Inligting

Die Wilde Bos


Op 24 Junie 1889 het Butch Cassidy, Tom McCarty en Matt Warner die San Miguel Valley Bank omhoog gehou. Oor die volgende paar jaar het Cassidy se bende banke in Idaho beroof. Die bende het uiteindelik na die Robbers 'Roost in Utah ontsnap. Cassidy het nou 'n nuwe bende gevorm wat bekend geword het as die Wild Bunch. Dit sluit in Harry Longbaugh (the Sundance Kid), Ben Kilpatrick, Harvey Logan, William Carver, George Curry, Laura Bullion, Elza Lay en Bob Meeks.

Die naam Wild Bunch was misleidend, aangesien Cassidy altyd probeer vermy het dat sy bende mense tydens rooftogte seermaak. Sy bende is ook beveel om op die perde te skiet, eerder as op die ruiters, as hulle agtervolg word. Cassidy het altyd trots gespog dat hy nog nooit 'n man vermoor het nie. Die naam kom eintlik van die luidrugtige manier waarop hulle hul geld bestee het na 'n suksesvolle rooftog.

Op 2 Junie 1899 het Cassidy, Curry, Logan en Lay deelgeneem aan die uiters suksesvolle Union Pacific -treinonderhoud in Wilcox, Wyoming. Nadat hy $ 30,000 gesteel het, het die bende na New Mexico gevlug. Op 29 Augustus 1900 het Cassidy, met die Sundance Kid, Logan en Carver, die Union Pacific -trein in Tipton, Wyoming, opgehou. Dit is gevolg deur 'n klopjag op die First National Bank of Winnemucca, Nevada (19 September 1900), wat $ 32,640 behaal het. Die jaar daarna het die bende $ 65 000 verkry uit die Great Northern -trein naby Wagner, Montana.

George Curry is op 17 April 1900 deur die balju Jesse Tyler vermoor. Die jaar daarna is William Carver en Ben Kilpatrick in 'n hinderlaag deur die balju Elijah Briant en sy afgevaardigdes in Sonora, Texas. Drie uur later sterf Carver aan sy wonde. Kilpatrick het ontsnap, maar hy is gevange geneem in St Louis saam met 'n ander bendelid, Laura Bullion, op 8 November 1901. Kilpatrick is skuldig bevind aan roof en is tot 15 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis. 'N Ander bendelid, Harvey Logan, is op 15 Desember 1901 gevange geneem.

Butch Cassidy en die Sundance Kid het begin dink dat 'n outlaw in Amerika te gevaarlik word en in 1902 besluit om 'n nuwe lewe in Suid -Amerika te begin.


The Wild Bunch: The Truth About These American Outlaws

Die waarheid oor The Wild Bunch kan verwarrend wees. Wat, as u daaraan nadink, dalk net is soos hulle dit sou wou hê. Van Sam Peckinpah Die Wilde Bos, wat in 1913 afspeel, is 'n film uit 1969 oor die dood van die American Frontier, maar dit het niks met geskiedenis te doen nie. So ons spring vorentoe.

Butch Cassidy het gehardloop met 'n groep wat soms 'The Wild Bunch' genoem word. Hulle was in die laat 1890's min of meer gesentreer in Wyoming, hoewel hulle in Idaho en Nevada misdaad kon pleeg, en wie weet waar anders. Cassidy se skare was eintlik nie 'n bende wat meer soos 'n los konfederasie was nie, en die naam is soortgelyk aan koerantverslaggewers wat 'n pakkende handvatsel probeer vind oor die misdade wat gepleeg word. Cassidy sou saam met die Sundance Kid (en die wonderlike film uit 1969 van George Roy Hill) en hul landgenote wegkruip in 'n berggebied van Wyoming genaamd Hole-in-the-Wall-basies 'n bergvesting, maklik verdedigbaar teen wetstoepassing , water en weiding vir die beeste wat hulle gesteel het, 'n veilige plek om die harde Westerse winters uit te ry. Soms was dit Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch, en soms was dit The Hole-in-the-Wall Gang.


