ” vervang is deur “ die hele aarde, ”, dan is die antwoord ja — en dit is die primêre argument om te sê dat ons geen rede het om na 'n letterlike koninkryk in * te soek nie Israel* ('n millennium) in die toekoms.

Is Israel en die Kerk dus onderskei? Ja, die een is nie die vergelyking van die ander nie. Maar vervang die Kerk Israel as die volk van God? In een opsig is dit duidelik die geval, aangesien die Kerk die beloftes erf wat deur Christus aan Israel gegee is (Galasiërs 3). Maar wat van die grond? As die grondbelofte nog steeds bestaan ​​en wag om vervul te word, dan is Israel as 'n nasionale entiteit nog steeds onderskei in terme van koninkryksprofesie. As die grondbelofte weggesondig is en nou deur die hele aarde vervang word, het die volk Israel self geen spesiale rol in Bybelse profesie nie; dit gaan alles oor die Kerk.

En glo dit of nie, as dit alles oor die kerk gaan, is daar geen sewe jaar verdrukking of wegraping nie, aangesien eersgenoemde volledig gebou is op die 70 weke profesie wat aan Jerusalem en Israel gegee is, en laasgenoemde is op sy beurt gebou op die letterlike verdrukking.
Bly ingeskakel.


Die verlore oorspronklike

"Antie, sal mamma my hierdie week sien?" Vra ek met hoopvolle oë.

Mamma was die afgelope vier maansiklusse nog nie daar nie. Sy het sulke mooi hare en 'n mooi stem. Sy het my ook 'n jaar gelede begin toorkuns leer. Sy het gesê ek verbeter selfs beter as my ouer suster.

My suster. My grootbroers. Ek het hulle nog nie ontmoet nie, want mamma het gesê ek was nie hardop nie. Dit was te gevaarlik, hoewel ek nie weet hoekom nie. Dit het haar nie gekeer om vir my stories oor hulle en hul manewales te vertel nie. Daar was Fin, die oudste wat volgens my ma haar gunsteling langs my was.

"Maar vertel dit ook nie vir enige kind nie, 'n ma wat nie veronderstel is om 'n gunsteling te hê nie. " Sy het my eenkeer vertel, glimlaggend en haar vingers deur my hare geborsel. Ek glimlag en giggel oor die geheim wat ons gedeel het.

Dan was daar Elia, die baie edele en beskermende broer. Mamma het gesê dat hy die volwasseste van die groep was. Ek het gedink dat hy nogal 'n kieliegeveg nodig het. Toe ek vir mamma sê dat sy lag en sê dat sy nie eens so 'n toneel kan voorstel nie.

Dan is daar Kole, 'n bietjie moeilikheidmaker, maar 'n baie gemoedelike siel. Altyd besig om sy mede -broers en susters te spot. Ek het gedink ek hou baie van Kole.

En Rebekka, my suster. Mamma het gesê sy is 'n towerkuns net soos ons. Sy het 'n vriendelike siel en is baie liefdevol. Alhoewel sy baie klein tantrums kan hê, want haar broers pla haar graag omdat sy 'n meisie is. Ek het gedink ons ​​sal 'n goeie span teen ons broers vorm. Ek het haar gevra wanneer ek vir die simpel seuns kon wys wat ons meisies kon doen, maar haar glimlag het net effens gegly, soos sy eendag gou gesê het.

Henrik was die jongste seuntjie. Mamma het gesê dat hy 'n bietjie volgeling was, maar hy het probeer uitstaan. Mamma was baie lief vir hom en het probeer om hom te wys hoe homself genoeg is.

Uiteindelik het sy my van Nicklaus vertel. Sy het sulke hartseer oë gehad toe sy oor hom gepraat het, maar tog was daar soveel liefde. Sy het my vertel dat ek en Nick baie spesiaal was. "Spesiaal hoe? " Sy kyk huiwerig na my, voordat sy haar kop skud. "Dit is 'n ander verhaal vir 'n ander tyd skat. As jy ouer is. " het ek geput en die onderwerp teësinnig laat val.

