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Goue hare versiering



Kanzashi

Kanzashi (簪) is haarversierings wat in tradisionele Japannese haarstyle gebruik word. Die term "kanzashi" verwys na 'n wye verskeidenheid bykomstighede, insluitend lang, stywe haarspelde, kappies, stofblomme en haarbandjies.

In die Engelssprekende wêreld, die term "kanzashi" word tipies gebruik om te verwys na haarversierings gemaak van lae gevoude lap wat gebruik word om blomme te vorm (tsumami kanzashi), of die voutegniek wat gebruik word om die blomme te maak.


2. In Hindoe Dharma, 'Versier met ornamente’ is 'n skoolhoof achar (gedrag)

Ornamente is Raja-oorheersend en skenk Tej (Glans). Sonder die ornamente, daar is geen Tej-kenmerkende manifestasie. Sonder manifestasie is daar geen aktiwiteit nie. Sonder aktiwiteit is daar geen Prakruti (Ouer natuur). Sonder die Prakruti, daar is geen Maya (Die Groot Illusie). Om die wêreld te gee wat die vorm aanneem van Maya met Chaitanya (Goddelike Bewussyn), ornamente is nodig.

Die Tej-tattva (Absolute Fire Principle) in ornamente bied die regte rigting aan die Raja komponent in 'n vrou en dwing dit om aksies uit te voer wat in verhouding staan ​​tot die Tej in haar. Dan is die moontlikheid dat 'n vrou (versier met ornamente) roekeloos optree.


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HAARSTYLE IN AFRIKAANSE KULTUUR

Die Afrikaanse beskawing het verskillende kapsels gehad. Baie mense dra nog steeds, inspirerende antieke Afrikaanse haarstyle in die wêreld. Hulle het simboliese haarstyle as gevolg van stamtradisies.

Haarstyle in Afrika en onder Afro-Amerikaners verander voortdurend, maar tog diep gewortel in 'n gedeelde verlede.

Kappers in Afrika is altyd die werk van vertroude vriende of familie. Benewens die vriendelike sosiale aspekte van die geleentheid, kan die hare, in die hande van 'n vyand, 'n bestanddeel word in die vervaardiging van 'n gevaarlike sjarme of 'medisyne' wat die eienaar kan beseer.


Vir diegene wat sou belangstel om te sien hoe ons haaridees en -style ontwikkel het en wat dit beteken, het ek 'n artikel geplaas wat volgens my goed geskryf en op die punt was. Geniet dit! Insette en kommentaar is welkom!

Vra byna enige swart vrou, en sy sal u waarskynlik vertel dat haar verhouding met haar hare soortgelyk is aan 'n liefdesverhouding. Of dit nou die lang ure is wat u by die kapsalon gewag het, die pyn wat u verduur deur te druk of te vleg, of die hoeveelheid geld wat u spandeer het, is regtig 'n obsessie. Terwyl ek besef dat ander kulture hare waardeer, is hare in swart kultuur uiters belangrik en dikwels sinoniem met identiteit. En baie individue, soos Don King, Bob Marley en Angela Davis, het hul hare gebruik om 'n verklaring af te lê.

Seun met vlegsel ( ozondato en ondengura nekband, Himba, Namibië, Afrika
Foto gedateer: Anneliese Scherz, 1940's

As lid van die swart kultuur gee ek toe dat ons die betekenis en instandhouding van hare dikwels na 'n ander vlak neem. Maar dit is nie uit ons eie wil nie. Trouens, die belangrikheid van hare in die Swart gemeenskap kan teruggevoer word na ons voorouers in Afrika.

En die geskiedenis van die saak begin. Die oorsprong van hierdie liefdesverhouding kan teruggevoer word na Afrika. Dit lyk net natuurlik dat die “ -onderneming ” hier sou begin, aangesien die meeste swartes van die weskus van Afrika vervoer is. Alhoewel die teksture van hul hare baie verskil, het die Afrikaners soortgelyke menings uitgespreek oor die kulturele en sosiale betekenis van hul hare.

Inboorlinge van Ugogo, Oos -Sentraal -Afrika
Gogo (Afrikaanse mense)

Estetiese betekenis
Net soos die sosiale betekenis van hare belangrik was, so was die estetiese aantrekkingskrag daarvan. Volgens Sylvia Ardyn Boone, 'n antropoloog wat spesialiseer in die Mende -kultuur van Sierre Leone, bewonder die Wes -Afrikaanse gemeenskappe 'n fyn kop van lang, dik hare op 'n vrou. 'N Vrou met lang dik hare demonstreer die lewenskrag, die vermeerderende krag van oorvloed, voorspoed, 'n groen duim vir oorvloedige plase en baie gesonde kinders (Tharps en Byrd 2001) Daar was egter meer om mooi te wees as met lang takke. Een se hare moet ook netjies, skoon en in 'n sekere styl gerangskik wees. Hierdie style bevat, maar was nie beperk nie tot, cornrows en ander gevlegte style. Hulle het die hare ook versier met ornamente soos krale en cowrie -skulpe.

Inboorlinge van Ugogo, Oos -Sentraal -Afrika Gogo (Afrikaanse mense)

Spirale betekenis
Net soos hare om sosiale en estetiese redes verhef is, het die geestelike verband daarvan ook die betekenis daarvan verhoog. Baie Afrikane het geglo dat die hare 'n manier is om met die Goddelike Wese te kommunikeer. Volgens Mohamed Mbodj, 'n medeprofessor in die geskiedenis aan die Columbia Universiteit en 'n boorling van Dakar, Senegal, is die hare die hoogste punt van u liggaam, wat beteken dat dit die naaste aan die goddelike is. gedink kommunikasie het deur die hare gegaan. Baie mense het geglo dat 'n enkele haarstring gebruik kan word om uitspel te veroorsaak of skade aan te rig. Dit verklaar waarom haarkappers prominente posisies in die gemeenskap beklee en steeds beklee. Vir diegene wat dit nie weet nie, is die stilering en versorging van swart hare dikwels ingewikkeld en tydrowend. Hierdie tyd wat by die kapper deurgebring word, lei dikwels tot noue bande tussen die stilis en die kliënt. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat “ ontwerpe "en onversorgde hare grootliks ongesiens was, net soos serpe en" kopvoue. "Daarom kan 'n mens tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat die hare nie bedek was nie.

Pragtige vroue van Elmina (Edina) in Gold Coast (Ghana) met hul haarstyl
in 'n hout gegraveerde tekening (1800-1895).

Skadelike gevolge van die slawehandel
Soos die studie van die Amerikaanse geskiedenis aan die lig gebring het, het slawehandel nie net fisiese skade aangerig nie, maar ook emosionele en sielkundige letsels gelaat. Die verwoestendste litteken wat vandag nog weerspieël word, is die selfbeeld van die slaaf. Dit geld veral vir hare en velkleur. Soos hulle albei die raamwerk geword het vir die bepaling van ras.

Die tradisionele Osun-Oshogbo Afrikaanse haarstyl

Slawe -eienaars beskryf die hare van die Afrikaners dikwels as "wollerig" en vergelyk dit met diere. Hierdie en ander terme sou later gebruik word om die onmenslike behandeling van die slawe te regverdig. Na jare se onderdrukking en voortdurend sien hoe mense met 'reguit hare' en 'ligte vel' beter geleenthede bied, het die slawe hierdie woorde begin internaliseer. Uiteindelik het selfhaat begin. In 'n poging om ander oor swart hare op te voed en die diversiteit daarvan te vier.


Dra die Bybel teen ons versierings? Wat is die agtergrond of basis van hierdie konsep?

Oorsprong en bedoeling van die geloof

Daar is baie redes waarom hierdie geloof ontstaan ​​het, waarvan die duidelikste die sosiale status was wat verband hou met goud en silwer. Die rykes of die hoër kaste in die samelewing het 'n goeie hoeveelheid juweliersware om op te roem, terwyl die armes wat na die kerk gekom het, niks gehad het nie.

