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Generaal MacArthur keer terug na die Filippyne


Nadat hy eiland vir eiland oor die Stille Oseaan gevorder het, waad die Amerikaanse generaal Douglas MacArthur aan wal op die Filippynse eiland Leyte en vervul hy sy belofte om terug te keer na die gebied waarheen hy in 1942 gedwing is om te vlug.

MacArthur, die seun van 'n Amerikaanse burgeroorlogheld, was voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog die belangrikste Amerikaanse militêre adviseur van die Filippyne. Die dag nadat Pearl Harbor op 7 Desember 1941 gebombardeer is, het Japan sy inval in die Filippyne geloods. Nadat hy teen groot kans gesukkel het om sy aangenome huis te red van die Japanse verowering, is MacArthur genoodsaak om in Maart 1942 die vesting van Corregidor op Filippyne te laat vaar, in opdrag van president Franklin Roosevelt in Maart 1942. By Corregidor en op die Bataan -skiereiland was 90 000 Amerikaanse en Filippynse troepe , wat, sonder voedsel, voorrade en ondersteuning, binnekort sou swig voor die Japannese offensief.

Nadat hulle Corregidor verlaat het, het MacArthur en sy gesin 560 myl per boot na die Filippynse eiland Mindanao gereis en myne, rowwe seë en die Japannese vloot trotseer. Aan die einde van die haarverhogende reis van 35 uur het MacArthur aan die bootbevelvoerder, John D. Bulkeley, gesê: "U het my uit die kake van die dood gehaal, en ek sal dit nie vergeet nie." Op 17 Maart het die generaal en sy gesin aan boord gegaan van 'n B-17 Flying Fortress in die noorde van Australië. Daarna het hy 'n ander vliegtuig geneem en 'n lang treinrit af na Melbourne. Tydens hierdie reis is hy ingelig dat daar baie minder geallieerde troepe in Australië is as wat hy gehoop het. Verligting van sy magte wat in die Filippyne vasgevang was, sou nie eersdaags gebeur nie. Dieper teleurgesteld het hy 'n verklaring aan die pers uitgereik waarin hy sy manne en die mense van die Filippyne belowe het: "Ek sal terugkeer." Die belofte sou sy mantra word gedurende die volgende twee en 'n half jaar, en hy sou dit gereeld in openbare optredes herhaal.

Vir sy dapper verdediging van die Filippyne, word MacArthur bekroon met die Congressional Medal of Honor en gevier as 'Amerika se eerste soldaat'. In beheer van die geallieerde magte in die suidwestelike Stille Oseaan, was sy eerste plig om die verdediging van Australië uit te voer. Intussen het Bataan in die Filippyne in April geval, en die 70 000 Amerikaanse en Filippynse soldate wat daar gevange geneem is, moes 'n dodemars onderneem waarin minstens 7,000 omgekom het. Toe, in Mei, het Corregidor oorgegee, en nog 15 000 Amerikaners en Filippyne is gevange geneem. Die Filippyne was verlore, en die gesamentlike stafhoofde van die VSA het geen onmiddellike planne vir hul bevryding gehad nie.

Na die Amerikaanse oorwinning in die Slag van Midway in Junie 1942, het die meeste geallieerde hulpbronne in die Stille Oseaan gegaan na die Amerikaanse admiraal Chester Nimitz, wat as bevelvoerder van die Stille Oseaan -vloot 'n meer direkte roete na Japan beplan het as via die Filippyne. Onverskrokke het MacArthur 'n groot offensief in Nieu -Guinee begin en 'n reeks oorwinnings met sy beperkte magte behaal. Teen September 1944 was hy gereed om 'n inval in die Filippyne te begin, maar hy het die ondersteuning van Nimitz se Stille Oseaan -vloot nodig gehad. Na 'n tydperk van besluiteloosheid oor die vraag of hulle die Filippyne of Formosa sou binneval, het die Joint Chiefs hul steun agter MacArthur se plan gelê, wat logisties eerder as 'n Formosa -inval uitgevoer kon word.

Op 20 Oktober 1944, 'n paar uur nadat sy troepe geland het, waai MacArthur aan wal op die Filippynse eiland Leyte. Daardie dag het hy 'n radio -uitsending gemaak waarin hy verklaar het: "Mense van die Filippyne, ek het teruggekeer!" In Januarie 1945 val sy magte die hoof Filippynse eiland Luzon binne. In Februarie is die Japannese magte by Bataan afgesny en Corregidor is gevange geneem. Manila, die Filippynse hoofstad, het in Maart geval, en in Junie kondig MacArthur aan dat sy aanvallende operasies op Luzon ten einde loop; hoewel verspreide Japannese weerstand tot in die einde van die oorlog voortduur, in Augustus. Slegs 'n derde van die mans wat MacArthur in Maart 1942 agtergelaat het, het oorleef om sy terugkeer te sien. 'Ek is 'n bietjie laat,' het hy vir hulle gesê, 'maar ons het uiteindelik gekom.'


Shore Party: Die waarheid agter die beroemde MacArthur -foto

Die woede van Douglas MacArthur oor die noodsaaklikheid om in Oktober 1944 (hierbo) in Leyte aan wal te gaan, het verdwyn toe hy die kragtige foto sien.

Ek het kegelfoto's dikwels hul eie verhale - sommige werklik, sommige mites.

Vir meer as 76 jaar draai vrae rondom die beroemde foto's van generaal Douglas MacArthur se strandlandings - eers op Leyte, dan op Luzon - toe Amerikaanse troepe terugkeer om die Filippyne te bevry. Verhale bestaan ​​dat MacArthur, geen vreemdeling in kontroversie of drama nie, die foto's opgevoer het deur verskeie kere aan wal te kom totdat die kameraman die perfekte skoot gekry het, of dat die foto's 'n paar dae na die werklike landing geneem is. Diegene wat teenwoordig was, sê dat nie een van hierdie dikwels herhaalde verhale waar is nie. Maar wat werklik gebeur het, is selfs vreemder as hierdie misleide gerugte.

MacArthur se terugkeer was die hoogtepunt van sy oorlog. In Julie 1941 is hy aangewys as bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse weermag in die Verre Ooste, insluitend alle Amerikaanse en Filippynse troepe in die Filippyne. In Maart 1942, met Japannese magte wat hul greep om die Filippyne verskerp het, is MacArthur beveel om die eilande na Australië te verlaat. Nadat hy sy bestemming bereik het, beloof hy om die Filippyne te bevry en beroemd te verklaar: "Ek sal terugkeer."

Teen April 1942 het Japannese eenhede wat oor die Filippyne gevorder het, beleërde geallieerde troepe daar genoop om hulle oor te gee. Van toe af was die Filippyne 'die hoofdoel van my beplanning', het MacArthur gesê. Aan die einde van 1944 was hy gereed om sy belofte na te kom - totdat 'n stryd tussen dienste dreig om sy planne te ontspoor.

Die Amerikaanse vloot wou hê Amerikaanse magte moet die Filippyne omseil en eerder Formosa (nou Taiwan) binneval. MacArthur het streng beswaar aangeteken, beide op strategiese gronde en teen sy oortuiging dat die Verenigde State 'n morele plig teenoor die mense van die Filippyne het. Die geskil het tot by Frank Frank D. Roosevelt gegaan, wat hom uiteindelik by MacArthur aangesluit het.

Uiteindelik, op 20 Oktober 1944, het MacArthur sy lang verwagte terugkeer gemaak. Om tienuur het sy troepe aan wal gestorm op Leyte, 'n eiland in die sentrale Filippyne. Die swaarste gevegte het op Red Beach plaasgevind, maar vroegmiddag het die manne van MacArthur die gebied beveilig. Veilig beteken egter nie veilig nie. Japannese skerpskutters bly aktief terwyl vuurwapens en mortier deur die loop van die dag voortgeduur het. Honderde klein landingsvaartuie het die strande verstop, maar die water was te vlak vir groter landingsvaartuie om droog land te bereik.