"Ek sal hulle eendag ontmoet, maar reg mamma? "

"As die tyd reg is. Moenie bekommerd wees oor u kop nie, rus. Ek sal binnekort terugkeer my liefste. "

Sy soen my bo -op my kop en borsel deur my sagte krulle.

"Ek is altyd lief vir jou, " fluister sy terwyl ek aan die slaap raak, net soos sy altyd doen.

Ek het nou na die heks voor my gekyk wat vir my al kinderskoene versorg het. She looked quite old and fragile, but I knew how powerful she really was. Maybe not as powerful as my mother, but still close. We lived outside a village near the one my family lived in. I was never aloud as a child to go to the village because we couldn't allow anyone to know who I was. I will be 17 years old in 3 days and I still don't understand why.

"Will mother be seeing me this week?"

"I'm not sure child. But your mother hasn't missed one of your birthdays yet, so I have faith she will come."

I smiled slightly at that "You're right, it just feels like so long sense I've seen anyone or anything really." I slump down in a chair.

"Well," my "aunt" begins, "You are just about 17 now, about the time most women are being courted. I believe it safe, if you'd like, for you to go out to the village and get some supplies."

My eyes widened. This would be my first trip to the village alone. The only other time I had gone was when my aunt was practically on her death bed, yet she insisted on coming along with me to get the remedies she needed instead of me going alone. The trip almost killed her.

This was a huge step and I knew it. I let my most dazzling smile grace my face as I rushed to hug her, murmuring “thank yous” in her black and grey streaked hair.

"Alright alright. Go now before I change my mind," I stepped back but before I could move again she stopped me by cupping my face, searching it with her black eyes.

"No, you are very powerful, and I do not worry for your safety today. But I do worry for you."

Then she let me go, turned around, and walked out of the room.

I began my walk through the dense woods to the village. I was not allowed to ride our horse to the village because it would be too easy for someone to track us back to our home. I thought it all to be an over precaution. What would anyone want with a seemingly old hag, and a plane young girl? Even so I continued my journey on foot, taking in the beautiful scenery of nature around me. There was so much light, so much life. I felt my fingers tingle with the sweet sensation of power as I drew from some of its energy. It was times like these when I was glad to be a witch to have such a connection to nature.

My mother had named me Diana after the Goddess Diana Goddess of the witches. She has also been told to be the Goddess of the moon, and the hunt. But all witches worship Diana. I felt now, or during nights when the moon is full and at its brightest, that I could not have a name better suited for me.

The wind began to pick up, and colors of fall began to circle me. I giggled and spun about like a young child. My hair wiped about in the wind but I didn't care. Oh what a sight someone would see if they found me now.

But nobody came, for nobody ever does. I was alone like always. Yet, with the song birds whispering in my ear, and the energy vibrating all around me, I didn't feel alone.


Cycle time graph with Numbers

Sample data of the time between parts to determine the cycle time, with different averages given. Image copyright Christoph Roser on AllAboutLean.com.

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Psalm 19

The heavens are telling the glory of God and the firmament proclaims his handiwork.
Day to day pours forth speech, and night to night declares knowledge.
There is no speech, nor are there words their voice is not heard
yet their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world.
In them he has set a tent for the sun,
which comes forth like a bridegroom leaving his chamber,
and like a strong man runs its course with joy.
Its rising is from the end of the heavens, and its circuit to the end of them
and there is nothing hid from its heat.
The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul
the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple
the precepts of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart
the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes
the fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever
the ordinances of the LORD are true, and righteous altogether.
More to be desired are they than gold, even much fine gold
sweeter also than honey and drippings of the honeycomb.
Moreover by them is thy servant warned
in keeping them there is great reward.
But who can discern his errors? Clear thou me from hidden faults.
Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins let them not have dominion over me!
Then I shall be blameless, and innocent of great transgression.
Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable in thy sight,
O LORD, my rock and my redeemer.

Verwysings

* bara , used only in referring to God in the Hebrew Bible occurs in Gen. 1:1, and in v21, 27. God also "makes" ( asah ), "causes to appear"
( hayah ), "forms ( yatsar ), "establishes" ( kun ), etc. Man is "creative" only in that he carries the image of his Creator.