Toe die Indiese Pinkstervaders tot die Christelike geloof gekom het, kom baie van hulle uit invloedryke en hoë kaste -gesinne wat gedreig het om hulle van hul erfenis en rykdom te ontneem omdat hulle uit hul godsdienstige stelsels stap om 'n nuwe geloof te aanvaar. Die kerkvaders het ook opgemerk dat die kaste-onderskeid binne-in die kerk die gemeenskap belemmer tussen gelowiges wat nie laer kaste dra nie en die versiering wat gelowiges met hoër kaste dra.

Daarom, in 'n poging om die versperring binne die kerk te verwyder en dit ook vir nuwe bekeerlinge uit beide kaste maklik te maak, het die kerkvaders die stelsel opgee om hul ornamente/juwele op te gee wanneer 'n persoon gered en gedoop is. Die bedoeling was om die liggaam van Christus te verenig, diskriminasie uit die weg te ruim en as teken vir buitestaanders van hul toewyding op te tree.

Die argument vir die verwydering van ornamente

Baie het verskillende verse uit die Skrif om te bewys dat goud verwyder is wat God wil hê. Ek noem graag 'n paar daarvan sonder om in elke detail te probeer ingaan.

Uit die Ou Testament

Moses bestraf die Israeliete omdat hulle 'n goue kalf gebou het om te aanbid, en as straf hulle goud verpoeier en laat drink. Maar die probleem om die vers aan te haal as 'n beginsel om u juweliersware te verwyder, is dat Moses dit gedoen het omdat die goud hulle God geword het en dit beteken ook nie dat hulle nie weer goud gedra het nie. Trouens, selfs vandag glo ek dat goud altyd die plek van God inneem en as u 'n obsessie het met u uiterlike versierings, dan is dit die beste om dit lewenslank prys te gee, of ten minste totdat u die swakheid in u lewe oorkom.

In die Nuwe Testament ... baie haal meestal 1 Pet 3: 1-5 “3 Vroue, moet u ook aan u eie mans onderdanig wees, sodat selfs as sommige die woord nie gehoorsaam nie, hulle sonder woorde gewen kan word deur die gedrag van hulle vrouens, 2 as hulle u respekvolle en suiwer optrede sien. 3 Laat u versiering nie van buite af wees nie; die vlegsel van hare en die aantrek van goue juweliersware of die klere wat u dra, maar laat u versiering die verborge persoon van die hart wees met die onverganklike skoonheid van 'n sagte en stil gees, wat in die oë van God baie kosbaar is. 5 Want so het die heilige vroue wat op God gehoop het, hulself versier deur hulle aan hul eie mans te onderwerp. ”

Met hierdie gedeelte moet ons die vers in konteks beskou of dit letterlik opneem. Beide sou meer vrae hê wat ons byvoorbeeld sal moet aanspreek, as ons die vers letterlik opneem asof Petrus reëls neerlê wat ons moet volg: 1. Petrus praat slegs met vroue. Dit beteken dat dit nie van toepassing is op mans of selfs alleenstaande vroue nie. 2. Vroue kan nie hul hare vleg nie. (Wat blykbaar nie 'n probleem is vir diegene wat teen goud praat nie.)

Of die ander kant van die verstaan ​​van die vers is dat Petrus praat teen die gebruik van deftige haarstyl of allerhande ornamente wat die aandag op u self vestig en beskeie en respekvolle aanbieding vergeet. Let daarop dat hy nie sê om nie goud te dra nie, maar net dat dit nie die fokus moet wees nie. Dit is dus aan ons om te besluit watter van die interpretasies ons wil kies, want beide kan nie korrek wees nie! Of jy sê: moenie goud dra nie (en moenie jou hare vleg nie) en dat dit net van toepassing sal wees op getroude vroue, of dat jy die Skrif heeltemal verstaan. U kan nie sê dat Paulus sê dat u nie goud moet dra nie, maar dit is goed om ons hare te vleg en duur sarees te dra!

Voorvereiste vir redding?

Die probleem begin wanneer dit wat as oplossing vir kulturele kwessies gedoen is, 'n voorvereiste vir redding word. Dit, in die mate waarin baie nie gedoop word of mag deelneem aan die tafel van die Here as 'n mens ornamente dra of nie 'n wit kleredrag dra nie.

Die sleutel hier is dit: Paulus het nie 'n stel reëls opgestel nie, maar die Bybel moedig ons duidelik aan om innerlike heiligheid aan te kweek en nie op die uiterlike skoonheid te fokus nie. Ons moet beskeie en diskreet aantrek om alles tot eer van God te doen.

Hoe gaan dit met diegene wat van God gehoor het?

My ma is een van die mense wat nie ornamente dra nie, maar die agtergrond is dat sy iemand was wat lief was vir ornamente en neergesien het op die gelowiges wat nie ornamente gedra het nie. Toe sy dus vervul was met die Heilige Gees, was sy in die eerste plek skuldig bevind aan haar sondes op daardie gebied, en sy het dit op haar geneem om te laat gaan waarop sy die liefste was.

Maar die probleem word wanneer ons begin verwag dat almal dit moet doen. As dit by my vrou kom, het baie mense verwag dat ons ons kerk en ouers sou volg. Toe sy God soek, het die Heilige Gees egter daaraan herinner dat sy deur die bloed van Jesus gewas is en dat ornamente nie 'n voorvereiste was vir haar wandel met God nie. En ek, soos haar man dit heelhartig ondersteun het, want ek het persoonlik gesien dat Tiny nie iemand is wat versot is op ornamente nie.

As u 'n vrou is wat hierdie artikel lees, en as die Here u daartoe gelei het om juweliersware te verwyder of nie, dan wil ek hê dat u moet weet dat ek u respekteer. My probleem is eintlik nie by jou nie, maar met 'n mensgemaakte reël en eiegeregtigheid en (soms selfs skynheiligheid) wat daarmee gepaard gaan.

Dit is goed as u kerk dit wil volg, maar dit is ook reg om ander kerke te respekteer wat dit nie volg nie. En om te sê dat hulle nie hemel toe sou gaan omdat hulle versierings gedra het nie, is om die krag van die bloed van Jesus wat vergiet is, te beledig en almal wat in sy naam glo te red.

Hier is ander verse wat u moontlik gemis het:

Toe gaan ek by u verby en sien u, en kyk, u was destyds vir liefde, en ek het my romp oor u gesprei en u naaktheid bedek. Ek het jou ook gesweer en 'n verbond met jou gesluit sodat jy Myne geword het, spreek die Here God. Toe bad ek jou met water, spoel jou bloed van jou af af en salf jou met olie. Ek het jou ook met 'n geborduurde lap geklee en sandale van bruinvelvel op jou voete gesit, en ek het jou met fyn linne toegedraai en met sy bedek. Ek het jou versier met ornamente, sit armbande op jou hande en a halssnoer om jou nek. Ek sit ook 'n ring in jou neusgat, oorbelle in jou ore en 'n pragtige kroon op jou kop. So is jy versier goud en silwer, en u rok was van fyn linne, sy en geborduurde lap. Jy het fynmeel, heuning en olie geëet, sodat jy buitengewoon mooi was en gevorderd was tot koninklikes. Toe het u roem onder die nasies verskyn vanweë u skoonheid, want dit was volmaak vanweë my glans wat ek u gegee het, spreek die Here God. Maar jy vertrou op jou skoonheid en hoereer as gevolg van jou roem, en jy gooi jou hoererye uit op elke verbyganger wat wil. ”

Hooglied 1: 10-11, NASB

Jou wange is pragtig met ornamente, Jou nek met krale. Ons sal vir jou maak ornamente van goud met krale van silwer.

Ek sal baie bly wees in die HERE, my siel sal jubel in my God, want Hy het my met heilsklere beklee, my toegedraai met 'n gewaad van geregtigheid, soos 'n bruidegom met 'n krans versier, en soos 'n bruid haar versier met haar juwele.