Aan boord van die USS Nashville twee myl van die see af, kon 'n rustelose MacArthur nie wag om sy voete terug te sit op Filippynse grond nie. Om 13:00 het hy en sy personeel die kruiser verlaat om die rit van twee myl na Red Beach te neem. MacArthur was van plan om op droë grond uit te stap, maar het gou besef dat hul vaartuig te groot was om deur die vlak dieptes naby die kuslyn te vorder. 'N Hulp het die vlootmeester van die vloot gestuur en gevra dat 'n kleiner vaartuig gestuur moet word om dit in te bring. hoeveel sterre hy gedra het. 'Loop in - die water is goed,' grom hy.

Die boog van die landingsvaartuig het geval en MacArthur en sy gevolg het 50 meter deur kniediep water gewaai om land te bereik.

Majoor Gaetano Faillace, 'n weermagfotograaf wat aan MacArthur toegewys is, het foto's geneem van die algemene wat aan wal gaan. Die resultaat was 'n beeld van 'n grys MacArthur met 'n stewige kakebeen, met 'n staaloog terwyl hy die strand nader. Maar wat moontlik as vasberadenheid voorgekom het, was in werklikheid woede. MacArthur was beroerd. Terwyl hy deur die water gly, staar hy dolke na die onbeskaamde strandmeester, wat die generaal behandel het soos wat hy waarskynlik nie sedert sy dae as plebe by West Point behandel is nie. Toe MacArthur die foto sien, het sy woede egter vinnig verdwyn. Hy was 'n meester in openbare betrekkinge en het 'n goeie foto geken toe hy een sien.

Tog het gerugte volgehou dat MacArthur die Leyte -foto opgevoer het. Die radiokorrespondent van die CBS, William J. Dunn, wat daardie dag op Red Beach was, het hierdie gerugte sterk betwis en dit 'een van die mees belaglike wanopvattings uit die oorlog' genoem. Die foto was ''n eenmalige skoot' wat binne enkele ure na die aanvanklike landing geneem is, het Dunn gesê, nie iets wat later herhaal word vir die perfekte prentjie nie. MacArthur-biograaf D. Clayton James stem saam en merk op dat MacArthur se "planne vir die drama op Red Beach beslis nie insluit dat jy in kniediep water moet afstap nie."

Die volgende landing was egter 'n ander storie.

In die hoop om die effektiewe wandeling aan wal by Leyte te herhaal, het MacArthur gereël dat sy landingsvaartuig by Luzon aan die kus stop, wat fotograaf Carl Mydans in hierdie beroemde beeld vasgelê het. (Carl Mydans/ The Life Picture Collection/ Getty Images)

Op 9 Januarie 1945 het Amerikaanse troepe by Luzon, die hoofeiland in die Filippyne, aangekom en die Japannese verras. Die opposisie was lig. MacArthur het die landings van die vaartuig USS dopgehou Boise en om 14:00 - ongeveer vier uur na die aanvanklike landings - is hy op pad kus toe.

Navy Seabees het vinnig 'n klein pier met pontons gebou sodat MacArthur en sy personeel hul vaartuig kon verlaat sonder om nat te word. Toe hy dit sien, beveel MacArthur sy boot om van die pier af weg te swaai, sodat hy deur kniediep water aan wal kan gaan, soos hy by Leyte gedoen het. Hy het dit geweet Lewe tydskriffotograaf Carl Mydans was op die strand. Toe hy na die strand stap, tref MacArthur dieselfde houding en standvastige gesigsuitdrukking as by Leyte. Mydans het die beroemde foto wat gou op die voorblaaie van koerante in die Verenigde State verskyn het, geneem en wat geword Tyd tydskrif '' 'n ikoon van sy era '' genoem. Niemand, het Mydans later gesê, waardeer die waarde van 'n foto meer as MacArthur.

Daar is min twyfel dat MacArthur gekies het om die pier - en droë voete - te vermy vir dramatiese effek. 'Nadat ek baie tyd saam met MacArthur deurgebring het,' het Mydans gesê, 'het dit by my opgekom wat gebeur. Hy vermy die pontons. ” Biograaf D. Clayton James het geskryf dat die Luzon -landing “blykbaar 'n doelbewuste vertoning was. Met die wêreldwye aandag wat sy Leyte -loop deur die water gekry het, kon die Barrymore -kant van MacArthur se persoonlikheid blykbaar nie weer 'n groot plons publisiteit en branderry weerstaan ​​nie. "

MacArthur, aan die ander kant, blameer die noodlot. 'Soos ek 'n gewoonte by my begin word het,' het hy geskryf, miskien met die tong in die wang, 'het ek 'n boot gekies wat te veel sleep nodig gehad het om by die strand te kom, en ek moes binnedring.' (vervolg na foto's hieronder)

Redakteurs van Lewe het Maydan se ander foto's gebruik om 'n ander siening van die beroemde, wyd gepubliseerde Luzon -foto voor te stel, miskien as 'n truuk om lesers te laat glo dat hulle iets anders sien nadat hulle dit gekry het. (Foto deur Carl Mydans/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

(Foto deur Carl Mydans/The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images)

Ander omstandighede het saamgesweer om te laat blyk dat MacArthur meer as een keer by Luzon ingeduik het. Alhoewel Mydans gewerk het Lewe, op daardie dag was hy die swembadfotograaf, wat enige nuusorganisasie gratis lisensie gegee het om die beeld te gebruik. Op 20 Januarie 1945 verskyn 'n styfgesnyde weergawe van die foto, wat MacArthur die fokuspunt maak, in koerante in die Verenigde State. Wanneer Lewe 'n maand later het die foto die redakteur gebruik, die redakteurs het die ongekapte weergawe gebruik, wat ander vaartuie en figure op die periferie insluit en selfs nog 'n fotograaf op die voorgrond. Slegs 'n skerp-oog kyker sou besef dat dit die foto is wat hulle al weke vroeër in koerante gesien het, wat die indruk van herhalende fotosessies veroorsaak. Lewe het die ikoniese foto ook omring met ander beelde wat Mydans oomblikke voor en daarna geneem het, insluitend 'n onvleiende skoot van MacArthur wat gehelp is teen die oprit van die landingsvaartuig. Dit alles was moontlik 'n slenter deur die tydskrif - deur sy eie fotograaf - om lesers te laat dink dat hulle iets nuuts en anders sien.

Uiteindelik sal kontroversies oor die landing van MacArthur waarskynlik voortduur. 'Dit is verhale wat een keer geskep sal bly,' het Mydans gesê, 'en elke nuwe generasie sal 'n rede vind om dit te vertel. Gewoonlik is dit met vreugde. ” ✯

Hierdie verhaal is oorspronklik gepubliseer in die Januarie/Februarie 2017 -uitgawe van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog tydskrif. Teken hier in.


"Ek het teruggekom!" - Generaal MacArthur en FDR

Op 20 Oktober 1944 waai genl Douglas MacArthur aan wal op Leyte -eiland in die Filippyne en vervul sy belofte om terug te keer. Die charismatiese en oorweldigende generaal was een van die beroemdste Amerikaanse militêre leiers ter wêreld, en sy dramatiese terugkeer na sy geliefde Filippyne was 'n groot prestasie in sy meedoënlose stryd om die Japanse leër uit Suidwes -Asië te verdryf. Die Universal Newsreel het die oomblik vasgevang.

Dit was 'n verlossende oomblik na die verwoestende verliese wat die Amerikaanse weermag en genl MacArthur twee jaar tevore gely het. Ondanks die vroeë waarskuwing wat gegee is toe die Japannese Pearl Harbor aanval, was genl MacArthur se magte in die Filippyne op 8 Desember onvoorbereid toe die Japannese lugmag aanval. Hulle vernietig byna 50% van die Amerikaanse oorlogsvliegtuie by Clark Field, waarvan die meeste nog op die grond was. Teen Januarie het die Japannese die Geallieerde magte op die Bataan -skiereiland verdryf en die situasie was wanhopig. Genl MacArthur moes sy hoofkwartier na die eilandvesting Corregidor skuif. Namate die situasie versleg het, beveel president Roosevelt die generaal om vir sy eie veiligheid te vertrek. Die generaal en sy gesin en die naaste hulpverleners moes in die middel van die nag ontsnap en in Australië verhuis. Toe genl MacArthur in Australië aankom, het hy sy beroemde verklaring afgelê:

“Ek het deurgekom en ek sal terugkeer.”

