Inligting

Niagara Falls AFS -3 - Geskiedenis


Niagara waterval
(AFS-3: dp. 16.050 (v.); 1. 581 '3 "; b. 79'; dr. 23 '10"; s. 20 k .; kpl. 435; a. 8 3 "/50; cl. Mars)

Niagara-waterval (AFS-3) is op 22 Mei 1965 deur die National Steel and Shipbuilding Co., San Diego, Kalifornië neergelê; van stapel gestuur op 26 Maart 1966, geborg deur mev Jacob Javits, vrou van die senior senator uit New York; afgelewer by die vloot by die Long Beach Naval Shipyard, Long Beach, Kalifornië, 20 April 1967; en in opdrag van 29 April, kaptein Horace C. Holley in bevel.

Die Niagara -waterval is ontwerp om koelwinkels, droë voorraad, tegniese onderdele en materiaal van algemene winkels aan die vloot op see te lewer. Haar opset maak voorsiening vir 'n vinnige uitreikingskoers met 'n minimum aantal mans en die nuutste metodes van vervoer na die see, vraghantering, bergingstegnieke en outomatisering. Sy is in staat om gelyktydig een skip aan elke kant aan te vul en materiaal deur vraghelikopters wat sy vervoer, te vervoer.

Na die aanvanklike afskud, laai die nuwe gevegswagskip 2500 ton winkels by Naval Supply Center, Oakland, Kalifornië en voltooi tot en met September die laaste proewe van aceeptane en die beskikbaarheid na afskud in San Diego.

Teen 4 Februarie 1968 het die Niagara -waterval haar beskikbaarheid afgeskakel en die voorbereidings vir haar eerste ontplooiing voortgesit. Sy het op 28 Maart vir WestPae gestoom, op 14 April by Subicbaai aangekom en daar die eerste van die vele aanvullings uitgevoer.

By aankoms op 22 April in An Thoi, Suid -Viëtnam, het sy meer as 100 ton materiaal oorgedra, en twee dae later het sy amfibiese eenhede in Vung Tau verskaf. Op 25 April in Cam Rahnbaai het die Niagara -watervalle skepe en die Naval Support Aetivity daar verskaf. Sy verskaf ook skepe van die Naval Gunfire Support Group aan die kus van Viëtnam, en het verskeie aanvullings deur die Yankee Station en Market Time gebiede gemaak.

Die Niagara-waterval het die laaste aanvulling van haar ontplooiing op 15 September voltooi, wat op 17-21 September in Hongkong, op Pearl Harbor, 9-10 Oktober, aangekom het en op 17 Oktober in San Diego aangekom het. Nadat die voorbereiding vir 'n ander ontplooiing en die oordrag van tuishawe na Sasebo na eommenee 3 Januarie 1969 voltooi is met die koms van die nuwe jaar, het die Niagara -waterval 'n tweede keer vir WestPae gestoom.


Niagara waterval

Niagara waterval / n aɪ ˈ æ ɡ r ə, n aɪ ˈ æ ɡ ə r ə / is 'n groep van drie watervalle aan die suidpunt van Niagara Gorge, wat oor die grens tussen die provinsie Ontario in Kanada en die staat New York strek Verenigde State. Die grootste van die drie is Horseshoe Falls, ook bekend as Canadian Falls, wat die internasionale grens van die twee lande oorskry. [1] Die kleiner American Falls en Bridal Veil Falls lê in die Verenigde State. Bridal Veil Falls word geskei van Horseshoe Falls deur Goat Island en van American Falls deur Luna Island, met beide eilande in New York.

Die gesamentlike watervalle vloei noordwaarts as deel van die Niagara -rivier, wat die Erie -meer in die Ontariomeer afloop, en het die hoogste vloeitempo van enige waterval in Noord -Amerika met 'n vertikale daling van meer as 50 m (160 voet). Tydens spitstyd toeriste -ure gaan elke minuut meer as 168 000 m 3 (ses miljoen kubieke voet) water oor die kruin van die waterval. [2] Horseshoe Falls is die kragtigste waterval in Noord -Amerika, gemeet aan die vloeitempo. [3] Niagara -waterval is bekend vir sy skoonheid en is 'n waardevolle bron van hidro -elektriese krag. Die balans tussen ontspannings-, kommersiële en industriële gebruike was sedert die 19de eeu 'n uitdaging vir die bestuurders van die waterval.

Die Niagara-waterval is 27 km (17 myl) noord-noordwes van Buffalo, New York en 121 km (75 myl) suid-suidoos van Toronto geleë, tussen die tweelingstede Niagara Falls, Ontario en Niagara Falls, New York. Die Niagara -waterval is gevorm toe gletsers aan die einde van die Wisconsin -gletsering (die laaste ystydperk) teruggetrek het, en water uit die nuutgevormde Great Lakes het 'n paadjie oor en deur die Niagara -platorand gesny op pad na die Atlantiese Oseaan.


Inhoud

Niagara waterval is op 22 Mei 1965 neergelê by die National Steel and Shipbuilding Company in San Diego wat op 26 Maart 1966 gelanseer is, geborg deur die vrou van die senior senator Jacob Javits, uit New York, afgelewer by die vloot by die Long Beach Naval Shipyard, Long Beach, Kalifornië , op 20 April 1967 en in opdrag op 29 April, met kaptein Horace C. Holley in bevel.

Na die aanvanklike afskud, laai die nuwe gevegskip 2,500 ton winkels in Naval Supply Depot, Oakland, en voltooi tot September die finale aanvaardingsproewe en die beskikbaarheid na afskud in San Diego.

Viëtnam, 1968–1973

Teen 4 Februarie 1968, Niagara waterval het haar beskikbaarstelling afgeskakel en voortgegaan met die voorbereidings vir haar eerste ontplooiing. Sy het op 28 Maart vir WestPac gestoom, op 14 April by Subicbaai aangekom en daar die eerste van die vele aanvullings uitgevoer.

By aankoms op 22 April in An Thoi, Suid -Viëtnam, het sy meer as 100 ton materiaal oorgedra, en twee dae later het sy amfibiese eenhede in Vung Tau verskaf. In Cam Rahnbaai 25 April, Niagara waterval skepe en die Naval Support Activity daar verskaf. Sy het ook skepe van die Naval Gunfire Support Group aan die kus van Viëtnam verskaf en verskeie aanvullings gemaak deur die Yankee Station en Market Time.

Niagara waterval voltooi die laaste aanvulling van haar ontplooiing van 1971 op 15 September, wat van 17 tot 21 September by Hong Kong aangekom het, van 9 tot 10 Oktober in Pearl Harbor, en het op 17 Oktober teruggekeer na San Diego. Die voorbereidings voltooi vir 'n ander ontplooiing en die oordrag van tuishawe na Sasebo om op 3 Januarie 1969 met die koms van die nuwe jaar te begin, Niagara waterval 'n tweede keer vir WestPac gestoom.

Tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog het die Niagara waterval het aan die volgende veldtogte deelgeneem: Viëtnamese teenoffensiewe fases IV, V, VI Tet 69/teenoffensiewe Viëtnam Somer/herfs 69 Viëtnam Winter/lente 70 Sanctuary Teenoffensiewe Viëtnamese teenoffensiewe fase VII Konsolidasie I Vietnam Wapenstilstand.

Op 14 September 1970 het Niagara waterval die seilboot van 14 voet (160 m) gevind en gered Galilea dit was die onderwerp van 'n intense soektog vir meer as 'n maand. Toe dit gesien word, was die boot ongeveer 400 seemyl (740 en 160 km) wes/noordwes van Honolulu. Die drie bemanningslede was sedert 27 Julie sonder kos (die Galilea vertrek op 17 Junie na Tahiti na Honolulu). Gered is Julian Ritter, Laurene Louise Kokx en Winfried Bernard Heiringhoff. Volgens die skip se dokter was die reddingswerkers dae weg van die dood. [1]

Gedurende die tydperk 15-30 Julie 1971 Niagara waterval en Sacramento word opgemerk deur Onderneming werk by die Yankee-stasie as 'n komplekse VERTREP met vier helikopters.

"The Falls" keer in 1972 terug na Viëtnam, sit die aanvullingsiklus van 'n naweek in die hawe (gewoonlik US Naval Base Subic Bay, PI) en twee weke "on line" voort, gedurende die herfs van 1972 en tot in die lente van 1973. Normaal roetine het ingesluit dat die vernietigers op die geweerlyn voorsien word en tot by die Yankee-stasie voortgegaan word om die vliegdekskepe aan te vul, waaronder die USS Ranger (CV-61) en USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63). Na die skietstilstand het die Niagara -waterval die myngroep ondersteun wat die hawe in Hanoi (Haiphong) gehelp het van die myne wat deur vlootvliegtuie laat val is.