Only God can call into existence the things that do not exist (Romans 4:17, Amos 9:6, Psalm 33:6-8). See also Notes on the Early Chapters of Genesis.

1. James Stambaugh, Star Formation and Genesis 1, Impact #251 , Institute of Creation Research, PO Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021, May 1994.

2. Davies, Paul, The Accidental Universe , Cambridge University Press, New York, 1982.

3. Misner, Charles W., Thorne, Kip S., and Wheeler, John Archibald, Gravitation , W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco, 1973.

4. Morton, Glenn R., Changing Constants and the Cosmos , CRSQ, Vol. 27, No. 2, September 1990, pp. 60-67

5. Norman, Trevor, and Setterfield, Barry, The Atomic Constants, Light and Time , SRI International Invited Research Report, August 1987. Other related papers and further technical information on this subject is available on this web page at On the Constancy of the Speed of Light.

6. Taking Genesis One seriously and literally poses lots of problems for doing physics of the early universe. See Physics Problems for Creation Week

8. The Observer's Location in Genesis One: The following notes show how Genesis One begins with a cosmic view of the entire universe, but soon narrows down to discuss the earth, the ecosystem, then man. This is in keeping with the overall constant, progressive narrowing of the Bible's focus onto the "scarlet thread" of man's redemption. (I am presenting here my current thoughts on this matter for discussion purposes. Others may not agree with me and I could change my mind at any time. Comments on this are welcome.)

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. [Here the term "the heavens and earth" means the entire universe, physical plus the spiritual universe. The planet earth is not in view here]. 2 The earth [still refers to the entire materiaal universe] was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep [tehom] and the Spirit of God was moving over the face(s) of the [primeval, universal] waters. 3 And God said, "Let there be light" and there was light. 4 And God saw that the light was good and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. 6 And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." [the discussion still refers to the whole universe--all of space everywhere] 7 And God made the firmament and separated the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. En dit was so. 8 And God called the firmament Heaven [shemayim, almost always plural in Hebrew]. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day [still referring to the entire universe not just the earth]. 9 And God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear." En dit was so. 10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. [Here is the first mention of our planet, earth (eretz), as a created object within the cosmos. This is emphasized in the text by God's "naming" of Earth. "Naming" is the way God gives something its identity]. [From here on the focus of Genesis One is that of an observer on the planet earth. Things happening elsewhere in the universe are secondary and de-emphasized from this point on]. 11 And God said, "Let the earth put forth vegetation, plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind, upon the earth." En dit was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. 14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to separate the day from the night and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth." En dit was so. 16 And God made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night he made the stars also. [note the sun and moon are viewed here as more central to the narrative compared to the rest of the stars and planets, which are seen as incidental to the narrative, i.e., "he made the stars also," almost as if this were an afterthought]. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heavens to give light upon the earth, [earth the center of attention] 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. 20 And God said, "Let the waters [on earth] bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the firmament of the heavens." 21 So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 And God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." 23 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. 24 And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to their kinds: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to their kinds." And it was so. 25 And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds and the cattle according to their kinds, and everything that creeps upon the ground according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. 26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness [shift from nature to man] and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth." 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him male and female he created them. 28 And God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth." 29 And God said, "Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit you shall have them for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food." And it was so. 31 And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, a sixth day. "

The Uniqueness of Creation Week

First written, October 7, 1992, revised June 14, 1994, August 28, 1996, October 9, 1999, January 11, 2001. March 6, 2003. July 22, 2020. February 10, 2021. April 2, 2021


PART TWO

ONE OF THE CHILDREN, Francis II, was now gone. The Biblical scourges were unleashing their furies in the religious wars between the Catholics and Protestants, which had begun in 1561, while Nostradamus still lived. Solyman the Great was on the throne of Turkey, his pirates were sweeping the length of the Mediterranean, harrying Venice, preying on the commerce of all Europe. Hatred and rivalry were between Charles IX and his brother, the Duke d’Anjou, Catherine's favorite child.

