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Antieke Pyongyang


Pyongyang (ook bekend as Pyeongyang) was die hoofstad van verskeie opeenvolgende antieke Koreaanse koninkryke. Geleë aan die Daedongrivier in die noorde van die skiereiland, is die plek deur die legendariese Dangun (Tangun), stigter van die eerste Koreaanse deelstaat Gojoseon, gekies om sy hoofstad op aarde te wees. Pyongyang het gedurende die daaropvolgende eeue 'n belangrike stad gebly en was die hoofstad van Wiman Joseon en die koninkryke Goguryeo (Koguryo), en was die westelike hoofstad van die Goryeo (Koryo) koninkryk. Die moderne stad, op dieselfde plek, is vandag die hoofstad van Noord -Korea.

Mitologiese stigting - Dangun se hoofstad

Volgens die Koreaanse mitologie, soos vertel in die 13de eeu nC Samguk yusa ('Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms'), die plek waar Pyongyang sou word, is gekies deur die legendariese stigter van Korea, Dangun Wanggeom (of Tangun), om as sy hoofstad op aarde te dien. Dangun word toegeskryf aan die oprigting van die eerste Koreaanse staat, Gojoseon (oftewel Joseon, Gochoson of Old Choson), wat Noord -Korea in die tweede helfte van die eerste millennium vC regeer het. Die tradisionele stigtingsdatum van 2333 vC het egter geen argeologiese bewyse om dit te ondersteun nie, en historici verkies 'n datum nader aan die 7de eeu vC.

Die mite van die geboorte van Dangun - gebore uit 'n vereniging van die god Hwanung en 'n vroulike beer - kan die koms van die Bronstydperk -kultuur in Korea simboliseer toe die metaal gedurende die tweede millennium vC uit Mantsjoerije gebring is. Die insluiting van 'n beer in die mite kan verwys na die sjamanistiese oortuigings en dieretemas van die nomadiese stamme wat in hierdie tydperk uit die Asiatiese binneland migreer en hulle op die Koreaanse skiereiland gevestig het. Bewyse dat die mite steeds 'n politieke weerklank het, blyk uit die bewering van Noord -Korea (wat nie deur geleerdes wêreldwyd gesteun word nie) dat hy die graf van hierdie legendariese figuur naby Pyongyang in 1993 ontdek het en homself dus as die ware tuiste en erfgenaam van Korea se eerste kulturele held beskou het. .

Pyongyang was die hoofstad van opeenvolgende Noord -Koreaanse koninkryke en die westelike hoofstad van Goryeo.

Hoofstad van Gojoseon

Volgens sommige historici is die deelstaat Gojoseon gevorm uit die bondgenootskap van klein versterkte dorpe rondom die kom van die Daedong- en Liao -rivier, miskien uit die 7de eeu v.G.J.sekerder uit die 4de eeu v.G.J. 'N Vroeë verwysing na die Gojoseon -staat word gevind in die c. 100 vC teks Rekords van die Grand Historikus geskryf deur die Chinese historikus Sima Qian. Qian noem dat Gojoseon in 190 vC bestaan ​​het. Die enigste onbetwiste datum vir die bestaan ​​van 'n staat met die naam Choson/Gojoseon is egter 109 vC en historici debatteer steeds of dit moontlik is om Gojoseon as 'n staat te beskryf, wanneer dit presies bestaan ​​het, waar die hoofstad was, en wat was die presiese gebiede onder sy beheer? Die ligging van die hoofstad is al lank beskou as naby Pyongyang, maar daar is ook bewyse dat dit moontlik verder noord in Mantsjoerije was.

Gojoseon het floreer as tussenganger vir die handel tussen China en die suidelike state van Korea, maar is uiteindelik verswak deur aanvalle van die naburige staat Yan c. 300 vC, en 'n lang agteruitgang het aangebreek, sodat toe Gojoseon uiteindelik in die 2de eeu vC ineengestort het, sy gebiede deur Wiman Joseon oorgeneem is.

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Hoofstad van Wiman Joseon

Wiman Joseon is gelei deur Weiman, 'n Chinese vlugteling (hoewel moontlik van Koreaanse oorsprong) wat vroeër uit die Yan -staat gevlug het. Hy en sy 1 000 volgelinge het die taak gekry om die noordwestelike grense van Gojoseon te beskerm deur koning Chun, maar Weiman, of Wiman in Koreaans, het die geleentheid aangegryp om self tussen 194 en 180 vC die beheer oor te neem. homself koning. Pyongyang was sy hoofstad, destyds bekend as Wanggomseong. Wiman Joseon het nie baie lank gehou nie, en in 108 CE is dit verower deur die Han -dinastie van China (206 BCE - 220 CE) en die hoofstad verower. Keiser Wu (141-87 v.G.J.) verdeel Noord-Korea toe in vier kommandante wat direk deur die Han-sentrale regering beheer word. Pyongyang is herdoop tot Tosongni en het die hoofstad geword van die Lelang -bevelvoerder (Nangnang in Koreaans). Die Chinese sou die volgende vier eeue beheer oor hierdie deel van die skiereiland behou.

Hoofstad van Goguryeo

Gedurende die periode van die drie koninkryke (1ste eeu v.G.J. - 7de eeu nC) het die state Silla, Baekje (Paekche), Goguryeo en Gaya (Kaya) almal met mekaar om stryd om Korea beheer. Hierdie voortdurende konflik van aanvalle, teenaanvalle en steeds veranderende alliansies het daartoe gelei dat die Baekje-koning Geunchogo Pyongyang aangeval en koning Gogugwon (r. 331-371 CE) in 371 CE vermoor het. Teen die einde van die 4de eeu nC het Goguryeo egter 'n alliansie aangegaan met die buurland Silla teen Baekje, wat 'n mate van stabiliteit in die streek moontlik gemaak het. Vanaf die bewind van Gwanggaeto die Grote (391-413 nC) het Goguryeo se ster begin opstaan ​​en Pyongyang het baat gevind by 'n heropbouprogram wat nege nuwe Boeddhistiese tempels insluit. Toe, tydens die lang bewind van sy opvolger, koning Changsu (413-491 nC), vervang Pyongyang die bergstad Gungnae as die hoofstad van die staat in 427 nC. Die nuwe hoofstad, geleë op 'n breë vlakte, was 'n baie beter plek vir 'n groeiende metropool wat die bloeiende kulturele spilpunt van Goguryeo sou word, waarvan die manifestasie die oprigting van die Akademie vir Boeke en Rekords was wat met tienduisende volumes gespog het .

In hierdie tydperk weet ons dat Pyongyang baie groot geboue gehad het tot 80 x 30 m, en daar is oorblyfsels van paleise met tuine met kunsmatige heuwels en mere. Geboue is versier met indrukwekkende dakteëls met ontwerpe van lotusblomme en demoonmasker wat in oorvloed op argeologiese terreine voorkom. Daar is ook oorblyfsels van 'n vesting uit hierdie tydperk.

Die Silla -koninkryk, hoewel baie kleiner, het verstandig gesoek na 'n alliansie met hul magtige buurland China om hul Koreaanse mededingers te verslaan. Eerstens is die Sui oorreed om 'n massiewe leër te stuur om Pyongyang in 612 CE te beleër. Die stad het vinnig gestaan ​​en deur die Chinese te mislei om te dink dat Goguryeo tevrede is met vredesvoorwaardes, is die terugtrekkende Sui -leër verpletter deur generaal Eulji Mundeok. Die Sui sou nog twee keer aanval sonder sukses, maar Goguryeo se hulpbronne is tot die uiterste gestrek.

