Inligting

10 feite oor die eerste maanlanding


Dit is meer as 50 jaar sedert Apollo 11 vir die eerste keer mans op die maan geland het in 'n missie wat 'n era bepaal het. Die landings het 'n ongekende tydperk van tegnologiese vooruitgang ingelui en daarin geslaag om die tegnologiese vaardigheid van die VSA te versterk.

'N Gebeurtenis met monumentale internasionale betekenis, Neil Armstrong se eerste voorlopige stappe op die maan op 20 Julie 1969 sou generasies inspireer, terwyl sy destydse waarneming steeds waar was.

"Dit is 'n klein stap vir die mens, 'n reuse sprong vir die mensdom"

Dit was een van die merkwaardigste prestasies in die geskiedenis. Net 66 jaar nadat mense die eerste keer van die oppervlak van die aarde af in 'n vliegtuig gelig het, het ruimtevaarders Neil Armstrong en Buzz Aldrin op die maan geland. Dit is die verhaal van Project Apollo, en hoe mense op die maan gekom het.

Kyk nou

1. Dit het die manne meer as 4 dae geneem om die maan te bereik

Die Apollo 11 Saturn V het op 16 Julie 1969 om 09:36 van die Kennedy Space Center afgeklim met drie ruimtevaarders, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins en Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin. Die reis na die maan duur 4 dae, 6 uur en 45 minute, en eindig uiteindelik op 20 Julie 1969.

Die Apollo 11 Saturn V -ruimtetuig lig op vanaf Kennedy Space Center se Launch Complex 39A.

2. Die ruimtevaarders het probleme ondervind voordat hulle geland het

Die reis na die maan was egter nie eenvoudig nie. Voor die landing klink 'n reeks alarmboodskappe wat nie een van die ruimtevaarders voorheen gehoor het nie.

Die alarms is veroorsaak deur 'oorloop van die bestuur' as gevolg van die begeleidingsrekenaar wat nie al sy take kon voltooi nie en sommige daarvan moes uitstel. Nadat die alarm nagegaan is, het rekenaartegnici op die grond die bemanning verseker dat dit veilig is om te land.

Dit was egter nie die laaste van die probleme waarmee die bemanning te kampe het nie. Verlies van radiokommunikasie tussen die maanmodule en missiebeheer het beteken dat die missie amper afgebreek sou word. Ondanks dat Aldrin die antenna en grondbeheer aangepas het om die probleem op te los, het radiokommunikasie steeds in en uit verdwyn.

Arend (maanmodule) in maanbaan, gefotografeer uit Columbia (opdragmodule).

3. Die ruimtevaarders het nie op hul beplande terrein geland nie

Nie eers een probleem is opgelos nie, 'n ander een wat sy kop lig. As gevolg van die swaartekrag van die maan en 'n paar ekstra spoed, het Armstrong en Aldrin die landingsplek ongeveer 4 myl gemis en moes hulle in plaas daarvan 'n onvriendelike gesig van ruwe terrein en kraters in 'n vragmotor kry. Armstrong moes 'n gladde plek kry om te land, en vinnig ...

'N Foto van Armstrong wat deur Aldrin geneem is. Dit is een van die min foto's van Armstrong op die maanoppervlak; meestal het hy die kamera gehad.

4. Armstrong het 60 sekondes gehad om die maanmodule te land

Deurdat die brandstofvoorraad kwyn (net 5% brandstof oor), het Armstrong net 60 sekondes tyd gehad om die maanmodule te land voordat hy die missie moes afbreek, 'n moeilike taak wat deur die onbeplande ompad vererger is. Armstrong onthou later:

'Ons het die oproep van 60 sekondes gehoor, en 'n lae vlak lig het aangegaan. Dit het sekerlik kommer veroorsaak in die beheersentrum ... Hulle het waarskynlik normaalweg verwag dat ons sou land met ongeveer twee minute se brandstof oor. En hier was ons, nog steeds 30 meter bo die oppervlak, op 60 sekondes. ”

Gelukkig kon Armstrong land met slegs 'n paar sekondes oor.

'Houston, rustigheidsbasis hier. Die Arend het geland. ”

Ruimtevaarder Buzz Aldrin, vlieënier van die maanmodule, staan ​​op die oppervlak van die maan. Ruimtevaarder Neil Armstrong, sendingbevelvoerder, het hierdie foto met 'n maanoppervlak -kamera van 70 mm geneem.

5. Buzz Aldrin het nagmaal op die maan geneem

By die landing op die maan bedank Aldrin vir sy veiligheid deur nagmaal te neem. Destyds was NASA in 'n regsgeding gewikkel met die prominente aktivis en ateïs Madelyn Murray O'Hair. O'Hair het beswaar gemaak teen die uitsending van 'n voorlesing uit die boek Genesis deur die bemanning van Apollo 8. As gevolg hiervan neem Aldrin die nagmaal privaat weg van die kameras. Sy nagmaalstel is voorberei deur die pastoor van sy Presbiteriaanse kerk, wat steeds die kelk op die maan laat gebruik.

Aldrin groet die Amerikaanse vlag op die maanoppervlak.

6. Die module het 21 uur en 36 minute op die maan se oppervlak gebly

Armstrong was die eerste man wat op die maan stap, 20 minute later gevolg deur Aldrin. Van die 21 uur en 36 minute wat op die oppervlak van die maan bestee is, het Armstrong en Aldrin 2,5 uur buite die module deurgebring om data te versamel, eksperimente op te stel en foto's te neem.

Hulle het ook 'n Amerikaanse vlag opgerig, 'n taak wat moeiliker was as wat verwag is, omdat hulle gesukkel het om die paal in die harde oppervlak van die maan vas te steek. Alhoewel hulle daarin geslaag het om die paal ongeveer 18 cm diep te plant, het Aldrin gesê dat die vlag later deur die enjinuitlaat omgestamp word toe Apollo 11 afgehaal het.

Beelde wat die NASA se Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2012 geneem het, het getoon dat ten minste 5 van die 6 Amerikaanse vlae wat tydens Apollo -missies gehys is nog steeds staan. Wetenskaplikes dink egter dat dekades se sonlig hul kleure weggebleik het.

Terwyl sy medevlieëniers die maan verken het, was Michael Collins meer as 21 uur alleen in 'n wentelbaan en het hy die opdragmodule bestuur. Vir 48 minute van elke wentelbaan van die maan was hy buite radiokontak met die aarde.

Aldrin langs die passiewe seismiese eksperimentpakket met die arend in die agtergrond.

7. Die ruimtevaarders spat op die aarde neer

Op 24 Julie 1969 spat die Saturnus V in die Stille Oseaan, 44 uur nadat hy die maanbaan verlaat het.

Die vaartuig en sy bemanning is deur die lugvaartuig vervoer USS Hornet. Duikers heg toe 'n anker aan die vaartuig en gee biologiese isolasiepakke aan die ruimtevaarders voordat hulle hulle in 'n reddingsboot help.

As gevolg van die risiko van patologiese besmetting, is voorsorgmaatreëls getref in elke stadium van die herstel en is die ruimtevaarders 21 dae in kwarantyn gehou. Hierdie praktyk het nog twee missies voortgesit voordat dit as onnodig beskou is.

Die bemanning van Apollo 11 in kwarantyn nadat hy na die aarde teruggekeer het, besoek deur Richard Nixon.

8. Na raming het 650 miljoen mense ingeskakel om die geleentheid wêreldwyd op televisie te kyk

Na raming het 650 miljoen mense gesien hoe Armstrong en Aldrin die eerste mans op die maan word, en getuig van 'n historiese gebeurtenis wat vir jare lank onthou sal word.

Vanaf die maanmodule op die maan het Aldrin besin oor die omvang van die geleentheid:

'Dit is die [maanmodule] -vlieënier. Ek wil van hierdie geleentheid gebruik maak om elke persoon wat luister, te vra, wie en waar hulle ook al mag wees, om 'n oomblik stil te staan ​​en na te dink oor die gebeure van die afgelope paar uur en op sy of haar eie manier dankie te sê. "

In 'n onstuimige Amerika, geskeur deur rasse -verdeeldheid, na die sluipmoord op hul president en moeg van jare van spanning in die Koue Oorlog, het die maanlanding gehelp om die nasionale trots te versterk.