Hef jou oë op en kyk rond. Almal kom bymekaar, hulle kom na jou toe. So waar as ek leef, ” spreek die HERE, “Jy sal hulle beslis aantrek as juwele en bind dit as 'n bruid vas.

In Psalm 45: 13,14 die Heilige Gees gee 'n beskrywing in tipe van die kerk van Jesus Christus, “Die koning se dogter is almal heerlik van binne. Haar klere is verweef met GOUD. Sy (die kerk) sal na die Koning (Jesus Christus) gelei word in borduurwerk“.

Was Jesus teen ornamente?

In Lukas 15 neem Jesus die voorbeeld van die verlore seun en eintlik is dit een van die Skrifte wat die meeste gebruik word om die Vaderhart van God te verstaan. En let asseblief daarop dat Jesus nie 'n illustrasie sou gebruik waarin hy nie glo nie. Ek sou byvoorbeeld nooit 'n drank vir u koop of dit as illustrasie gebruik as ek nie daarin geglo het nie. Maar hier is Jesus baie duidelik oor hoe die Vader die terugkerende seun herstel het. Die pa het die beste kleed gebring en 'n ring op sy hand.

In werklikheid het Jesus in die hemel 'n goue gordel om Sy bors (Openb 1:13) en a goue kroon op sy kop (Openb. 14:14) en bou vir ons 'n stad met strate wat rein is goud. (Openb 21:18)

En in die Nuwe Testament …

Jakobus 2: 2, is duidelik dat mense met goud en fyn kledingstukke ook deel uitmaak van die kerk en vermaan is om nie neer te sien op diegene wat dit nie kan bekostig om goed geklee te wees nie.

God is nie teen goud nie, maar teen goud of enige ander bykomstighede, dit sluit ook horlosies, selfone, motors, ens in. Maar as hierdie dinge die plek van God vervang, sal dit deel wees van God se toorn. (Jakobus 5)

Die 3 ISM’s in die Kerk

Pasop vir die 3 isme wat vandag in die kerke bestaan:

Wettisisme: waar gelowiges voel dat hulle toelating tot die hemel bepaal sal word deur hul eie werk of optrede eerder as deur eenvoudige geloof in die versoening van Christus.

Elitisme: waar voortreflike leerstellings, streng heiligheidstandaarde en om deel te wees van 'n bepaalde denominasie en kerk alleen, die weg na die hemel maak.

Oordeel: waar gelowiges geleer word dat ander Christene helvas is omdat hulle televisie kyk of juwele dra.

Die verwydering van goud dui nie op die skeiding van die wêreld nie. Galasiërs 6:14 wys “Ek is dood vir die wêreld (sy tradisies, sy kultuur, sy lus vir die oë, sy begeerlikheid vir die vlees en sy hoogmoed van die lewe) deur die kruis van Jesus“. Dit is nou die gebiede waarin ons moet toewy. Volgens Galasiërs 5: 1 het Christus ons met vryheid bevry. Paulus sê, “Staan dus vas en moet julle nie weer onderwerp aan 'n juk van slawerny nie“. Dit is die vryheid waarmee Christus ons bevry het.

Wat as u alreeds NIE juweliersware dra nie

Ek hoop dit is omdat u persoonlik deur die Heilige Gees oortuig is. Daar is egter baie wat dit kan volg, alhoewel die Heilige Gees hulle nie oortuig het nie, meestal omdat hulle gemaklik is om hul ouers of kerk te volg sonder om dit te dra.

Ek wil sê dat as u glo dat u wit moet dra om 'n kerkbyeenkoms by te woon, u dit moet doen. Neem asseblief tyd om uit Romeine 14 te studeer.

Romeine 14:22 sê, “U glo miskien dat daar niks verkeerd is met wat u doen nie, maar hou dit tussen uself en God. Geseënd is diegene wat nie skuldig voel omdat hulle iets gedoen het wat hulle besluit het reg is nie.

vs.23 Maar as u twyfel of u iets moet eet of nie, sondig u as u dit doen. Want u volg nie u oortuigings nie. As jy iets doen wat jy glo nie reg is nie, sondig jy.”

Ek wil sê, gaan voort met alles wat u voel reg is. Maar wees vriendelik en nederig genoeg om nie ander te veroordeel of u oortuiging as 'n reël van die Bybel te verkoop nie. Laat die liefde lei.

Vir diegene wat glo in die dra van juweliersware

Moenie neersien op diegene wat skuldig is aan hul Christelike geloof sonder die ornamente nie. “…Maar as iemand glo dat dit verkeerd is, dan is dit verkeerd vir daardie persoon.” Romeine 14:14

En as u ornamente dra, sien u dat u dit doen op 'n manier wat God verheerlik. “Want ons lewe nie vir onsself of sterf vir onsself nie. As ons lewe, is dit om die Here te eer. En as ons sterf, is dit om die Here te eer. Of ons nou lewe of sterf, ons behoort aan die Here.” Romeine 14: 7

Moenie versot raak op juweliersware nie, en moenie dit uitspattig doen nie. Kyk dat u hartstogte u oë nie van God oorneem nie. Laat ons in alles wat ons doen, nader aan Jesus stap.

Ek sluit hierdie onderwerp nederig af met nog 'n vers, Romeine 14:19 “Laat ons dan na harmonie in die kerk streef en probeer om mekaar op te bou.


Goue haarversiering - Geskiedenis

1 Petrus 3: 3-4. Wie se versiering, ensovoorts, - Sien aantekening oor 1 Timoteus 2: 9 Titus 2: 3. 'Drie dinge is hier uitdruklik verbied: die hare krul, goud dra (as versiering) en aantreklike of gay klere aantrek. Dit behoort dus nooit, en nog minder verdedig, deur Christene toegelaat te word nie. ” - Wesley. Maar laat dit die verborge mens van die hart wees - 'n innerlike, genadige geaardheid, of 'n volkome innerlike heiligheid, naamlik dit wat nie kan vergaan nie - wat nie sal verslind en verval nie, aangesien die uiterlike kledingstukke selfs sagmoedig en stil sal wees gees - noodsaaklik vir ware heiligheid. 'N Sagmoedige gees bestaan ​​daarin om geduldig provokasie te dra, 'n stil gees in die onthouding van provokasie, veral deur bittere taal, en onnodige moeilikheid te bewerkstellig vir almal wat in die oë van God is - wat na die hart kyk. 'Alle oorbodigheid van kleredrag dra meer by tot trots en woede as wat algemeen aanvaar word. Dit lyk asof die apostel 'n oog daarop het deur sagmoedigheid en stilte te vervang in die kamer van die ornamente wat hy verbied. 'Ek ag hierdie dinge nie' nie, word dikwels gesê deur diegene wie se harte daarin toegedraai is. Maar bied aan om hulle weg te neem, en jy raak die einste afgod van hulle siele aan. Sommiges trek inderdaad net elegant aan, sodat daar na hulle gekyk kan word, dit is dat hulle hul Here se talent wegdoen om toejuiging te kry en sodoende sonde te maak om sonde te verwek, en dan pleit die een as verskoning vir die ander. ” - Wesley. Die sentimente in hierdie vers word deur Blackwall (Sacred Classics: vol. 1. bl. 164,) soos volg geïllustreer: 'Hoe moet al die kortstondige skoonhede, die vorms, kenmerke en die elegantste en rykste ornamente van die sterflike? liggaam wat die oë en bewondering van ydele sterflinge aantrek, vervaag en hul sjarme en glans verloor, in vergelyking met die hemelse genade van 'n vrome en gereelde humeur, die onverganklike ornamente en skoonhede van die siel, wat altyd vriendelik is, en van hoë waarde in die oog van God, die Soewereine Regter van wat goed en mooi is! ” Dit lyk amper soos 'n gedeelte van Crates, 'n heidense filosoof, aangehaal deur Plutarchus: 'Nóg goud, noch smaragde, of pêrels, pryk en versier 'n vrou, maar al die dinge wat haar swaartekrag, gereeldheid en beskeidenheid duidelik uitdruk en laat afskrik.'