Gedurende die vroeë 1970's dien die bekende spioen John Anthony Walker, Jr. (Johnny) Niagara waterval 'radio kamer. Dit was gedurende sy drie jaar aan boord van die Niagara waterval dien as bewaarder van Classified Materials Systems (CMS) dat Walker toegang gehad het tot die verskillende kriptografiese masjiene (KW-7, KWR-37, KG-14, KY-8 en KL-47) wat die sleutels van byna almal tot die KGB. As 'n voorraadskip, die Niagara waterval het geklassifiseerde boodskappe ontvang oor skepe se bewegings van Viëtnam en in die Suid -Chinese See. Om die geklassifiseerde inligting aan Sowjet -kontakte te verskaf, word deur ondersoekers geglo dat CWO3 Walker dooie druppels gemaak het in die hawens, waaronder die Filippyne, Hong Kong. In die middel van die sewentigerjare word 'n intelligensie-agent in die middel van die sewentigerjare vermoed dat die intelligensie-oortreding uit die Niagara-waterval geskors is, maar die bevindings was onoortuigend. [2]

Vietnam Agent Orange Legacy, 1968

Die Niagara waterval was op die lys van skepe wat blootgestel is aan Agent Orange. Die Departement van Veterane Sake het sekere vaartuie geïdentifiseer wat hoofsaaklik of uitsluitlik op die binnelandse Viëtnamse waterweë gevaar het. Want sy Die rivier opgegaan het, is die USS Niagara -waterval erken as blootgestel aan besmette waterweë tydens missies op die Saigon -rivier en in Cam Rahnbaai, 22-25 April 1968. Gedurende die oorlog is die "waterval" verder blootgestel aan afloop van Agent Orange en ander onkruiddoders toe sy in die hawe van Da Nang anker, terugkeer na Cam Rahnbaai en langs die waters van Suid -Viëtnam stoom. Studies van Australiese vlootskepe toon aan dat verdampingsdistilleerstelsels met soutwater die konsentrasie van Agent Orange in drink- en kookwater eintlik verhoog het, en dat die distilleerstelsel bedek is met onkruiddoder gifstowwe. [3] Die departement van veterane aangeleenthede moet hierdie Australiese studies nog nie erken nie en gesondheidsdekking verleen aan die "blouwater" matrose wat blootgestel is aan die "Niagara Falls" en ander vlootskepe wat missies langs die Viëtnamese kus uitgevoer het.

1983–1991

Op 6 September 1983 het Niagara waterval het hawens na Guam verander en deel geword van die voorwaartse ontplooide elemente van CTF 73/75, deel van die 7de vloot. Vanaf daardie tydstip tot Januarie 1991 het die skip drie opknappingsopleidingsessies gehou, vyf OPPRE's, vier SMI's, vyf ARE's en drie INSURV -inspeksies. Sy het hawe -oproepe gemaak na talle plekke soos Yokosuka en Sasebo, Japan Hong Kong Subic Bay en Cebu, Filippyne Bali, Indonesië Fremantle/Perth, Australië Singapore Muscat, Oman Bahrain Pattaya en Phuket, Thailand Fujiarah, UAE en Diego Garcia. 'N Aantal van hierdie plekke is meer as een keer besoek. Niagara waterval het aan talle Fleet Support Operations deelgeneem, waaronder herhaalde Masirah Airheads, Operation Team Spirit en PACEX-89.

Die Niagara waterval ontvang die toekenning "7th Fleet Finest Combat Logistic Support Ship" vir haar optrede in PACEX-89, 'n gesamentlike Amerikaanse, Koreaanse en Japannese vlootoefening wat die grootste was sedert die einde van die Koreaanse Oorlog. Opgesluit in PACEX-89, noemenswaardige skepe soos die New Jersey, Missouri, Onderneming en Nimitz. Tydens PACEX-89 Niagara waterval was die bevelskip vir die Underway Replenishment Group.

As gevolg van die aard van die taak van 'n gevegswinkel, en die uitstekende prestasie van die Niagara waterval sy in die logistieke ondersteuningsdiens gelewer het, het sy die bynaam "Fighting Falls" gekry deur die Amerikaanse vloot sewende vloot. Deur middel van 1991 het die Fighting Falls het die sewende vlootbedrywighede ondersteun tydens 15 ontplooiings in WestPac/Indiese Oseaan/Persiese Golf. Die Niagara waterval is bekroon met die lof van die verdienstelike eenheid sowel as die ontvangs van die Slag "E" na 'n uitgebreide ontplooiing van byna agt maande, onmiddellik gevolg deur 'n ander kort lontontplooiing.

Niagara waterval het deelgeneem aan die tenkwa -oorlogsfase van die oorlog tussen Iran en Irak, wat Operation Prime Chance en Operation Earnest Will ondersteun het. In een byna aksie die Niagara waterval paaie gekruis met 'n Iraanse mynlaag en gedurende 'n gespanne uur het die Fighting Falls, bereid om haarself te verdedig. Daar was geen vuurwisseling nie, die intelligensie oor die mynlaag is deur kaptein Gay na die vloot oorgedra en die Iraanse skip is daarna deur die vegter van die Amerikaanse vloot onderskep. Niagara waterval het gereeld gedurende hierdie tyd Bahrein, Fujiarah, Muscat en die verpligte Masirah Airhead Evolutions besoek.

Niagara waterval was een van die eerste nie-depot skepe wat vroulike bemanningslede gekry het, te begin met luitenant-kmdt. Carol Rengstorff as uitvoerende beampte. Ongeveer 30 vroulike matrose en offisiere is deel van die Niagara waterval bemanning kort daarna.

Eerste Golfoorlog

Niagara waterval op 16 Januarie 1991 om middernag aan Operation Desert Storm deelgeneem, deur die Straat van Hormuz gegaan en 'n bedryfsgebied aan die noordelike punt van die Persiese Golf, bekend as die 'NAG' of operasionele gebied van die Noord -Arabiese Golf, toegewys, dit was die see oorkant Koeweit wat baie deur die Irak ontgin is voor die aanvang van gevegsoperasies. As gevolg van die beperkte bates van die mynmaatreëls in die Persiese Golf en die operasionele gebied "Fighting Falls", is 'n EODMU -afdeling toegewys. In die loop van die oorlog het die Niagara waterval het self vyf vlootmyne vernietig terwyl hulle in die noordelike Persiese Golf werksaam was.

'N Interessante voorval op 23 Januarie was die sigbare flits van 'n ontploffing wat deur die agteruitkykpunt gerapporteer is, moontlik 'n foutiewe Scud -missiel wat na die Persiese Golf gestuur is.

Op 29 Maart het die Niagara waterval het die M/V bygestaan Mercs Horana wat 'n groot skip aan die brand gesteek het terwyl hy aan die gang was in die Salton See. Die Val het snags aangekom en die bemanning het die ontnugterende beeld van die Horana se bobou volledig verswelg in vlamme, en vier ander koalisie -skepe, waaronder die Shasta en Francis Hammond om die brandende vaartuig. Niagara waterval At-Sea Fire Party is aangesê om gereed te staan ​​om te motorboot, maar die skip van die Commonwealth Coalition wat op die toneel verantwoordelik was, het die mannekrag geweier en versoek dat daar ekstra brandblaasskuim voorsien word.

Vir die skip wat 143 dae in die gevegsgebied deurgebring het, en tussen 17 Januarie – 28 Februarie 1991 noord van 28.30 N en Wes van 49.30 E bedrywig was, het die skip die Combat Action Lint ontvang. In die loop van die oorlog het die Niagara waterval Die belangrikste taak was die USS Missouri's slaggroep, maar sy het ook diens aan die Ranger, die Amphibious Group en die hospitaalskepe. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die Niagara waterval sou hoofsaaklik van Jebel Ali naby Dubai voorsien word, maar daar is ook gestop in Bahrein en Abu Dhabi.

1991–1994

Terwyl hy terugkeer van die Golfoorlog en 'n vryheidsoproep geniet in Phuket, Thailand, toe die vulkaan Mount Pinatubo in die Filippyne uitgebars het. Die Niagara waterval diensbeamptes laai 'n paar winkels in Phuket, terwyl hulle die oproep om die Liberty -hawe vroeg beëindig het, gaan hulle na Singapoer om bykomende voorraad te laai en stoom na Subic Bay, Filippyne, om voedsel en winkels af te laai vir die hulp- en herstelpoging, genaamd Operation Fiery Vigil. Selfs 'n paar dae na die hoofuitbarsting in Subicbaai aangekom, die Val was vinnig bedek met 'n laag as wat herinner aan 'n swaar sneeuval. Vyf bemanningslede is in Phuket agtergelaat en het weer by die skip by haar tuishawe in Guam aangesluit.

Laat 1991 tot vroeg in 1992 het die skip die droogdok binnegekom vir opknapping en opknapping. Dit het die opknapping van die kapasiteit van die vulstasie verbeter deur 'n "arm" by een van die skip se "M" rame te voeg.

In die lente en somer van 1992 het die skip 'n mini-Westpac-vaart geneem deur die suidwestelike Asiatiese hawens van Singapoer, Hong Kong en Japan.