Tikbandparade vir die Apollo 11 -ruimtevaarders, in Manhattan, New York, op 13 Augustus 1969. In die voorste motor, van regs, is ruimtevaarders Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins en Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.

9. Altesaam 6 Amerikaanse sendings het mans op die maan laat beland

In totaal het 12 mans op die maan geloop in 6 NASA -missies. Hierdie missies duur oor 'n tydperk van drie jaar wat eindig in 1972. Sedert 1972 het geen ander bemande missie op die maan geland nie, dit is grootliks die gevolg van die groot koste daaraan verbonde. Die hele Apollo -program kos na raming $ 25,4 miljard (ongeveer $ 156 miljard in 2019 dollar).

China, Indië, Japan, Rusland en die Europese Ruimteagentskap het almal sonde gestuur of voertuie op die maan geland. Die VSA is egter steeds die enigste land wat die mens nog ooit op die maan gesit het, wat hul wêreldmagstatus aantoon.

Al Worden is 'n Amerikaanse ruimtevaarder en ingenieur wat die Command Module Pilot was vir die Apollo 15 maansending in 1971. Hy is een van slegs 24 mense wat na die maan gevlieg het.

Luister nou

10. Samesweringsteoretici dring steeds daarop aan dat die maanlandings vervals is

Onder die anti-vaxxers is 9/11 teoretici en Flat Earthers 'n ander groep. Diegene wat beweer die maanlandings is vervals.

Die samesweringsteorie is eers begin deur Bill Kaysing wat in 1979 self 'n pamflet gepubliseer het met die titel 'We Never Went to the Moon: America's 30 Billion Dollar Swindle'.

Die bewerings het spoedig traksie gekry, ondanks harde bewyse van die teendeel, insluitend geologiese bewyse wat van die maan herwin is en beelde van verkenningsvliegtuie wat om die aarde wentel en motorspore en voetspore agterlaat wat op die maan gelaat is.

Ontdek die volledige verhaal van die moed en vindingrykheid wat Apollo 13 as die beste uur van NASA bevestig het.

Kyk nou

In die tyd van die internet, waar inligting met 'n klik van 'n knoppie gedeel kan word, het hierdie alternatiewe geskiedenis steeds by baie twyfel getrek. 'N 2012 YouGov -studie het aan die lig gebring dat 1 uit 6 Britte glo dat die maanlandings opgevoer of vervals is.


Verkenning

Die maan het ons verbeelding al duisende jare lank behou, maar ons het hierdie liggaam eers in die moderne tyd besoek, eers met robotmasjiene en daarna met ruimtevaarders. Verkenning van die maan het ons baie geleer oor die evolusie van die sonnestelsel en onsself. Ons weet eeue lank oor die effek op getye en biologiese siklusse van 'n afnemende en kwynende maan. Maar dit het ruimte-eeuse verkenning geneem om ons te wys hoe die maan op 'n baie fundamentele vlak met die menslike bestaan ​​verbind is.

Die ruimtetydperk kom: Robotte na die maan

Met die skokkende bekendstelling van Sputnik 1 in Oktober 1957, het die maan verander van 'n silwer skyf in die lug na 'n regte plek, 'n waarskynlike bestemming vir sonde en mense. Die Sowjets het eerste toegeslaan en Luna 1 deur die maan in Januarie 1959 gevlieg. Hulle het hierdie sukses gevolg met 'n aantal ander robotiese sondes, wat later dieselfde jaar 'n hoogtepunt bereik het met Luna 3, wat die ander kant van die maan afgeneem het, wat nooit van die aarde af sigbaar was nie. Uit hierdie vroeë beelde van swak gehalte het ons ontdek dat die verste kant verbasend min van die donker, gladde merrievlaktes het wat ongeveer 'n derde van die nabye kant bedek. Ander verrassings volg binnekort.

In reaksie op die vlug van die Sowjet -kosmonaut Yuri Gagarin in 1961, het president John F. Kennedy die Verenigde State daartoe verbind om teen die einde van die dekade 'n man op die maan te laat beland. Die Apollo -program het die belangstelling in die verkenning van die maan aansienlik versnel. Om te verseker dat menslike spanne veilig kan land en van die maanoppervlak kan vertrek, was dit belangrik om die omgewing, oppervlak en prosesse daarvan te verstaan. Terselfdertyd sou die robotvoorlopers waardevolle inligting versamel, wat die eerste wetenskaplike verkenning van 'n ander planetêre liggaam vorm.

America & rsquos se eerste stap was die Ranger -reeks harde landers. Hierdie sondes is ontwerp om die maanoppervlak met toenemende detail te fotografeer voordat dit teen die oppervlak neerstort. Na verskeie hartverskeurende mislukkings, het Ranger 7 daarin geslaag om gedetailleerde televisiefoto's van Mare Nubium (See van wolke) in Julie 1964 terug te stuur. Uit die Ranger -sonde het ons ontdek dat kraters, die vreemde gate wat die maanoppervlak peper, in grootte afneem tot die perke van resolusie. Mikrometeoriet -bombardement het die gesteentes van die oppervlak gevorm en 'n fyn poeier (regoliet genoem) gevorm. Nog twee Ranger -ruimtetuie vlieg na die maan, met 'n hoogtepunt met die 1965 Live From the Moon -televisiebeelde van Ranger 9, wat na die skouspelagtige maankrater Alphonsus loop.

Ons het vroeg in 1966 die maan en rsquos-oppervlak van nader bekyk. Weer het die VSR die voortou geneem deur die robot Luna 9-ruimtetuig veilig op die merrievlakte, Oceanus Procellarum, sag te land. Die oppervlak was poeieragtige vuil besaai met 'n paar rotse, maar sterk genoeg om die gewig van 'n gelande ruimtetuig te dra. In Mei 1966 het die Verenigde State gevolg met die landing van die komplekse robotruimtetuig, Surveyor 1. Dit het televisiefoto's na die aarde teruggestuur en die oppervlak en sy fisiese eienskappe in detail vertoon. Later landmeter -missies (altesaam vyf), het fisiese data oor grondeienskappe versamel, insluitend die chemiese samestelling daarvan. Analise van die maanoppervlak het getoon dat die donker maria 'n samestelling het wat soortgelyk is aan aardse basalt, 'n donker ysterryke lawa, terwyl die hooglande naby die baie vars stralekrater Tycho ligter van kleur was en vreemd verryk in aluminium. Dit het gelei tot 'n verstommende onthulling oor die vroeë geskiedenis van die maan en rsquos nadat die eerste fisiese monsters later deur die bemanning van die Apollo 11 na die aarde teruggestuur is.

Die laaste robotmissies het die hele maan vir die eerste keer in 'n wentelbaan gekarteer en foto's van potensiële landingsplekke met 'n baie hoë resolusie verkry, wat hul veiligheid bevestig vir die volgende Apollo -missies. Hierdie Amerikaanse Lunar Orbiter -reeks het vyf karteringmissies uitgevoer, waardeur rotsblokke so klein as 'n paar meter gesien kon word. Hulle het ook 'n ongelooflike uitsig gekry op wetenskaplik interessante teikens, soos die eerste en ldquopilot & rsquos -oog en die rdquo -aansig van die groot, helder straal krater Copernicus, wat deur nuusverslaggewers die 'foto van die eeu' genoem word. Meer mense en foto's van die eeu en rdquo sou binnekort verkry word deur mense wat op die maan loop.

Uit hierdie robotmissies het ons geleer dat die maan op alle skale krat en ontpit is. Die oppervlak was poeierstof, maar sterk genoeg om die gewig van mense en masjiene te dra. Die maan het geen globale magnetiese veld of atmosfeer gehad nie en bestaan ​​uit algemene gesteentes, soortgelyk aan dié wat op aarde gevind word. Nou was die stadium gereed vir die volgende reuse sprong in die verstaan ​​van maan- en planetêre geskiedenis.