These three quatrains are like the opening bars of a tragic symphony, giving the leit-motif which the music will interweave with other patterns, amplifying and developing the theme. Covering the reign of Charles IX were the four religious wars which spread death and ruin over the country. The Protestants numbered more than a quarter of the population of France, a large number to do away with or even crush, yet such was the only idea that presented itself to the Catholics.

In 1565 Catherine and Charles IX met the Duke of Alva at Bayonne to consult about means of quenching the fire of the Protestant menace. The time was set for the massacre which was later postponed until Saint Bartholomew's because the Protestants got wind of it. The Nymph of the North is Queen Elizabeth, whose encouragement and active support were invaluable to the Protestants. The prophet sees the unity of faith lost to France, snuffed out never to return, largely by virtue of this support. Elizabeth also removed the light of the Duke d’Anjou's hope to marry her, which died aborning.

In 1558, two years after the prophet's death, a new and final edition of the Prophecies was published at Lyons by Rigaud. The arrangement of the Centuries was in two parts. The first comprised all of the two previous editions together with the letter to César. The second half consisted of three new Centuries of a hundred verses each, preceded by a letter of dedication to Henry, King of France Second. The edition was brought out under the direction and supervision of Brother Jean Vallier of the monastery of the Mineurs Conventuals, and with the permission of his ecclesiastical superiors. It is evident that this must have been in accordance with a pre-arranged plan made during the prophet's lifetime. It also shows the support and

approval which the Church accorded to his prophetic powers.. In this time of high excitement, war and death, the publication of fresh prophecies was an event of prime importance in court circles. So many forecasts had already been fulfilled that, as Nostradamus had predicted, he was even more famous in death than he had been in life.

In this same year occurred another event of importance to the court, and saddening to all France. This was the death of the Princess Elizabeth, then Queen of Spain. Of her marriage to Philip, Nostradamus had this to say:

Jupiter and Sun, stars of pomp and royalty, had been in friendly aspect during the splendid, fatal tourney which celebrated the match. Philip, from the time he became King of Sicily, was called by the French the "Blood-Sucker of the Midi." The prophet, remembering the sweet child he had seen at Blois, called the

marriage an "extreme remedy," but he saw that the sacrifice was justified for France. The long peace was as foretold. It was only broken after the death of Henry III, when the rise of Navarre, allied with the Nymph of the North, roused Spanish fears.

CRESCENT AND CROSS

While the turmoil of civil war was obsessing France, momentous happenings in the Mediterranean were fulfilling more of the prophet's visions, which were a continuation of what Villiers de L’Isle Adam, the soldier of Rhodes, had told him so many years before.

In 1565 the Turks boldly attacked Malta, killing eight thousand of the Knights and possessing themselves of half the island. The island had, you will remember, been given to the Knights of Rhodes, under Nostradamus’ patient, the Knight Commander de L’Isle Adam, by Spain, as a reward for their valor at Rhodes. Therefore, says Nostradamus, it is poor guerdon for Philip II of Spain and King of Sicily (the deed of Messina, Sicily) to leave them to be squeezed in the straits without sending any help in their dire extremity. John Calvin made Geneva his headquarters. The prophet refers to the "New City," as it was called, in this connection, as contributing to the war.

The Holy Father shall heed the cry of Sicily,
All preparations will go forward from the Gulf of Trieste
Extending down to Sicily,
Comprising many galleys. Flee, flee from the horrible scourge.

In 1571 the Battle of Lepanto turned back and seriously crippled Turkish sea power. In that year the island of Cyprus, "The neighboring descendants of the Crusaders will be ambushed," was seized by Turkey with a massacre so complete and dreadful that at last Christian Europe was galvanized into action. Individual soldiers went from France to take part in the expedition, as did soldiers from all over Europe and England. But France as a nation remained aloof. Philip of Spain and the Pope were the organizers of the naval expedition which did include ten governments, counting the states of Italy. "The picked men" were the flower of Europe's chivalry. Great princes in person led the boarding parties that took the Moslem ships. Cervantes was among the heroes at the battle. The colorful Don John of Austria was the military commander of the allied fleet.