In Augustus 1992 het die tifoon Omar deur die eiland Guam gevee. Die skip was op diens vir die hoofrat en kon nie see toe gaan nie. Die skip is van sy vasmeerlyne geskeur en oor die hoofhawe gevee, 'n brandstofboot getref en uiteindelik op die vlak strand van die strandmeer gestrand. Die skade aan die skip was minimaal, maar haar susterskip, Wit vlaktes, is uit sy vasmeerlyne geskeur en op die harde koraalstrand in die hawe van Apra gestrand.

Sodra dit in werking gestel is, het die Niagara waterval het na die werf van die Yokosuka Naval Base geseil vir verdere herstelwerk en proewe. Die skip keer vroeg in September terug na Guam om sy winkels te laai vir sy volgende implementering. Die skip vertrek einde September 1992 na die Persiese Golf.

Militêre seëlopdrag, 1994–2008

Niagara waterval is in September 1994 ontmantel en opgedra by die Militêre Sealift Command waar sy op 23 September 1994 in diens geneem is as USNS Niagara waterval (T-AFS-3), toegewys aan die Naval Fleet Auxiliary Force.

Op 19 April 1997, terwyl hy 'n VERTREP met Konstellasie een van die Val UH-46E Sea Knight-helikopters het in die see vasgery. Die ongeluk het ongeveer 2 000 seemyl (3,700  km) suidwes van Hawaii plaasgevind en al vier die bemanningslede is veilig gered. Die helikopter-bemanningslede van Helicopter Support Squadron Five is gered deur die vinnige reaksie van ander CH-46 helikopters op die toneel ten tyde van die voorval. 'N Motorwalvisboot was van hulp by die redding Niagara waterval. Die vier bemanningslede, wat aan die besering ontsnap het, is na Konstellasie vir mediese waarneming en is na die Niagara waterval dieselfde dag.

Op 27 November 2001 tree voorsorgbeampte Donald J. O'Brien af ​​by die Militêre Sealift Command aan boord Niagara waterval, dertig jaar na sy uittrede by die Amerikaanse vloot aan boord van dieselfde skip.

Tussen 11 September en 27 November 2001 Niagara waterval het beide haar vloot- en TAR -rekords gebreek vir die aantal palette wat verskuif is, met 'n totaal van 10 743 palette, dubbel die gemiddelde aantal gedurende 'n soortgelyke tydsbestek.

Daar is in April 2003 berig dat Niagara waterval bemanningslid het 'n unieke eksterne metode vir die vervoer van pos tydens VERTREP ontwikkel om die verskille tussen die SH-60 helikopters te oorkom in vergelyking met die ouer, ruimer HH-46 helikopters.

Niagara waterval is op 2 Januarie 2005 uit Guam gestuur ter ondersteuning van Tsunami Relief Operations (Operation Unified Assistance), wat hulpmiddels van Singapoer na die Abraham Lincoln vir verspreiding na die beskadigde gebiede.

Op 27 Oktober 2005 Niagara waterval strand toe hy om 13:00 plaaslike tyd die Malakal -hawe, Palau, vertrek, maar kon homself twee dae later om 16:20 bevry. Daar was geen berigte van beserings of lekkasie uit die skip nie. Oor die tydperk van twee dae het die Niagara waterval brandstof en vrag agter in die skip oorgedra, wat die gewig van die voorste gebied van die skip verminder. Gedurende die middaggety op 29 Oktober kon die skip homself onder eie krag en met die hulp van 'n plaaslike sleepboot bevry.

USNS Niagara waterval het haar laaste sendingondersteuningsoperasie in Julie 2008 voltooi en is in September 2008 by Pearl Harbor gedeaktiveer.

In 2010 is die skip gekies om as 'n teiken gesink te word. [4] [5]

Omstreeks 11:30  vm 14 Julie 2012, Niagara waterval is gesink deur verskeie UTM-84, RGM-84, GBU-10, GBU-32 en 30mm impakte [6] in waters 15.480 voet diep, 63 seemyl suidwes van Kauai as 'n doelskip tydens die 2012 RIMPAC-oefening. [7]


Falls Firsts tydlyn

1678
Die Fransiskaanse monnik en ontdekkingsreisiger Louis Hennepin word die eerste Europese ontdekkingsreisiger wat die watervalle teëkom. Onder die indruk is Hennepin dat die waterval ongelooflik 600 voet hoog is, hoewel dit in werklikheid 170 voet styg.

1846
Die Maid of the Mist, wat nou een van die bekendste toeriste -aantreklikhede in die Niagara -waterval is, maak sy eerste reis as 'n veerboot, en vra 'n fooi om mense, vrag en pos oor die rivier te vervoer. As die voltooiing van 'n brug in 1846 die besigheid begin erodeer, word die Maid of the Mist 'n toerboot wat besoekers naby die Horseshoe -waterval neem.

Maart 1848
Vir die eerste keer in die geskiedenis word die waterval droog as gevolg van sterk westewinde wat water in die Erie -meer hou, benewens 'n yskonfyt wat die rivier naby Buffalo, New York, opdam. Stadsmense verken graag die rivierbedding en die rand van die watervalle en vind onder meer oorblyfsels uit die oorlog van 1812.

Julie 1848
Onder leiding van die ingenieur Charles Ellet word die eerste diensbrug oor die Niagara -kloof voltooi. Sewe jaar later voltooi John Roebling nog 'n hangbrug, met twee vlakke vir vervoer en spoorverkeer. Dit is die eerste hangbrug wat deur draadkabels gehang word om die gewig van 'n trein te dra.

Mei 1857
Frederick Church, wat algemeen beskou word as die eerste skildery wat die skoonheid en krag van die Niagara -waterval voldoende vasgevang het, vertoon sy landskapmeesterstuk, The Great Fall, die eerste keer in New York.

Somer 1859
Jean Francois Gravelet, bekend as die “ The Great Blondin, begin met 'n beroemde reeks toue oor die Niagara -kloof, oor die stroomversnellings, ongeveer 'n kilometer van die waterval af. Die wet lok skares tot 25 000 mense. Blondin slaag selfs daarin om sy bestuurder oor die tou op sy rug te dra.

15 Julie 1885
Die Niagara Reservation State Park word geopen en lok 750,000 besoekers. Dit is die eerste staatspark wat in die Verenigde State gestig is.

11 Julie 1920
Charles Stephens, die eerste man, maar die tweede persoon wat oor die waterval gaan, waai in 'n eikehoutvat van 600 pond. Die krag van die water skeur die vat uitmekaar en Stephens word doodgemaak. Sy regterarm is die enigste deel van hom wat herstel is.

9 Julie 1960
'N Sewejarige seuntjie met die naam Roger Woodward word oor 'n seevaartongeluk gevee. Hy oorleef met slegs geringe beserings en word deur die Maid of the Mist gered. Hy is die eerste persoon wat bekend is om oor die watervalle te gaan sonder enige beskerming en om te oorleef.


Aangedryf deur Rushing Waters

Toe die 19de eeu sy einde nader, het nyweraars gesien dat die opdringerige waters baie waarde het buite toerisme. As die krag van die Niagara -waterval en rsquo -stroom beheer kan word, kan dit gebruik word om nabygeleë meulens en fabrieke aan te dryf.

Meer en meer innoverende en entrepreneuriese gedagtes het die idee ingeneem en toetse begin uitvoer. Daarmee het die wêreld se eerste hidro -elektriese opwekkingstelsel in 1895 ontstaan. 'N Rits fabrieke het om die waterval begin opduik. Een man het veral kennis geneem en gewonder hoe die situasie verbeter kan word. Hy stap op die toneel en neem dinge na die volgende vlak.


Vries van die watervalle

Daar was slegs een voorval waar die vloei van Niagara -watervalle gestaak is weens 'n vries wat op 29 Maart 1848 plaasgevind het. Na 'n uiters koue winter het die dik ys van die Erie -meer begin opbreek tydens 'n warm weer wat het in Maart gebeur. Gevolg deur 'n sterk oostewind, het dit veroorsaak dat die ys in die monding van die Niagara -rivier gevorm het, wat veroorsaak het dat 'n verstopping van water na die Horseshoe -waterval stroom.

As water oor die waterval in die rotse daaronder val, veroorsaak dit dat dit stewig draai en vorm wat bekend staan ​​as die Ice Bridge en die Amerikaanse kant wat die Kanadese kant verbind. Baie jare gelede was die Ice Bridge 'n gewilde toeriste -aantreklikheid, aangesien besoekers op die brug sou vergader en die skoonheid bewonder wat die koue winterweer geskep het. Beide Kanadese en Amerikaanse besoekers sou op die brug bymekaarkom waar hulle vars kos en drank kon geniet terwyl sommige entrepreneurs gedurende hierdie koue tye 'n konsesiestand vir die besoekers opgerig het. Dit was alles totdat 'n ongelukkige ramp op 4 Februarie 1912 plaasgevind het, waar die brug afgebreek het en veroorsaak het dat drie mense in die rivier doodloop. Sedert hierdie voorval plaasgevind het, is dit verbode om op die ysbrug te loop.