Apollo: Die mense volg

Apollo was die beste uur van die America & rsquos -ruimteprogram. In net agt jaar het ons oorgegaan van 'n menslike ruimtevliegvermoë tot die landing van mans op die oppervlak van die maan. Uit hierdie missies het wetenskaplikes 'n nuwe siening ontwikkel oor die oorsprong en evolusie van die planete en die lewe op aarde.

Die vlug van die Kerstyd van Apollo 8 in 1968 was 'n mylpaal, en mense het 'n lae wentelbaan verlaat en die maan bereik en dit amper 'n dag lank omring. Vir die eerste keer het mense vanuit 'n wentelbaan na die maan gekyk. Hulle vind dit woes en grys, maar sien niks om te verhinder dat ons die laaste 62 myl na die oppervlak ry nie. In Mei 1969 wentel Apollo 10 om die maan en toets die maanlander. Dit was 'n kleedrepetisie vir die bemande landing. Elkeen van die Apollo-missies en ndash en die ruimtevaarders wat tydens die daaropvolgende gelande missies in die wentelende kommandomodule gebly het, het honderde foto's met hoë resolusie van die maan en rsquos-oppervlak geneem. Hul visuele waarnemings het bygedra tot die groeiende kennis van maangeologie.

Neil Armstrong en Buzz Aldrin in Apollo 11 het op 20 Julie 1969 veilig in Mare Tranquillitatis (Sea of ​​Tranquility) in 'n afskuwelike afdraande gekenmerk deur programalarms van 'n oorlaaide rekenaar en vriesbrandstoflyne geland. Hulle het meer as 2 uur op die maan geloop klippe en grond versamel en eksperimentpakkette uitgelê. Uit die Apollo 11 -monsters het ons geleer dat die donker maria ou vulkaniese lawas is, wat meer as 3,6 miljard jaar gelede gekristalliseer het. Maanmonsters is in chemiese samestelling soortgelyk aan aardgesteentes, maar uiters droog, sonder bewyse vir beduidende water op die maan, in die verlede of hede. Daar is klein stukkies wit gesteentes in die grond gevind wat vanaf die verre hooglande op die terrein geblaas is. Gekombineer met die vroeëre resultate van die Surveyor 7 chemiese analise by die krater Tycho, het wetenskaplikes geredeneer dat die ou maan byna heeltemal gesmelt was, bedek met 'n laag vloeibare gesteentes. Hierdie idee van 'n vroeë ldquomagma -oseaan en rdquo is sedertdien op al die rotsagtige planete toegepas. Mikrometeoriet -bombardement het op die grond gegrond en gasse van die son is op die oppervlaktes van die maanstofkorrels ingeplant. Terwyl dit op die maan bewaar is, het die grootste deel van hierdie ou, gedeelde geskiedenis op ons geologies aktiewe aarde verlore gegaan.

In November 1969 raak Apollo 12 neer in Oceanus Procellarum (Oseaan van Storms), naby die voorheen gelande ruimtetuig Surveyor 3. Hierdie missie demonstreer ons vermoë om presies op die maan te land, 'n vaardigheid wat van kritieke belang is om na toekomstige plekke op die hooglande en ruwe gebiede te navigeer. Ruimtevaarders Pete Conrad en Alan Bean het die terrein in twee maanwandelings verken. Hulle het meer as 75 pond monsters versamel en 'n eksperimentele pakket met kernkrag ontplooi. Lavas van hierdie landingsterrein is effens jonger as dié van Apollo 11, maar nog steeds meer as 3,1 miljard jaar oud. Die hooglandkomponent hier is anders as dié van die eerste landing; dit het 'n ongewone verryking in radioaktiewe en seldsame aardelemente, wat daarop dui dat die maan en rsquos-kors lateraal veranderlik en kompleks is. As 'n bonus het die bemanning ook 'n liggroen grond teruggekeer, moontlik 'n deel van 'n afval en afwaarts geslinger tydens die vorming van die verre krater Copernicus en 186 myl noord van die landingsplek. Die datering van glas uit hierdie grond dui daarop dat Copernicus 900 miljoen jaar oud is, oud volgens aardse standaarde, maar een van die jongste belangrikste kenmerke op die maan.

Die ontploffing van 'n suurstoftenk op Apollo 13 het verhoed dat dit op die maan beland. Die bemanning van drie mans het veilig na die aarde teruggekeer en 'n onvergeetlike sage oor die hele wêreld gevolg. Apollo 14 is gestuur na 'n hooglandterrein oos van Apollo 12, naby die antieke krater Fra Mauro. Hierdie plek is gekies om rotse te versamel wat diep uit die maan uitgeblaas is deur die vorming van die reuse Imbrium -impakbak, 'n krater van meer as 620 myl in deursnee en 3,723 myl noord van die landingsplek. Ruimtevaarders Alan Shepard en Edgar Mitchell het twee maanwandelings op die maanoppervlak uitgevoer. Met 'n sleepwa met gereedskap gesleep, het hulle meer as 95 kilogram rots en grond teruggekeer. Monsters uit die Fra Mauro -hooglande is breccias (komplekse mengsels van antieke gesteentes), gebreek en verpletter deur die reuse -impak wat die Imbrium -kom veroorsaak het. Uit hierdie monsters het wetenskaplikes geleer dat die Imbrium -impak meer as 3,8 miljard jaar gelede plaasgevind het, voordat die donker merrieslawe die maan- en rsquos -oppervlak oorstroom het, maar baie ná die vorming van die maan- en rsquos -kors meer as 4,4 miljard jaar gelede. Na hierdie derde landing kom 'n nuwe prentjie van maan -evolusie na vore. Die maan was nie 'n eenvoudige klomp koue meteoriet nie, en ook nie 'n aktiewe vulkaniese inferno nie, maar 'n planetêre liggaam met sy eie komplekse, subtiele geskiedenis.

In Julie 1971, met Apollo 15, het NASA begin met die eerste van drie wat 'missies' en langdurige verblyf op die maan genoem word, met 'n groter fokus op die wetenskap as wat voorheen moontlik was. Apollo 15, wie se maanmodule Falcon drie dae op die maanoppervlak deurgebring het, was die eerste missie om 'n maanrover te gebruik en 'n klein elektriese karretjie waarmee die bemanning baie kilometers van hul landingsvaartuie kon afstap. Op drie uitstappies op die maanrover het Dave Scott en Jim Irwin die pragtige Hadley-Apennine-landingsplek verken en 'n vallei aan die voet van die hoofrand van die groot Imbrium-bekken, wat merrie en hooglandgesteentes insluit, verken. Die bemanning het die & ldquoGenesis Rock, en rdquo, byna geheel en al saamgestel uit 'n enkele mineraal (plagioklase veldspaat), wat die oudste korsgesteentes op die maan verteenwoordig. Hulle het ook klein fragmente van 'n smaraggroen glas gevind wat gevorm is toe magma uit die diepe mantel plofbaar deur die kors in 'n spuit lawa losbars. Hulle het 'n steekproef geneem van die merrieklip aan die rand van Hadley Rille, 'n reuse -canyon en 'n ou lawa -kanaal, wat meer as 3,3 miljard jaar gelede gevorm is. Die Apollo 15 -missie het meer as 80 kilogram monsters gekry en sy opdragmodule bevat chemiese sensors en kameras wat byna 20 persent van die maan en die oppervlakte van 'n baan uit die baan gekarteer het.

Apollo 16 is in April 1972 na die antieke krater Descartes, diep in die maanhoogland, gestuur. Ruimtevaarders John Young en Charlie Duke het drie dae lank die terrein verken. Hulle het meer as 18 myl afgelê en meer as 206 pond monsters versamel. Hulle het die eerste astronomiese teleskoop op die maan ontplooi en bedryf. Die hooglandgesteentes, byna alle breccias, getuig van 'n lang en ingewikkelde geskiedenis van herhaaldelike invloede uit die ruimte. Antieke korsgesteentes, soortgelyk aan die Genesis -rots van Apollo 15, is ook gevind. Een raaiselagtige waarneming deur die bemanning was die meting van 'n baie sterk magnetiese veld op die oppervlak. Alhoewel die maan geen globale magnetiese veld het nie, het sommige maanmonsters oorblywende magnetisme, wat daarop dui dat dit afgekoel het in die teenwoordigheid van sterk velde. Alhoewel ons nog steeds nie die maanmagnetisme verstaan ​​nie, sou die Apollo 16 -resultaat met die vlug van Lunar Prospector 26 jaar later 'n bietjie duideliker word.