The losses on both sides were very heavy, but the Christians administered a smashing defeat from which Turkey never recovered. Lepanto is one of the most

important naval engagements in history. Its spirit was that of the ancient Crusaders. Its "trireme galleys," little changed from the days when Rome defeated Carthage, saw their last use in a major engagement at Lepanto. These romantic ships of war were shortly discarded for boats of different build adapted to hold the new artillery, and to a complete change in the methods of sea war.

It was some years later, but in direct consequence of Lepanto, that the Shah of Persia seized important Turkish provinces, and also one of the great ports on the Persian Gulf, which enabled him to enrich himself by expansion of his maritime commerce.

THE MASSACRE OF SAINT BARTHOLOMEW

Meanwhile the civil wars of religion went on interminably in France. Leaders on both sides were killed. The ability and faith of Admiral Coligny, after the Prince of Condé died, made him the greatest leader and military commander whom the Protestants had.

Admiral Coligny resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the French navy seven years after he had received it, in order to head the Protestant party. He came within an ace of carrying off "the prize" of power by his ascendancy over Charles IX. For a time, he and his party, as well as his enemies, thought that he had. His domination was so great that Catherine dared delay no longer in putting into execution the plans made seven years previously with the

[paragraph continues] Duke of Alva, at Bayonne. And the first death must be Coligny's. An assassin was sent, Maurevert, to kill the Admiral. Guizot says he watched Coligny's house for three days before the Admiral went out, and the killer got his chance. Nostradamus’ vivid picture of the old man reading his Bible under the eye of the murderer is a perfect bit. Coligny was only wounded, so that the general mass murder was ordered at once. This occurred on the twenty-fourth of August, 1572. Six days earlier, Marguerite of Valois had married Henry of Navarre, and the court was still celebrating the wedding. The feverish deliberations and last minute conferences which preceded the ringing of the tocsin happened precisely as Nostradamus describes. Coligny was murdered at night, unarmed, by the Duke de Guise, his servant, Besme, and three or four of the Swiss mercenaries. The towns mentioned were those in which Protestants were strong, particularly New La Rochelle.

The prophet had no sympathy for Coligny, the spearhead of the faction he believed undermining France. The anointed King acted within his rights to kill the "Traitor." But he deplored that the savagery of that same King should massacre his people, "the slaughtered innocents" of the quatrain quoted earlier. Charles IX was said to have stood at the palace window, arquebus in hand, and shot down Protestants until exhausted.

Events of importance followed two years later, in 1574.

The Fish was the Duke d’Anjou. The Pope, in the Centuries, is often called the Fisherman. France, politically and religiously, was always the best-loved fish of the papacy. Henry of Anjou was heir presumptive to the throne. The quarrel between himself and Charles had become so acute that neither was safe from the other. Henry was offered the crown of Poland, which he accepted to get out of France. After sophisticated Paris, he loathed living in Poland. The Poles quite misjudged the character of the times in France when they invited Henry. He was only there three months. Charles IX, racked with remorse and illness, died, soothed at the last only by the old Protestant nurse whom the prophet had seen with the little boy in the gardens of Blois. Henry left Poland at once to become Henry III of France, until such time as one of his own people would murder him.

DUEL A OUTRANCE

Henry III was weak, vicious, perverted but like all the Valois he had charm. The psychopathic jealousy

and hatred which he had felt for his brother, Charles IX, now that Charles was dead, he projected upon the strong, brilliant Henry, Duke de Guise, son of the warrior who took Calais. Courtly, eloquent, magnetic, Guise was the idol of Paris. He was twice wounded in action, once in the arm, and again in the leg and head. A bullet clipped his ear and scarred his cheek which gave him his nickname, Le Balafré, in spite of which he was considered very handsome. One of the cardinals at court remarked of the Guises, father and son, that they made other people seem common by comparison.

Guise as the descendant of Charlemagne, and having also the royal blood of the Capet line, was one of the two royal brothers whom Nostradamus describes in the following accurate picture of their deadly duel, which was half personal hatred, half desire for power. Guise, like the Bourbons, wanted the throne. As the leader of the Catholic faction, he was in consequence close to the palace, and had in a fashion the inside track. He was at this time far more powerful than the coming King, Henry of Navarre. Guise had every confidence that he would win the crown. The weak King, Catherine supporting her son with her craft, and the Duke de Guise are the actors in this tragedy.