Vir die meerderheid winters is dit bekend dat die waterval gedeeltelik vries, al val die waterval nooit heeltemal op die waterval of in die Niagarivier nie. Opvallende jare dat die waterval 'n uitstekende vertoning toon, sluit in die jare 1985, 1902, 1906, 1911, 1932, 1936, 2014 en 2017. Die illusie dat die valle heeltemal vries, is te wyte aan die buitenste deel van die waterval Dit veroorsaak 'n opbou van ys, maar onder die buitenste dop vloei die water teen 'n konstante tempo deur die waterval.


'N Daredevil History of Niagara Falls

1678
Die Fransiskaanse monnik en ontdekkingsreisiger Louis Hennepin word die eerste Europese ontdekkingsreisiger wat die Niagara -waterval teëkom. Onder die indruk is Hennepin dat die waterval ongelooflik 600 voet hoog is, maar dat dit in werklikheid 170 voet styg.

Somer 1859
Jean Fran çois Gravelet-Blondin, bekend as die “Great Blondin, begin met 'n beroemde reeks stropdraaie oor die Niagara-kloof. Die wet lok skares tot 25 000 mense. Blondin kruis op steeds moeiliker maniere, ry fiets, stoot 'n kruiwa en selfs met sy hande en bene in kettings vasgebind. Sy moeilikste kruising vind op 19 Augustus plaas, toe hy dit regkry om sy bestuurder oor die tou op sy rug te dra.

Die Italiaanse koordwandelaar Maria Spelterini steek in Julie 1876 die Niagara -waterval oor.

1867
Maria Spelterina, 'n 23-jarige Italiaanse vrou, word die enigste vrou wat die kloof met 'n tou oorsteek. Op soek na 'n bietjie drama by die gebeure, kruis sy Niagara met geweefde mandjies in plaas van skoene en haar kop bedek met 'n papiersak.

15 Julie 1885
Die Niagara Reservation State Park word geopen en lok 750,000 besoekers. Dit is die eerste staatspark wat in die Verenigde State gestig is.

1887
Twintig jaar na die laaste kruising beweer die Niagara -waterval sy eerste en enigste slagoffer wanneer die lyk van Stephen Peer, 'n plaaslike inwoner van Ontario, ontdek word. Net 'n paar dae tevore het Peer verskeie suksesvolle reise onderneem, en die owerhede bepaal dat hy dood is ná 'n mislukte poging tot 'n nagoorgang.

6 September 1890
Drie jaar na Peer se dood, gebruik Samuel Dixon dieselfde kabel as Peer om verskeie suksesvolle kruisings te maak terwyl hy verskillende stunts uitvoer.

12 Oktober 1892
Toronto ’s Clifford Calverly stel die rekord vir die vinnigste kruising oor die kloof. Hy loop binne 6 minute, 33,5 sekondes, oor 'n staalkabel van 3/4 duim.

Julie 1896
Die 21ste jarige James Hardy voltooi die laaste koordoorgang vir meer as 115 jaar.

24 Oktober 1901
Nie net die eerste vrou nie, maar ook die eerste persoon wat in 'n vat oor die Niagara-waterval gegaan het, Annie Edison Taylor is 'n arm weduwee toe sy in 1901 in die Niagara-waterval aankom. Die 63-jarige (wat beweer dat hy 42 is) sien die stunt as 'n manier om geld te verdien. Nadat sy 'n bestuurder aangestel het, trotseer sy die val in 'n vat wat sy self ontwerp. Sy oorleef, maar die heldin van Horseshoe Falls beland nie met die finansiële meevaller wat sy verwag nie. Sy werk vir 20 jaar as 'n straatverkoper in Niagara en sterf sonder geld.

11 Julie 1920
Charles Stephens, die tweede man wat oor die watervalle gegaan het, spring in 'n eikehoutvat van 600 pond. Die krag van die water skeur die vat uitmekaar, en Stephens word doodgemaak. Sy regterarm is die enigste deel van hom wat herstel is.

4 Julie 1928
Jean Lussier gaan oor die waterval in 'n rubberbal van 6 voet, bedek met suurstof gevulde rubberbuise. Hy oorleef en verdien daarna ekstra geld deur stukke van die bal se rubberbuise te verkoop.

4 Julie 1930
Avonturier George Stathakis gaan oor die valle in 'n 1-ton, 1 ton houtvat. Ongelukkig word die vat van Stathakis en#x2019 vir 14 uur agter die waterval gevang. Met net genoeg lug om vir drie uur te lewe, sterf Stathakis voordat hy gered word, maar sy 105-jarige troeteldierskilpad, Sonny Boy, oorleef die reis.

5 Augustus 1951
Red Hill Jr. trotseer Horseshoe Falls op wat hy noem ”ie ding, ” 'n flou konstrukte vlot gemaak van 13 binnebande wat met tou vasgemaak is en in 'n visnet toegemaak is. Kort na sy duik begin die binnebuise van die vlot na die oppervlak van die rivier spring, maar daar is geen teken van Hill nie. Sy gekneusde liggaam word eers die volgende dag herstel.

27 September 1989
Die Kanadese Peter DeBernardi en Geoffrey Petkovich word die eerste span wat saam die val val, van aangesig tot aangesig in 'n enkele vat toegemaak. Hulle oorleef met ligte beserings.

5 Junie 1990
Jessie Sharp, wat hoop om sy loopbaan as 'n stuntman te bevorder deur oor die Niagara -waterval te gaan, probeer die prestasie in 'n kajak sonder 'n helm of 'n reddingsbaadjie. Sy liggaam word nooit herstel nie.

1 Oktober 1995
Robert Overacker probeer op 'n jetski oor die waterval gaan. Die 15de persoon sedert 1901 wat die prestasie probeer het, oorleef nie.

18 Junie 1995
Steven Trotter en Lori Martin word die eerste man en vrou wat saam in een vat oor die valle gekom het. Sedertdien het die regulerende liggaam wat die watervalle beheer, die Niagara Parks Commission (NPC), geweier om permitte vir stunts uit te reik. Die eerste uitsondering is verleen aan die waaghals Nik Wallenda. In die toekoms is die NPC van plan om vergunnings uit te reik net 'n keer in 'n generasie, of ongeveer elke 20 jaar.


Geskiedenis van die Niagara -waterval

Die geskiedenis van die Niagara -waterval is ryk aan erfenis en interessante feite, van waaghalse wat probeer het om die magtige waterval aan te pak tot elektrifiserende uitvinders soos Nikola Tesla, veral bekend vir sy bydraes tot die ontwerp van die moderne wisselstroom -elektrisiteitstelsel.

Die Niagara -waterval het meer as 12 000 jaar gelede ontstaan ​​aan die einde van die ystydperk toe groot strome water uit die smeltende ys vrygelaat het wat in die Niagarivier afloop. Die water het oor die rand van die Niagara -platorand gedaal tot by wat nou bekend staan ​​as Lewiston, NY. Uiteindelik het die krag van die water die rotslae weggeskeur en die Niagara -waterval stroomop beweeg en die huidige ligging bereik. Jaar na jaar gaan die vorming voort met die jaarlikse vries en ontdooi van die Niagara-rivier, tesame met geleidelike erosie en periodieke rotsstortings. Herstelwerk is voltooi om die watervalle te bewaar, en die hoeveelheid water is verminder deur hidro -elektriese krag.

Inheemse Amerikaners wat in die streek woon, was waarskynlik die eerste mense wat die krag van die Niagara -waterval gesien het. Daarna is die Niagara -waterval ontdek deur die Franse ontdekkingsreisiger, vader Louis Hennepin, in Desember 1678. Die streek het gou 'n Franse vesting geword, aangesien forte by die monding van die Niagara -rivier gebou is, wat die toegang tot die Groot Mere beheer. Die fort is tussen 1926 en 1934 gerestoureer en is tans die huidige ou fort Niagara en 'n vesting uit die 18de eeu wat daaglikse programme bied, insluitend lewendige herontmoetings en demonstrasies die hele jaar deur.

Die waterval self is nie net kragtig nie, maar die stad Niagara was die geboorteplek van hidro -elektriese krag! In 1896 ontwikkel Nikola Tesla die wisselstroomstelsel, wat die oordrag van krag wat langs die Niagara -rivier opgewek is, na huise en besighede moontlik maak. Die Niagara Gorge Discovery Center is bo die terrein van die Schoellkopf -kragstasie geleë, waaruit elektrisiteit eers as 'n handelsware verkoop is. Vandag lewer kragstasies aan die Amerikaanse en Kanadese kant van die waterval byna 2,5 miljoen kilowatt elektrisiteit. Kry krag en verken meer by NYPA en ndash Niagara Power Vista, waar wetenskaplike verkenning wag met praktiese interaktiewe tegnologie, 'n multi-sensoriese 4D-teater en meer.