Die Silla -koninkryk het 50 jaar later die hulp van die nuwe Tang -dinastie ingeroep deur die weerstand van Goguryeo om aan te val. Die Tangs was gretig om hierdie moeilike state teen mekaar te speel en het Silia ondersteun met die plan om die hele skiereiland oor te neem sodra die ander state verslaan is. In 661 nC beleër 'n Tang -leër Pyongyang, wat destyds verswak is deur 'n interne magstryd om die troon. Die Tangs moes noodgedwonge terugtrek, maar toe hulle weer in 667 n.C. aanval, val die stad, hoewel dit 'n jaar lank uitgehou het, uiteindelik. In 668 CE is die Goguryeo-koning Bojang (r. 642-668 CE) saam met 200 000 van sy onderdane in China na 'n gedwonge hervestigingsprogram verwyder en Goguryeo het 'n Chinese provinsie geword. Die Tangs het hul protektoraat-generaal tot stand gebring om die Ooste in Pyongyang te versag.

Wes -hoofstad van Goryeo

Die Silla -koninkryk het daarin geslaag om die territoriale ambisies van Tang in Korea te weerstaan, en om die Chinese uit die ou Goguryeo -gebiede te dwing, het hulle self beheer oor die skiereiland gevestig en die Unified Silla -koninkryk in 668 nC geskep. Pyongyang is weer onder Koreaanse bewind gebring. Die konings en koninginne van Silla het regeer tot 935 nC toe die ou koninkryke, wat deur rebellefaksies herleef is, tot 'n val gekom het. Uiteindelik het een koninkryk bo al die ander verhewe - die Goryeo -dinastie (918-1392 nC). Die eerste koning, Wang Geon, wat die postume titel Taejo van Goryeo gekry het, kies die noordelike stad Songdo/Songdak (moderne Gaeseong) as sy nuwe hoofstad, omdat hy die kulturele erfenis van die antieke Goguryeo -koninkryk.

Pyongyang het belangrik gebly en is gekies as die westelike hoofstad omdat dit die tradisionele eerste hoofstad van Dangun en die Koreaanse bevolking was, strategies belangrik was om die noordelike grense te beskerm teen die Khitan (Qidan) stamme en aan Taejo se vereistes voldoen dat 'n hoofstad geleë moet wees volgens aan beginsels van pungsu (feng shui) en trek dus voordeel uit die lewenskragte van natuurlike eienskappe in die omgewing, soos riviere en berge. By sy dood het Taejo Tien Injunctions verlaat vir sy opvolgers om te volg en punt vyf spesifiseer spesifiek die belangrikheid van Pyongyang vir die welstand van Goryeo. Koning Jeongjong (r. 945-949 CE) het selfs beplan om Pyongyang die hoofstad te maak om die invloed van die aristokratiese faksies by Gaeseong te verminder en het 'n voorbereidende heropbouprogram begin, maar sy vroeë dood het 'n einde gemaak. Nietemin het Pyongyang steeds die posisie van die tweede belangrikste stad beklee, soos geïllustreer word deur die bou van 'n nuwe koninklike paleis daar in 1129 nC.

Laat geskiedenis

Toe die Goryeo -regime in 1135 nC deur die Myochong -opstand uitgedaag word, het die rebelle hul hoofkwartier in Pyongyang gevestig en dit as hul hoofstad aangeneem. Die opstand is verpletter deur die groot Goryeo -generaal Gim Busik, maar daarna het Pyongyang 'n reputasie gely as 'n gevaarlike plek van opstand en 'n gevolglike politieke en kulturele verwaarlosing van die sentrale administrasie. 'N Eeu later het die Mongole Korea binnegeval en die stad in 1232 nC beset. Hierdie patroon sou deur die eeue voortduur met die besetting deur die Chinese rebelle, bekend as die Rooi Turban in 1359, die Japannese in 1593, die Mantsjoeriërs in 1627 en die Japannese weer in 1895. Die stad het al hierdie terugslae oorleef en het in die middel van die 20ste eeu nC die hoofstad geword van die Demokratiese Volksrepubliek Korea (ook bekend as Noord-Korea).

Hierdie inhoud is moontlik gemaak met ruim ondersteuning van die British Korean Society.


Pyongyang

Noord -Korea word amptelik die Demokratiese Volksrepubliek Korea genoem. Die land het die wêreld se erkenning as 'The Hermit Kingdom', en baie aspekte daarvan word geïsoleerd van die buitewêreld gehou. Die hoofstad, Pyongyang, skyn helder en regdeur baie van die sluiers wat die land in die duisternis hou. Die stad is een van die mees onberispelike stede ter wêreld, en dit word so gehou omdat dit dien as die openbare gesig van 'n hele land. Baie besoekers vind dit moeilik om afval of ander onvolmaakthede te vind in selfs die algemeenste gebiede, soos sypaadjies en metro's. Die monumente is talryk en het 'n gevoel van letterlike statigheid, waarvan baie grandioos standbeelde van die leierskap is. Eerste besoekers word dikwels verstom as hulle besef Pyongyang is 'n bruisende metropool vol lewens, wat hulle 'n blywende en eksotiese gevoel van sonder laat.


Noord -Korea vind 'n geheime eenhoornlaer wat beweer dat Pyongyang die hoofstad van die ou Korea was

Opdatering, 3 Desember: Volgens webwerf io9 het die Koreaanse sentrale nuusagentskap wat deur die staat geborg is, die beweerde bevindings swak vertaal. In die Koreaanse geskiedenis is die naam Kiringul (wat die koerant vertaal het as "Unicorn Lair") in werklikheid 'n webwerf wat verband hou met die stigter van Koguryŏ, 'n antieke Koreaanse koninkryk. Die ontdekking, beweer Noord -Korea, bewys dat Pyongyang die moderne plek is van die antieke hoofstad Koguryŏ. Die blog meld ook dat hierdie bevinding ook omstrede is, aangesien baie historici twyfel of Koguryŏ ten tye van die stigting in Pyongyang was.

Voorheen: In 'n aankondiging Vrydag wat beter geskik lyk vir 'n sprokie, het 'n Noord -Koreaanse staatsnuusagentskap berig dat argeoloë onlangs die lêplek van 'n eenhoring bevestig het wat eens deur 'n ou Koreaanse koning gery is.

Volgens die Koreaanse Sentrale Nuusagentskap is die lêplek van die mitiese dier 200 meter (ongeveer 219 meter) van die Yongmyong -tempel in Pyongyang geleë. 'N Rots wat voor die lêplek lê, bevat gravures wat volgens sommige dateer uit die tydperk van die Koryo-koninkryk (918-1392).

Die direkteur van die History Institute van die Noord -Afrikaanse Akademie vir Sosiale Wetenskappe, wat die lêplek ontdek het, noem Koreaanse geskiedenisboeke as bewys. Jo Hui Sung het die geskiedenis aan die koerant verduidelik:

Die Sogyong (Pyongyang) hoofstuk van die ou boek 'Koryo History' (geografiese boek), het gesê: Ulmil Pavilion is bo -op die berg Kumsu, met die Yongmyong -tempel, een van Pyongyang se agt natuurskoon, daaronder. Die tempel het as reliëfpaleis gedien vir koning Tongmyong, waarin die lêplek van sy eenhoring is.

Die ou boek 'Sinjungdonggukyojisungnam' (Hersiene handboek van Koreaanse geografie) wat in die 16de eeu voldoen het, het geskryf dat daar 'n lêplek wes van Pubyok Pavilion in die berg Kumsu is.

Daar moet op gelet word dat die propaganda -masjien van Noord -Korea beroemd is omdat dit ongewone verhale uitgehaal het, insluitend die besonderhede van Kim Jon Il se "goddelike geboorte" en die "eienaardige natuurlike wonders" wat plaasgevind het toe die aarde oor die dood van die Geagte Leier, die Globale, gerou het Plaas verslae.