President Roosevelt het genl MacArthur die eremedalje toegeken vir sy moedige verdediging van die Filippyne. Maar die openbare steun het eintlik 'n diepe spanning tussen die president en sy moeilikste generaal veroorsaak.

Die Withuis het die generaal gevra om sy verklaring van "I Shall Return" te verander na
'Ons sal terugkeer', maar die generaal het geweier. Die animus tussen FDR en genl MacArthur gaan baie jare terug. Reeds in 1932, toe hy nog goewerneur van New York was, het FDR aan 'n nabye adviseur gesê dat hy gedink het Douglas MacArthur was een van die twee "gevaarlikste mans in Amerika."

Franklin Roosevelt en Douglas MacArthur het mekaar die eerste keer in 1916 ontmoet toe die land voorberei het op die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. MacArthur was 'n majoor in die leër se algemene personeel en FDR was die assistent -sekretaris van die vloot. Vir die volgende drie dekades sou hul paaie weer en weer kruis. President Roosevelt het eenkeer aan MacArthur gesê "Douglas, ek dink jy is ons beste generaal, maar ek glo dat jy ons slegste politikus sou wees."

President Roosevelt was woedend toe hy die eerste keer meegedeel is dat die Amerikaanse lugmag in die Verre Ooste "op die grond" betrap is toe die Japannese aangeval het. Baie militêre historici het genl MacArthur hard beoordeel weens sy gebrek aan voorbereiding en die daaropvolgende nederlaag van die geallieerde magte in die Filippyne. Vroeg 1942 was 'n baie donker tyd vir die Geallieerdes, met Nazi -magte wat oor Europa en Rusland sweef, die Japannese vloot in beheer van die grootste deel van die Westelike Stille Oseaan en die Britse Ryk onder beleg. Alhoewel daar baie redes was om genl MacArthur te blameer vir die vernederende oorgawe van die Amerikaanse en Britse magte in Corregidor en die wrede Bataan Death March wat gevolg het, het president Roosevelt 'n ander strategie toegepas. Altyd die wyse politieke leier, FDR het besef dat wat die Amerikaanse publiek nodig het 'n held was, nie 'n sondebok nie. Dus het hy genl MacArthur bevorder tot opperbevelvoerder van die Suidwes -Stille Oseaan. In daardie rol het die generaal begin voorberei op sy terugkeer na die Filippyne.

Op 20 Oktober 1944 vervul hy sy planne en stap aan wal terwyl die hele wêreld kyk. President Roosevelt het hom hierdie telegram gestuur om hom geluk te wens met sy oorwinning.

In werklikheid het genl MacArthur aan wal gekom terwyl die geveg steeds woed en teen die advies van sy senior personeel was. MacArthur was altyd bewus van sy rol as 'n historiese figuur en het sy voorbereide toespraak gelewer met, soos premier Winston Churchill sou sê, groot krag.

'Mense van die Filippyne: ek het teruggekeer. Deur die genade van die almagtige God staan ​​ons kragte weer op Filippynse grond — grond gewy in die bloed van ons twee volke. Ons het ons toegewyd en toegewy aan die taak om elke spoor van vyandelike beheer oor u daaglikse lewens te vernietig en om die vryhede van u mense te herstel op 'n grondslag van onvernietigbare krag. "

Genl MacArthur het steeds groter glorie beleef en hy aanvaar die Japannese oorgawe aan boord van die USS Missouri op 2 September 1945.

Teen daardie tyd was president Roosevelt dood, en president Harry Truman moes nou die moeilike generaal bestuur. Douglas MacArthur word die opperbevelhebber van die Geallieerdes in Japan. Hy het gehelp om die land op te bou en 'n funksionerende demokrasie in werking te stel wat een van die grootste suksesverhale van die naoorlogse era verteenwoordig. Dit was eers in die Koreaanse oorlog dat president Truman en generaal MacArthur hul groot konfrontasie beleef het. Maar dit is 'n ander storie.


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Sonder Chick Parsons het generaal MacArthur nooit sy beroemde terugkeer na die Filippyne gemaak nie

Chick Parsons het slaap nodig gehad. Hy het bedags deur die oerwoud gejaag en byna vier maande lank op die eiland gejaag. Sy missie in die Filippyne, opgedra deur genl. Douglas MacArthur self, was om soldate te kontak wat die heuwels ingevaar het toe die Japannese leër die Verenigde State op Bataan en Corregidor in die lente van 1942 verslaan het. Hierdie verspreide vegters, beide Amerikaans en Filippyns , het probeer om hulself te organiseer in 'n guerrillamag wat die besetters op die meer as 7 000 eilande van die Filippynse argipel kan teister. Hulle het medisyne, wapens, ammunisie en radiotoerusting dringend nodig gehad, en op 'n klandestiene sending in die lente van 1943 het Parsons dit afgelewer.

Belangriker nog, hy het 'n vroeë teken gegee dat MacArthur die gelofte wat hy afgelê het, sou aflê nadat hy uit die Filippyne teruggetrek het. Die generaal was nog steeds in sy hoofkwartier in Brisbane, Australië, 3 000 myl daarvandaan, maar vir die ongeorganiseerde en inligtinghonger mans in die oerwoud fluister die teenwoordigheid van sy persoonlike gesant: ek sal terugkeer. Die uitwerking op die guerrillas (ook op die burgerlikes) was wonderbaarlik, het Parsons in 'n brief aan die Filippynse ballingskap, Manuel L. Quez, geskryf. Dit was aangrypend om die dankbaarheid van die mans vir die voorraad waar te neem. Dit het hulle gewys dat hulle nie in die steek gelaat is nie, dat hul pogings deur generaal MacArthur bekend was en waardeer is, en dit het hulle nuwe lewe gegee. ”

Voor die Tweede Wêreldoorlog was Parsons die roosterbrood van die Manila -samelewing, suksesvol in die sakewêreld en ongeëwenaard op die poloveld, 'n gesellige, gespierde expat -Amerikaner met 'n skok van golwende bruin hare, 'n wen -glimlag en 'n arend wat oor die uitgestrekte tatoeëermerk getatoeëer is bors. Nou het hy 'n blaaskans en tyd nodig gehad om die intelligensie wat hy in die veld bymekaargemaak het, te organiseer. Hy het tien dae gehad om te brand voor sy ontmoeting met 'n duikboot wat hom na die hoofkwartier van MacArthur sou neem, en daarom soek hy veiligheid in die hawestad Jimenez, op die eiland Mindanao. Een van sy vele vriende, senator Jos é Oz ámiz, het 'n herehuis daar gehad, en Parsons het homself in 'n tweede verdieping vertrek. Tussen die dutjies begin hy 'n omvangryke gedetailleerde verslag vir MacArthur skryf: guerrillaleiers se name en vermoëns, hul mans se gesondheids- en moraalplanne om hulle toe te rus om Japannese skeepsbewegings op te spoor en aan te meld waar en hoe om 'n bomwerpersbasis te bou.

Die middag van Saterdag, 26 Junie, was tipies stom, maar 'n briesie langs Iliganbaai het oor Parsons ’ kamer met hoë plafonne gewaai. Hy was nog skemer toe een van die dogters van die senator by 'n waarskuwing stilhou: 'n Japannese patrollie was naby. Maar daar was onlangs 'n reeks vals alarms, en daarbenewens was die Oz ámiz -huis, net soos baie ander in Jimenez, op die eerste verdieping aangebring, sodat dit verlate lyk. Parsons bly sit.