Die laaste menslike sending na die maan tot dusver, Apollo 17, is in Desember 1972 gestuur na die rand van Mare Serenitatis (See van Serenity) - nog 'n kombinasie merrie/hoogland - Gene Cernan en Jack Schmitt (die eerste professionele geoloog) na die maan gestuur) het drie dae lank die Taurus-Littrow-vallei deeglik ondersoek. Hulle het meer as 242 pond monsters teruggegee en 'n stel nuwe oppervlakeksperimente ontplooi. Hulle het verrassende en belangrike ontdekkings gemaak. Die bemanning het 'n 3,6 miljard jaar oue oranje vulkaniese as gevind. Van die berge af het hulle korsgesteentes en komplekse breccias teruggekeer wat ontstaan ​​het tydens die impak wat die Serenitatis -kom bykans 3,9 miljard jaar gelede gevorm het. Lavas op hierdie webwerf is meer as 3,6 miljard jaar oud, wat ten minste 'n 700 miljoen jaar lange lawa-oorstroming op die maan beskryf.

Die Apollo -missies het 'n rewolusie in die planetêre wetenskap gemaak. Die vroeë sonnestelsel was een van die botsings van planete, gesmelte oppervlaktes en ontploffende vulkane en 'n komplekse en gewelddadige geologiese mengsel. Die konsep van 'n vroeë bombardement en 3,9 miljard jaar gelede word nou algemeen aanvaar vir al die planete, maar die werklike bewyse kom uit die studie van die maanmonsters. Die konstante reën van mikrometeoriete slyp alle luglose planeetoppervlaktes weg, alhoewel hierdie sandstraal uiters stadig is (die maan erodeer ongeveer 1 millimeter per miljoen jaar.) Terwyl Apollo 'n wonderlike taak verrig het om die geskiedenis van die maan uiteen te sit, wag daar nog meer verrassings onthul word.

The Robots Return: Clementine and Lunar Prospector

In die negentigerjare is twee klein robotmissies na die maan gestuur. Vir 71 dae in 1994 wentel die gesamentlike NASA-Strategic Defense Initiative Organization Clementine-missie om die maan, toets sensors wat ontwikkel is vir ruimte-gebaseerde missielverdediging, asook die kleur en vorm van die maan. Van Clementine het ons die enorme suidpool-Aitken-impakbak, 'n gat in die maan 1, 616 myl oor en meer as 8 myl diep, gedokumenteer. Hierdie wasbak is so groot dat dit moontlik die hele kors tot by die mantel opgegrawe het. Die kleurdata van Clementine, gekombineer met Apollo -steekproefinligting, stel ons in staat om streeksamestellings in kaart te bring en die eerste ware kaart van die maan te skep. Uiteindelik het Clementine ons 'n verleidelike wenk gegee dat permanente donker gebiede naby die suidpool van die maan bevrore water kan bevat wat oor miljoene jare neergelê is deur komete.

Kort na Clementine het die Lunar Prospector -ruimtetuig tydens die missie in 1998 en 1999 die maan en rsquos -oppervlak van die baan af gekarteer. Hierdie data, gekombineer met dié van Clementine, het wetenskaplikes wêreldwye komposisiekaarte gegee wat die ingewikkelde kors van die maan toon. Lunar Prospector het ook die oppervlakmagnetiese velde vir die eerste keer gekarteer. Die data het getoon dat die Apollo 16 Descartes -hooglande een van die sterkste magnetiese gebiede op die maan is, wat die oppervlaktemetings van John Young in 1972 verduidelik. welkome vooruitsig vir maanys.

Die maan gooi klippe na ons toe: maanmeteoriete

In 1982 het ons 'n verrassende ontdekking gemaak. 'N Meteoriet wat in Antarktika gevind word, ALHA 81005, is van die maan af! Die rots is 'n komplekse regolith breccia, soortgelyk aan dié wat deur die Apollo 16 -sending in 1972 teruggekeer is. Ons het sedertdien meer as 50 meteoriete gevind wat, soos bepaal uit hul unieke chemiese samestelling, van die maan af kom. Hierdie gesteentes is deur die impak van die maanoppervlak afgeblaas, daarna deur die aarde gevang en opgevee terwyl dit deur die ruimte beweeg. Die maanmeteoriete kom van ewekansige plekke oor die hele maan en hulle verskaf data wat aanvullend is tot die Apollo -monsters en die globale samestellingskaarte wat deur Clementine en Lunar Prospector verkry is.

Die toekoms en betekenis van maanverkenning

Nou berei ons ons voor op die mensdom en die terugkeer na die maan. Gedurende die volgende paar jaar sal ten minste vier internasionale robotmissies om die maan wentel en wêreldwye kaarte van ongeëwenaarde kwaliteit maak. Ons sal die land op die maan versag, veral die geheimsinnige poolstreke, om die oppervlak te karteer, die onstabiele afsettings te ondersoek en die ongewone omgewing daar te kenmerk. Uiteindelik sal mense na die maan terugkeer. Die doelwitte van die terugkeer van die maan hierdie keer is nie om te bewys dat ons dit kan doen nie (soos Apollo gedoen het), maar om te leer hoe om die maan te gebruik om 'n nuwe en groeiende ruimtebeskermingsvermoë te ondersteun. Op die maan leer ons die vaardighede en ontwikkel die tegnologieë wat nodig is om aan 'n ander wêreld te leef en te werk. Ons sal hierdie kennis en tegnologie gebruik om die sonnestelsel oop te maak vir menslike verkenning.

Die verhaal van die maan en rsquos se geskiedenis en prosesse is op sigself interessant, maar dit het ook perspektiewe op ons eie oorsprong subtiel verskuif. Een van die belangrikste ontdekkings van die 1980's was die reuse -impak 65 miljoen jaar gelede in Mexiko wat gelei het tot die uitsterwing van die dinosourusse, wat die daaropvolgende opkoms van soogdiere moontlik gemaak het. Hierdie ontdekking (moontlik gemaak deur die herkenning en interpretasie van die kenmerkende chemiese en fisiese tekens van hipervolksiteit -impak) kom direk uit die studie van impakgesteentes en landvorme wat deur Apollo gestimuleer is. Wetenskaplikes dink nou dat die impak verantwoordelik is vir baie, indien nie die meeste, uitsterwingsgebeurtenisse in die lewensgeskiedenis op aarde. Die maan behou hierdie rekord en ons sal dit in detail lees wanneer ons terugkeer.

Deur na die maan te gaan, kry ons steeds nuwe insigte oor hoe die heelal werk en oor ons eie oorsprong. Die verkenning van die maan het 'n omwenteling in die begrip van die botsing van vaste liggame veroorsaak. Hierdie proses, wat voorheen as bisar en ongewoon beskou is, word nou as fundamenteel beskou vir planetêre oorsprong en evolusie en 'n onverwagte verband. Deur terug te keer na die maan, verwag ons dat ons nog meer van ons verlede leer, en net so belangrik dat ons 'n blik op ons toekoms kry.


Die geskiedenis van die maanlanding: alles wat u moet weet

Op 20 Julie 1969 het die wêreld in afwagting toegekyk hoe Apollo 11 se 'Eagle' maanmodule op die maan se oppervlak raak. Van die vroeë Apollo 1 -tragedie tot die sosiale druk wat die maanlanding in 1969 bedreig het, spoor ruimtevaarthistorikus Amy Shira Teitel die geskiedenis en nalatenskap van NASA se vroeë pogings om die mens op die maan te sit ...