Terwyl hy nog geleef het, het Kim ook berig dat hy die hamburger uitgevind het, 1500 boeke op die universiteit geskryf het en 11 gate in een geskiet het die eerste keer dat hy gholf gespeel het, volgens die tydskrif Time.

Aan die ander kant verskyn eenhoorn -waarnemings oor die hele wêreld van tyd tot tyd, waaronder een in Januarie verlede jaar in Kanada wat uiteindelik as 'n publisiteitsstunt blyk te wees.


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Die Birmaanse owerhede het binnekort drie verdagtes in Rangoon, vandag bekend as Yangon, in 'n hoek gedraai en die eerste mense doodgeskiet en twee ander gevange geneem. Volgens 'n CIA -verslag oor die aanval wat in 2000 gedeklassifiseer is, het ondersoekbeamptes kommunikasietoestelle, granate en lekkergoedstawe gevind van die aanvallers, wat hulle as "etniese Koreane" geïdentifiseer het. Besonderhede van die aanval, insluitend die gebruik van 'n drieman-span, stem ooreen met Noord-Koreaanse operasies, het die CIA gesê. Birma het Noord -Korea in die openbaar die skuld gegee, en 'n plaaslike hof het die oorlewende aanvallers ter dood veroordeel. Een van hulle, kaptein Kang Min-chul, het erkenning gegee aan sy rol in die plot en is gespaar. Hy het sy dae in die Insein -gevangenis geleef en in 2008 as 'n vergete man gesterf, een jaar nadat Birma, destyds Myanmar genoem, formeel diplomatieke bande met die Demokratiese Volksrepubliek Korea hervestig het.

Die brutale sluipmoord op Kim Jong Nam, die halfbroer van die Noord-Koreaanse leier Kim Jong Un, laat hierdie drama van lank gelede veral relevant voel. Terwyl Noord -Korea ontken het dat hy sy dood gelas het, pas die moordplot - twee vroue, een uit Viëtnam en een uit Indonesië, na bewering VX -senuweeagent op sy gesig op die lughawe in Kuala Lumpur, en vermoor hom binne enkele minute - in die geskiedenis van bloedige verstrengelinge. regoor Suidoos -Asië.

Noord -Korea is 'n nasie wat nie bang is om nagmerrie -ongelukke in die buiteland te vestig nie, veral as die land ''n geringe speler in wêreldsake is [waar hulle] waarskynlik nie noue bande het nie ... en [een] waarmee hulle brûe wil verbrand, " Benjamin Young, 'n bydraer tot NKnews.org en 'n Ph.D. -student aan die George Washington Universiteit, het my vertel. Maar in ag geneem in die konteks van sy betrekkinge met Suid -Korea en sy eie interne stryd, is die waaghalsige optrede van Noord -Korea baie meer logies as wat dit lyk.

Dit was nie altyd so nie. Nadat die Koreaanse Oorlog in 1953 geëindig het, het Kim Il Sung, destydse leier van Noord-Korea, met Suid-Korea meegeding om diplomatieke erkenning en in 1964 bande met Kambodja en Indonesië, Maleisië in 1973, Laos in 1974 en Singapoer, Thailand en Birma in 1975 aangegaan Na die Viëtnam -oorlog het die herenigde land in 1976 sy eerste ambassadeur na Pyongyang gestuur. Soos die geleerde Kook Chin Kim in Die buitelandse betrekkinge van Noord -Korea: nuwe perspektiewe, 'n versameling navorsingsartikels wat in 1987 gepubliseer is, was Suidoos -Asië 'n belangrike gebied vir die land. Nasies kan Noord -Korea op die wêreldverhoog en geleenthede vir ekonomiese ontwikkeling legitimiteit en erkenning bied. Te midde van die Koue Oorlog kon hulle vriendskap bied in plaas van vyandigheid. Kim Il Sung het Kambodja groot aandag geskenk, 'n vriendskap gesmee met die charismatiese koninklike Norodom Sihanouk, selfs vir hom 'n buitensporige huis in Pyongyang gebou en hom van lyfwagte voorsien. Die spesiale verhouding sou die opkoms en val van die Rooi Khmer -regime en die Viëtnamese besetting van Kambodja in die tagtigerjare oorleef.

Norodom Sihanouk, voormalige koning van Kambodja, word op 22 April 1975 in Pyongyang verwelkom deur die Noord -Koreaanse president Kim Il Sung. (AFP/Getty Images)

Maar wat ook al wat Noord -Korea in daardie jare bereik het, sou keer op keer ondermyn word deur die land se bedekte aktiwiteite, isolationisme en strydlustigheid, beide onder Kim Il Sung en sy erfgename. Die einde van die Koue Oorlog het ook jarelange politieke en ekonomiese reëlings verhoog, aangesien vryemark-ekonomieë floreer te midde van groter betrokkenheid by die weste. Die geringe diplomatieke voorsprong van die Noorde op die Suide het erodeer, net soos die relatiewe ekonomiese gelykheid daarvan.

In 2009 het Wikileaks 'n Kongresnavorsingsdiensverslag uit 2007 oor die geskiedenis van Noord-Koreaanse "provokasies" uit 1950 bekend gemaak-wat 'n bietjie hersien het van die verhaal van die lekker na-oorlogse jare onder Kim Il Sung-insluitend ontvoerings, dade van terrorisme en missieltoetse. In 1983 het twee Kanadese aan 'n hof gesê dat Noord-Koreaanse agente hulle $ 600,000 aangebied het om president Chun Doo-hwan te vermoor tydens 'n staatsbesoek aan die Filippyne in 1982. Die bomaanval in Birma wat op Chun gerig is, het die volgende jaar plaasgevind. In 1987 ontplof 'n Korean Airlines -vliegtuig wat na Seoul op pad was oor die Andamansee, na bewering neergebring deur 'n bom wat deur Noord -Koreaanse agente geplant is. In 1996 het die Suid -Koreaanse owerhede 'n Noord -Koreaanse spioen in Seoul in hegtenis geneem wat hom al 12 jaar as 'n Filippynse professor voordoen.

Toe Kim Jong Il oorgeneem het nadat sy pa gesterf het, het hy die weermag aangeval. Volgens 'n verslag van die Amerikaanse departement van verdediging van 2013 toon Noord-Korea se verskuiwing na 'n militêre eerste beleid 'sy mening dat die nasionale veiligheid van Noord-Korea uiteindelik buite verhouding afhanklik is van militêre mag in die afwesigheid van ander noemenswaardige elemente van nasionale krag. ” Soos onlangse kern- en missielaktiwiteite aandui, het die neiging voortgegaan onder leiding van Kim Jong Un.

Deur dit alles het die spesiale verhouding tussen Kambodja en Noord -Korea sterk gebly, soos ek opgemerk het terwyl ek as verslaggewer vir die Phnom Penh Post in 2013. Phnom Penh, byvoorbeeld, is die enigste plek wat ek ken met 'n boulevard vernoem na Kim Il Sung. Beide Phnom Penh en Siem Reap, die tuiste van baie van die ou tempels van Kambodja, beskik oor restaurante van "Pyongyang", wat vermoedelik geld na die regime terugstuur en na ander stede in die streek en in die buiteland versprei het. Die Noord -Koreaanse ambassade in Phnom Penh is geleë op duur vaste eiendom langs die premier van Hun Sen se huis, waarvan die gebou Sihanouk se kinderhuis was. In 2014 het die Phnom Penh Post berig dat Sihanouk dit vir 20 jaar huurvry aan die Noord-Koreaanse regering gegee het, waarna dit 'n museum sou word. Die ooreenkoms het in 2011 verstryk, die Noord -Koreane is nog steeds daar.