'N Rukkie later hoor hy 'n enjin wat loop en 'n voertuigdeur oopgegooi word, gevolg deur voetstortings op die sypaadjie hieronder. Op daardie stadium is min Filippyne toegelaat om petrol of permitte te bestuur. Hulle het perd gery, met ossewaens gery of op hul kaal voete geloop. Nie so nie die besettingsleër. Die guerrillas het geweet ons het geleer dat ons almal geleer het dat hulle altyd stewels, volledige toerusting gedra het, en#8221 wat Parsons jare later herroep het. Dus, toe u in die nag op 'n roete afstap en u kon hoor hoe iemand in die ander rigting op die roete kom, as hulle skoene dra, weet u verdomp dat hulle Japannees is. ”

MacArthur's Spies: The Soldier, the Singer, and the Spymaster Who tarted the Japanese in World War II

'N Opwindende verhaal van spioenasie, waagmoed en misleiding wat afspeel in die eksotiese landskap van die besette Manila tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog.

Volgens 'n verslag van sy seun Peter, het hy ontsnappingsroetes ondersoek sodra hy by die huis aangekom het. Nou spring hy uit sy bed, steek sy papiere in 'n skouersak en loer uit die hoek van 'n venster in sy kamer. Soldate het om die huis gegaan. Toe hulle aan die planke wat die voordeur bedek, begin klap, het hy vasgebout na die donker boë van die salon, dan na die kombuis aan die agterkant van die huis en dan by die agterdeur uit. 'N Vark buk en snork naby, neus op die grond. Parsons spring by die trappe af en verby die waterput. 'N Soldaat het hom gewaar, maar nie betyds om te skiet nie. Al wat hy gesien het, was 'n byna kaal man, met wilde hare en baard, oor 'n lae betonmuur.

Selfs voor sy sending na Mindanao, het Chick Parsons 'n bedrywige oorlog gehad: in die chaotiese vroeë dae van die Japannese besetting het hy saam met sy gesin in Manila gebly om vir die Amerikaners te spioeneer, en hy het sy dekking behou selfs nadat hy aangehou, geslaan is. en amper seker gemartel. Nadat hy vrygelaat is, het hy sy gesin na die Verenigde State gebring en gou gehoor gegee aan 'n dagvaarding van MacArthur om weer in die oorlog te kom. Teen 1944 was hy besig om die weg voor te berei vir die geallieerde oorwinning in die Slag van die Golf van Leyte, wat volgens baie historici die grootste vlootbetrokkenheid in die geskiedenis is.

Hy is die hooforganiseerder van die versetsbeweging op die grond, het James Zobel, die argivaris van die MacArthur Memorial Museum in Norfolk, Virginia, vir my gesê. Hy ken al die mense, laat hulle in al die militêre distrikte oprig en laat hulle verstaan: Tensy u die reëls volg wat MacArthur neergelê het, sal ons u nie ondersteun nie. ’ Dit sou is moeilik om jou voor te stel dat iemand anders as Parsons dit vermag. Die hoofkwartier het 'n idee van hoe dinge moet verloop, maar hy is die man wat dit regtig geïmplementeer het. ”

En tog registreer die naam Chick Parsons ’ skaars in die rekeninge van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog. 'N Paar jaar daarna werk hy saam met 'n skrywer, Travis Ingham, aan 'n memoir, Rendezvous met duikboot. Terwyl sommige gedeeltes oorskakel na die eerste persoon, skram hy weg van selfvergroting. “Ek is nie 'n kleurvolle figuur nie, ” het hy in 'n brief aan Ingham geskryf, en ek wil soveel as moontlik uit die verhaal van die guerrillabeweging gehou word. ” Sy beskeidenheid kan een rede wees dat die boek nooit wyd gelees is nie.

Ek het eers van hom geleer terwyl ek ondersoek ingestel het na die lewe van 'n ander Amerikaanse uitgewekenes wat vasgevang was in die Filippyne en#8217 oorlogsintrige, Claire Phillips. Sy was 'n sangeres en gasvrou en het die intelligensie ontwrig van Japannese offisiere wat gereeld 'n nagklub besoek het wat sy in Manila opgerig het. Phillips ’ oorlogstydboek, wat ek ontdek het onder ongeveer 2 000 dokumente met betrekking tot haar en haar bondgenote by die National Archives in Washington, DC, bevat kriptiese inskrywings vir 30 Junie en 3 Julie 1943: “ Sal volgende vier dae besig wees. S. Wilson en Chick Parsons het aangekom. Moet almal by hulle kry. ” (Parsons en Sam Wilson, 'n Amerikaanse vriend wat guerrilla geword het, was in die omgewing van die hoofstad.) My navorsing het uiteindelik tot my boek gelei MacArthur se spioene, wat fokus op Phillips en Parsons en die Amerikaanse guerrilla John Boone insluit in ondersteunende rolle.

Terwyl ek dit geskryf het, het ek gelag vir Parsons ’ selfevaluering — “ en nie 'n kleurvolle figuur nie & om te voel dat sy wens om uit die verhaal te bly, te half beskeie was. Die rekords van sy Tweede Wêreldoorlog -diens lê gefragmenteerd in die verslae wat hy ingedien het, rekords wat deur militêre bevelvoerders in die Stille Oseaan gehou is en dokumente in die MacArthur Memorial Museum -argiewe. Hierdie rekords, plus onderhoude met sy seun Peter en 'n ongepubliseerde mondelinge geskiedenis wat Parsons in 1981 gegee het, help om een ​​van die belangrikste, maar skaduryke verhale van die Stille Oseaan -oorlog te verduidelik.

Charles Thomas Parsons Jr. is in 1900 in Shelbyville, Tennessee, gebore, maar sy gesin verhuis gereeld om skuldeisers te vermy. Toe die jong Charles 5 was, het sy ma hom na Manila gestuur vir 'n meer stabiele lewe saam met haar broer, 'n amptenaar van openbare gesondheid in die Amerikaanse regering. Die seuntjie het sy basiese opleiding in Spaans ontvang by die Santa Potenciana -skool, 'n Katolieke skool wat in die 16de eeu gestig is. Parsons se bynaam, “Chick, ” is miskien verkort van chico, vir “boy. ” Terwyl hy van sy kinderjare in die koloniale Manila gehou het, het Parsons laat in die lewe aan sy seun erken dat hy nooit regtig die pyn gekry het om weggestuur te word nie. Dit het hom baie seergemaak, ” het Peter Parsons vir my gesê. “Hy het my gevra, ‘ Kan jy jou voorstel hoe ek gevoel het? ’ ”

Hy keer as tiener terug na Tennessee en studeer aan die Chattanooga High School. Hy het in die vroeë 1920's as 'n seeman teruggekeer na die Filippyne en het hom kort daarna as stenograaf aangestel vir genl.maj Leonard Wood, 'n held van die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog (hy was bevelvoerder van die Rough Riders langs Theodore Roosevelt), wat toe dien as die Amerikaanse goewerneur -generaal van die Filippyne.

Parsons se sakekontakte het oor die hele Filippyne gewissel, wat hom van onskatbare waarde maak vir MacArthur se hoop om Filipynse en Amerikaanse guerrillas wat in die heuwels skuil, te organiseer. (Guilbert Gates)

Parsons het deur die hele land gereis met Wood, geleer Tagalog, die basis vir die landstaal, Filippynse, en het vriende gemaak en plekke besoek wat buite die bereik van die meeste reisigers was. Anders as ander Amerikaners, het hy die gemeenskap van die koloniale elite verby gegaan en blywende vriendskappe met Filippyne aangegaan. In 1924 het hy sy kontakte in 'n werk as houtkoper by 'n houtkapfirma in Kalifornië ingerig, op reis gegaan om uitvoerooreenkomste te sluit en om sy kennis oor die eilande en sy vriendekring uit te brei. Terwyl hy in Zamboanga, op Mindanao, werk, ontmoet hy Katrushka “Katsy ” Jurika, haar pa was 'n immigrant uit Oostenryk-Hongarye wat 'n klapperplantasie besit het en haar ma was afkomstig uit Kalifornië. Chick en Katsy trou in 1928. Hy was 28, sy 16.