Laat dit nie so uiterlik wees nie - laat dit nie die belangrikste of belangrikste ding wees nie, laat haar hart nie daarop gerig wees nie. Die apostel sê nie dat sy haar persoonlike voorkoms heeltemal moet verwaarloos nie, want sy het nie meer die reg om haar man aanstoot te gee deur haar persoonlike voorkoms te verwaarloos as deur 'n finale aandag daaraan te gee nie. Godsdiens bevorder netheid en netheid, en 'n behoorlike aandag aan ons uiterlike voorkoms volgens ons lewensomstandighede, net soos die interne deug van die siel. Sien die aantekeninge in 1 Timoteus 2: 9-10 oor hierdie hele gedeelte.

Oor die vleg van die hare - Sien die aantekeninge in 1 Timoteus 2: 9 Vergelyk die note in Jesaja 3:24. Daar word groot aandag hieraan gegee in die Ooste, en dit is die apostel wat hier verwys. "Die vroue in die oostelike lande", sê dr. Shaw, (Travels, bl. 294,) "beïnvloed dat hul hare op die grond hang, wat hulle in 'n slot op die agterste deel van die kop vasbind en bind en vleg dit met lintjies. Hierbo, of bo -op hul koppe, dra persone van beter mode buigsame plate van goud of silwer, verskillende deurgesny en gegraveer in nabootsing van kant. " Ons moet nie veronderstel dat 'n blote vleg of vleg van die hare onbehoorlik is nie, want daar is moontlik nie 'n eenvoudiger of geriefliker manier om dit weg te doen nie. Maar die sinspeling hier is op die oormatige sorg wat toe geheers het, en veral dat hulle die hart op sulke ornamente plaas eerder as op die versiering wat intern is. Dit is miskien nie maklik om die presiese limiet van behoorlikheid oor die manier waarop die hare gerangskik word, of oor enige ander sieraad vas te stel nie, maar diegene met die regte hart, het oor die algemeen min moeite met die onderwerp. Elke sieraad van die liggaam, hoe mooi dit ook al is, word binnekort neergelê, die versiering van die siel sal vir ewig bestaan.

En van die dra van goud - Die goud waarna hier veral verwys word, is waarskynlik dit wat in die hare verweef was en wat in die ou tyd 'n algemene vroulike versiering was. So, sê Virgil, crines nodantur in aurum. En weer, crinem impliseer auro. Sien Homerus, Ilias, B. 872 Herodes. ek. 82 en Thucydides i. 6. Die dra van goud in die hare was egter meer algemeen onder vroue met losse sedes as onder deugsame vroue - Pollux iv. 153. Daar kan nie veronderstel word dat al die dra van goud om die persoon verkeerd is nie, want daar is niks kwaad in goud self nie, en daar kan artikels wees wat verband hou met kledingstukke van goud wat geensins die gevoelens van hoër dinge kan verwyder nie. , en mag niks doen om vroomheid in gevaar te stel nie. Die betekenis is dat daar nie na sulke ornamente gesoek moet word dat Christene geensins vir hulle onderskei moet word nie, sodat hulle nie die tyd en aandag wat Christene moet aantrek, moet opdoen om aan te toon dat hulle gedagtes besig is met edeler voorwerpe nie, en dat in hulle klere moet modelle wees van netheid, ekonomie en eerlikheid. As daar gesê moet word dat hierdie uitdrukking leer dat dit hoegenaamd verkeerd is om goud te dra, kan geantwoord word dat op dieselfde beginsel sou volg dat die volgende klousule leer dat dit hoegenaamd verkeerd is om klere aan te trek. Daar is regtig geen probleme met sulke uitdrukkings nie. Ons moet ordentlik aantrek en op die manier wat die minste aandag sal trek, en ons moet toon dat ons harte uiters belangstel in belangriker dinge as in uiterlike versiering.

Of om klere aan te trek - dit wil sê, dit is nie die versiering wat ons hoofsaaklik soek of waarvoor ons onderskei word nie. Ons wil 'n ryker en meer permanente versiering hê - die van die hart.

vlegwerk#8212 kunsmatige vlegwerk om bewondering te lok.

dra letterlik "omdraai", naamlik die kop, as 'n diadeem, as 'n armband, as 'n armband, as ringe.

klere is pragtig en duur. "Het die blos van beskeidenheid op u gesig in plaas van verf, en morele waarde en diskresie in plaas van goud en smaragde" [Melissa].

Laat dit nie in die eerste plek wees nie, en nie soseer die versiering van die uiterlike as die innerlike die negatiewe hier as vergelykend nie, soos Exodus 16: 8 Lukas 14:12. Die apostel veroordeel nie absoluut alle soorte ornamente of ryk klere wat ons soms deur die godvrugtiges self in die Skrif gebruik nie, Genesis 24: 22,30 Es 5: 1 in vergelyking met Psalm 45: 9,13, waar die geestelike versierings van Christus se huweliksmaat word uiteengesit deur terme wat uit die eksterne ornamente van Salomo se vrou en Esegiël 16:12 geneem word; daar word van hierdie dinge as God se gawes gepraat. Maar hy belas alle nietigheid, ietwat, matige weelde of weelde in klere en liggaamlike ornamente by vroue (of mans), wat bo hul plek en toestand in die wêreld is, of bo hul goed en vermoë, soos die opbrengs uit enige wellus, (trots, moedeloosheid, ensovoorts), of is geneig tot die uitlokkende of koestering van enige, of gaan gepaard met die verwaarlosing of afname van innerlike skoonheid en geestelike ornamente.

deur die hare te vleg, dit in krulle op te vou, dit in knope vas te bind en in die vorm van horings en torings te maak, gemaak deur hul skerp penne, met hul bolde en ronde bande, soos die maan, soos die gewoonte was keer, en is nog steeds. Daar was vroue onder die Jode, wie se taak dit was om vrouehare te vleg, en dit word vermoed dat Maria Magdalene haar naam vandaar het, en dit is haar saak. Die Jode praat dikwels van 'n Mirjam of Maria, met wie hulle skynbaar die moeder van ons Here bedoel, wat volgens hulle (m) reyv aldgmvyer nvyya was, 'n vlegsel van vrouehare ', sien Gill in Matteus 27:56.

En van die dra van goud of "goue dinge" goue ornamente, as armbande, kettings en ringe, of stukke goud wat in die vlegsels en voue van die hare vasgesteek is. Die Joodse vroue het 'n goue kroon op hul kop gedra, in die vorm van die stad Jerusalem, 'n goue stad (n) genoem en wat hulle na die vernietiging gedra het ter nagedagtenis daaraan, maar saam met diegene wat hulle nie sou kon gaan nie op 'n sabbatdag uit. R. Akibah, word gesê (o), het 'n goue stad vir sy vrou gemaak, en die vrou van Rabban Gamaliel het haar beny, want dit lyk asof dit 'n groot rok was. Nie dat die sin is dat alles van hierdie aard verbode is nie, maar as dit aan buitensporigheid en uitspattigheid gewoond was, was die dogters van Abraham en Sara versier met oorringe, armbande en goue juwele, sien Genesis 24:22.

of om 'uitstekende' of kosbare kleding aan te trek, soos die Siriese weergawe byvoeg of 'van groot prys', aangesien die Etiopiër wat 'n persoon se vermoë is of die rang van die apostel is, die kleding beteken wat onbetaamlik en ongeskik is, want daar kan nie gedink word dat hy die aantrek van klere verbied nie, maar sy mening is dat vroue nie soveel agting moet hê en so bedag is op die uiterlike versiering van hul liggame, met enige soort kleding, en veral wat nie word nie hulle, as die innerlike versiering van hul gedagtes, wat vervolgens genoem word,

(m) T. Bab. Sabbat, fol. 104. 2. Chagiga, fol. 4. 2. & amp Sanhedrin, fol. 67. 1. ((n) Misn. Sabbat, c. 6. afdeling 1. ((o) T. Hieros. Sabbat, fol. 7. 4.