Een naweek het ek saam met 'n mede -joernalis na Siem Reap gereis. Ons het die konstruksieterrein binnegedwaal vir 'n museum wat deur Pyongyang gefinansier word, 'n museum van meer as 'n miljoen dollar om die ou tempels van Kambodja te verheerlik. 'N Kaal man met 'n langbroek en 'n polohemp het ons genader. Hy kyk agterdogtig na ons en sê dat die museum nog nie oop is nie. Maar nadat ons belowe het om geen foto's te neem nie, het hy ons op 'n kort toer gelei. Hy wys na skilderye. 'Dit is skilderye,' het hy gesê. Hy wys na 'n model van Angkor Wat. 'Angkor Wat,' verduidelik hy. Hy was van Pyongyang, het hy gesê, maar het al tien jaar in Siem Reap gewoon. Hy het geweier om ons sy naam te vertel. By die uitgang het ons stilgehou voor 'n skildery wat 'n landskap uitbeeld wat in Angkor Wat niks lyk nie. Ons gids het gesê dit is die geboorteplek van Kim Jong Il. "Jy ken hom?" vra hy.

Die museum, genaamd die Angkor Panorama -museum, is drie jaar later geopen, kompleet met 'n kafee en 'n bioskoop wat 'n dokumentêr speel wat 'ten volle toewyding en kreatiewe vermoëns van Khmer -mense toon'. Die belangrikste kenmerk daarvan: 'n groot panoramiese muurskildery, geskilder in die Noord-Koreaanse sosialisties-realistiese styl, wat die geskiedenis van Angkor Wat uitbeeld en met 'n geskatte 45 000 verskillende karakters (of so sê hulle).

Kambodjaanse mense kyk na 'n skildery in die Angkor Panorama Museum in die provinsie Siem Reap. (Tang Chhin Sothy / AFP / Getty)

Maar vreemdhede soos die museum, saam met die kookkuns van Noord -Korea, verduister die meer afskuwelike bewerings van die voortdurende ongelukke in die streek. In 2014 het die Verenigde Nasies vrae gestel oor beweerde verbintenisse tussen Noord -Korea se ambassade in Singapoer en 'n skaduryke wapenooreenkoms. In Augustus 2016 het die Egiptiese owerhede bevind dat 'n Noord-Koreaanse vaartuig wat die Kambodjaanse vlag gevoer het ('n poging om sanksies te ontduik) 'n besending van 30 000 vuurpylgedrewe granate vervoer het. Die VN het ook die skakels ondersoek tussen 'n Noord -Koreaanse firma verbonde aan die land se intelligensiedienste en maatskappye in Maleisië en Singapoer.

Sommige van die moordenaars is meer verwarrend as skandalig. Tydens 'n ASEAN -beraad in Phnom Penh in 2012 het Noord -Koreaanse amptenare 'n verklaring versprei waarin die Verenigde State veroordeel is, wat toegeskryf word aan 'n amptenaar wat na bewering vyf jaar tevore gesterf het. In Januarie 2016 is twee Noord -Koreaanse dokters in Phnom Penh dood aangetref. In 'n bisarre wending het hul vrouens na bewering aan die polisie gesê dat hul eggenote so dronk was dat hulle 'n 'serum' ingespuit het om hulle te help om nugter te word, maar dit lyk asof hulle hulle vermoor het. Die saak is vinnig gesluit, wat daarop dui dat die owerhede nie daarin belang sou stel nie.

Vir die waarnemer van buite, lyk Noord -Korea se optrede na intriges en toewyding aan strydlustigheid en onderduimigheid na die natuurlike byprodukte van 'n ondeurgrondelike regering. Dit is gedeeltelik waar. Maar geleerdes glo dat Pyongyang meer rasioneel is as wat dit lyk. Die bombardement van 1983 en ander dade wat op vreemde gebied gepleeg is, is 'n belangrike voorbeeld. Daar is redes waarom Noord -Korea die risiko loop om selfs nuutgevonde bondgenote te vervreem. "Die hoofdoel van Noord -Korea was nog altyd eenwording onder die Noord -Koreaanse vlag, en as dit die gasheerland beledig, is dit ook so, selfs al is dit 'n betreklik vriendelike regering," het Young gesê.

Hulle speel ook volgens baie ouer reëls. In 'n onlangse ontleding van die motiewe van die regime het die jare lange waarnemer van Noord-Korea, Andrei Lankov, aangevoer dat Noord-Korea een van die laaste absolute monargieë ter wêreld is, dat sy optrede meer sin maak as u nie aan die Kims dink as 'n moderne regime nie, maar as 'n verbindende Renaissance. era -dinastie. 'Nie 'n Borgia of 'n Medici sou probleme ondervind om te verstaan ​​wat in Kuala Lumpur gebeur het nie, en sou sulke gedrag kwalik buitensporig vind,' het hy geskryf.

Gegewe die moontlike hoofpyn om met Noord -Korea te skakel, kan dit raaiselagtig lyk dat regerings in Suidoos -Asië dit selfs sou doen. Maar daar is voordele. Noord -Korea bied, soos dit gebeur, goedkoop arbeid en bykomende handelsweë. Daar is ook China, 'n bondgenoot van Noord -Korea: Balazs Szalontai, 'n medeprofessor in die departement Noord -Koreaanse studies aan die Koreaanse Universiteit, het in 'n e -posuitruiling geskryf dat plaaslike regerings moontlik nie te veel van Beijing wil afwyk nie. 'China is 'n groot, ryk en potensieel gevaarlike buurman wat u nie probeer oorsteek nie, tensy dit absoluut noodsaaklik is.

Die situasie in Maleisië blyk intussen te eskaleer. Alhoewel hulle gesprekke gevoer het, bly Maleisië en Noord -Korea opgesluit in 'n diplomatieke stryd: Maleisië het die Noord -Koreaanse ambassadeur geskors en sy eie gesant na Pyongyang herroep. Noord -Korea het Maleisiese diplomatieke personeel belet om die land te verlaat, en die Maleisiese regering het Noord -Koreane verhinder om te vertrek. Verdagtes in die Kim Jong Nam -saak skuil moontlik in die Noord -Koreaanse ambassade in Kuala Lumpur. En daar is nog steeds die taai vraag oor wat om te doen met Kim se liggaam, wat Maleisië gebalsem het terwyl dit 'n antwoord soek.

Hoewel ontleders meen die moord op Kim Jong Nam sal leiers in Suidoos -Asië dwing om hul verhouding met die Noord -Korea weer te ondersoek, is dit onduidelik hoe ver hulle gaan. Noord -Korea het vandag ambassades in agt van die tien lande wat die Vereniging van Suidoos -Asiatiese Nasies (ASEAN) uitmaak. Van die 24 lande wat ambassades in Noord -Korea het, is vyf ASEAN -lede. ASEAN waardeer lankal stabiliteit oor konflik, soos blyk uit die onvermoë van die blok om Myanmar se behandeling van sy Rohingya -Moslem -minderheid te verander. Om vriendelik te bly met plaaslike bondgenote, veral diegene met 'n kernwapenprogram, kan die wyser wees.