The religious wars were more than a fight between Catholic and Protestant. They were a three-cornered fight for power between Catherine de’ Medici, backing successively her sons, and the great competing houses of Guise-Lorraine and Bourbon-Navarre. None of the three would yield to the others it had to be, as it was, a duel to the death.

Note how the Oriental motif is sustained. Lepanto had defeated Turkey, but not crushed her, and France had not fulfilled her obligation then. No Turkish armies threaten, but the Turk still takes his captives as pirates' prey, while Christian France quarrels internally. The Duke de Guise organized the Catholic League to wrest the power from the King. Spain supported this effort, the King was losing. Assassination was the answer. The King had gone to Blois. The Duke, as Lieutenant-General of France and High Steward of the Royal Household, was also there, both being present for the meeting of the States-General.

[paragraph continues] So one has the strange picture of these two deadly enemies and rivals under the same roof and dining at the same table. The King summoned the Duke for a private conference. As the Duke raised the tapestry to enter the room, known as the old closet, he was stabbed five times by the King's men. The King and the Duke had taken communion together shortly before the murder.

When the Duke was dead the King exclaimed, "Now I am sole King. The King of Paris is dead!" Catherine said, "You have done the cutting, now we must sew it well." But there was little time for her sewing. Her own death, in bed, occurred thirteen days after the murder of the Duke de Guise. France was outraged at the murder. Orleans turned against the King. The other towns mentioned by the prophet promptly went over to the Protestants, for which Nostradamus blames them. Sixtus V, whom, as we have seen, the prophet did not admire, was subservient to Spain, and in many ways vacillating or afraid to adopt a strong policy. The Cardinal de Guise, brother ("Two shall be killed by one of the children") of Le Balafré, was murdered by Henry a few days after the Duke. The third Guise brother, the Duke de Mayenne, then took over the leadership of the Catholic League.

The edict of Poictiers, passed by Henry III in 1577, among other things permitted Protestant ministers to marry. Nostradamus saw this as a threat to Catholicism. It was a temptation away from the ascetic standards of the priesthood, into the freer customs of the Protestant ministry. Venus, here a metaphor for self-indulgence, clouds the Sun of the monarchy.

HENRY OF NAVARRE

The two royal brothers, Henry III and Henry of Navarre, sinking their religious differences and agreeing on a common plan, climb into the same ship of state which is also the barque of religion in a country having a state religion. The condition of the treasury, and the reaction of Italy to the combination of the two rulers were as the prophet indicates.

The great King will be taken by a Young Man
Not far from Easter, when there will be confusion and knife thrust, p. 313
The perpetration of the deed is at the time when there are captives, and powder in the tower,
This murder follows the death of three brothers who injured themselves.

After the furor over the murder of the two Guises, Henry III, twice King, once of Poland, once of France, desperately in need of backing, with the Duke de Mayenne, the third and sole surviving Guise brother, in virtual control of Paris, sought out Henry of Navarre and made an alliance with him. But, "scant

space"--only a few months later the King was assassinated by Jacques Clément, believed to be the agent of the Third Estate. "The Third Estate shall murder one." Clément, the name meaning clement or gentle, is exactly indicated by the prophet as the murderer. The alliance with Navarre was at Easter, the murder--"not long after."

Paris, in the hands of the Duke de Mayenne, preparing its defenses and arresting Protestants and royalists, there were "captives and powder." Pope Sixtus, "the leader of Perouse," after the papacy having been despoiled of England by Henry VIII, was terrified lest it happen now with France. Henry II had been struck on his armored neck-piece by Montgomery's lance. Henry III was stabbed in "the little gut," or neck of the colon. "Father and son both struck in the neck." Henry of Navarre, surviving member of the alliance, is advised to hang on, for not to the nobles under the Duke de Mayenne shall fall Lutetia, Paris. Henry will survive his opponents.

The Seven Children of the King are now dead, all but Marguerite, the wife of Henry of Navarre, who had no children. Under the Salic law she cannot rule, and in time Navarre will divorce her.