(3) Hy veroordeel die onbeperkte aflate en buitensporighede van vroue en stel hulle ware klere voor, soos wat kosbaar is voor God, dit wil sê die innerlike en onverganklike, wat bestaan ​​uit 'n sagmoedige en stil gees.

1 Petrus 3: 3. ὧν ἔστω] Die genitief doesν is nie afhanklik van 'n κόσμος wat uit die predikaat ὁ ἔξωθεν… κόσμος (de Wette, Wiesinger, Schott, Hofmann) verskaf moet word nie, so 'n konstruksie, willekeurig op sigself, is hier heeltemal ontoelaatbaar vanweë die afstand van die predikaat, waaruit die idee wat verlang word geneem moet word. Die genitief word eerder deur ἔστω beheer. εἶναί τινος spreek, soos gewoonlik, die verhouding uit van die toevoeging tot die sin: "wie se saak laat dit toe wees", dit wil sê wie hulle moet besig hou. [169]

οὐχ ὁ ἔξωθεν κ. τ. λ.] Soos dikwels in ons sendbrief, is die negatiewe voorafgaande aan die positiewe.

ὁ ἔξωθεν is nou verbind met κόσμος. Die genitiewe wat tussen en afhanklik is van κόσμος, dien om die idee meer presies te bepaal, nadat ὁ ἔξωθεν verklaar is uit die bedoeling van die skrywer om spesiale klem daarop te lê, aangesien dit aan vroue behoort om dit te versier hulself op hierdie wyse. Die hele uitdrukking moet so geïnterpreteer word: "uiterlike versiering wat deur vlegsels van hare, die aantrek van goud of die aantrek van klere gemaak word."

ἐμπλοκή, ἅπ. λεγ. (in die gedeelte wat spesiaal hiermee vergelyk moet word, word 1 Timoteus 2: 9, πλέγματα gebruik), nie: "die vlegsels" nie, maar "die vlegsel" is 'n aktiewe idee, soos περίθεσις en ἔνδυσις "beskryf hierdie verbalies tevergeefs besetting van wêreldse vroue ”(Wies.) χρύσια is oor die algemeen goue ornamente.

Die laaste twee lede van die klousule, verenig deur ἤ, is verbind met die eerste deur καί, omdat hulle verwys na dinge wat op die liggaam aangebring word.

[169] Wanneer Hofmann teen hierdie konstruksie sou voortgaan dat die regstellende onderwerp (vers 4) nie geskik is nie, "aangesien daar van die verborge man van die hart gesê kan word dat dit die versiering van die vrou moet wees, maar nie dat dit behoort haar saak te wees, want sy is self die verborge man, ”moet in antwoord hierop opgemerk word dat dit nie ὁ κρυπτὸς… ἄνθρωπος op sigself is nie, maar ὁ κρυπτὸς… ἄνθρωτος ἐν τῷ ἀφθάρτῳ κ. τ. λ., wat volgens hom beskou moet word as wat kenmerkend moet wees van vroue, soos Hofmann ook in sy uiteensettings sê, die versiering van vroue word nie aangedui deur die eenvoudige nie, maar deur die saamgestelde uitdrukking.

1 Petrus 3: 3. Die beskrywing van die eksterne ornamente wat vir die heidense samelewing geskik is, is blykbaar gebaseer op Jesaja 3: 17-23. waar die vernietiging van die hare, juwele en klere van die dogters van Sion voorspel word. - ἐμπλοκῆς τριχῶν, hare vlegsel. 1 Timoteus 2: 9, πλέγμασιν καὶ χρυσίῳ verwys na die goue kamme en nette wat vir die doel gebruik is, vgl. ἐμπλόκια, Jesaja 3:18, vir שביסים. Juvenal describes the elaborate coiffures which Roman fashion prescribed for the Park and attendance at the Mysteries of Adonis: tot premit ordinibus tot adhuc compagibus altum aedificat caput (Sat. vi. 492–504). Clement of Alexandria quotes 1 Peter 3:1-4, in his discussion of the whole subject ( Paed. , III. xi.) and in regard to this particular point says ἀπόχρη μαλάσσειν τὰς τρίχας καὶ ἀναδεῖσθαι τὴν κόμην ἐντελῶς περόνῃ τινι λιτῇ παρὰ τὸν αὐχένα … καὶ γὰρ αἱ περιπλοκαὶ τῶν τριχῶν αἱ ἑταιρικαὶ καὶ αἱ τῶν σειρῶν ἀναδέσεις … κόπτουσι τὰς τρίχας ἀποτίλλουσαι ταῖς πανούργοις ἐμπλοκαῖς , because of which they do not even touch their own head for fear of disturbing their hair—nay more sleep comes to them with terror lest they should unawares spoil τὸ σχῆμα τῆς ἐμπλοκῆς (p. 290. P).— περιθέσεως χρυσίων , i.e. , rings bracelets, etc., enumerated in Isa. l.c. — ἐνδύσεως ἱματίων . Stress might be laid on κόσμος , or the crowning prohibition regarded as an exaggeration intended to counteract an ingrained bias. In either case the expression points to a remarkable precedent for this teaching in Plato’s Republic IV., iii. ff. “Plato’s assignment of common duties and common training to the two sexes is part of a well-reasoned and deliberate attempt by the Socratic school to improve the position of women in Greece … Socrates’ teaching inaugurated an era of protest against the old Hellenic view of things.… In later times the Stoics constituted themselves champions of similar views” (Adam, ad loc. ). Accordingly gymnastics must be practised by women as by men: ἀποδυτέον δὴ ταῖς τῶν φυλάκων γυναιξὶν ἐπείπερ ἀρετὴν ἀντὶ ἱματίων ἀμφιέσονται .

3. that outward adorning of plaiting the hair ] So St Paul lays stress in 1 Timothy 2:9 on the “braided hair and gold and pearls” which were at the time conspicuous in the toilet of Greek and Roman women. The sculptures of the Empire at this period shew to what extent this “braiding” and “plaiting” was carried, sometimes rising to a height of some inches above the head, sometimes intertwined with twisted chains of gold or strings of pearls. The fineness and fashion of the garments of women had at this time reached an almost unparalleled extravagance. The filmy half-transparent tissue of the Coan loom, the dyed garments of Miletus and Sardis, were especially in demand. Christian women, St Peter teaches, were not to seek their adornment in such things as these, but in “a meek and quiet spirit.” The question may be asked, Are the Apostle’s words prohibitive as well as hortatory? Is it wrong for Christian women now to plait their hair, or to wear gold ornaments or pearls? The answer to that question must be left mainly to the individual conscience. “Let every one be fully persuaded in her own mind.” As some help to a decision, however, it may be noted (1) that the language is not that of formal prohibition, but of a comparative estimate of the value of the two kinds of adornment (2) that in regard to the third form of ornamentation, seeing that some clothes must be worn, the words cannot have a merely prohibitive force and (3) that in the possible, if not common, case of the husband giving such ornaments and wishing his wife to wear them, the “meek and quiet spirit” which the Apostle recommends would naturally shew itself in complying with his requests rather than in an obstinate and froward refusal. On the whole then, as a rule bearing upon daily life, we may say that while the words do not condemn the use of jewellery, or attention to the colour and the form of dress, within the limits of simplicity and economy, they tend to minimise that form of personal adornment, and bid women trust not to them, but to moral qualities, as elements of attraction. It would be, perhaps, a safe rule that no woman should spend money for herself on such ornaments.