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

Gepubliseer: 20 Julie 2020 om 03:05

Die maanlanding van Apollo 11 was 'n gesogte internasionale staatsgreep en 'n oomblik van wêreldwye viering - maar die reis was ver van eenvoudig, aan die einde van 'n onstuimige dekade in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis ...

Op 16 Julie 1969, om 09:32 plaaslike tyd, het die vyf F-1-enjins op die Saturnus V van Apollo 11 lewendig gebrul. Duisende mense versprei langs die kus van Merritt Island, Florida, en sien hoe die vuur 'n breukdeel van 'n sekonde uitput voordat hulle die gerammel hoor - baie trek op snelweë en op strande, terwyl ander uitkyk vanaf hul hotelbalkonne. Miljoene meer mense regoor die wêreld het die bekendstelling op TV gesien. Hulle het gekyk hoe die vuurpyl 'n kol in die lug word en verdwyn en ruimtevaarders Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin en Michael Collins na die maan neem vir NASA se eerste bemande maanlanding.

Vir Amerika was hierdie dag amper 'n dekade in die vooruitsig.

JFK en die oorsprong van die maanlanding

Toe president John F Kennedy op 20 Januarie 1961 sy amp beklee, het hy 'n land geërf wat in 'n Koue Oorlog met die Sowjetunie vasgevang was. Maar wat die land ook al sou bekommer oor die ontwikkeling van Sowjet -missiele en satelliete, die inkomende president het probeer om die gemoedere gerus te stel. Die aantreklike 43-jarige het Amerika die indruk gegee dat dit op die afgrond van 'n goue era was waarin die regering die grootste probleme van die land kon oplos.

Op 12 April 1961 het die Sowjetunie Yuri Gagarin in 'n wentelbaan om die aarde gelanseer, wat bewys het dat die Sowjet -ingenieurswese baie meer gevorderd was as wat Amerika het. Vyf dae later het Kennedy nog 'n verleentheid opgedoen met die mislukte Bay of Pigs-inval, toe ballinge wat deur die VS gesteun word 'n rampspoedige poging aangewend het om die Kubaanse leier Fidel Castro omver te werp. Op soek na verlossing, soek die president na NASA vir 'n manier om gesig te red. Die aanbeveling van die agentskap was om 'n man op die maan te laat beland.

'N Maanlanding was nie iets wat Amerika dadelik kon doen nie, toe NASA net die ruimtevaarder Alan Shepard se Mercurius-missie onder sy gordel gehad het, wat op 5 Mei 1961 plaasgevind het. , ver om maan toe te gaan - maar 'n maanlanding was ook nie iets wat die Sowjets kon doen nie. 'N Maanlanding was 'n voldoende ver doel wat die speelveld tussen die twee lande gelyk gemaak het en NASA -ingenieurs genoeg tyd gegee het om uit te vind hoe om daar te kom. Die resultaat, as dit suksesvol was, sou 'n nie-aggressiewe maar definitiewe bewys van Amerika se tegnologiese meerderwaardigheid wees. Kennedy verbind Amerika tot die maanlanding op 25 Mei 1961, toe hy die kongres vra om 'n program te ondersteun wat binne die dekade voltooi moet word, waarin hy beloof het dat NASA 'n man op die maan sal laat land en hom veilig na die aarde sal terugbring.

Uitdagings vir Kennedy se maanlandingsplan

Die Koue Oorlog het toegeneem na die belofte van die maanlanding van Kennedy. Na die mislukte Bay of Pigs -inval, het Kennedy in Oktober 1962 met die Sowjet -premier Nikita Chroesjtsjov gebots nadat hy ontdek het dat die Sowjets missielterreine in Kuba opgerig het. Kennedy het 'n vlootblokkade van die eilandland aangekondig en die daaropvolgende stilstand het twee weke geduur voordat die situasie opgelos is. Die volgende jaar het Kennedy die Amerikaanse betrokkenheid by Viëtnam verhoog in 'n poging om die verspreiding van kommunisme te bekamp.

NASA was intussen vasgevang in die fundamentele vraag hoe om by die maan uit te kom. Die mees voor die hand liggende manier was om reguit daarheen te gaan met 'n ruimtetuig wat regop kon land en gereed sou wees om weer van die oppervlak af te gaan vir die terugkeer na die aarde. Hierdie missie het moontlik in wetenskapfiksie gewerk, maar in werklikheid sou hierdie ruimtetuig so swaar wees dat dit 'n onbegryplik groot en duur vuurpyl genaamd Nova sou benodig om dit in die eerste plek van die aarde af te kry.

'N Moontlike oplossing was om die ruimtetuig in helftes op twee kleiner Saturnus -vuurpyle af te skiet, maar die risiko's van 'n mislukte lansering of die onvermoë om die helftes in 'n wentelbaan te verbind (vas), bemoeilik die missie. 'N Derde metode verskyn, bekend as die' maanbaanbyeenkoms '. This left the heavy mothership in lunar orbit while a small, dedicated lander reached the surface. It was complicated, and astronauts would have to dock the spacecraft while in lunar orbit, but the mission was light enough to launch on a single Saturn rocket.

NASA finally settled on the method of a lunar orbit rendezvous in July 1962. This decision made, NASA now had to figure out how to live and work in space. The Mercury programme [the US’s first human spaceflight programme] couldn’t do that the spacecraft was too basic and didn’t have any hardware for docking, so NASA added an interim program to its Apollo planning called Gemini.

The cost of research and development caused NASA’s budget to rise, and Kennedy became increasingly concerned that the amount of money he was spending on this moon mission would destroy his reputation. So, believe it or not, he tried to cancel the Apollo project. Before the 18th General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 September 1963, Kennedy called to replace Apollo with a joint US-Soviet mission to the moon that would foster peace and cooperation instead of competition.

A month later, on 22 November, Kennedy was assassinated during a motorcade in Dallas. His death threw the nation into mourning, but it also saved Apollo: NASA couldn’t let the fallen president’s dream die. It helped, too, that Kennedy’s successor, President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was a big space proponent. He threw his support behind the programme after taking office on the same day Kennedy was assassinated.

A turbulent decade for the USA

Not long into his presidency, Johnson introduced programmes that attempted to free the United States from poverty and racial injustice. Social programmes like Medicare and Medicaid Head Start and Job Corps sought to give Americans a “helping hand rather than a hand out”, but the cost of these programmes clashed with the commitment he’d inherited from Kennedy to stop the spread of communism in Asia. Before long, America entered a full-scale war against the communist Viet Cong, which forced a new wave of conscription in the United States, known as ‘the draft’. Civil rights was also becoming an increasingly volatile issue. In 1964, Johnson pushed a Civil Rights Act through Congress that prohibited discrimination based on race in public spaces, but that didn’t eliminate the racist strain present in large parts of the country, or offset the poverty of many black urban areas.

Against this backdrop, NASA operated in something of a vacuum, the agency remaining laser-focused on taking strides towards the moon. Between 1965 and 1966, NASA launched 10 manned Gemini missions that demonstrated all the functionality the agency would need on a lunar mission. This programme proved, firstly, that a spacesuit offered sufficient protection outside the spacecraft, which was necessary for walking on the moon’s surface secondly, that fuel cells could power the spacecraft for the necessary two-week mission thirdly, that astronauts could manoeuvre their spacecraft to a rendezvous and docking as they would do in lunar orbit and, lastly, that the crew could survive in space for 14 days.

Apollo hardware, meanwhile, was nearing flight readiness: the Saturn V that would launch the mission the conical command module mothership the cylindrical service module with all the crew’s consumables and the bug-shaped lunar module that was custom-designed to support two men for a limited stay on the moon. As 1966 wound to a close, the agency was ready for its first manned Apollo mission.

Early tragedy for Apollo

Apollo 1 was intended to be a so-called “shakedown cruise”, a simple test of the command-service module in orbit before taking on more pointed objectives like a duration mission or a rendezvous test. But, tragically, it never got off the ground. During a routine pre-launch test on 27 January 1967, a fire broke out in the crew cabin where the environment was pure oxygen under pressure. The fire quickly became an inferno, and the crew of Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee asphyxiated.