Die Wall Street -ineenstorting van 1929 het die houtkapmaatskappy gedoem, maar die volgende jaar word Parsons die hoofbestuurder van die Luzon Stevedoring Co., wat mangaan, chroom, klappers, rys en ander goedere na verskeie lande, waaronder Japan, uitvoer. Chick en Katsy verhuis na Manila, en hy sluit in 1932 aan by die Amerikaanse vlootreservaat en ontvang 'n kommissie as luitenant, junior graad. Hulle sosiale kring was onder meer Jean en Douglas MacArthur, destyds kommandant van die Filippynse Gemenebest -leër, en Mamie en luitenant -kolonel Dwight David Eisenhower.

Deur 1940 en toe die ekonomiese spanning tussen die Verenigde State en Japan toeneem, het Parsons probeer om die verminderde uitvoeropsies van sy onderneming te beskerm. Hierdie opsies was op 8 Desember 1941 (7 Desember in die Verenigde State) op, toe nuus van die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor Manila bereik. Voor sonop daardie dag het adm. Thomas C. Hart, bevelvoerder van die Stille Oseaan-vloot, Parsons na sy kantoor ontbied en hom as 'n aktiewe diensbeampte ingesweer, aangestel by die marine-intelligensie in die hawe van Manila.

Binne enkele ure het die Japannese bomwerpers die grootste deel van die Amerikaanse weermag se lugmag vernietig terwyl die vliegtuie nog op die grond was. In die daaropvolgende dae het Japannese soorte reëlings op die hawe gereën. Al wat Parsons kon doen, was om die gewondes te versorg en die dooies weg te dra. Terwyl Japan Amerikaanse verdediging uitgewis het, beveel MacArthur sy magte in Manila om op Kersaand terug te keer na Bataan en Corregidor. Parsons het agtergebly om toesig te hou oor 'n geraamte wat aangewys is om skepe te stuur en ander materiaal te vernietig om dit uit vyandelike hande te hou. Op 2 Januarie 1942 het die Japannese leër onbestrede in Manila ingetrek.

Parsons het net teruggetrek tot by sy huis op Dewey Boulevard, waar hy sy uniforms en ander bewyse verbrand het dat hy 'n Amerikaanse vlootbeampte was. Maar hy het sy Panamese vlag vasgehou. Vanweë sy ervaring in skeepvaart en hawebedrywighede het Panama se minister van buitelandse sake hom die erekonsul -generaal van die land in die Filippyne genoem. Terwyl die besettingsowerhede beveel het dat die 4 000 Amerikaners in Manila aan die Universiteit van Santo Tomas aangehou moet word, het hulle Parsons, sy vrou en hul drie kinders alleen gelaat in die oortuiging dat hy 'n diplomaat was van Panama, 'n neutrale land.

For the next four months, speaking only Spanish in public and flashing his diplomatic credentials whenever necessary, Parsons collected strategic information, including Japanese troop strengths and the names and locations of American prisoners of war. He also began to organize friends in Manila and beyond for an eventual underground intelligence network that would range through all of Luzon, the largest and most populous Philippine island. But his time ran out  after Lt. Col. Jimmy Doolittle led a 16-plane bombing run on Tokyo on April 18. The raid left 87 people dead, most of them civilians, and 450 wounded, including 151 serious civilian injuries.

In Manila, the Japanese Army’s feared Kempeitai military police retaliated by rounding up all non-Asian men—including Parsons, diplomatic immunity be damned. They were thrown into a stone dungeon at Fort Santiago, the 350-year-old fortress within Intramuros, the colonial walled city where Chick had lived and played as a child. Prisoners there were routinely beaten with wooden bats, tortured with electric wires and waterboarded. “They pushed me around a little bit, didn’t amount to very much, but it was painful,” Parsons recalled in 1981. Chinese diplomats in an adjoining cell, he said, had it far worse—and one day “they were all marched out of the cell and. beheaded.”

Fort Santiago, the seat of Spanish power in the Philippines since 1571, became a Japanese torture center in World War II. Parsons had played nearby as a boy—and was held there as an adult. (Jes Aznar)

Under interrogation, Parsons admitted nothing. “I had done so many things,” he recalled. “. If I’d admitted to one, they might have taken me out and hung me.” After five days of grilling, Japanese guards sent him without explanation to the civilian detention center at the University of Santo Tomas. Lobbying by other diplomats got him released, and he was taken to a hospital, suffering from unspecified kidney problems—one possible consequence of taking in too much water, as waterboarding victims often do.

Still, the Japanese believed Parsons was Panama’s consul general to Manila, and they allowed him and his family to leave the Philippines in June 1942 in an exchange of diplomatic detainees. In a daring parting gesture, he and Katsy smuggled out documents they had gathered in a diaper bag they carried for their infant son, Patrick.

By the time the Parsons family reached New York on August 27, the Navy had lost track of Chick—he was listed as missing in action. But he reported for duty within days and settled in at the War Department in Washington, D.C., to write a review of his six months in occupied territory.

Late that fall, MacArthur began receiving intermittent radio messages from the guerrillas in the Philippines, declaring they were ready to fight. He had no way of assessing the communications, or even guaranteeing it wasn’t Japanese disinformation. Then the general received word from the Philippines government in exile that his old friend wasn’t missing in action. He cabled Washington: “SEND PARSONS IMMEDIATELY.”

The two were reunited in mid- January 1943 at the U.S. Southwest Pacific Area headquarters in Brisbane. In MacArthur’s office, Parsons recalled, “The first thing he asked was, ‘Would you volunteer to go back to the Philippines?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘You know you don’t have to. You know this is purely a voluntary deal.’” Then he added: “I do need you badly.” Parsons was assigned to the Allied Intelligence Bureau, but MacArthur broke the chain of command and dealt with him directly.

Within a month, Parsons was on a submarine bound for Mindanao. “I don’t want you to be silly about doing anything that would jeopardize your life or get you into the hands of the enemy,” MacArthur had told him before he boarded.

Over Parsons’ months of island- hopping and jungle-trekking, he did what he was told, gauging the guerrillas’ strength, establishing reliable communications and laying down MacArthur’s rules. Guerrilla leaders had been jockeying for rank and power, with some even calling themselves “general.” No more. They were now under the direct command of the U.S. Army, and there was only one general, MacArthur, and he ordered them to avoid taking the offensive against the Japanese for the time being. The guerrillas weren’t yet strong enough, and any attacks by them could bring reprisals against civilians. As he did so, Parsons managed to unite disparate Filipino Muslim guerrillas with Christian fighters in a common effort against the Japanese.

There is strong anecdotal evidence that he took a potentially lethal side trip to Manila.

That May, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo marched triumphantly through the capital’s streets on his first foreign visit of the war. As the occupation authorities pressed Filipino leaders to serve in a puppet government, they were tightening their hold on the city. It would have been brazen, to say the least, for an American spy to enter, but at least half a dozen people reported after the war that they saw Parsons in Manila that spring.

John Rocha, who was 5 at the time, recalled that a man on a bicycle stopped to give him magazines and candy. “That was Chick Parsons,” Rocha’s father told him. “Do not mention that you saw him.” A bartender at Claire Phillips’ nightclub, Mamerto Geronimo, said he met Parsons on the street, dressed as a priest. Peter Parsons once overheard his father telling a friend, “I really looked the part. I even had the beard. I looked like a Spanish priest.” A Japanese officer said he realized in retrospect that Parsons had used the same disguise to visit his friend Gen. Manuel Roxas—while the general was under surveillance.

Such a visit would have been operationally useful. Roxas was one of the most respected leaders in the Philippines, and although he eventually agreed to serve in the puppet government, he secretly passed information to the guerrillas. But Parsons also would have had a second, entirely personal motive for sneaking into Manila: his mother-in-law, Blanche Jurika. She had refused to leave with the Parsons family so she could remain close to her son Tom, who was fighting with the guerrillas on Cebu and Leyte islands. In Mamerto Geronimo’s recollection, Parsons, in his clerical disguise, was walking down a street close to the monastery where she was staying.


General MacArthur “I have returned” to the Philippines

Landing barges loaded with troops sweep toward the beaches of Leyte Island as American and Jap planes duel to the death overhead. Troops watch the drama being written in the skies as they approach the hellfire on the shore. October 1944 American troops of Troop E, 7th Cavalry Regiment, advance towards San Jose on Leyte Island, Philippine Islands. 20 October 1944.