Cryptic as these verses read, they tell a perfectly straight story. Two brothers in royalty, Navarre and Mayenne, lead the Protestant and Catholic factions. The winner of the war, Navarre, will not live beyond 1610. He was assassinated then. A coup or an illness will mark his year in 1606. He nearly died of illness in 1608, but Guizot speaks of it as if it were of long standing, and it may have begun when the prophet said.

Henry of Navarre did claim the crown to avenge Henry III, his brother-in-law. He seized Brittany, previously tributary, but autonomous under France. It had belonged to Queen Claude, grandmother of Henry III. Nostradamus said in a verse, previously given, "the cadet branch," the Bourbon, "will plant its foot on Armoric soil." Armorica was the old name of Brittany. Thereafter Brittany remained as a province of the crown.

"The buried" is Coligny who, through his Protestant successor, Henry of Navarre, will enchain the power of Paris. The Barbel is a fish equipped with prongs to spear its prey. The fish, in the Centuries, is always a religious symbol. Here, the Barbel, the vicious fish of the false religion, Protestantism, will poison with the eggs it lays, hopes of the house of the Catholic faction under Guise-Lorraine, so that it is defeated by Navarre. The latter is Lord Warden of the Marches because he comes from the border kingdom of Navarre, a bulwark against Spanish aggression.

But when Henry claimed the throne, the Duke de Mayenne put up a counter-claimant who was none other than Navarre's uncle, the old Cardinal de Bourbon, who had come over to his side. It was in this Cardinal's house that the prophet had lodged while in Paris. But nothing can stop Vendôme (one of the family names of Navarre) although he is worried and doesn't know what Spain is going to do about all this. His first concern was to see that his uncle, whom he had under guard, didn't escape and get himself crowned. The Cardinal was at Chinon in the care of Sieur Chavigny, who was also old, like the Cardinal, and nearly blind. Henry sent a courier with a letter to the governor of Saumur "bidding him at any price" to get the Cardinal away from Chinon and under proper guard, which was done. But the poor old man, "the contender in the duel," died, as the prophet said, not long after.

The battle of Arques, 1589, the first of Navarre's

two great victories, was as the prophet indicates it. Mayenne was between Henry and the sea, blocking help. Henry had a complete line of trenches dug surrounding the castle and town of Arques. Nor does Nostradamus forget to mention the white plume of Navarre, so famous in song and story. Victory, he tells us, will crown Navarre in the battle, that is what he means by "follow the Fleur de Lis." It is the beginning of the taking over by the house of Bourbon--to the prophet a faithless line--the royal lily emblem of Capet.

Meanwhile the letters from Sixtus were very bittersweet. He admired Navarre, but he didn't want a Protestant ruling France. Henry of Navarre at once began to put into practice his ideas of toleration which later were shaped into the Edict of Nantes. "The son of Anion," the religious turncoat and heretic, Navarre, of course, was chosen at Rome, after his purely political conversion to Catholicism. Thus were the two great personages, Mayenne and the Cardinal, defeated.

The Cardinal is dead, but we are not yet finished with the Duke de Mayenne. (And, reader, if the history of France seems unduly involved, don't shoot the prophet and the author. Like the pianist, we are doing our best.)


Steps to Get Started Using Cycle Time:

  1. Establish an accepted definition of cycle time. It is important that everyone in the company calls it by the same thing, or there will be confusion.
  2. Identify a fairly stable process and establish Standard Work for it. That will require documenting the cycle time.
  3. Identify potential problems where the cycle time of a process seems off. Look for parts of the process where the cycle time seems too long (i.e. lots of waiting), where there is excessive variation, and, of course, where there are clear opportunities to improve.
  4. Do daily improvement or schedule a project to make the improvements identified in step 3.
  5. Go back to step 3 and repeat.

Note about timing your process: For the shop floor, use the Time Observation Sheet. In the office, use the Office Process Recording Sheet. You will likely learn a great deal about your operation simply by watching and timing. If your cycle times fluctuate wildly from one observation to the next, you should start your improvement process by focusing on variation reduction.