The subsequent investigation uncovered a host of technical and managerial problems plaguing Apollo. Issues and concerns with the spacecraft had been left unaddressed, owing to convoluted chains of command between NASA and the spacecraft’s contractor, North American Aviation, and the sense of urgency causing all parties involved to rush, as shown by the accident report and testimonies in NASA’s archive. There was, however, a small silver lining: the fire had occurred on the launch pad, which meant that NASA could take it apart to understand the root cause. NASA used the lessons learned in the accident investigation to build not only a safer spacecraft, but a culture that put safety above all else.

NASA was on the path to recovery as 1968 dawned, but America seemed divided like never before. Riots based on racial issues were common, as were anti-Vietnam War protests and feminist demonstrations calling for women’s rights. Both Martin Luther King Jr and Senator Bobby Kennedy were assassinated that year. Amid this national discord, NASA launched Apollo missions 4, 5, and 6 as tests of both rocket and spacecraft hardware. In October 1968, Apollo 7 marked NASA’s return to manned spaceflight with a simple orbital test of the command-service module. In December, it launched Apollo 8 to the moon with another command-service module, proving that the mothership was up to the lunar journey. The year 1969 opened with the final checks for the lunar landing Apollo 9 tested the lunar module in Earth orbit and Apollo 10 did a full ‘dress rehearsal’ of the lunar landing. Now, all that was left to do was touch down on the moon’s surface.

Against the deadline

Apollo 11 launched on 16 July 1969. For three days people followed updates of the crew’s progress via news bulletins and TV transmissions from translunar space. By the time Apollo 11 entered lunar orbit on 19 July after more than 75 hours in space, the real-life drama had captivated America. On 20 July, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin transferred into the lunar module christened ‘Eagle’ and separated from Mike Collins in the command-service module ‘Columbia’. They adjusted their orbit to pass lower over the moon’s surface, then began their descent with Americans listening to the voice transmissions broadcast live on TV and radio. The world heard call alarms in the ‘Eagle’ – 1201 and 1202 programme alarms that forced the lunar module’s computer to reboot – and heard NASA give the crew a ‘GO’ for a continued descent. At 4.17pm Eastern Time, the ‘Eagle’ landed.

The world stopped and watched Neil Armstrong take man’s first step on the moon seven hours later. When he did, ($28 billion only 53 percent of Americans believed that the programme had been worth the cost, a staggering $25 billion USD.

The legacy of Apollo 11

Six missions flew to the moon after Apollo 11, all of them successful landings that emphasised science and exploration (with the infamous exception of Apollo 13 – an explosion on board forced it to circle the moon without landing). Apollo 12 made a pinpoint landing to recover hardware from the Surveyor 3 probe that had landed three years earlier. Apollo 14 explored the more geologically-diverse ‘Fra Mauro’ formation on the moon’s surface, rich in samples from an impact event. Apollos 15, 16, and 17 added a lunar rover to the mission, thereby extending the ground that astronauts could cover in a single moonwalk. These missions explored mountain regions, highlands, and valleys on the moon, adding diversity to the collected samples. And each of these missions left instruments on the moon’s surface to measure seismic events and solar wind, among other things. All told, the six landing missions brought back 842 pounds of rocks and other samples and a wealth of data that scientists continue to use to this day.

NASA’s plan was to build on Apollo’s success with the Apollo Applications Program (AAP). This would have seen longer lunar missions and even potential manned missions to Mars and Venus. But in the early 1970s, with President Richard Nixon newly in office, America was even less interested in funding space science. Apollo was cut short – Apollos 18, 19, and 20 were cancelled – and the AAP was canned in favour of the shuttle programme, which was designed to make spaceflight routine and ultimately more cost-effective.

From our modern perspective, 50 years after Armstrong’s “one small step,” it’s easy to romanticise Apollo 11 and the whole lunar landing programme as a peaceful one done for the sake of exploration and human ingenuity. In reality, going to the moon was an offshoot of the Cold war, with Apollo 11’s landing a moment of success at the end of a difficult decade.

Amy Shira Teitel is a spaceflight historian, author, YouTuber, and popular space personality. She holds a Bachelor’s degree with combined honours in History of Science and Technology Studies and a Master’s in Science and Technology Studies.

This article was first published in July 2019 on the 50th anniversary of the moon landing


7 Interesting Facts About the First Moon Landing.

It has been a full 50 years that human being first stepped foot on the moon. And half a century later, scientists at NASA are gearing up to do it again.

Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins were the first men on the moon. With Neil Armstrong putting down the first human footprint on the surface of the moon.

Upon landing, he declared “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” But it sure wasn’t a small step because he had to jump 3.5 ft. From the lunar module.

On July 20, 1969, people watched as commander Neil Armstrong and the lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin landed the Apollo Lunar Module Eagle on the surface of the moon.

Apollo 11 mission was a historic event with about 650 million viewers worldwide.

And to celebrate 50 years of the first man on the moon, the Apollo 11 mission, or the first moon landing, here are 7 interesting facts.

The Women Behind the Apollo 11 Mission.

While the whole world witnessed two men stepping outside of the lunar module and set their first step, there were a few women who played a major role in making it possible.

Katherine Johnson, a NASA research mathematician, was the woman who wrote the calculations for the Apollo 11 trajectory to the moon.

Joann Morgan was the only woman inside the firing roo, for the launch of the Saturn V rocket. She was responsible for listening to communications for any problems.

Other “hidden figures” of the Apollo 11 mission were Susan Finley who performed trajectory computations for rocket launches by hand.

And Margaret Hamilton who was the lead Apollo flight software designer.

The Number of People Required.

Creating history takes a lot of effort.

While the whole world celebrates Neil Armstrong for being the first man to set foot on the moon, the forget the people involved behind the scene.

For starters Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins also accompanied Armstrong in the historic event.

For the entire mission, the Apollo program needed the skills and expertise of approximately 400,000 scientists, engineers, and technicians combined.

The Smell of the Moondust.

The moment the astronauts got back inside the Lunar Module after stepping on the moon surface, they were able to smell the strong odor of the moon dust.

The astronauts could compare the smell of the moon dust to that of gun powder.

According to Neil Armstrong, moondust had a scent similar to “wet ashes in a fireplace”.

A Pen Helped in the Lunar Ascent.

There were so many moments and situations that could’ve made Apollo 11 mission a failure.

One of which was Buzz Aldrin accidentally damaging a crucial circuit breaker. This happened while he was moving about the cabin.

But, thanks to Neil Armstrong’s quick and innovative thinking the mission became a success.

He used a felt-tipped pen to activate the broken circuit breaker and saved the day.

The Suit Making Competition.

As historic as the moon landing itself was, the creation of the astronaut’s suit was also a difficult and controversial task.

For the making of the suit suitable of the lunar ascent, NASA approached the International Latex Corporation (ILC) alongside the aerospace company Hamilton Standard.

Cautious about the move, Hamilton Standard designed their own suit and submitted to NASA. Unfortunately, the suit got rejected.

Hamilton Standard then went ahead and blamed ILC for the whole thing resulting in losing the contract.

A few years later, however, NASA announced a competition for a new suit.

Few of the retired ILC employees took this as an opportunity, broke into their old office, stole their original design, made some important changed and submitted it to NASA.

ILC was chosen as the winner and ironically Hamilton Standard was chosen to provide the oxygen tanks for the suit.

Not Fake News.

Conspiracy theories have been going around for as long as the news of the first man on the moon.

Even though 650 million people viewed it and there is plenty of evidence suggesting that men did go to the moon, there are people till date calling it fake news.

But according to David Robert Grimes, Ph.D., from the University of Oxford and the entire panel scientists, technicians, and engineers think otherwise.

Grimes developed a mathematical model in 2015 determining that if the moon landing was indeed fake news, an estimated 411,000 people would’ve been in on the hoax.

And within 3 years and 8 months, at least one person would have leaked the conspiracy.

An Inspiration for Inventions.

The Apollo 11 mission was one-of-it’s-kind historic moment for the entire mankind.

It pushed and inspired many more expeditions to the moon and outer space. We can easily say it changed the course of history and how people viewed space.

But the Apollo 11 didn’t just inspire and influence future space missions.