In March 1942 the Unites States forces on the Philippines had fought a bloody but unsuccessful action against the Japanese invasion. Famously when General MacArthur had then been compelled to evacuate the islands he had declared that “I will return”. Now that US forces were again landing on the Philippines he was not going to let the occasion go without publicity.

General Valdes accompanied General MacArthur and Philippine President Osmeña onto the landing beaches:

Entered Leyte Gulf at midnight. Reached our anchorage at 7 a.m. The battleships, cruisers, and destroyers opened fire on the beaches and finished the work begun two days before ‘A Day’ by other U.S Navy units. The boys in my ship where ready at 9:45 a.m. At 10 a.m. sharp they went down the rope on the side of the ship. Their objective was Palo.

At 1 p.m. General MacArthur and members of his staff, President Osmeña, myself, General Romulo, and Captain Madrigal left the ship and proceeded on an L.C.M for Red beach. The beach was not good, the landing craft could not make the dry beach and we had to wade through the water beyond our knees.

We inspected the area, and at two instances shots were fired by Japanese snipers. General MacArthur and President Osmeña spoke in a broadcast to the U.S. We returned to the ship at 6 p.m. under a torrential rain. We transferred to the Auxiliary cruiser Blue Ridge flagship of Admiral Barbey, as the SS John Land was leaving for Hollandia

MacArthur was now able to declare “I Have Returned”. In a speech, delivered via radio message from a portable radio set at Leyte, on October 20, 1944 he sent this message:

This is the Voice of Freedom,
General MacArthur speaking.

People of the Philippines: I have returned.

By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil – soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come, dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring, upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.

At my side is your President, Sergio Osmena, worthy successor of that great patriot, Manuel Quezon, with members of his cabinet. The seat of your government is now therefore firmly re-established on Philippine soil.

The hour of your redemption is here. Your patriots have demonstrated an unswerving and resolute devotion to the principles of freedom that challenges the best that is written on the pages of human history.

I now call upon your supreme effort that the enemy may know from the temper of an aroused and outraged people within that he has a force there to contend with no less violent than is the force committed from without.

Rally to me. Let the indomitable spirit of Bataan and Corregidor lead on. As the lines of battle roll forward to bring you within the zone of operations, rise and strike!

For future generations of your sons and daughters, strike! In the name of your sacred dead, strike!

Let no heart be faint. Let every arm be steeled. The guidance of Divine God points the way. Follow in His name to the Holy Grail of righteous victory!

The famous image of General Douglas MacArthur making his return to the Philippines.


MacArthur’s Triumphant Return To Philippines

US #1424 – MacArthur considered the Philippines his second home, having married his wife and raised his child there.

On October 20, 1944, General Douglas MacArthur fulfilled his promise to return to the Philippines.

In 1935, MacArthur was made military advisor to the Philippines, tasked with helping them create an independent army. (The Philippines had been an American colony since the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century). MacArthur established a home there with his family and retired two years later.

Item #M7393 – Grenada Carriacou sheet honor MacArthur.

In July 1941, as tensions were rising around the globe as World War II escalated, President Roosevelt federalized the Philippine army and recalled MacArthur to active duty as commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East.

Then the unthinkable happened. The Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, forcing America into the war. Ten hours later, the Japanese invaded the Philippines. MacArthur and his men first retreated to the Bataan Peninsula. As the attacks continued, he moved his headquarters to Corregidor, but that too became a target of air raids and other attacks. By February 1942, the situation was bleak and President Roosevelt ordered MacArthur to leave for Australia. Forced to leave his men behind, MacArthur did as he was ordered, but promised, “I shall return.”

US #1424 – Classic First Day Cover.

While MacArthur took over the defense of Australia, 70,000 of his American and Philippine soldiers were captured on Bataan in April and embarked on a death march that took the lives of thousands of men. Corregidor surrendered the following month, adding another 15,000 Allied prisoners. The Philippines were firmly in Japanese control and the Allies had no clear plan for their liberation.

Item #20035 – MacArthur received the Medal of Honor for his service during the Philippine Campaign of 1941-42.

But MacArthur wouldn’t forget his promise. He repeated it frequently in interviews and resolved to follow through. Over the next two years, he won a string of victories in the New Guinea campaign and was ready to invade the Philippines by September 1944. However, Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Fleet, had planned to strike Japan through a more direct route that wouldn’t involve the Philippines. MacArthur made his case and the Joint Chiefs agreed to invade the Philippines.

US #2838i – Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle of the war with over 300 Allied ships and 1,500 planes against 67 Japanese ships and 300 planes.

The Allies assembled the largest landing force ever used in a Pacific campaign – more than 300 ships approached the Philippines that fall. Then, on October 20, 1944, MacArthur’s troops stormed the beach at the Philippine island of Leyte. MacArthur waded ashore hours later and declared via radio broadcast: “People of the Philippines, I have returned!”

Item #4902610 – Leyte Gulf proof card picturing Admiral William Halsey, who commanded the Third Fleet there.

The ensuing Battle for Leyte Gulf was one of the greatest naval battles in history. It marked the first appearance of Japanese kamikazes – suicide pilots who would crash planes filled with explosives into Allied warships. In spite of this, the Japanese retreated and wouldn’t launch another major offensive for the rest of the war.

MacArthur continued his drive through the Philippines, liberating his imprisoned troops in January 1945. Though he re-took the capital of the Philippines in March and considered the offensive over in June, sporadic fighting continued until the end of the war in August.


Christmas 1944: The Liberation of Leyte

The iconic photograph of General Douglas MacArthur returning to the Philippines on the beaches of Leyte Island in October 1944. (U.S. National Archives)

Published Jan 1, 2020 4:34 PM by William Thiesen

"People of the Philippines: I have returned. By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil&mdashsoil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people." - General Douglas MacArthur, U.S. Army, October 20, 1944

Seventy-five years ago, on December 25, 1944, after a six-week campaign to liberate the Philippine island of Leyte, Allied forces under General Douglas Macarthur were mopping up the last vestiges of Japanese resistance. The invasion of the Philippines was one of the last major land battles of the Pacific War leading up to the surrender of Japan. By the 26 th , MacArthur announced the end of organized resistance on Leyte. It was a fitting Christmas gift to the Philippine people and MacArthur&rsquos forces would pursue the enemy back to the island nation&rsquos capital in Manila.

LST-66 (second from left) and other LSTs debarking troops and supplies on the beaches of Leyte Island, the Philippines. (U.S. Coast Guard Collection)

Coast Guard manned ships, such as LST-66, ensured a steady stream of troops, equipment and supplies to Allied offensives like the Battle for Leyte Island. At 328 feet in length, the LST (short for &ldquolanding ship, tank&rdquo) was a product of British and American engineering genius, and the Allies&rsquo desperate need for amphibious ships in the European and Pacific theaters. The largest of the Allies&rsquo purpose-built landing ships, the LST carried 2,100 tons of troops, tanks, trucks, supplies and ammunition. A crew of 110 Coast Guard officers and enlisted men called LST-66 their home.

In the fall of 1944, the Allies launched one of the most strategically important amphibious operations of the war&mdasha campaign to liberate the Philippines from Japanese occupation. In so doing, General Douglas MacArthur would redeem his pledge made in 1942, before the surrender of the islands, to return and free them. More importantly, Allied control would cut-off the Japanese homeland from vital raw materials, such as the oil reserves located in the Dutch East Indies and Malaya, and isolated Japanese military units holding out as far south as Borneo.

Japanese military leaders knew all too well the strategic importance of the Philippines. Its loss would initiate the final chapter of a retreat to the home islands that had begun in mid-1942 with the Allied &ldquoisland-hopping&rdquo campaign. To hold onto the Philippines, the Japanese military resorted to desperate measures. These included sending the last major units of the Imperial Japanese Navy on a suicide mission to destroy the Allied invasion forces and a new aviation tactic termed &ldquoKamikaze,&rdquo or &ldquoDivine Wind.&rdquo Japanese kamikaze pilots flew one-way missions to crash-dive their fighters and fighter-bombers into Allied ships.