Toe ek Han Kwang Myong, die derde sekretaris by die DPRK se ambassade in Birma, bel om te vra of die huidige krisis in Maleisië streeksbande kan beïnvloed, lyk hy ongelowig. “Krisis?” het hy geantwoord. Soos baie ander lande, het Noord -Korea 'goeie betrekkinge met lande in Suidoos -Asië', het hy beklemtoon en bygevoeg dat hy nie gedink het dat die opstand hierdie bande sou beïnvloed nie. Later het hy bygevoeg dat dit beter is om 'te wag en te sien'. Sommige lande, soos die Verenigde State, wil nie hê dat Noord -Korea goeie verhoudings in Suidoos -Asië moet hê nie, het hy gesê.

As Birma 'n aanduiding is, het Suidoos -Asië 'n merkwaardige vermoë getoon om van Noord -Korea se moorddadige onheil voort te gaan. Voordat die diplomatieke bande in 2007 hervestig word, word geglo dat die Birmaanse en Noord -Koreaanse weermagte hul bande versterk het. Meer onlangs het Birma Noord -Korea se bod op die mees triviale sake gedoen. In 2015 het die polisie in Yangon beslag gelê op afskrifte van die satiriese film Die onderhoud nadat Noord -Korea beswaar gemaak het teen die fiktiewe uitbeelding van die moord op Kim Jong Un.

Ra Jong Yil, 'n professor en voormalige adjunk -direkteur van die Suid -Koreaanse nasionale intelligensiediens wat 'n boek geskryf het oor die bomaanval in 1983 in Birma, het vir my gesê dat daar duidelike parallelle is tussen die aanval en die moord op Kim Jong Nam. 'Sowel Maleisië as Myanmar was in goeie betrekkinge met Noord -Korea,' het Ra gesê. Die verskil, volgens hom, was dat die bombardement van 1983 probeer het om Noord -Korea se status in Suid -Korea te verbeter deur 'n ongewilde president te rig, terwyl die dood van Kim Jong Nam oor interne politiek en die versterking van Kim Jong Un se bewind was.

In 2014 onthul Suid -Korea 'n monument in Yangon ter ere van sy slagoffers van die bomaanval in 1983. Die min besoekte terrein het 'n swart betonmuur gegraveer met 17 name van die Suid-Koreaanse dooies. By 'n onlangse besoek aan die gedenkteken het ek 'n stil en vreedsame toneel gevind. 'N Bord aan die voorkant sê dat die gedenkteken' ''n waardige ruimte beliggaam waar besoekers na 'n Augustus -ontmoeting met die gees van die Koreaanse patriotiese martelare wat daar omgekom het' daar gebring word. 'N Birmaanse werker het bosse natgemaak. Gevra oor die aantal besoekers, het hy gesê dat Suid -Koreaanse toeriste soms kom. Maar op die meeste dae is dit leeg.


Geskiedenis

Volgens die legende is die moderne stad Pyongyang in 1122 vC gestig op die plek van 'n ou hoofstad wat meer as duisend jaar tevore bestaan ​​het. Die geskiedenis van die stad dateer uit 108 v.C., toe die Chinese 'n handelskolonie daar vestig. In ad 427 word Pyongyang die hoofstad van die Koguryo -koninkryk, maar in 668 word dit deur Chinese indringers gevange geneem en onder die beheer van die Silla -koninkryk gekom. Pyongyang het in 1592 aan die Japannese geval en is vroeg in die 17de eeu deur die Mantsjoe -mense verwoes.

Tydens die Sino-Japannese oorlog van 1894–1995 is 'n groot deel van die stad weer verwoes. Dit het gegroei as 'n industriële sentrum tydens die Japannese besetting van 1910 tot 1945. In 1948, toe Korea in twee lande verdeel is, het Pyongyang die hoofstad van Noord -Korea geword. Die stad het wydverspreide skade gely in die Koreaanse Oorlog van 1950–53, maar dit is daarna herbou met Sowjet- en Chinese hulp. (Sien ook Korea.) Bevolking (2008 -sensus), 2,581,076.


Inhoud

Die bou van die metronetwerk het in 1965 begin, en stasies is tussen 1969 en 1972 deur president Kim Il-sung geopen. [11] Die meeste van die 16 openbare stasies is in die sewentigerjare gebou, behalwe die twee grootsste stasies - Puhŭng en Yŏnggwang, wat in 1987 gebou is. In 1971 was daar 'n groot ongeluk tydens die bou van 'n tonnel onder die Taedong Rivier vir Ponghwa -stasie. Sommige bronne sê dat minstens 100 werkers in die ongeluk dood is. [12] [ gebruiker-gegenereerde bron ] Hierdie spesifieke gedeelte van die tonnel is nooit voltooi nie, die metronetwerk is nou heeltemal aan die westekant van die rivier geleë.

China het tegniese hulp verleen vir die bou van die metro en kundiges gestuur om toerusting wat in China vervaardig is, te installeer, insluitend elektriese toerusting in Xiangtan, Hunan [13] en die roltrap met 'n vertikale hoogte van 64 m in Sjanghai. [14] [15]

Die metro in Pyongyang is een van die diepste metro's ter wêreld, met die spoor op meer as 110 meter diep ondergronds, het die metro geen bogrondse spoorstukke of stasies nie. As gevolg van die diepte van die metro en die gebrek aan buitegedeeltes, kan die stasies as bomskuilings dien, met blaasdeure in die gange. [16] [17] Dit neem drie en 'n half minute van die grond af tot by die platform met 'n roltrap. Die metro is so diep dat die temperatuur van die platform die hele jaar 'n konstante 18 ° C (64 ° F) handhaaf. [18] Die Saint Petersburg Metro beweer ook dat dit die diepste is, gebaseer op die gemiddelde diepte van al sy stasies. Die Arsenalna-stasie aan die Kyiv Metro se Sviatoshynsko-Brovarska-lyn is tans die diepste stasie ter wêreld op 105,5 meter (346 voet). [19] Die Porta Alpina -treinstasie, bo die Gotthard -basistunnel in Switserland, was veronderstel om 800 m (2600 voet) ondergronds te wees, maar die projek is in 2012 onbepaald gestaak. [20]

Die stelsel is aanvanklik met 825 volt geëlektrifiseer, maar verlaag tot 750 volt om die werking van die klas GI -toestelle te ondersteun. [21]

In 2012 het Koreaanse sentrale televisie weergawes vrygestel van 'n nuwe stasie met die naam Mangyongdae wat op die Pyongyang -argitektuurfees vertoon word. [22]

In 2018 het kommersiële satellietbeelde moontlike uitbreidings aan die metrosisteem geopenbaar, met aktiwiteite wat toon dat drie moontlike nuwe ondergrondse fasiliteite wes van die Kwangbokstasie gebou word. NK News -bronne het bespiegel dat afwesigheid van aankondigings deur staatsmedia te wyte was aan finansieringskwessies, sowel as konstruksieongelukke tydens vorige tonnels, wat moontlik tientalle werkers in die sewentigerjare doodgemaak het. [23]

In 2019 is Kaeson -stasie en Tongil -stasie gemoderniseer [24], wat TV's met die volgende diens en helderder beligting byvoeg. This was followed by Jonu station and Chonsung station in 2020. [25] The TVs can also display a digital version of the Rodong Sinmun.

At the 8th Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea, it was announced to push forward on the updating and renovation of the Pyongyang Metro, along with the production of new-type subway trains. [26]

The Pyongyang Metro was designed to operate every few minutes. During rush hour, the trains can operate at a minimum interval of two minutes. The trains have the ability to play music and other recordings. [27] In actual service, they run at every 3 minutes in rush hour and every 5 minutes throughout the day. [28]

The Pyongyang Metro is the cheapest in the world to ride, at only five North Korean won (worth half of a US cent) per ticket. [29] Instead of paper tickets, the Metro previously used an aluminium token, with the emblem of the Metro minted on it and the Korean " 지 ". It has used a paper ticket system, with " 지 " printed with blue ink on it. [28] Tickets are bought at station booths. Nowadays, the network uses contactless cards that feature the logo of the network and a train set on the front, with the terms and conditions on the other side. Gates display the number of trips remaining on the card, with a trip being a tap on entry and exit. [28] Smoking and eating inside the Metro system is prohibited and is punishable by a large fine.