Niagara Falls AFS -3 - Geskiedenis

'n geskiedenis van groot ongelukke, reddings en tragedies

16 Julie 1853 - drie mans wat aan 'n baggerwaai (vaartuig) werk wat in die Niagara -rivier oos van die bok -eiland geanker was, het besluit om gedurende die middag aan wal te gaan. Die enigste pad na die wal was deur 'n roeiboot te gebruik. Toe die drie mans aan wal begin roei, het hulle gou agtergekom dat die stroom van die water baie sterker was as wat hulle verwag het. Skielik breek een van hul roeispane. Die klein roeibootjie het die stroom van die Amerikaanse kanaal binnegekom en stroomaf gevee. Die roeiboot het omgeslaan. Twee van die mans is oor die rand van die American Falls na hul dood gevee. Die derde man, Samuel Avery, kon 'n paar boomwortels gryp wat uit 'n rots net oos van Chapin -eiland groei. Avery het die nag in die koel vinnig vloeiende water gestrand. Die geluid van die stroomversnelling verhoed dat Avery se gille om hulp gehoor kan word.

Die volgende oggend is Avery se lot deur verskeie toeriste waargeneem. Pogings om Avery te red, het begin. Die aanvanklike pogings het bestaan ​​uit die vrystelling van bote en vlotte van die Bath Island Bridge. None of the craft were able to reach Avery. Finally a boat which was tethered to the Bath Island Bridge was guided downstream and reached Samuel Avery. With little strength left, Avery was able to climb into the boat but the boat immediately capsized throwing Avery back into the turbulent waters. Throwing his hands up in surrender, Avery let out a final scream, fell backwards into the water and was swept to his death over the American Falls

February 4th 1912 - by noon on Sunday, approximately 35 persons were standing on the ice bridge which had formed covering the Niagara River below the Falls each winter. This ice bridge was huge, thick and solid, allowing people to cross the entire width of the Niagara River from Canada to the USA on the surface of the ice rather than using the International Bridges located downstream. Two such persons on this ice bridge were Eldridge Stanton, age 32 and his wife Clara Stanton, age 28, both of Toronto, Ontario. The Stanton's had been married for six years and had come to Niagara Falls twice each year once in summer and once in winter since being married. They had arrived in Niagara Falls on Friday for a winter weekend visit. They strolled hand in hand as they crossed the ice field.

Also on the ice bridge were Ignatius Roth age 17 and Burrell Hecock, age 17, both of Cleveland, Ohio. William "Red" Hill was opening the little refreshment stand he built every year as soon as the ice was thick enough. With him were Monroe Gilbert and William Lablond.

Hecock and Roth were throwing snowballs and playing leapfrog.

Hill suddenly felt a small tremor under his feet. At the same time came a loud groaning sound from the base of the Falls which could be heard over the roar of the distant Falls. Immediately Hill recognized the danger and began running towards the Canadian shore as he shouted for the others to follow him. Lablond, Gilbert and the boys followed Hill. Mr. and Mrs. Stanton turned back towards the American shore.

The ice bridge began heaving up and down as the grinding noises became louder. The ice had began breaking apart. As the Stanton's ran towards the shore, they suddenly stopped a stones-throw width away as the ice separated from the shore and water appeared where the ice once was. As the gap began to widen, the Stanton's were frozen in place by shock for a second before turning and racing for the Canadian shore. As they ran, Clara Stanton began to slow and stumbled to the ice from exhaustion within 50 feet of the Canadian shoreline. Eldridge Stanton tried unsuccessfully to lift his wife. The ice field on which they were standing began to move. Stanton grabbed his wife and tried dragging her as he shouted for help from the men ahead.

Lablond was in waist deep icy water and with the assistance of Hill they pulled Roth to shore and shouted for Hecock to jump to safety. Hecock heard the cries for help from Stanton and turned around. Hecock rushed toward the Stanton's in a desperate attempt to save them. Hecock reached the Stanton's and helped Eldridge lift his wife to her feet. Together they tried to get Clara to shore but the gap between the ice and shore was quickly widening. The three were now stranded as the ice bridge flowed ever quickly downstream.

The ice sheet was swinging wildly. On this ice sheet, the Stanton's and Hecock paced back and forth. Hecock and Eldridge were seen talking while Clara stood holding her husband's hand. As they passed beneath the first of three bridges spanning the Niagara Gorge, the ice sheet seemed to edge towards the American shore. Directly downstream, a hydro-electric station was discharging water into the river. The pressure from this discharge crumbled the nearest edge of the ice forcing the three to the opposite side.

The giant ice sheet broke into two pieces. One half drifted towards the American shore while the other half on which Hecock and the Stanton's stood remained in mid-stream. The first half grounded out against the American shoreline. On each of the two lower bridges located three hundred yards apart, firemen, policemen and railway workers had stationed themselves in order to lower ropes to those stranded as the passed underneath.

Stanton was seen to place his arm around the waist of his wife. About a quarter mile above the rapids, the ice sheet broke in half again, this time separating the Stanton's from Hecock. Hecock waved and shouted something. Stanton returned the salute. Clara crouched down beside her husband. The river current was becoming faster as it neared the rapids.

Hecock's ice sheet remained in mid-stream. Hecock took off his coat in preparation of attempting to grab one of the dangling ropes. As he passed beneath the bridge, Hecock grabbed one of the ropes and swung free of the ice flow he was riding on. Hecock was plunged waist deep into the water as his rescuers attempted to lift him. As he was hoisted 60 feet above the water Hecock lost his grip of the rope and fell into the raging river below. Entering the rapids, Hecock was never seen again.

The Stanton's had watched Hecock's valiant attempts. As the flow swirled under the cantilever bridge, Stanton quickly grabbed the nearest rope and looped it around his wife's waist. As the flow continued and the rope became taunt, it broke. Stanton grabbed another rope as they passed underneath the Lower Bridge. He quickly tied the rope again around his wife's waist but changed his mind and untied the rope, knowing it would be futile. Stanton took his wife in his arms, kissed her and let her down. They both knelt together with his arms around her. The flow remained intact until it reached the giant wave in the rapids and spilled over throwing both into the raging water to their deaths.

August 6th 1918 -

At about 3 p.m. on the afternoon of Tuesday August 6th 1918, a steel sand scow (barge) was engaged in dredging operation in the fast currents on the American side of the Niagara River opposite Port Day at the entrance of the Niagara Falls Power Company hydraulic canal. The scow was being towed by the tug boat - "Hassayampa" being operated by Captain John Wallace. The scow had two deck hands aboard. They were Gustave Loftberg, age 51 and Frank Harris, age 53. The tug and scow were owned and operated by the Great Lakes Dredge and Docks Company. During the operation, the tug suddenly struck a sandbar approximately a mile upriver from the Falls. The taunt rope that held the barge to the tug snapped "like a thin string".

T he powerless and empty barge quickly drifted out of control into the Canadian channel and towards the Horseshoe Falls. Loftberg and Harris were helpless and could do nothing to stop the scow. They were seen trying to slow the swift progress of the scow with the use of makeshift oars but with no success. Although some reports indicate that, they opened the two holes in the bottom of the scow to allow water to enter the barge, they simply had no time. Loftberg and Harris could only hope and pray for a miracle as they faced to see rising mist of the great Horseshoe Falls growing closer by the second. The roar of the Falls echoed in their ears. In a twist of fate, the scow became grounded and became lodged on a rock shoal at 2,500 feet (767m) upriver from the Horseshoe Falls in the shallow but fast moving cascades.

The alarm that the sand scow was being swept towards the Falls with two deck hands aboard spread throughout Niagara Falls, New York and the towns on the Canadian side. Hundreds of people crowded the buildings that lined the shore and the riverbanks to watch the human helplessness and the scow's progress. When the scow grounded it electrified everyone. Hundreds of men made for the point on the Canadian shore nearest the ledge.

Employees of the Toronto Power Company who had watched the scow drifting in the river from the roof of the company building rushed to telephones. Calls were sent to the fire departments in Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario and to the Life Saving Station in Youngstown, New York.

Benjamin Hall of Pennsylvania Street in Niagara Falls, New York witnessed the barge careening out of control through the rapids until it ground in mid stream just off the head of the island. At the urging of Mr. Hall, the Youngstown Life Savers ( United States Coast Guard) were sent for.

Loftberg and Harris began ripping huge timbers from the inside of the barge and were seen throwing some overboard. They were actually building a makeshift windlass (a winch device) in hopes that if a rope line from shore could somehow reach them they would be able to secure the line to the barge in order to hopefully prevent the barge from becoming dislodged and moving any closer to the Falls. A bungled haul would mean the dislodging of the scow.

With sheer determination and with their very lives at stake, Loftberg and Harris completed building the clumsy windlass. The two stranded men could now only wait.

While awaiting rescue, Loftberg, thinking safety tied himself to the barge. Harris, on the other hand tied a rope around himself with the other end tied to a barrel. Harris thought that if the barge broke free, he could jump clear and hope that the barrel got caught up on more rocks.

A rescue boat could not be utilized to rescue the two men because of the distance, the turbulence of the rapids and the proximity to the Horseshoe Falls.