American military leaders decided on Leyte Island as the target of their first Philippine landings. One of the largest amphibious operations of World War II, the Leyte invasion included nearly 430 amphibious vessels supported by aircraft carriers and warships of the Navy&rsquos 3 rd and 7 th fleets. On Friday, October 20, 1944, LST-66 helped land the first of the invasion&rsquos nearly 200,000 troops.

U.S. Army Air Corps employed the P-38 &ldquoLightning&rdquo pursuit fighters in the Pacific theater of operations. (Courtesy of U.S. Air Force)

At Leyte, enemy resistance met Allied forces on land, in the air, and at sea. Entrenched Japanese troops fought U.S. Army units in the jungle while kamikazes crashed into Allied ships and Japanese fleets attacked the Allied armada in world history, Allied warships repulsed Japanese naval forces leaving most of the enemy&rsquos warships damaged or destroyed.

On Sunday, November 12, LST-66 returned to Leyte to land more troops and supplies. At 8:30 a.m., the 66 ran ashore on the grey sandy beaches near the town of Dulag, opened its protective bow doors and dropped its landing ramp. The shoreline had been cleared of enemy defenses, so the LST&rsquos doors remained open for the day to deposit cargo and embark exhausted American troops from the invasion&rsquos first wave. Members of the LST&rsquos crew even had a chance to observe the anniversary of Armistice Day (now known as Veterans Day) a day late at the growing Allied military cemetery located not far from the beach. Little did these shipmates know that several of their number would soon lie in that hallowed ground.

In the afternoon, the 66 embarked men of the 75 th Joint Assault Signal Company. Prior to the initial October landings, this joint Army-Navy reconnaissance unit had been inserted on the Leyte coast to identify Japanese defenses and communicate their location back to the invasion planners. After weeks of living in the jungle on C-rations, the recon men were happy to board a friendly vessel with bunk beds and hot chow. The weary troops made their way to the relative safety of the LST&rsquos stern, out of range of enemy snipers. A lieutenant with the unit even brought aboard a cockatoo perched on his shoulder, which drew a crowd of curious 66 crewmembers.

Throughout November 12, Japanese &ldquoZero&rdquo fighter aircraft had made suicide attacks against the landing ships, so the U.S. Army Air Corps sent up P-38 fighters to protect the vessels. Fast and deadly, the fighter&rsquos manufacturer named the P-38 the &ldquoLightning,&rdquo but the Japanese called it &ldquotwo planes with one pilot&rdquo because of its unique twin-fuselage and center cockpit design. At about 5:00 p.m., with two P-38s hot on its tail, a Zero appeared from behind the mountains on Leyte. The Lightnings hit the Zero with machine gun fire, suddenly broke off their pursuit, and rocketed skyward. A 66 crew member who saw the dogfight from the forward deck, recounted:

"Over the high area forward I saw two P-38 fighters zooming straight up as if to avoid our ship from being gunned down by us. At that very instance [sic],I saw and heard this roaring Japanese kamikaze plane with the meatball markings almost 15 feet directly overhead that is forever imprinted in my brain. & quot

What happened next was a brutal shock to everyone. The wounded Zero zoomed straight for the Army and Coast Guard men gathered on the starboard side of the LST&rsquos stern. In milliseconds, the enemy fighter impacted the LST&rsquos deck, careened across the ship&rsquos aft quarterdeck, sprayed aviation fuel over everything, exploded, and obliterated men and machines. The Zero left a swath of carnage and wreckage in its wake before crashing into the water. The lieutenant and one of his men were killed instantly with another seven Army men severely wounded.

Early photo of LST-66 hero Robert Goldman in his Coast Guard uniform. Goldman will be the namesake for a new Fast Response Cutter. (Courtesy of the Goldman family)

The crash took a greater toll on the ship&rsquos crew, with four Coast Guardsmen killed and seven wounded. All that remained of the parrot were white feathers sprinkled over the twisted metal and mangled bodies strewn about the quarterdeck. In the aftermath, Pharmacist&rsquos Mate 2 nd class Robert Goldman swung into action treating the wounded and dying in spite of his own burns and shrapnel wounds. He was honored with the Bronze Star and Purple Heart medals and will be honored as a Fast Response Cutter namesake next year.

LST-66&rsquos dead were tagged for identification and sent ashore for burial in the same military cemetery that several of them had visited earlier that day. Like the fallen of LST-66, thousands of other Coast Guardsmen serving on the high seas never returned home. They made the ultimate sacrifice and remain part of the Coast Guard&rsquos long blue line of brave men and women who go in harm&rsquos way to defend the freedoms we hold dear.

William H. Thiesen is the U.S Coast Guard Atlantic Area historian.

This article appears courtesy of Coast Guard Compass and may be found in its original form here.

The opinions expressed herein are the author's and not necessarily those of The Maritime Executive.


MacArthur, Corregidor, and the Battle for the Philippines

Seventy-five years ago, the Imperial Japanese Army captured Corregidor, the tadpole-shaped island situated at the mouth of Manila Bay in the Philippines, once known as the “Gibraltar of the East.” On a recent trip to the Philippines, a friend and I took a two-hour ferry ride from Manila to the historic island, which has been preserved as a military museum.

In late December 1941, as Imperial Japan’s forces worked their way down the Bataan Peninsula, American and Filipino forces under the command of General Douglas MacArthur retreated to Corregidor, also known as “the Rock,” some two miles across the water and prepared to hold out until reinforcements arrived.

MacArthur’s initial headquarters, called “Topside,” was situated in a building on the summit of the highest hill on Corregidor. That building and several large barracks that housed American and Filipino soldiers were mercilessly bombed and strafed by the Japanese invaders, but still stand today alongside the rubble as memorials to the fierce fighting on the island. MacArthur soon had to find another location from which to direct his forces on the island and on Bataan.

“My new headquarters,” MacArthur later wrote, “was located in an arm of the Malinta Tunnel.” He later described the headquarters as “bare, glaringly lighted, and contain[ing] only the essential furniture and equipment for administrative procedure.” The tunnel, which is now a popular tourist attraction, was carved into the rock of a steep hill and contained hospital wards, ammunition magazines, and storage rooms. It also hosted the president of the Philippines, Manuel Quezon, and his family. The tunnel was 1,400 feet long and about 30 feet wide.

On Corregidor, MacArthur was fearless. During Japanese bombing raids, writes biographer Arthur Herman, MacArthur frequently stood outside in the open “impervious to the destruction around him.” He once told Quezon, who scolded him for taking such risks, that “the Japanese haven’t yet made the bomb with my name on it.”

In Washington, political and military leaders knew that there were no reinforcements on the way to the Philippines, so they ordered MacArthur — against his wishes and repeated protests — to escape from Corregidor and the Philippines and go to Australia where he could organize and lead allied forces in a campaign to retake the archipelago.

There were no reinforcements waiting in Australia either. MacArthur was furious with Washington. He believed, with justification, that Washington had deceived him. He privately criticized President Franklin Roosevelt’s “Europe first” policy. MacArthur, who famously said, “I came through and I shall return,” was determined to keep his promise to retake the Philippines.

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Meanwhile, American and Filipino forces were being slowly starved into submission on Bataan and Corregidor. Bataan fell on April 9, 1942. U.S. General Jonathan Wainwright, left in command by MacArthur, had little choice but to surrender the island. On May 6, 1942, at a house (which still stands) located on the side of a small hill near one of the island’s beaches, Wainwright surrendered his forces to Japan’s General Masaharu Homma. It was a humiliating defeat for the American army, and was made even worse by the atrocities that followed in the infamous Bataan Death March.

MacArthur eventually kept his promise, but it took three years for U.S. forces under his command to retake the Philippines. MacArthur first conceived and led a brilliant combined air-sea-land campaign in New Guinea. Then he had to battle with Washington and the Navy to get permission to invade the Philippines. At one point at the close of the New Guinea campaign, he looked to the north toward the Philippines and remarked to an aide: “They’re waiting for me there. It’s been a long time.”