Network Edit

The Pyongyang Metro network consists of two lines:

  • Chollima Line, named after a winged horse from ancient Korean mythology. It spans about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi). Construction started in 1968, and the line opened on September 6, 1973. The Mangyongdae Line forms part of the Chollima Line. The total route contains the Puhung, Yonggwang, Ponghwa, Sŭngni, Tongil, Kaeson, Jonu, and Pulgunbyol stations.
  • Hyŏksin Line, which literally means renewal, spans about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). Regular service started on October 9, 1975. The route contains the Kwangbok, Konguk, Hwanggumbol, Konsol, Hyoksin, Jonsung, Samhung, and Rakwon stations. The closed Kwangmyong station is located between the Samhung and Rakwon stations.

The two lines have a linking track, located somewhere near Jonsung station. [30]

Unlike most railway systems, the majority of the stations' names do not refer to their respective locations instead, stations take their names from themes and characteristics reflecting North Korea's revolution. A notable exception, Kaesŏn Station ("Triumph station"), is located at the Arch of Triumph.

The network runs entirely underground. The design of the network was based on metro networks in other communist countries, in particular the Moscow Metro. [31] Both networks share many characteristics, such as the great depth of the lines (over 100 metres (330 ft)) and the large distances between stations. Another common feature is the Socialist realist art on display in the stations - such as murals and statues. [32] Staff of the Metro have a military-style uniform that is specific to these workers. Each Metro station has a free toilet for use by patrons. Stations also play state radio-broadcasts and have a display of the Rodong Sinmun newspaper.

In times of war, the metro stations can serve as bomb shelters. [33] For this purpose the stations are fitted with large steel doors. [34] Some sources claim that large military installations are connected to the stations, [35] and also that there exist secret lines solely for government use. [5] [36]

One station, Kwangmyŏng, has been closed since 1995 due to the mausoleum of Kim Il-sung being located at that station. Trains do not stop at that station.

The map of the Hyŏksin line shows two additional stations after Kwangbok: Yŏngung ( 영웅 ) and Ch'ilgol ( 칠골 ), both of them reportedly under development. The map of the Chollima Line, on the other hand, shows four additional stations, two at each end of the line—Ryŏnmot ( 련못 ), Sŏp'o ( 서포 ), Ch'ŏngch'un ( 청춘 ) and Man'gyŏngdae ( 만경대 )—also planned or under development. However, the most recent maps omit these stations. [28]

In addition to the main system for passenger use, there is reportedly an extra system for government use, similar to Moscow's Metro-2. The secret Pyongyang system supposedly connects important government locations. [37] There is also reportedly a massive underground plaza for mobilization, as well as an underground road connecting two metro stations. [38]

When operations on the Metro started in the 1970s, newly built DK4 passenger cars were used, made for North Korea by the Chinese firm Changchun Railway Vehicles. A prototype train of DK4 cars was constructed in 1971 and the first 15 cars were sent to Pyongyang on July 30, 1973. 112 cars had been provided to North Korea by September 1978, [15] but eventually 345 cars were acquired. [39]

In 1974, Kim Jong-il rode a Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works built metro set named 'Autonomy', but is no longer in service and said to be stored in the Pyongyang Metro museum. [40]

Some of the Chinese-made rolling stock was later sold back to China for use on the Beijing Subway, where it was used in three-car sets on line 13. It has since been replaced by newer DKZ5 and DKZ6 trainsets, and it is not known if the DK4 units were returned to Pyongyang. Other sets have been observed operating near the Sinuiju area. [21]

Since 1997, the Pyongyang Metro has used former German rolling stock from the Berlin U-Bahn. The North Korean government supposedly bought more than twice the number of trainsets required for daily use, prompting speculation that the Metro might contain hidden lines and/or stations that are not open to the public. [37] There are likely three different types of rolling stock in operation:

  • Underground Electric Vehicle Type 1, 1 set built 2015. [41] ("Dora"), former West Berlin stock, 108 built between 1957 and 1965.
  • DK4, built by CNR Changchun Railway Vehicles. Although only photographed in service up to 2007, multiple satellite images show a number of sets within the depot.

The trainsets were given a new red and cream livery in Pyongyang. All advertising was removed and replaced by portraits of leaders, Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. In 2000, a BBC reporter saw "old East German trains complete with their original German graffiti". [10] After about 2006, Type D cars were mainly used. The Class GI rolling stock was withdrawn from Metro service in 2001, and those cars are now operating on the railway network around Pyongyang and northern regions as commuter trains. [42] [43] One Type D carriage appears to have been converted into a track inspection or work vehicle, with another window added beside the inter carriage door. The carriage is still painted in yellow. [44]

In 2015, Kim Jong-un rode a newly manufactured four car train set which was reported to have been developed and built at Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works in North Korea, [45] although the cars appeared to be significantly renovated D-class cars. This set is named 'Underground Electric Vehicle No. 1'. It features a VVVF control and initially fitted with an asynchronous motor but later replaced with a permanent magnet synchronous motor developed by the Kim Chaek University of Technology. It usually runs on the Chollima Line but has also ran on the Hyoksin Line. [41]

Some class D sets have a next stop indicator installed, replacing the portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il. [44]

The shunting locomotives used on the Pyongyang Metro are the GKD5B diesel electric model manufactured by China's CNR Dalian, imported in early 1996. [46]

As a gift to the 8th Congress of the Workers' Party of Korea, it is reported that the Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works are working to complete new metro cars, promoted by the 80 day campaign. [47] However, in the Korean Central News Agency article summarising the eighty day campaign, there was no mention of any new vehicles being produced. [48] Previously, it was reported that a 4 door set was to be manufactured to mainly run on the Hyoksin line, to be named Underground Electric Vehicle No. 2. [41]

(In regular service until atleast 2007)


Some units sold to the Beijing Subway in 1998, others converted into 1000 Series trains for Korean State Railway services. Some units can be still seen stored in the metro depot.


Most converted into 500 Series trains for Korean State Railway services.

(possibly Resistor Control)

Unknown (before 1974) Kim Chong-t'ae Electric Locomotive Works DPRK Unknown

N/A Unknown Prototype train. Supposedly stored in the Pyongyang Metro Museum.

Used to haul metro trains under overhead section from tunnel portal to depot.

In general, tourism in North Korea is allowed only in guided groups with no diversion allowed from pre-planned itineraries. Foreign tourists used to be allowed to travel only between Puhŭng Station and Yŏnggwang Station. [51] However, foreign students were allowed to freely use the entire metro system. [52] Since 2010, tourists have been allowed to ride the metro at six stations, [53] and in 2014, all of the metro stations were opened to foreigners. University students traveling with the Pyongyang Project have also reported visiting every station. [54]

As of 2014 [update] , it is possible for tourists on special Public Transport Tours to take metro rides through both lines, including visits to all stations. [55] In April 2014, the first tourist group visited stations on both metro lines, and it is expected that such extended visits to both metro lines will remain possible for future tourist groups. [56]

The previously limited tourist access gave rise to a conspiracy theory that the metro was purely for show. It was claimed that it only consisted of two stops and that the passengers were actors. [57] [58] [59]

Museum Edit

Pyongyang Metro has its own museum. A large portion of the collection is related to President Kim Il-sung providing "on-the-spot guidance" to the workers constructing the system. Among the exhibits are a special funicular-like vehicle which the president used to descend to a station under construction (it rode down the inclined tunnels that would eventually be used by the escalators), and a railbus in which he rode around the system. [60] [61] The museum also has a map of the planned lines it shows the Chollima and Hyoksin line terminating at a common station near Chilgol, the third line that would cross the Taedong River, eventually terminating near Rakrang and the locations of the depots, one far past the western terminus of the Hyoksin line and the depot in Sopo for the Chollima line. [62]


6. Kim Jong Un can control the weather

In addition to his more mundane talents, in 2017 Kim revealed to the world his ability to control the weather . The announcement came, as so many others did, through the Korean Central News Agency. Kim demonstrated his capability in late 2017, when he ascended a mountain which normally presented blizzard conditions at that time of year. Kim had himself photographed at the summit in bright sun and pleasant breezes, proving to his people (and the rest of the world) that the weather bent itself to his will.