1 Peter 3:3. Ὡν ἔστω , whose let it be ) A graphic painting of the inward character by the outward gestures.[24] Women themselves are thus to resolve: we claim for ourselves, we regard as our own, not outward ornament, but the inner man, etc.— οὐχ ὁ — κόσμος , not — adorning ) Although they use such adorning , as the occasion permits, yet they do not consider it as adorning.— ἐμπλοκῆς · περιθέσεως · ἐνσύσεως , of plaiting of wearing of putting on ) The verbals imply the labour bestowed on dress, which consumes much time.

[24] See Append. on ETHOPOEIA.—E.

Only here in New Testament. Compare 1 Timothy 2:9. The Roman women of the day were addicted to ridiculous extravagance in the adornment of the hair. Juvenal ("Satire," vi.) satirizes these customs. He says: "The attendants will vote on the dressing of the hair as if a question of reputation or of life were at stake, so great is the trouble she takes in quest of beauty with so many tiers does she lead, with so many continuous stories does she build up on high her head. She is tall as Andromache in front, behind she is shorter. You would think her another person." The hair was dyed, and secured with costly pins and with nets of gold thread. False hair and blond wigs were worn.

Only here in New Testament. Female extravagance in dress in the days of the empire reached an alarming pitch.


Bronze Age gold rings of a high-status person found in Wales

Two gold rings, possibly used as earrings or to hold hair in place, were found in Rosset, Wrexham, Wales. Archaeologists say the rings date back 3,000 years to the Bronze Age.

The person who wore the rings was most likely wealthy or had status in the community in some other way, says ITV News . Even to this day, jewelry can be indicative of some level of status. For example a gold signet ring or ‘gentleman’s ring’ is often seen on the finger of Charles, Prince of Wales and future king of the United Kingdom. Beatrice Behlen, senior curator of fashion and decorative arts at the Museum of London, told Bloomberg that signet rings became popular with the rise of the Middle Class, “Members of the middle class would not have a coat of arms, so having a signet ring would be a prominent sign to show that you are of a higher class.” she said in an interview with Bloomberg . Although these are not finger rings and are very old, the wearing of any jewelery would have shown high status.

Archaeologists are uncertain whether the gold rings were used as earrings or to hold locks of hair in place. ‘Lock rings,’ as hair locks are called, have been found in Wales in Pembrokeshire, Conwy, Gaerwen, Newport, Anglesey and the Great Orme.

ITV describes the concentric-ring pattern on the locks as a ‘coastal pattern’ that suggests trade and communication between Ireland and Wales.

‘Northeast Wales was a hotspot for the use and burial of gold ornaments during the Bronze Age. These small but exquisitely made lock-rings add further to this growing pattern, suggesting long lived connections with communities living in Ireland and other parts of Atlantic Europe. . We think that these complete and prized objects of gold were carefully buried in isolated places as gifts to the gods, perhaps at the end of the lives of their owners. – Adam Gwilt, Curator for Prehistory at Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales

The Wrexham County Borough Museum and Archives will take possession of the pair of golden rings after they are valuated independently.

Wales has had other spectacular gold finds from the Bronze Age. The Mold Cape is a 3,700-year-old solid gold artifact found in the 19 th century within a Bronze Age burial mound at Mold, in Flintshire, Wales. It was finely crafted out of a single sheet of gold, then embellished with exceptional decoration designed to mimic multiple strings of beads amid folds of cloth. The cape is regarded as one of the finest examples of prehistoric sheet-gold working in Europe and perhaps the world. Its unique form and design demonstrates highly advanced craftsmanship in Bronze Age Europe.

The Bronze Age burial mound was found in a field named Bryn yr Ellyllon (Fairies’ Hill) by workmen in 1833. It had been placed on the body of a person who was interred inside a cist (stone-lined grave) within a burial mound. Inside the mound, archaeologists also found the remains of woven textile, 16 fragments of sheet bronze, a bronze knife, fragments of a second gold cape, two gold ‘straps’, an urn with large quantities of burnt bone and ash, and the remains of hundreds of amber beads, which would have originally been on the cape.

Archaeologists and scholars were stunned. At the time and place this gold cape was made, people in Britain lived in temporary settlements and fluid communities, and they moved with their livestock and possessions through the landscape. They did not build cities or palaces, yet they were capable of creating incredibly sophisticated objects like the Mold Gold Cape.

Not far away, in England, archaeologists recently explained how intricate gold pieces like those found at Stonehenge could be fashioned by people with relatively crude technology. One piece alone was estimated to have taken 2,500 hours to complete. These pieces from near Stonehenge used a different gold-smithing process than the Welsh pieces.

Featured image: Detail of the decoration of the dagger handle showing the zig-zag pattern made by the tiny studs. (University of Birmingham and David Bukach photo)

According to Discovery News , the gold work involved such tiny components that optical experts believe they could only have been made by children or adults with extreme short-sightedness, and would have caused lasting damage to their eyesight.

In 1808, William Cunnington, one of Britain's earliest professional archaeologists, discovered what has become known as the crown jewels of the King of Stonehenge. They were found within a large Bronze Age burial mound just a short distance from Stonehenge, known today as Bush Barrow. Within the 4,000-year-old barrow, Cunnington found ornate jewelery, a gold lozenge that fastened the owner’s cloak, and an intricately decorated dagger.

A report in The Independent explained the amazing process involved in creating the handle of just one dagger, adorned with up to 140,000 tiny gold studs just a third of a millimetre wide. The first stage involved manufacturing extremely fine gold wire, just a little thicker than a human hair. The end of the wire was then flattened to create a stud-head, and was then cut with a very sharp flint or obsidian razor, just a millimetre below the head. This delicate procedure was then repeated literarily tens of thousands of times.

“Next, a tiny bronze awl with an extremely fine point was used to create minute holes in the dagger handle in which to position the studs,” wrote The Independent. “Then a thin layer of tree resin was rubbed over the surface as an adhesive to keep the studs in place. Each stud was then carefully placed into its miniscule hole – probably with the help of a very fine pair of bone or wooden tweezers, because the studs are too small to have been placed in position directly by the artisan’s fingers.”

Featured image: Archaeologists are unsure whether a pair of gold rings found in Wales were used as earrings or hair locks. (Photo by Amgueddfa Cymru)


Alison Petch, Researcher 'The Other Within' project

At the same time as Victorian close relatives of the dead wore deep or half mourning, they also wore special jewellery. This was most often in dark colours, particularly jet from Whitby. In addition, brooches, rings and arm ornaments were made using hair from the deceased relative. The Pitt Rivers Museum contains many such objects.

Mourning ornaments made from jet

1960.7.1 .3 String of twenty nine beads of polished jet

1960.7.1 .25-.27 The buttons are made of black glass to imitate jet, to be worn during mourning.

By 1873 fifteen hundred men were said to work in the trade and two hundred men were mining the raw mineral.

Mourning jewellery continued to be worn in the early twentieth century though by 1926 it was obviously under attack:

'If these mortuary jewels were as a whole very ugly, what shall be said of the hideous lumps of crudely manufactured jet which it is still considered by some classes of society to be necessary to wear when "in mourning" or the even more preposterous "half mourning" sets of ear-rings and the like, in which a little silver is introduced to lighten the effect. Whitby, which for centuries has been the seat of the jet industry, still carries on a trade in these ghoulish appendages, impervious alike to enlightenment or ridicule.' [Puckle, 1926: 270-1]

1960.7.1 .123 Black brooch made of bakelite. Made to imitate jet and to be worn during mourning.

'. the jet is ground on a wheel made of lead and some tin, using emory powder. The wheel was worked by a foot-treadle, recently electric power had been installed. Polishing is done with "rotten stone", a soft abrasive of solidified river mud, on a board covered with woollen cloth and finished on a beach covered with walrus hide. ' [Pitt Rivers Museum accession book XVI 43]

1954.11.55 Brooch of jet with metal pin. Flower design.

Anyone interested in jet jewellery is advised to visit Whitby Museum which has many fine examples on display.