Apollo engineering also inspired a lot of products and technologies.

Things like Dustbuster cordless vacuums, anti-fog ski goggles, freeze-dried backpacking meals, studless winter tires, and Nike Air running shoes actually made our day-to-day life easier.


Facts about Landing on the Moon 5: the failure

It is not a new thing to spot failure during the launch of unmanned lunar rover missions. During the landing, Luna 23, Luna 18 and Luna 15 crashed.

Facts about Landing on the Moon 6: the total men landed on moon

The moon had been landed by 12 men. During the six NASA missions, there would be two pilot-astronauts of United States flew a Lunar Modular.

facts about landing on the moon


1969 Moon Landing: What We Know

There are several things that we know for certain about the moon landing because they’ve been well documented. For example, we know that take-off started at 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16th, with astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins ready to make history. And, 76 hours later, these astronauts landed on the moon transmitting the now-iconic, "The Eagle has landed" message. Additionally, the mission was filmed with a television camera, which was attached to the lunar module.

As Neil Armstrong stepped down the ladder, hundreds of millions of people held their breath at home. And, when his foot touched down on the moon’s surface, he rejoiced, saying, "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." Armstrong was joined by Aldrin and together they planted an American flag on the moon’s surface documented the terrain and took a call with then-President Richard Nixon. Collins stayed behind in the command module.

The astronauts spent the equivalent of an Earth night on the moon before heading back to the command module. Before leaving, they also placed a plaque, which reads, "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." In total, this mission cost NASA $25 billion, which, by today’s standards, would amount to around $156 billion.

Of course, this wasn’t the last time astronauts touched down on the moon. Overall, there would be five planned lunar landing missions. As of 2021, the last person who walked on the moon, Eugene Cernan, did so in December 1972 as part of the Apollo 17 mission.


10 Astounding Facts About the First Moon Landing

On July 20, 1969, mankind made history when Neil Armstrong walked on the moon. The feat was a huge achievement and since then, only 11 others have had the honor to walk on the lunar surface. Interestingly, none of the 12 people who have had the once in a lifetime opportunity to walk on the moon ever did it more than once. Soon after Neil Armstrong touched the lunar surface, Buzz Aldrin took a leap out of the Lunar Module to become the second man to walk on the moon. During their EVA, they collected rocks, planted the US flag, and performed various experiments. But, they only touched the surface for 2 hours, 31 minutes and 40 seconds before returning to the Lunar Module.

1. When Apollo astronauts returned to Earth after making a successful moon landing, they had to go through customs and fill out a form.

Image: NASA/U.S. Customs and Border Patrol

After the historic moon landing mission and their successful return to Earth, the Apollo 11 astronauts were greeted by customs at the Honolulu Airport in Hawaii on July 24, 1969. The customs form was signed by all three astronauts with their cargo declared and their flight route listed as starting at Cape Kennedy with a stopover on the moon. According to the customs form, their listed cargo included moon rocks, moon dust and other lunar samples.

NASA astronauts still have to go through this process today but for conventional reasons. Astronauts who are assigned to work on the International Space Station have to go through training processes in Japan, Canada, Europe and Russia. This step is to ensure that the astronauts are familiar with different systems, modules and tools used in the space station which is the result of a 10 year project by 16 different countries.

2. Neil Armstrong was the first human being to set foot on the moon, yet there are only a few images of him walking on the moon.

Image: NASA

It might come as a surprise that the first man to ever walk on the moon does not appear in front of the camera. In fact, there is only one known photograph of him on the moon, and on the photo, he has his back to the camera. This is because the checklist for the Apollo 11 mission called for Neil Armstrong to have the only camera.Apart from that, Armstrong was also working to capture as many images of the lunar surface and samples within the limited amount of time that he had.

3. Michael Collins, the third Apollo 11 astronaut never got to walk on the moon.

Image: NASA

While the whole world is aware of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, there was a third man who is often forgotten. Michael Collins was Apollo 11’s third astronaut who traveled all the way to the moon but never got the chance to walk on it. In fact, he spent around 20 hours orbiting the moon, all alone and afraid. Collins played a pivotal role in the historic mission since he stayed behind in Columbia and took photos of the lunar surface until the other two returned.

As Neil and Buzz descended towards the lunar surface using the Lunar Module Eagle, Collins sat there, wondering if they would return or if he would be forced to leave the men behind. Even while preparing for the mission, Collins was afraid of the fact that if the engine on the Arend failed or malfunctioned, he would have to leave his fellow astronauts behind. During those lone 20 hours, circling the other side of the moon, Collins wrote: “I am alone now, truly alone, and absolutely isolated from any known life. I am it. If a count were taken, the score would be three billion plus two over on the other side of the moon, and one plus God knows what on this side.”

4. The three astronauts couldn’t afford life insurance since it would cost a fortune to take a policy for someone who is on a mission to the moon. Instead, they signed hundreds of covers with important dates and gave it to their families.

Image: NASA/Neil Armstrong

Insurance policies can be expensive, especially when it’s for someone who is about to embark on a long and unclear journey. Even though NASA and the Apollo 11 crew were well prepared, there was always a chance of something unexpected happening. The astronauts wanted to take insurance policies on themselves for their families, in case something went wrong. However, that proved to be tough since it would cost a fortune to take a policy on someone who is about to board a rocket to the moon.

But the crew had something else in mind. They were already famous and knew that their autographs could be of value to their family members. Weeks before the launch when the three astronauts entered quarantine, they used the free time to sign hundreds of covers with important dates. Before leaving Earth, they gave the signed covers to a mutual friend, who distributed them to their family members. It was life insurance in the form of autographs.

5. Armstrong’s famed “one small step” line was pre-planned at least according to his brother.

Image: NASA/Buzz Aldrin

Until his last breath in 2012, Armstrong insisted that his famous line “one small step”, that he was heard quoting in 1969 when he became the first man to walk on the moon, was spontaneous. He maintained that the line only came to him right before he was about to take the first steps onto the lunar surface. After he passed away, a BBC documentary was released. In the documentary, Dean Armstrong, Neil Armstrong’s brother, recalls the moment from their past when Neil handed him a piece of paper.

Months before the Apollo mission, Neil spent time with his family on Cape Cod. One late night, when the family was playing a board game, Neil handed Dean a piece of paper that said: “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind”. Neil then asked Dean what he thought of that, to which Dean replied, ‘fabulous’. Neil then said, “I thought you might like that, but I wanted you to read it”. Neither Buzz Aldrin nor Michael Collins had any idea of the quote until it was said. The only exception was Dean.

6. Neil Armstrong was chosen to be the first person to step foot on the moon. According to NASA, this was due to the basic structural design of a part of the Eagle.

Image: NASA

29 Astronauts trained for the Apollo mission to become the first human beings to travel to the moon. On January of 1969, NASA announced that only three were chosen from the 29. Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin and Michael Collins became the official crew of Apollo 11. Since then, it was a debate to whether Armstrong or Aldrin should be the first one to take the giant leap for mankind. Although it was decided that both men would walk on the moon, it was considered an honor to be the first one.

As months went by and the mission was fast approaching, rumors were than Aldrin would be given the honor. Three months before liftoff, it was announced that Armstrong would be the first to leave the Eagle and take the first steps. According to NASA, this was because of how the Eagle was designed. The hatch opened to one side and it was right next to the pilot of the ship, who happened to be Neil Armstrong. NASA also pointed out that Armstrong entered the program in 1962, while Aldrin came in 1963 which made him a senior member.

7. The astronauts left behind tools as well as a mirror on the moon.

Image: NASA/Apollo Archive

After successfully landing on the lunar surface, the astronauts performed walks and collected samples. The samples included rocks and moon dust, which was to be taken back to Earth to conduct studies. However, the Eagle only had enough fuel to lift a limited amount of weight. This is why the astronauts left behind tools that aided them during the expedition. The descent stage of the lunar module was also left behind which turned it into a landmark. Scales, hammers, and a laser reflector that was used to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon were also left behind.