The KCNA did not mince words, describing Kim as the man “who controls the nature”. One can be forgiven for wondering how famine inducing droughts persist in a country where the leader controls the weather, but who knows? The mountain in which Kim demonstrated his weather control was previously claimed to be the birthplace of his father, Kim Jong-il. He claimed his birth was marked by the weather, which honored it with the presentation of a double rainbow.


Who Brought the Gospel to Korea? Koreans Did.

W e tend to think that Christianity entered foreign lands only due to missionary work. Not so in Korea. Until the late 19th century, the mountainous Korean Peninsula was governed tightly by a Confucian tradition and closed off to most foreigners. Missionaries found it difficult to penetrate the reclusive nation, focusing instead on Korea&rsquos larger neighbors, China and Japan. Consequently, Koreans themselves played a more significant role in importing and later spreading Christianity to Korea. Three hundred years later, Christians make up more than a quarter of South Koreans and the country is responsible for one of the world&rsquos largest missionary movements. What first caused Christianity to take hold in Korea?

Confucianism&rsquos decline

The spread of Christianity in China in the late 1700s made an impression on the Korean elite. Jesuit missionaries distributed philosophical and scientific literature, material that caught the attention of scholars looking to innovate and reform the Confucian system. The application of the teachings of the Chinese sage Confucius (551&ndash479 BC), which centered on wisdom and right social relations, had resulted in a remarkably stable society with a highly developed culture. However, it also produced an elitist culture, resistant to the innovations of the modern world and to possibilities of Christianity, which scholars saw as driving Western development.

Among those open to such reforms was aristocrat Yi Seung-hun, who was baptized by a French Jesuit in a Beijing Catholic church in 1784. Upon his return to Korea, Yi baptized several fellow scholars and together they formed the first Christian community in Korea. Today, the Korean Catholic Church is the only national Catholic church that is recognized as founded by a lay community.

However, the Korean authorities refused to tolerate the performance of non-Confucian religious rituals and soon discovered the fledgling church. The government disciplined Yi and several other aristocrats. But the church&rsquos host, Kim Beom-u, who was of a lower social rank, was imprisoned, tortured, and banished. He later died of his injuries, becoming the Korean church&rsquos first martyr.

As the government cracked down, Korea&rsquos new converts also faced pressure due to a change in policy of the Catholic Church. In 1790, Korean Christians learned that the pope had forbidden converts to venerate their ancestors according to the &ldquoChinese Rites.&rdquo But such dereliction of duty especially drew the ire of Confucians for whom the veneration of the fathers by the sons was axiomatic for societal well-being. Christians who openly discontinued veneration were not only ostracized from their families but also risked persecution and death.

Despite these difficulties, the first Korean Catholics pressed the bishop to send them a priest (they could not observe mass without one) and in 1795, a Chinese priest was smuggled in. For a time, the priest was protected from authorities by Kang Wan-suk (Columba), a wealthy aristocratic woman, who was divorced by her husband for her evangelistic activities. Kang was part of the &ldquoUnmarried Virgins,&rdquo a community of mostly affluent women who refused marriage or otherwise bucked familial societal norms by living in community and practicing celibacy.

But Kang&rsquos status only protected her for a short time. She was tortured but refused to disclose the whereabouts of the priest. Later, the government beheaded Kang, as well as the priest and many other church leaders, in what later became known as the Sinyu Persecution of 1801. For the first time, Catholicism itself was officially prohibited nationwide.

Christianity spreads nationwide

Despite being started by aristocratic men, the first Korean Christians understood that the church was for all people. In a society stratified by ancestry and segregated by gender, early Christian communities included women and people of different ranks, and those from outcaste groups. Some aristocrats who converted to Catholicism or were sympathetic to the faith disguised their views, caring for exiled believers by allowing them to live on land they owned in more remote mountain areas or islands. Some of the exiled made their living as potters and itinerant tradespeople who spread the faith by disseminating Catholic literature and religious objects across the country.

The first Korean priest, Kim Dae-geon (Andrew), was ordained in 1845 after receiving religious training in other parts of Asia. However, shortly after re-entering Korea, Kim was discovered with incriminating Korean-language Christian texts and images. The authorities learned that he had been trying to help French priests enter the country from China and he was executed.

News of the incursions of Western powers and spread of Western ideas into China increasingly alarmed the Korean government, driving it to further isolationism and more aggressive suppression of Catholicism. Catholics&rsquo foreign links also alarmed the government, provoking further crackdowns and deaths. The last officially sanctioned persecution started in 1866 when it&rsquos estimated that 8,000 people, or half of the Catholic community, were killed. Pope Paul II canonized 103 martyrs when he visited South Korea in 1984.

The rise of the Protestant church

The locals&rsquo role in the beginning of Korea&rsquos Protestant church in the 1880s closely resembled the early days of Catholicism. In addition to starting their own churches, Korean Protestants also lobbied for the entry of Western missionaries and supported their work. &ldquoThe seed had been sown, and the field was ripe already, in a sense, and was waiting for the harvest,&rdquo wrote one foreign missionary who arrived in the late 19th century.

There were at least two seedbeds of Protestantism in Korea. One was in Ŭiju, near the modern-day border between North Korea and China. On business in Manchuria, several young Koreans met John Ross and John McIntyre, two Scottish Presbyterian missionaries, who had long been interested in Korea but were unable to enter. The party taught the missionaries the Korean language and helped them translate the Chinese Bible. After they were baptized in the late 1870s, several returned to Ŭiju and started a church there.

The second seedbed was Sorae, on the west coast, the hometown of one of the first Protestant evangelists, Suh Sang-ryun (1848&ndash1926). Suh carried copies of a Korean translation of the Gospel of Luke there and began to pastor a group of Korean believers. That community is now regarded as the &ldquocradle&rdquo of Protestant Christianity in Korea, a symbol of the self-supporting, self-governing, and self-propagating nature of Korean Christianity.

By the 1880s, the Confucian order was crumbling and Korean sovereignty was threatened not only by Western powers but also by the rise of Japan. Progressive Koreans sought to modernize the country and pressed for the entry of foreign missionaries to help with medicine and education. Some saw Christianity as the religious or ideological basis of Western society, believing the nation would benefit from a spiritual renewal of the people.

The first Western missionaries to enter Korea officially were Horace Grant Underwood and Henry Gerhard Appenzeller&mdashboth from the United States. Underwood, a Northern Presbyterian, and Appenzeller, a Northern Methodist, disembarked together from the same ship in 1885. Many of the first believers they baptized in Seoul were from Sorae.

One Protestant progressive was Yun Chi-ho (1867&ndash1945), an aristocrat who had become a Christian at the Anglo-Chinese School in Shanghai, while in exile following the failure of a coup in 1884. He explained his desire for baptism was &ldquothe hope that I may &hellip God willing, live a useful life for myself and my brethren.&rdquo Yun kept in touch with leaders of the US Methodist Episcopal Church South, which operated the Shanghai School. He urged them to send missionaries and also offered financial support for them.