The Niagara Falls Fire Department was the first to arrive at the Power Company Building. They brought with them a small life saving gun. It was carried to the roof of the building. Chief A. H. Newman discharged the gun. The rope rolled out towards the barge. It spun out about 300 feet (91.4m) before falling into the river. A second attempt was made but with the same result. In the meantime an army truck bearing five men from the Life Saving Station in Youngstown and their equipment including a larger gun and longer ropes. The five men were on their way from Fort Niagara at best speed driven by Private Fred Daubney. The truck made the 25 mile trip in 35 minutes.

When the men from the Life Saving Station arrived with a gun capable of firing a lifeline to the scow, they mounted their gun on the roof of the Toronto Power House. The first shot to the scow with a light weight rope was successful shot over the barge. Loftberg and Harris grabbed the rope and began the process of pulling it aboard and connecting it to the windlass. In the meantime, the rescuers tied a much heavier rope to the end of the first rope. Loftberg and Harris began the long struggle of winding the rope in from the power house to the scow. The weight of the heavy rope was being carried downriver by the torrent of water and threatened in itself to dislodge the barge. At a time more than a hundred men on shore were needed to pulled the rope taunt in order to prevent this from happening.

After many hours of labor under terrifying conditions, Loftberg and Harris were able to bring the heavy rope aboard the barge and secure it to the windlass. By this time darkness had arrived.

With nightfall, huge searchlights were erected and trained on the scow and rescue rope. A breeches buoy (a chair like attachment) followed the line but became snarled half way across.

At 3 a.m. on Wednesday August 7th, Red Hill Sr. went out hand over hand along the rope as his body was tugged by the current of the rapids. Red Hill Sr. reached the tangled breech buoy and worked for hours until he was able to untangle it in order to allow the rescue.

With the arrival of dawn, thousands of people crowded the shoreline watching this drama unfold. At 8:30 a.m., Red Hill journeyed out again. This time Hill got within 130 feet (40m) from the scow. From here, he was able to talk to Loftberg and Harris. Hill discovered that one of the small coils of rope on the scow was wound around the big rope from the breeches-buoy, preventing the buoy from getting closer to the scow. Hill tried to shout directions to Loftberg and Harris but both had become so weak that they had difficulty untangling the rope. With Hill giving instructions and the persistence of both crew members, the rope was finally untangled. Hill returned to the roof of the Toronto Power House.

With Charles Possert and Thomas Darrington, both riggers from the Toronto Power Company working the lines, Hill was able to make his way to the stranded scow. Harris, suffering from hunger and exposure was the first removed from the scow to safety. Loftberg followed. It was 10 a.m. by the time Loftberg was brought safely to shore.

William "Red" Hill Sr. was awarded a Carnegie Life Saving Medal for his heroic efforts. The crew of the scow had been rescued without any loss of life.

May 1st 1950 - Two test pilots crawled out of a helicopter which crashed into the Niagara River approximately 300 yards upriver from the brink of the Horseshoe Falls. This helicopter crashed during a rescue attempt to save a woman who had become stranded in the Niagara River approximately 75 feet from the shoreline of Goat Island. The two airmen and the woman were subsequently rescued by boat.

May 14th 1950 - a woman was reported clinging to rocks approximately 75 feet from the Goat Island shoreline in the upper Niagara River approximately 300 yards above the Horseshoe Falls. The woman was identified as Jeanette Bugay, age 25 of Niagara Falls, New York. How Mrs. Bugay came to be stranded was a puzzle which was never solved. Mrs. Bugay had been reported missing by her husband the day before this incident unfolded.

A pontoon equipped Bell 47D1 helicopter from Bell Aerospace Company in Niagara Fall, New York with two test pilots responded to this emergency. Pilot, Owen Niehaus, age 28 of Grand Island, New York and Co-pilot, Joseph Cannon, age 30 of Niagara Falls, New York arrived a short time later.

Hovering over the stranded woman, they attempted an aerial rescue of this woman. With the right side pontoon gingerly resting on a protruding rock, Cannon left the aircraft compartment and crawled onto this pontoon.

While standing on the pontoon and using an attached winch, Cannon was able to tie a rope around the hysterical woman's waist. The sudden movement of Cannon caused the nose of the helicopter to dip into the water. As Niehaus struggled to counter balance the helicopter, a wave struck the pontoon, forcing the tail rotor into the water and crashing onto some rocks. Cannon scrambled back into the cockpit as the helicopter flipped over onto its side a few feet away from the woman. Niehaus and Cannon were able to crawl out of the cockpit and onto the exposed pontoon. The woman who was held in place by the rope was lifted onto the pontoon by Cannon.

Firemen and policemen tried to guide an aluminum boat more than 100 yards downstream from the western tip of the Three Sister Islands however this was unsuccessful. A second helicopter called to the scene when rescue teams were unable to assist those stranded. The second Bell Aerospace helicopter, piloted by William Gallagher, age 29 and co-pilot George White, age 40 dropped a line to one of the stranded air crew. The helicopter then dropped the other end of the rope to the rescue teams on shore. The boat was attached to the second line which was stretched between the shore and the stranded victims. With several volunteers aboard the boat the boat was ferried across the rapids to the victims in a breeches buoy fashion. The boat was hand was guided to the rock. The three victims were able to climb aboard the boat and were pulled to safety over several trips.

According to my Dad he and the woman came over in the first trip of that boat, and Joe Cannon came over to land on the second trip. Owen never mentioned anyone from shore coming out to the helicopter, so I'm pretty sure it was just the folks from the craft in that boat during the two trips, no one else. Also, my dad said that the helicopter flipped upside down. He almost drowned while attempting to release his seat belt. They weren't quick release seat belts like they are today, and with his weight hanging down on it with him upside down it was extremely difficult to get open. Fortunately he succeeded! - Christine Niehaus (daughter) June 22nd 2010

The three victims were taken to St. Mary's Hospital suffering from shock, minor cuts and bruises. They were later released.

The three passenger Bell helicopter which was valued at $25,000 was subsequently salvaged.

June 7th 1956 - Jacob Schoellkopf built his second power plant directly in front of the original plant in 1895. The sides of the gorge were walled in. Behind the walls shafts carried water down the 210 feet to the turbines located just above the water level. Behind these shafts and rear walls of the new plant were old cuts in the rock face which were used during the era of the belt and shaft drive technology. Over the years, water seeping behind the wall had undermined the rock face of the gorge behind the plant.

On the morning of June 7th 1956, workers noticed water seeping into the plant from the back wall. By mid afternoon, the cracks in the rear wall were widening while 40 men worked with sandbags to stem the flow of water.

At 5:00 p.m., the Schoellkopf Power Station sustained a catastrophic collapse which destroyed two-thirds (2/3) of the plant. Six generators capable of producing 322,500 horsepower had been demolished. Damage was estimated at $100 million dollars. The most devastating was the sudden loss of 400,000 kilowatts of power from the power grid.

Suddenly a loud rumble was heard from behind the wall and the wall began to collapse. One of the workers died. Employee, Richard Draper, age 39 of Lewiston was killed. The rest escaped unscathed. The entire southern portion of the plant collapsed into the river below. As the generators blew apart, some debris was propelled to the Canadian side of the gorge.

December 1st 1961 - a U.S. Air Force F-100 Super Sabre Jet crashed and exploded in the Niagara River Gorge, narrowly missing forty workmen on the Queenston - Lewiston Steel Arch Bridge. Pilot Lt. Edward Metlot of New York City ejected from the jet before the crash and landed along the American shoreline.

July 9th 1960 - a seven year old boy named Roger Woodward became the first person to survive a plunge over the Falls without a barrel. Woodward and his 17 year old sister Deanne, both of Niagara Falls, New York set out that day on a harmless boat ride on the upper Niagara River with family friend James Honeycutt.

Honeycutt , age 40 years, of Raleigh, North Carolina, was a contractor at the Niagara Parks Commission hydro project. He had often taken the Woodward children out for a boat ride on his fourteen foot long aluminum boat with a seven and a half horsepower outboard motor. Mr. & Mrs. Frank Woodward trusted Honeycutt completely.

Honeycutt and the Woodward children began the boat ride about five miles upstream of the Falls where Honeycutt was living in a house trailer at the Lynch Trailer camp along the American shoreline.Approximately one mile upstream of the Horseshoe Falls, Honeycutt began to turn the boat in the opposite direction when the boat motor malfunctioned and quit running. On examining the engine, Honeycutt discovered that the propeller pin had sheared off. Honeycutt began rowing frantically towards the shore but the current was carrying the boat ever so quickly towards the Falls. Honeycutt ordered the Woodward children to put on their life-preservers. Honeycutt was too busy rowing to have time to put his life-preserver on.

Near the Falls the waves capsized the boat separating Deanne from her brother Roger and Mr. Honeycutt. Deanne held onto the side of the boat until a wave forced her under water. When she surfaced, she saw two men standing on the shore. John Hayes, age 44 years, a truck driver from Voxhall, New Jersey was visiting Terrapin Point on Goat Island when he saw Deanne in the water. Hayes grabbed Deanne by her fingers and called for help. John Quattrochi, age 39 years, a tourist from Pennsgrove, New Jersey came to help Hayes. Both men successfully pulled Deanne from the water.