The Pitt Rivers Museum has many examples of mourning ornaments, including:

  • a large number of mourning buttons and brooches made from Whitby jet and black glass and other materials [ 1960.7.1 .1-.126] given by Miss J and Miss Patience Watters in 1960.
  • a long mourning necklace made from Whitby jet in flat oval links and joined by black silk made in the mid nineteenth century was given by Mrs J.E. Chaney in 1956. [1956.4.2]
  • Mrs Chaney also gave a mourning necklace made from jet and decorated with acorns and flowers. [1956.4.3] This can be seen on display in the Museum in the Court (ground floor) in Case 21.A 'Introduction to the Pitt Rivers Museum'.
  • Estella Canziani gave a button of jet which was star shaped and set on a metal background [ 1961.2.036],
  • Miss Canziani also gave a mourning brooch of yellow metal with band of black enamel with gold lettering 'In Memory'. Apparently the centre should be glazed and contain hair but is empty. [1961.3.020] and a pendant made of jet with an ammonite in it [1941.8.0129]

A large number of mourning ornaments made from jet are displayed at the bottom of case Case 41.B - Body Arts - Death and Mourning in the Lower Gallery. These include 1956.4.2, 1960.7.1 (strings of jet beads donated by the Misses Watters), 1941.8.0129 and 1961.3.020 donated by Estella Canziani,

Further Reading:

J.A. Bower 'Whitby Jet and its Manufacture', Journal of the Society of Arts, volume 22, 19 December 1873 pp. 80-7

J.E. Hemingway, 1958, 'The Geology of the Whitby Area', in G.H.J. Daysh A Survey of Whitby and the surrounding area Eton, Windsor: Shakespeare Head Press

J.E. Hemingway and D.H. Rayner (Eds.) The Geology and Mineral Resources of Yorkshire Yorkshire Geological Society. 1974.

H.P. Kendall 1936 The Story of Whitby Jet

M. McMillan 1992 Whitby Jet through the Ages Published privately

Helen Muller, 1994 Jet Jewellery and Ornaments Shire Album No. 52

J.S. Owen, 'Jet Mining in North East Yorkshire' The Cleveland Industrial Archaeologist , No. 3, 1975

C. Parkin 'On Jet Mining' Transactions of the N. England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers . XXXI, 1882 pp. 51-7

Bertram S. Puckle 1926 Funeral Customs: their origin and development London T. Werner Laurie Ltd

[part of this list was taken from the Whitby Museum website]

Mourning ornaments made from a dead person's hair

1940.7.29 Mourning ring with human hair and pearls

A description of how to make hair ornaments is given in on an American site, Ancestry.com - Victorian Death Rituals

'Preparation was important. The hair must be boiled in soda water for 15 minutes. It was then sorted into lengths and divided into strands of 20-30 hairs. Most pieces of jewelry required long hair. For example, a full size bracelet called for hair 20 to 24" long. Sometimes horse hair was used because it was coarser than human hair, and thus easier for a beginner.

Almost all hairwork was made around a mold or firm material. Snake bracelets and brooches, spiral earrings and other fancy hair forms required special molds which were made by local wood turners. The mold was attached to the center hole in the work table. The hair was wound on a series of bobbins, and weights were attached to the braid work to maintain the correct level and to keep the hair straight. When the work was finished and while still around the mold, it was taken off, boiled for 15 minutes, dried and removed from the mold. It was then ready to go to a jewelers for mounting.'

According to Hallam and Hockey:

'[t]he potency of human remains as facilitators of personal memory is evident in the uses of hair jewellery sustained from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century in Northern Europe. Worked into brooches, lockets, rings, and bracelets (often with the use of precious metals and stones) human hair has extended memory connections through the powerful evocation of the person to whom it once belonged. . Human material that was regarded as 'dead' while the person was living, is thus transformed into a 'living' substance at death in the sense that it is reanimated as a possession capable of sustaining the deceased in close proximity to the bereaved. The physical durability of hair makes this possible as it stands in stark contrast to the instabilities of the fleshy body.' [2001: 136]

Hair was used for a variety of different ornaments, a mourning ring in the Museum's collections, given by Mrs James Blackwood (who was also known as Mrs King and who may have been the mother of Beatrice Blackwood, who worked in the Museum), was made of gold, black enamel and hair inset behind onyx. [ link to Relational Museum section on BB ] The ring is inscribed inside "Robert Ritchie died 3rd May 1871 Aged 75".[1940.7.28] The same donor gave other mourning rings: 1940.7.29, a gold mourning ring with hair encircled with seed pearls and 1940.7.30 made from hair and twisted wire. These are on display in Case 99 in the Lower Gallery [if I get them moved].

An example of a mourning hair brooch in the Museum's collections is 1927.57.2, a small brooch in the shape of a lyre made from gold with the hair of a relative worked into the design. This ornament was given by Anna Meredith Barrett-Lennard in 1927 but had been owned by an aunt of her husband's, who died in around 1890 aged over 80.

Another set of examples are the four hair ornaments given by Mrs Robert Francis Wilkins in 1928. These were a neck ornament, two hair pins and a brooch 'cleverly mounted' (according to the accession book) with the hair of two children, Bertie and Frankie Wilkins who had died by 1867. The book says that they were made as memorial ornaments after the fashion of the earlier half of the nineteenth century. [1928.15.2] [ Please also link here to http://www.prm.ox.ac.uk/ornaments.htm which is a museum factsheet, preferably to the bit that relates to death ]

Pastorella Shelley in 1949 gave a mourning hair arm ornament, made from plaited and netted grey hair, which had been taken from Mrs Farrer, the donor's maternal great-grandmother in January 1867. [1949.10.41]

Sometimes the hair was not made into an ornament but was stored within it. Estella Canziani gave a silver locket in the shape of a heart, which contained hair and was engraved "August 13th 1889" (presumably the date of death of the person from whom the hair came). [1961.3.019]

A large number of mourning ornaments made from hair, including 1927.57.2, 1928.15.2, 1940.7.28, 1949.10.41 and 1961.3.019 (all mentioned above), are displayed at the bottom of case Case 41.B - Body Arts - Death and Mourning in the Lower Gallery.

Verdere leeswerk

Christiane Holm 'Sentimental Cuts: Eighteenth-Century Mourning Jewelry with Hair' Eighteenth-Century Studies , Vol. 38, No. 1, Hair. (Autumn, 2004), pp. 139-143.


Every Jaguar car model that you will come across adorns the Jaguar Leaper hood ornament. It is one of the famous and long-standing hood ornaments that you can also have fitted in your customized car.

There are car enthusiasts who will go for hood ornament woman, one with B wings and an angel hood design. The Jaguar Leaper design is distinctive and entails a jaguar leaping forward, a feature that gives your car a one-of-a-kind elegance.


Mughal ring made of jade and decorated with precious gemstones and gold filigree

The Mughal emperors wore multiple showy rings, made of pure gold or enameled gold or jade. Some Mughal rings are so huge that they cover two or three fingers. The ring centerpieces are either circular or square in shape and embedded with bulky gemstones.

Mughal thumb-ring made of garnet studded with diamonds and gold filigree

Some rings, particularly thumb rings, designed for royal ladies had tiny mirrors installed for them to admire their reflections.

Hand ornaments are string-like jewelry pieces that covered the entire hands of empresses and stretched either from rings or bangles or both.


Fancy wearing a beautiful necklace or a daring lip plug? You might have to earn it!The Aztecs were attracted to beautiful things, just like us. Art and jewellery were so important to them that the craftsmen who produced them were protected by their own god, Quetzalcoatl (Feathered Serpent) - a great god and also mythical priest who appreciated beautiful objects. See him in this picture (above). What jewellery is he wearing? (Written by Julia Flood/Mexicolore)

. We can spot a nose plug and earrings , and that&rsquos not counting his big headdress, long quetzal feathers and precious jaguar skin mantle!
Not every Aztec could dress up as splendidly as Quetzalcoatl. There were strict rules about who could wear what &ndash and you didn&rsquot want to get caught by the fashion police because punishment could be harsh.
What jewellery meant
Why was certain jewellery &ldquooff limits&rdquo to normal people?