When Southern Methodist missionaries arrived in 1896, they likened Yun to the man of Macedonia whom the apostle Paul saw in a dream saying &ldquoCome over to Macedonia and help us.&rdquo (Acts 16:9). Yun, like many future Christian leaders, regarded Christianity as a new energy for national revival.

Convinced that problems such as invasions by foreign powers and social instability in Korea were connected with the internal weakness of the country itself, Yun believed that the country&rsquos fragility could be overcome by the civic morality and transcendent power of Christianity. In 1910, Yun served as one of the representatives of the &ldquonative churches&rdquo at the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 where he testified to the great receptivity of Korea to Christianity.

Despite the efforts of Yun and others, Western missionary numbers were comparatively low in Korea. Moreover, many missionaries did not master the Korean language, so they were dependent on their Korean co-workers for evangelistic work. From the first entry of Protestantism, colporteurs like Suh Sang-ryun sold Christian literature, and from the late 1880s, Korean Christians were engaged by missionaries as &ldquohelpers&rdquo to interpret for them, lead Bible studies, and organize churches.

In traditional Korea, male missionaries were prohibited from conversing with Korean women and from gaining access to the anbang, a private room for women in a Korean home. Because of this taboo, the missionary wives initiated women&rsquos ministry and Korean female evangelists, or &ldquoBible women,&rdquo played an important role in the early spread of Protestantism. In fact, most of them were wives who had been neglected by their husbands in the patriarchal society of Korea. Nevertheless, they served as role models for modern women through their witness and Christian teaching, which included the principle of equality and the rights of women.

One of the most renowned &ldquoBible women&rdquo was Kim Gang (Dorcas 1848-?) who later testified that &ldquothe day that Jesus Christ was preached in Korea began the emancipation of women from the bondage of thousands of years.&rdquo She first heard the name of Jesus at the age of 50 and she was baptized and received into full church membership in 1899.

She remembered the day of her baptism as &ldquothe happiest of my life.&rdquo She explained that until then in Confucian society as a woman she had never been called by her name, only by that of her father, husband, or son, but when &ldquofreedom had come to me, &hellip I received a name, &lsquoDorcas&rsquo that means &lsquodeer.&rsquo&rdquo Living up to her name, Dorcas was given a preaching circuit of 1,450 miles of mountainous territory. As she walked it, she was sometimes verbally attacked, refused food by local people, and once imprisoned. Despite the opposition, Dorcas continued to evangelize Korea.

The Pyongyang Revival

The &ldquoPyongyang Revival&rdquo or &ldquoKorean Pentecost&rdquo in 1907 was a seminal religious movement for Korean Protestant Christianity. &ldquoSome of you go back to John Calvin, and some of you to John Wesley, but we can go back no further than 1907 when we first really knew the Lord Jesus Christ,&rdquo Korean Christians were recorded as telling missionaries in 1913.

While spiritual in nature, the revival cannot be understood apart from the political context of the time. The power struggle in East Asia in 1905 was gradually being won by Japan, who defeated China in 1895, and Russia. In 1910, Japan would annex Korea and it would cease to exist as a separate country until the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945. The famous revival in 1907 occurred at a time of crisis as the nation was being lost.

Kil Sun-ju (1865&ndash1935), who was ordained later in 1907 as one of the first ministers of the newly established Presbyterian Church of Korea, was the central leader of the revival. Before he converted to Protestantism, he had been deeply engrossed in Daoist ascetic practices. But, as Korea entered a period of national crisis, Kil grew increasingly cynical about Daoism&rsquos ability to help his country, blaming its pessimistic outlook and private spirituality. As foreign powers encroached on Korea, Kil searched for another religion that was socially engaged and offered hope for the future to save the country from its fate.

While losing his sight, Kil was introduced to Christianity by a Christian friend who asked him whether he could pray to God as father. Kil answered, &ldquoHow could man call God Father?&rdquo But three days later, while praying, he heard a mysterious voice call his name three times. Kil was afraid and prostrated himself, crying out, &ldquoGod the Father who loves me, forgive my sin and save my life!&rdquo After his conversion, Kil became an ardent Christian, church elder, and a Korean nationalist leader.

The Pyongyang Revival broke out in Kil&rsquos church, Jangdaehyeon Church, after Kil publicly confessed his personal sin to church members. &ldquoI am a man of Achan&rsquos sin,&rdquo he cried, referencing Joshua 7:18, and hundreds of others followed his example of repentance and forgiveness to save their souls and the nation. Kil and others preached across the country as the revival spread further to China and Manchuria. The religious movement also took on political overtones and became increasingly associated with Korean nationalism. Kil was one of the key leaders in the Independence Movement of March 1, 1919, against the Japanese colonization of the country.

The revival had lasting effects on Korean Christianity and on Korea. Indigenous Christian rituals such as sagyeonhoe (Bible study and the Bible-examining meetings), saebyoek gido (dawn prayer meetings), and tongseong gido (collective audible prayer) were formulated as part of Protestant practice. Korean Christian leaders led nationwide educational movements with the vision of making Korea a Christian nation.

The Great Revival transformed Protestantism from a foreign religion to a new national religion, laying the foundation for the most remarkable church growth in Asia in the 20th century and positioning South Korea as a global center of Christianity.

Kirsteen Kim is professor of theology and world Christianity at Fuller Theological Seminary. Her many publications include A History of Korean Christianity (Cambridge University Press, 2015) which was co-authored with her husband, Sebastian C. H. Kim.

Hoon Ko is a PhD candidate in intercultural studies at Fuller Theological Seminary researching how Korean Protestant preachers contributed to national revival from 1884 to 1919.


Magu – The Korean Cannabis Deity

Another interesting thing about how important cannabis was in historical Korea is that there was a deity who was believed to protect the harvest. A goddess, called Magu, was used to represent the importance of the relationship between the plant and Korean agriculture. Her name is derived from the Chinese words for 'cannabis' and 'girl' – 'ma' and 'gu'.


Ancient Pyongyang - History

By STARS AND STRIPES Published: December 5, 2012

OSAN AIR BASE, South Korea &mdash Watch out, &ldquoMy Little Pony.&rdquo It turns out that unicorns were real.

At least, that&rsquos what North Korea says.

Keeping in mind that the reclusive communist country once claimed that its late leader, Kim Jong Il, shot a 38 the first time he played golf, with several holes-in-one, North Korea has announced that it has found the long-lost unicorn lair of ancient Korean historical lore.

The unicorn lair, belonging to King Tongmyong, founder of the Koguryo Kingdom (37 B.C.- 668 A.D.), is only 200 meters from the Yongmyong Temple in Moran Hill, conveniently located in the capital Pyongyang, the country&rsquos official Korean Central News Agency reported last week.

Archaeologists of the History Institute of the DPRK Academy of Social Sciences said the discovery was made when a rectangular maker with the words &ldquoUnicorn Lair&rdquo was found outside the site, KCNA reported. The carving of the marker was estimated to date back to the Koryo Kingdom period (918-1392).

&ldquoKorea&rsquos history books deal with the unicorn, considered to be ridden by King Tongmyong, and its lair,&rdquo said Jo Hui Sung, the institute&rsquos director.

&ldquoThe discovery of the unicorn lair, associated with legend about King Tongmyong, proves that Pyongyang was a capital city of Ancient Korea as well as Koguryo Kingdom,&rdquo Jo added.


Kyk die video: PYONGYANG TROLLEYBUS 2014 (Januarie 2022).