Roger Woodward was in Honeycutt's arms as they approached the Horseshoe Falls. The raging water pulled them apart as they rode over the crest of the Falls. Roger Woodward was wearing swimming trunks and a pair of running shoes. The shoes were ripped from his feet on his way down the cascade. Woodward was forced into the 180 foot deep water at the base of the Falls but was quickly freed where he floated to the surface. It was 12:55 p.m., when the crew of the Maid of the Mist spotted tiny Roger Woodward bobbing up and down in the water. Captain Clifford Keech was at the wheel of the 270 foot long Maid of the Mist II. After eight minutes and three approaches to rescue Roger Woodward by using a life ring.Roger Woodward was taken to the Greater Niagara General Hospital in Niagara Falls, Ontario. He sustained only minor cuts and bruises. Deanne Woodward was taken to Memorial Hospital in Niagara Falls, New York suffering from nothing more than shock.

James Honeycutt was battered and drowned.

February 11th 1963 - a light airplane crashes in a field above Dufferin Islands approximately 300 yards from the Niagara River. Four American men were killed instantly. The men, from Niagara Falls, New York had taken off at 10 a.m. from the St. Catharines - Niagara District Airport in a single engine Piper Tri-Pacer aircraft only a short time before crashing. The crash was subsequently determined to have been caused by structural failure of the main spar of the left wing.

April 24th 1966 - the Ontario Hydro icebreaker "Niagara Queen" with a crew of three men operating on the upper Niagara River in a blinding fog ran aground on a shoal near Tower Island (end of the International Water Control Dam). In order to rescue the icebreaker and it's crew, a twelve passenger Sikorski helicopter was brought in to drop a lifeline to the stranded boat. The Niagara Queen was then able to be towed to safety by an American icebreaker employed by the New York State Power Authority.

August 5th 1969 - an American sightseeing helicopter of Prior Aviation operating from Goat Island crashed at 3:40 p.m. into the upper Niagara River approximately 180 feet above the hydro control dam.

The pilot and two passengers were killed. The pilot was identified as Edward Horning, age 30 of East Aurora New York. The dead passengers were Louis Episcopo, age 53 and his companion Fillomena Pescatore, age 56, both from New Jersey.

Following the crash, the bodies of both passengers floated free from the wreckage and were swept downstream. The mangled helicopter containing the body of Horning was swept through one of the hydro control dam gates before grounding approximately 100 yards downstream, approximately 50 feet from the Canadian shore in 7 feet of calm water.

Two Bell Aerospace test pilots: Richard Carlin and Ernest Panapinto responded to an emergency call. They were able to swim out to the wreckage and recover the body of Horning. The body of Pescatore was immediately recovered from the river along the shoreline by Ontario Hydro employees. The body of Episcopo was recovered several days later at the base of the Horseshoe Falls.

The cause of the crash was attributed to engine failure brought on by fuel starvation (no/low gas). Witnesses reported that the doomed helicopter was only 200 feet above the surface of the Niagara River when its engine quit functioning. Witnesses saw Horning who appeared to be struggling to control the helicopter while the passengers appeared to be bracing themselves for a crash-landing.

Edward Horning was an experienced pilot with over 2,400 hours flying time as a pilot in the U.S. Navy.

July 26th 1972 - at 10:30 a.m., six passengers and two crew members riding on a thirty-five foot long nylon and rubber raft were thrown into the wild churning waters of the Whirlpool Rapids after hitting a rogue wave. The raft overturned throwing the eight people into the water. The Whirlpool Rapids attains a speed of approximately thirty miles per hour. All passengers and crew were wearing life preservers were whisked into the Whirlpool at the end of the rapids where they were rescued by a second raft which was followed the first through the rapids. Both rafts had been outfitted with 25 horsepower outboard motors but were no match for the mighty rapids. Trial runs through the rapids on May 23rd and May 25th satisfied the owners that the motors had sufficient power to control the raft. The rafts were owned by Niagara White Water Tours, a company formed George Grider and William Wendell, both executives of the Carborundum Company of Niagara Falls, New York The company was planning regular five mile raft trips through the Niagara River rapids to Lewiston, New York.

October 7th 1973 - at 3:30 p.m., four people were in a boat on the upper Niagara River approximately 200 yards from the Goat Island shoreline when the outboard motor struck a rock and quit functioning. The boat drifted towards the Horseshoe Falls. The three adults climbed out of the boat and stood in the shallow rapids as the boat continued over the Falls. The adult female was holding an infant in her arms. They were identified as Lee Switzer, Jerry Land, Joanne Horn and her 18 month old infant son. They remained stranded until help arrived.

In an attempt to effect a rescue, a sightseeing helicopter piloted by Dale Hartman and carrying two police officers: Sergeant Joseph Boyd and Officer James MacNeil attempted an aerial rescue. As the helicopter hovered above those stranded, the policemen crawled out of the cockpit onto the landing skids in an attempt to effect the rescue. One of the stranded men grabbed onto one of the struts causing the helicopter to tilt onto its side allowing the main rotor to strike the water. The helicopter burst into flames. Miraculously no one was seriously injured. Now the lives of eight persons were in jeopardy as they remained stranded.

The New York State Parks Police dispatched their boat with three police officers. Sergeant Lyse Newberry, Lieutenant Joseph DeMarco and Officer Anthony Larratta in a second rescue attempt, piloted a police boat into the rapids but immediately became stranded when the propeller of their outboard motor broke. Larratta and DeMarco jumped out of the boat and swam through the strong current to the stranded helicopter. Sergeant Newberry was swept down river in the boat to within one thousand feet of the brink of the Falls before jumping for his life. Newberry was able to grab a hold of a tree extending from Solon Island. Other officers forming a human chain pulled him to shore. Nearly two and a half hours after being stranded, the nine stranded people were able to walk to shore after safety ropes were sent to them by using a breeches buoy type gun. Ultimately everyone was rescued with little or no injury.

August 29th 1975 - a thirty-seven foot long air inflated rubber and nylon raft belonging to Niagara Gorge River Trips Inc. (owned by George Butterfield of Toronto) carrying twenty-seven tourist and two pilots capsized in the Whirlpool Rapids throwing everyone into the wild churning white water. Three passengers died from drowning. Twenty-six survived this ordeal. The accident occurred during the 11th trial run of this raft tour through the Niagara River rapids. The raft had departed from the Maid of the Mist dock at the base of the Prospect Point Tower and was about two mile downstream of a five mile route to Lewiston, New York. The three dead persons were identified as: Julia Martinez, age 30 of Toronto David Ross, age 37 of Toronto and Anthony Sawczyk, age 24 of Niagara Falls, New York. Three of the survivors were admitted to the Niagara Falls Memorial Medical Center with serious injuries. Each of the passengers had paid fee of $20 for this journey. The youngest passenger was 16 years old and the oldest was 52 years old. Four of the passengers were women.

To further add to this tragedy, one man, piloting a 22 foot - 250 horsepower jet boat died of a heart attack while attempting to recover this raft from the Whirlpool

Niagara Gorge River Trips Inc. was the predecessor of the now defunct White Water Tour Company which pioneered white water rafting in the Niagara River with near tragic consequences. In July of 1972, during a trail run, six passengers were thrown into the water of the Whirlpool Rapids. On August 5th 1972, during its maiden commercial voyage, a pontoon broke away from the raft and a passenger was plunged into the rapids. On August 13th 1972, seven people riding through the Whirlpool Rapids were thrown overboard. Luckily no fatalities were reported. The company ceased operations on August 13th 1972.

January 10th 1978 - an equipment barge drifted away from a plant in Tonawanda, New York. The barge drifted downstream becoming grounded approximately 200 yards above the Horseshoe Falls. The barge owners, Simms and Associates were able to salvage the barge.

May 31st 1989 - a sightseeing helicopter owned and operated by Rainbow Helicopters of Niagara Falls, New York took off from its heliport adjacent to the Howard Johnson's Motor Lodge near the Rainbow Bridge. Pilot Mark David Felderstein, age 25 was flying with three passengers aboard: Louis Clements , age 47 of the State of Georgia and his wife , Mildred Clements, age 45 of Brockton, Massachusetts and their daughter Lisa Clements, age 24 of Quincy, Massachusetts. As Felderstein piloted his aircraft northward along the length of the Niagara Gorge, the helicopter's landing rails on its undercarriage struck the wire cables of the Spanish Aero Car which extend across the entire width of the Whirlpool.

The landing rails on the helicopter were torn away. The helicopter narrowly missed colliding with the Aero Car which was crossing the Whirlpool at the time and carrying 17 persons. None of the Aero Car occupants were injured. The Aero Car cables remained intact and sustained no substantive damage.