Pic 2: A &lsquohierarchy&rsquo is a system of tiers or levels - it usually means the rich at the top and the poor at the bottom! (Click on image to enlarge)

The Aztecs lived in a hierarchical society (pic 2), which means that they marked the difference between people&rsquos social class, as well as their trade, office, and their origin. Which class you belonged to was obvious from a person&rsquos lifestyle and their use of ornaments, clothes, sandals and headdresses .
Rules governing what people owned and wore were enforced in law, and are called sumptuary laws . As a commoner (pic 1), you might own some luxury items, like jade beads, for example, but you could not wear them. However a noble could!

Pic 3: What a fuss over a pair of sandals! (Click on image to enlarge)

According to ancient sources, only the Aztec ruler and great lords could wear lip plugs, ear plugs and nose ornaments of gold and valued stones such as turquoise and jade. No one could wear feather articles without the permission of the ruler, and only the ruler and his prime minister could wear sandals (pic 3) inside the royal palace!
So, most of what you see here was probably only worn by nobles or high-ranking warriors. See some of the jewellery the Aztecs loved wearing.

Pic 4: A gold Aztec lip plug in the shape of a serpent&rsquos head (Click on image to enlarge)

Lip plugs (pic 4) were awarded to men and women when they were young. For boys, this would be a reward for taking a captive in war for a girll, on marrying. Depending on your achievements in life, lip plugs could become very elaborate.

Pic 5: Two obsidian lip plugs, British Museum (Click on image to enlarge)

These lip plugs (pic 5) are made of obsidian , a type of glassy volcanic rock. The most finely carved obsidian lip plugs would be worn by nobles. The rock is almost transparent!

Pic 6: These captives from Huextontzinco have curved lip plugs. Aztec warriors are grabbing them by their hair. Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

People from different cultures might be identified by their lip plug. Here (pic 6) are two captives caught by the Aztecs and held by their hair. They are from the region of Huexotzinco and are identifiable because they both wear a curved lip plug .

Pic 7: 40 lip plugs given in tribute to the Aztecs by the province of Tochtepec in Oaxaca. The little flag on top of each lip plug means twenty. Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

Here (pic 7) are lip plugs that were made for Aztec nobles. They are described as &ldquolong yellow labrets [lip plugs] set in gold or clear crystal with a blue feather running through it, also set in gold&rdquo. This would be inserted into the lower lip, with the short edges resting along the inside of the lip.

Pic 8: Mask depicting the Aztec god of spring, XipeTotec, who is wearing large round ear plugs. British Museum (Click on image to enlarge)

Ear plugs
Q. &ldquoWhat is it that is a horizontal drum of green stone bound about the middle with flesh?&rdquo A. &ldquoOne can see from our little riddle that it is the ear plug.&rdquo (Florentine Codex).
Not all ear plugs were &ldquoround drums&rdquo like the ones shown in pictures 8 and 9.

Pic 9: An Aztec midwife (right) wears a blue ear spool. The mother sits to the left, wearing a white ear spool. Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

They could be all sorts of shapes and materials like wood, bone, shell, leather, obsidian, polished stone, reed, and more precious metal and stones such as gold, amber, turquoise and jade. The one used by the midwife (pic 9, right) is precious jade, linked to fertility, water and femininity. The mother&rsquos white ear plug (pic 9, left) might have been made from bone or polished stone.

Pic 10: A Huaxtec warrior wears unspun cotton ear ornaments. Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

Aztec jewellery could symbolise important themes, even gods. For example, cotton was a symbol of being feminine because women used it to spin and weave. The Cuexcatl warrior in picture 10 has unspun cotton ornaments hanging from his ears. He belongs to the order of Huaxtec warriors, a proud and skilled tribe that came from north east Mexico. Their protector was the great mother goddess, so they wore cotton in her honour.

Pic 11: In the centre is an Aztec gold nose ornament (Click on image to enlarge)

Nose ornaments
Like the lip and ear plugs described above, nose ornaments were made of a wide variety of materials. Some nose plugs could be a traditional round shape, but in picture 11 we&rsquove included some of the more ornamental types that would have been worn by lords, great warriors and priests.

Pic 12: An Aztec gold nose ornament in Mexico&rsquos main anthropology museum (Click on image to enlarge)

The gold ornament in pictures 11 & 12 must have been worn by someone special because the close-ups of Aztec gods surrounding the main image show that they, too, wore similar jewellery. This gold ornament may have been worn by an ixiptla , a priest whose special role it was to impersonate a god. Look at the surrounding pictures again which god do you think would have represented this ornament?

Pic 13: A jade bracelet or string of jade beads. British Museum (Click on image to enlarge)

Necklaces, bracelets, beads and bells
&ldquoWe shall love him like a precious necklace, a precious stone bracelet&rdquo (Florentine Codex).
In the Aztec world necklaces of precious stones are often mentioned to refer to anything of great value. The quote above talks of a parent&rsquos love for their child as they welcome it into the world.

Pic 14: The goddess Chalhiuhtlicue, or &ldquoJade-Her-Skirt&rdquo. Her skirt is green, and the river beneath her blue, as these are the colours of precious jade stones called &lsquochalchihuitl&rsquo. Codex Borbonicus (Click on image to enlarge)

Precious stones also serve as symbols. In picture 14 you can see the water goddess, Chalchiuhtlicue, whose name means &ldquoJade-Her-Skirt&rdquo. The drops sprouting from the river running beneath her are symbolic of jade stones. So, jade is a symbol of water .

Pic 15: A sequence of dates from the Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

Jade stones such as these were shown green or blue. Turquoise , called xihuitl in the Aztec language Nahuatl, was often given the same colour as jade in ancient manuscripts. In fact, the word xihuitl means both &lsquoyear&rsquo and &lsquoturquoise&rsquo and they were often shown together. Pic 15 is part of a calendar with turquoise-coloured year signs. They count from the year 5 Rabbit to the year 1 Reed.

Pic 16: Aztec warriors wearing shell necklaces. Codex Mendoza (Click on image to enlarge)

Among the beautiful bracelets and necklaces the Aztecs made were feather bracelets set in gold, as well as gold and jade strings of beads. Seasoned warriors, on the other hand, often wore shells in honour of the gods Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl. The Codex Mendoza mentions three types of warrior&rsquos necklace which you can see in Pic 16:-
&bull Gold Shell Necklace (left-most warrior)
&bull Golden Beetle Necklace (3rd warrior)
&bull Shell Necklace (right-most warrior).

Pic 17: Aztec copper bells: jewellery or musical instruments - or both?! (Click on image to enlarge)

Warriors and participants in religious festivals would wear ankle and wrist bracelets that also served as musical instruments. They were copper bells that were meant to imitate the sound of a rattlesnake&rsquos tail. Dancers wearing them would move in rhythm with other instruments like drums, whistles and clay flutes.

Pic 18: Double headed serpent turquoise mosaic. British Museum (Click on image to enlarge)

Pendants and chest ornaments
One of the most impressive Aztec ornaments is on display in the British Museum. It&rsquos a double-headed serpent pendant decorated with turquoise, shell and coral (pic 18). A pendant or pectoral would have hung down onto the chest and was probably worn by a priest during an important religious ceremony.

Pic 19: The Yanhuitlan Pectoral, also known as the Shield of Yanhuitlan (Click on image to enlarge)

Of course, these are just some of the things that the Aztecs wore. If you&rsquore interested in other aspects of Aztec attire, why don&rsquot you visit our pages on Aztec Clothing, Aztec Hairstyles, Aztec Headdresses (links below. )?

This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Jun 11th 2015