Indeed, American and Filipino prisoners of war and Filipino civilians were desperately waiting for MacArthur. On October 20, 1944, MacArthur’s forces landed at Leyte Gulf, just south of Tacloban. In one of the iconic scenes of World War II, MacArthur waded ashore with aides and the new Filipino president and memorably urged Filipino citizens and guerrilla forces to rally to him against the Japanese occupier:

People of the Philippines: I have returned.

By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil – soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come, dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring, upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.

At my side is your president, Sergio Osmena, worthy successor of that great patriot, Manuel Quezon, with members of his cabinet. The seat of your government is now therefore firmly re-established on Philippine soil.

The hour of your redemption is here. Your patriots have demonstrated an unswerving and resolute devotion to the principles of freedom that challenges the best that is written on the pages of human history.

I now call upon your supreme effort that the enemy may know from the temper of an aroused and outraged people within that he has a force there to contend with no less violent than is the force committed from without.

Rally to me. Let the indomitable spirit of Bataan and Corregidor lead on. As the lines of battle roll forward to bring you within the zone of operations, rise and strike!

For future generations of your sons and daughters, strike! In the name of your sacred dead, strike!

Let no heart be faint. Let every arm be steeled. The guidance of Divine God points the way. Follow in His name to the Holy Grail of righteous victory!

The fight to retake the Philippines was fierce and savage. Manila fell to American forces, but only after more than 100,000 Filipino civilians had been killed — most slaughtered by the Japanese. More than a thousand American soldiers and more than 16,000 Japanese soldiers died in the battle. Many more were wounded. It was urban warfare at its worst. Some of the fiercest fighting took place on high ground near where the awe-inspiring American Military Cemetery sits today, with its row after row of white crosses.

Bataan was retaken with fewer casualties than initially feared. The next target of U.S. forces was Corregidor. “The Rock,” writes Herman, “was crucial for MacArthur’s strategy.”

In late January and early February 1945, American air and naval forces pounded Corregidor. On February 16, a daring paratroop assault near the old parade ground on “Topside” was followed by a seaborne landing near the Malinta Tunnel. After 12 days of fighting, Corregidor was in American hands. Nearly all of the 6,000-man Japanese garrison were killed some of them committed suicide by attempting to blow up the Malinta Tunnel.

MacArthur returned to his “Topside” headquarters and memorably remarked: “I see that the old flag pole still stands. Have your troops hoist the colors to its peak and let no enemy ever haul them down.” He then extolled, with only slight hyperbole, the men who had originally defended Bataan and Corregidor:

Bataan, with Corregidor the citadel of its integral defense, made possible all that has happened since. History, I am sure, will record it as one of the decisive battles of the world. Its long protracted struggle enabled the Allies to gather strength. Had it not held out, Australia would have fallen, with incalculably disastrous results. Our triumphs today belong equally to that dead army. Its heroism and sacrifices have been fully acclaimed, but the great strategic results of that mighty defense are only now becoming fully apparent. It was destroyed due to its dreadful handicaps, but no army in history more fully accomplished its mission. Let no man henceforth speak of it other than as a magnificent victory.

Today, a visit to Corregidor allows you to go back in time. The bombed-out barracks and batteries are just as they were in 1945. The flagpole mentioned by MacArthur still stands across from a bombed-out building that once served as his offices on Topside. You can walk through portions of the Malinta Tunnel and view some of the side-tunnels destroyed by the Japanese. You can stand on the dock from which MacArthur departed the island. You can see the big guns situated on hilltops that made the island seem impregnable. You can, in other words, walk in the footsteps of heroes.

Francis P. Sempa is the author of Geopolitics: From the Cold War to the 21st Century en America’s Global Role: Essays and Reviews on National Security, Geopolitics and War.


General Douglas MacArthur Landing Area

The return of General Douglas MacArthur to the Philippines during our fight against the Japanese invaders was one of the major turning points in our country's history. The dwindling hope of the Filipinos were rekindled. We were able to stand up again after numerous assaults to our losing forces. To this day, we live in gratitude to General MacArthur for the big role he played in our country's fight for independence.

The landing of General MacArthur in the Philippines is one of the most significant historical events in the country. The dwindling hope of the Filipinos were rekindled when he fulfilled his promise and returned to the country with thousands of armies to help defeat the Japanese invaders.

Where can it be found?

The Landing Memorial of General Douglas MacArthur or also known as MacArthur Landing Memorial Park is located at Red Beach in Barangay Candahug, Palo, Leyte.

Why is it called Red Beach?

The &ldquored&rdquo doesn't refer to the natural color of the beach instead, it is the coast's color after being drenched in blood.

What is its history?

On October 20, 1944, General Douglas MacArthur made his promise to return to the Philippines to help the country fight against the Japanese colonizers. This was where the phrase &ldquoI shall return&rdquo came from.

To fight against the Japanese forces that had overtaken the country, General MacArthur convinced President Roosevelt and Pacific Commander Chester Nimitz to send forces to the Philippines. With the company of President Sergio Osmeña, General Carlos P. Romulo, General Sutherland, U.S Fifth Air Force, U.S Seventh Fleet under Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid and some members of the government, General MacArthur arrived at Red Beach with 225, 000 troops and 600 ships.

The largest marine battle happened in the Gulf of Leyte it was known as the Second Battle of the Philippine Sea. This marine battle was the last battle during the World War II.

This naval battle was actually a campaign consisting of four interrelated battles:

  • The Battle of Surigao Strait
  • The Battle of the Sibuyan Sea
  • The Battle of Cape Enga
  • And the Battle of Samar

What can I see at the tourist spot?

Now, it is called the Leyte Landing Memorial, measuring 4 ½ hectares in land area. The memorial consists of larger than life bronze statues (about 10 feet tall) where President Sergio Osmeña, General Carlos P. Romulo, members of the government and General Douglas MacArthur are standing in a man-made pool.

In front of the statue of General MacArthur are two plaques: at the right hand side is the plaque of &ldquoA Memorial for a Fulfilled Promise&rdquo and at the left hand side is the plaque of MacArthur&rsquos speech when he returned to the Philippines, entitled &ldquoProclamation&rdquo.

What is Gen. Douglas' Proclamation?

To the People of the Philippines:

I have returned. By the grace of the Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil &mdash soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come, dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring, upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.

At my side is your President, Sergio Osmena, worthy successor of that great patriot Manuel Quezon, with members of his cabinet. The seat of your government is now therefore firmly re-established on Philippine soil.

The hour of your redemption is here. Your patriots have demonstrated an unswerving and resolute devotion to the principles of freedom that challenges the best that is written on the pages of human history. I now call upon your supreme effort that the enemy may know from the temper of an aroused and outraged people within that he has a force there to contend with no less violent than is the force committed from without.

Rally to me. Let the indomitable spirit of Bataan and Corregidor lead on. As the lines of battle roll forward to bring you within the zone of operations, rise and strike. Strike at every favorable opportunity. For your homes and hearths, strike! strike! For future generations of your sons and daughters, strike! In the name of your sacred dead, strike! Let no heart be faint. Let every arm be steeled. The guidance of Divine God points the way. Follow in His Name to the Holy Grail of righteous victory!

Statues were erected at the site to commemorate the event. During the term of President Ferdinand Marcos, First Lady Imelda Marcos, who originated from the province, developed the memorial site. It was then named Imelda Park but the original name MacArthur Park was restored after the Marcoses left the country. The historic stretch of beach was turned into the MacArthur Landing Memorial Park in time for the golden jubilee of the Leyte Landing in 1994.

How to get there

From Manila, super ferry is serving a route from Manila - Cebu City. From Cebu city you can choose either Cebu Ferries or the Supercat traversing to Ormoc, from there going to Tacloban or you can take a route from Manila going straight to Tacloban City (Capital of Leyte).

From Manila, various bus companies like Philtranco and Eagle Star are providing an air-conditioned or ordinary directly to Tacloban City.

There are flights from Manila to Tacloban City by Philippine Airlines or Cebu Pacific that cost around 1,700 &ndash 2,000.


Kyk die video: General Macarthur Receives Japans Highest Honour 1960 (Januarie 2022).