Narrowly escaping one catastrophic event, Felderstein and his passengers were facing a crash landing without landing gear. Felderstein was able to control the helicopter and maneuvered it to the 10th hole of the Whirlpool Gold Course adjacent to the Whirlpool.

In order to ensure the safety of his passengers and fearing the helicopter would roll over upon landing, Felderstein hovered his helicopter several feet off the ground at full power. On the instructions of Felderstein, the three passengers were able to jump to the ground from the stricken aircraft and run to a safe distance to the front before Felderstein attempted this dangerous landing.

Mark Felderstein gently lowered his helicopter onto the golf course to a safe landing with no injuries to he or his passengers and with minimal damage to the aircraft.

Although there was much to be said about the low level flight of this helicopter, regulations at that time allowed for a minimum height of only 500 feet over undeveloped areas such as the Niagara River gorge.

September 29th 1992 - on Tuesday at 12:19 p.m., four persons were killed as two sightseeing helicopters collided in mid-air.

The collision took place in Canadian air space approximately 100 meters (330 feet) west of the Horseshoe falls in front of the Minolta Tower and Incline Railway. The weather was crisp and clear. Wind wasn't a factor.

Two men and two woman aboard the American sightseeing helicopter owned and operated by Rainbow Helicopters of Niagara Falls, New York died. The American helicopter, a bright red Hughes 500E, was piloted by Ben Porawski, age 43 of Kendall, New York. Porawski had worked for Rainbow Helicopters for fifteen months. He was an experienced pilot with service in the Marines and U.S. Army.

Rainbow Helicopters was based at a heliport located at 454 Main Street, Niagara Falls, New York, adjacent to the Howard Johnson Motor Lodge.

Niagara Helicopters Limited operated from a heliport located on River Road at Victoria Avenue in Niagara Falls, Ontario.

The Canadian helicopter, a Bell Jet Ranger i206 which was owned by Niagara Helicopters Limited was being piloted by Rodolfo DeCastro, age 42 of Niagara Falls, Ontario. He was carrying four Spanish speaking passengers identified as Ana Torredemer Morcet, age 33 of Barcelona, Spain Anna Maria Espinosa Equizabel, age 60 of Madrid, Spain: her husband, Carmen Estefania Garcia, age 64 of Madrid, Spain and Santiago Grau Carci, age 39 of Barcelona, Spain.

DeCastro was an experienced pilot and a veteran of the Phillipine Air Force.

Following the collision, DeCastro was able to bring his badly damaged aircraft to a safe landing in the parking lot of Marineland located approximately 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) from the crash scene.

Witness, Michael Folemsbee, a six year Niagara Parks employee described the crash as "one helicopter passed over the other and its wheels smashed off the tail of the other".

The American helicopter dropped from the sky like a stone following the collision. It was missing its tail section and main rotor. The cockpit compartment crashed into the base of the moraine beside the Incline Railway. The occupants died on impact with the ground. The bodies of the victims remained in the tangled wreckage until they were removed at approximately 8:55 p.m. that evening. The dead passengers were: Amnon Sarfate, age 26 of Brooklyn, New York his fianc e, Esther Zarian age 23 of Brooklyn, New York and Orna Levy, age 19 of Queens, New York.

The victims had come to Niagara Falls for a short visit with two other family members. Sadly, Amnon's sister, Nimrod Sarfate and Zarion's sister, Genya Zarion who remained on the ground both witnessed the crash that took the lives of their family members.

Folemsbee further described the collision as "it appeared the American was flying toward the Falls and the Canadian was flying away towards the escarpment".

The Bell Jet Ranger helicopter features a seven foot cockpit/cabin, carries four passengers and a maximum load of 3,208 pounds. The Hughes helicopter was smaller and could carry four occupants.

The crash was investigated by the Canadian Transport Safety Board. The cause of the crash wasn't immediately determined. Preliminary reports indicated that the American helicopter came up beneath the Canadian helicopter and that the entire right front of the cockpit/passenger compartment on the Canadian helicopter was heavily damaged. According the DeCastro, the American helicopter actually struck DeCastro's shoulder and nearly pulled him out of his pilot seat. Only DeCastro's seat belt prevented this.

On February 8th 1994, sixteen months after the crash, the Canadian Transport Safety Board issued a thirty page report on the cause of this accident. The Board ruled that no one was to blame because neither helicopter pilot saw each other in time to avoid this collision. The Board found that both helicopters were operating on a flight path which took them within a 200 foot altitude separation. The American helicopter was overtaking the Canadian helicopter from below when the main rotor blades of each helicopter made contact with each other. Part of the main rotor on the American helicopter was severed. The tail and tail rotor of the American helicopter made contact with the right front of the Canadian helicopter. The tail portion of the American helicopter was severed by the main rotor of the Canadian helicopter.

The Canadian helicopter was operating at 2,500 feet while the American helicopter was operating at 2,183 feet (183 feet above Rainbow Helicopters maximum ceiling).

Existing rules at the time of this accident allowed helicopters to circle over the Falls at a height of 610 - 670 meters (2,000 - 2,200 feet).


When Niagara Falls Ran Dry

Niagara Falls has seen plenty of dramatic stunts over the centuries, ever since a local hotel owner sent a condemned ship with a “cargo of ferocious animals” over the falls in 1827. (Only the goose survived the plunge.) But no feat has attracted more visitors than a scientific survey conducted in 1969. That year, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers turned off American Falls. The engineers wanted to find a way to remove the unseemly boulders that had piled up at its base since 1931, cutting the height of the falls in half. But the study itself proved more appealing than any improvement they could recommend. The first weekend after the “dewatering,” about 100,000 people showed up to see this natural wonder without its liquid veil.

The performance will have an encore at some point in the coming years when New York State once again dewaters American Falls. The purpose this time is more pedestrian—to replace two bridges—but the process will be the same. Engineers will construct a dam between the American bank of the Niagara River and the eastern tip of Goat Island, stopping the flow of water—nearly 76,000 gallons every second—over the 11-story drop.

Will crowds show up this time? Photos from 1969 suggest the bedrock is nothing special to behold. Without water, American Falls is merely a cliff. And yet the spectacle fulfills a fantasy older than the American nation: human mastery over nature. To sap the falls completely would seem to be the ultimate triumph—but, in fact, Niagara Falls was long ago brought to heel.

The falls—American Falls, Horseshoe Falls and the small Bridal Veil Falls—formed some 12,000 years ago, when water from Lake Erie carved a channel to Lake Ontario. The name Niagara came from “Onguiaahra,” as the area was known in the language of the Iroquois people who settled there originally. After the French explorer Samuel de Champlain described the falls in 1604, word of the magnificent sight spread through Europe.

A visit to Niagara Falls was practically a religious experience. “When I felt how near to my Creator I was standing,” Charles Dickens wrote in 1842, “the first effect, and the enduring one—instant lasting—of the tremendous spectacle, was Peace.” Alexis de Tocqueville described a “profound and terrifying obscurity” on his visit in 1831, but he also recognized that the falls were not as invincible as they seemed. “Hasten,” Tocqueville urged a friend in a letter, or “your Niagara will have been spoiled for you.”

An early 1900s postcard shows American Falls as it looked before two massive rock slides. (New York Public Library)

To many, these cataracts were not natural wonders but natural resources. When Tocqueville visited, factories already encroached on the water’s edge. In 1894, King C. Gillette, the future razor magnate, predicted Niagara Falls could become part of a city called Metropolis with 60 million people. A few years later, Nikola Tesla designed one of the first hydroelectric plants near the falls. He saw it as a high point in human history: “It signifies the subjugation of natural forces to the service of man.”

Niagara Falls today is the result of the push and pull of exploitation and preservation. The Free Niagara Movement successfully lobbied to create a park around the site in the 1880s, but the changes continued. In 1950, the United States and Canada decided to divert 50 percent of the water from Niagara Falls through underwater tunnels to hydroelectric turbines during peak tourist hours. At night, the water flow over the falls is cut in half again. (Engineers manipulate the flow using 18 gates upstream.)

The historian Daniel Macfarlane has called the modern falls “a completely man-made and artificial cataract.” Ironically, this has maintained them as a tourist attraction. People want to see the image they recognize from postcards, but the Niagara Falls, left to its own devices, is one of the fastest-eroding falls in the world. It has moved seven miles since it formed the diversion of water has helped reduce the rate of erosion by more than 85 percent.

The engineers who built the diversion tunnels also made several modifications to the actual falls. They excavated both edges of Horseshoe Falls to create a visually pleasing crest. The 1969 dewatering was another aesthetic intervention, but the engineers decided, surprisingly, to leave the fallen boulders alone. “Recent emphasis on environmental values has raised questions about changing natural conditions even for demonstrated natural and measurable social benefits,” they wrote in their final report.

At some point, the United States and Canada will face the same dilemma again: Do they intervene to maintain the falls or let natural processes unfold? Even with the decreased rate of deterioration, the falls regress a little every year. In about 15,000 years, the cliff edge will reach a riverbed of soft shale—and then Nature will upstage any human efforts. Niagara Falls will crumble and irrevocably disappear.