The descent stage of the lunar module was intentionally left behind. On the plaque, it says: “Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon. July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind”. Neil and Buzz also installed a mirror on the moon’s surface so that we can perform Lunar Laser Ranging experiments and measure how far away the moon is at all times which is done by calculating how long it takes the beam to return to Earth.

8. The Eagle landed with only around 20 seconds of fuel left.

Image: NASA

When the lunar module started its descent towards the moon, the systems were supposed to be on autopilot. Neil Armstrong sat back in case something went wrong, and as expected, something did go wrong. The guidance systems started to show errors as the descent was taking place. Neil took the controls and started the descent himself, since the system failures caused the lunar module to miss the designated landing zone. As the module was descending, the fuel was running extremely low. Neil had no choice but to perform the descent as slow as possible or he would have to abort the mission. After making it as far as they already had, both astronauts agreed that they would rather try than turn around.

The astronauts were supposed to land with 120 seconds worth of fuel left in the tanks but as the moon was fast approaching, the fuel tank was running low. The lunar module was still hovering 30 meters above the ground with 60 seconds of fuel left but thankfully, Neil was able to find a smooth landing spot. With barely 20 seconds worth of fuel left in the descent tank, the module touched the lunar surface and Neil was quoted saying: “Houston. The Eagle has landed”.

9. President Nixon had a speech ready in case things didn’t go as planned.

Image: NASA

It was always a fear that something could malfunction and cause the mission to be a failure. President Nixon and his staff were well aware of the risks and the possibility that the men may never return to planet Earth. This is the reason why Collins was asked to stay behind and orbit the moon, as a precaution. In case the mission went south, Nixon had a speech ready and was also prepared to call the wives of the astronauts.

It read: “Fate has ordained that the men who went to the moon to explore in peace will stay on the moon to rest in peace. These brave men, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, know that there is no hope for their recovery. But they also know that their is hope for mankind in their sacrifice.”

Thankfully, the mission was successful and all three astronauts returned home safe and sound.

10. Upon their return, the astronauts didn’t get to reunite with their families right away. All three had to stay in quarantine for 21 days in case they’d brought home any lunar contagions.

Image: NASA

Once safely back on Earth, the Apollo 11 astronauts had to contain their eagerness to meet their family members for 21 days. Although the mission was successful, NASA was unsure of any foreign contaminants or microorganisms. As a precaution, they recommended that the astronauts be quarantined and analyzed for three weeks before marking them as safe. Apollo 12 and 14 crew members were also quarantined. Today, astronauts don’t have to go through the painstaking process of being quarantined since by the time Apollo 15 mission was completed, it was determined that the moon had no contaminants in the explored areas.


In 1965, Gemini V became the first NASA crew to have a dedicated insignia, which was designed by pilot Pete Conrad and command pilot Gordon Cooper. This tradition of a crew wearing patches designed by its own members has continued over the years, with the Apollo 11 crew following suit. Ultimately, they decided to make the concept a representation of the larger goals of NASA—and America—at the time.

"We wanted to keep our three names off it because we wanted the design to be representative of everyone who had worked toward a lunar landing, and there were thousands who could take a proprietary interest in it, yet who would never see their names woven into the fabric of a patch,” Collins said. “Further, we wanted the design to be symbolic rather than explicit."


First Moon Landing Fast Facts

This week is the 50th anniversary of the first moon landing.

Originally Published: 15 SEP 13 20:04 ET
Updated: 14 JUL 19 13:58 ET
CNN Library
(CNN) -- Here's a look at the first moon landing on July 20, 1969. The moon landing was watched by an estimated 600 million people around the world.

July 20, 1969 - [4:17 p.m. EDT] Apollo 11 becomes the first manned spacecraft to land on the moon.

Neil Armstrong (commander), Buzz Aldrin (lunar module pilot) and Michael Collins (command module pilot) were the crew.

The Apollo 11 spacecraft consisted of the command module, Columbia, and the lunar module, Eagle.

The crew traveled 240,000 miles from the Earth to the moon in 76 hours.

ABC, CBS, and NBC spent, collectively, between $11 million and $12 million on Apollo 11 coverage and covered the mission from Sunday morning until Monday evening.

Timeline:
May 25, 1961 - President John F. Kennedy addresses Congress, "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind or more important for the long-range exploration of space and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish."

November 21, 1962 - President Kennedy tells NASA Administrator James Webb, "This is, whether we like it or not, a race. Everything we do [in space] ought to be tied into getting to the moon ahead of the Russians."

May 18, 1969 - Apollo 10 lifts off from Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This launch is a dress rehearsal for Apollo 11. The crew, Thomas Stafford, John Young, and Eugene Cernan, orbit the moon and then return to earth eight days, three minutes and three seconds later.

July 16, 1969 - At 9:32 a.m. EDT Apollo 11 lifts off from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

July 20, 1969 - At 1:47 p.m. EDT Armstrong and Aldrin, in the lunar module Eagle, separate from the command module. Collins remains onboard the Columbia orbiting the moon.
- 4:17 p.m. EDT - The Eagle lands.
- 4:18 p.m. EDT - "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed," Armstrong reports. When the lunar module lands on the moon's surface at the Sea of Tranquility, it has less than 40 seconds of fuel left.
- 10:56 p.m. EDT - Armstrong says, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind," as he becomes the first human to set foot on the moon.
- 11:15 p.m. EDT (approx.) - Buzz Aldrin joins Armstrong on the moon. The men read from a plaque signed by the three crew members and the president, "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon, July 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all mankind."
- 11:48 p.m. EDT - President Nixon speaks to Armstrong and Aldrin via radio from the Oval Office, "(it) certainly has to be the most historic telephone call ever made." They speak for two minutes and the call is televised on both ends.
- Armstrong and Aldrin spend over two hours collecting moon rock samples and data, and spend the night on board the Eagle.

July 21, 1969 - At 1:54 p.m. EDT - The Eagle departs from the moon to rendezvous with Columbia.
- 5:35 p.m. EDT - The Eagle docks with Columbia. After transferring moon rocks, data, and equipment, the Eagle is jettisoned, and the crew begins the flight back to Earth.

July 22, 1969 - Columbia reaches a trajectory toward Earth.

July 24, 1969 - At 12:50 p.m. EDT Columbia splashes down, eight days, three hours and 18 minutes after liftoff. The astronauts return to Earth in the Pacific Ocean about 900 miles from Hawaii, then go into quarantine aboard the USS Hornet.

August 10, 1969 - The astronauts are released from quarantine.

July 9, 2019 - The Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum in partnership with the US Department of the Interior and 59 Productions announces a celebration of the 50th anniversary of the first moon landing July 16 through July 20. Included in the presentation "Apollo 50: Go for the Moon," will be a full-sized projection on the east side of the Washington Monument for three nights July 16 through July 18 of the Saturn V rocket that sent Apollo 11 into orbit.

The-CNN-Wire
&trade & © 2019 Cable News Network, Inc., a Time Warner Company. Alle regte voorbehou.


Dreaming on land

Before the astronauts landed, there were the countless people who both dreamed and engineered our way into the sky.

  • After 21 hours 38 minutes on the Moon’s surface, the astronauts used Arend’s ascent stage to launch it back into lunar orbit.
  • After various maneuvers, Arend once again docked with Columbia, and the trip back to Earth began soon afterward.
  • Splashdown of Apollo 11 occurred in the Pacific Ocean about 1,400 km (900 miles) southwest of Hawaii on July 24.
  • After their return, the astronauts were quarantined for 21 days from the time Arend had left the Moon.
  • They were checked for any diseases they might have brought back from the Moon.

Top Image Credit: Project Apollo Archive/NASA

More Articles on Moon Landing

In contrast to the Soviet lunar-landing efforts, during 1969 all went well for the Apollo program. In March the Apollo 9 crew successfully tested the Lunar Module in Earth orbit, and in May the Apollo 10 crew carried out a full dress rehearsal for the landing, coming within 15,200 metres (50,000 feet) of the lunar surface.


Kyk die video: 12 očiglednih dokaza da je sletanje na Mjesec bilo potpuno lažno i snimljeno u studiju! (Januarie 2022).