The Wild Bunch - Geskiedenis

Born To Be Wild
Die oorspronklike begin van die outlaw -deurslapers van vandag
Geskryf deur Bobby Bennett Foto's deur Francis Butler en Brian Wood
Met vergunning van Competition Plus

Hulle het hul neus toegedruk by die vestiging en die toneel gedek vir die deurslaaprenne van vandag

Die blote idee om superaangedrewe, alkoholverbrandende enjins binne die grense van 'n voldeurde deurram te veranker, was 'n praktyk wat as volatiel beskryf word, maar dit het nie 'n toegewyde groep opwindende soekers verhinder om die gejaag na te jaag nie. Hul selfaangestelde naam, die wilde bos, was 'n akkurate beskrywing van die beeld wat hulle oorgedra het. Hoe anders kan u 'n groep verduidelik wat dit waag om 'n geblaasde, alkoholverbrande motor in 'n Chevy Luv-vragmotor, 'n Nissan 300 ZX vas te steek, of as dit nie radikaal genoeg is nie, 'n Jeep CJ-5?

"Ons het twee doele gehad toe ons na Atco gegaan het. Ons wou die eerste ses tweede lopies behaal, en ons wou ook die nitrous ouens kwaad maak. Ek sou sê ons het op beide tellings geslaag". Camp Stanley, voormalige lid van die Wild Bunch en bemanningshoof van Tommy Howes

Wat begin het as 'n groep ouens wat verkies om anders te wees in hakiesrenne, het vinnig ontwikkel tot 'n winsgewende wedstrydrenbaan en die inspirasie vir die Top Doorslammer -klas in Australië. Hulle beste uur het gelei tot die eerste ses-sekonde deurslammerpas in die drag racing geskiedenis.

Hulle onvoorspelbare aard het hulle 'n onmiddellike treffer gemaak vir die ondersteuners in die Mid-Atlantiese streek van die Verenigde State sowel as die res van die land. Nie net dit nie, hulle manewales het ook groot hoeveelhede publisiteit in die verskillende drag racing -tydskrifte tot gevolg gehad.

Daardie dae is nou vir baie 'n verre herinnering, maar vir Dave Wallace is die herinneringe baie lewendig.

'Hulle het my herinner aan die ou dae van die Funny Cars and the Gas Supercharged,' verduidelik Wallace, voormalige redakteur van Petersen's Drag Racing Magazine. "Ek het nog altyd gehou van deurslammers en dit het 'n interessante evolusie gebied. Die vroeë motors soos die" Wild Bunch "was regte motors met wielbasis en so. Hulle was onbeskof, oorweldig en onvoorspelbaar.

Daar was niemand soos Camp Stanley se geblaasde Chevy Luv -vragmotor nie. "Almal wat in die skou ingekom het, het 'n kans gehad om te wen omdat die motors so onvoorspelbaar was. Namate meer motors in die vou kom, het die aansporing om die eerste in die sesse te wees, gelei aan meer gevorderde renmotors. Die Wild Bunch was die naaste aan die Ooskus aan die Bob Bunker- en Dave Riolo -motors wat ons aan die Weskus gehad het. Daar was regtig nie 'n klas vir hierdie soort motors nie. Elke keer 'n klas of 'n 'n kring soos die wilde bos kom uit die gewilde aanvraag van die aanhangers, dit is regtig iets om van kennis te neem. vir die hoeke soos dit voorsien is.

'Dit was asof elke snit 'n stel vinnige helde het,' het Wallace voortgegaan. "Die ouens het hul vinnige helde georganiseer. Daar was geen plek vir hulle om te hardloop nie. Hulle was rassiste. Dit is 'n gawe ding. Pro Modified kom uit hakieswedrenne en so ook die Wild Bunch. Dit is direk waar dit vandaan kom. Dit was vinnig hakiesmotors wat so vinnig geraak het dat hulle met wedrenne begin het. "

Hoe ironies dat ons die term wedstrydwedrenne moet noem, met inagneming van 'n skedulering wat gelei het tot die stigting van die groep. Kom ons draai die tyd terug na die laat sewentigerjare by Maryland International Raceway.

Gedurende daardie era was die baan onder leiding van Tod Mack, 'n individu wat eens bekend was as die eerste Amerikaanse motorrenpromotor wat Para wedersydse weddery op die Maryland International Raceway gedurende die middel sewentigerjare aangebied het.

Mack het daarin geslaag om hom op 'n Saterdagaand vertoning te kry nadat hy 'n vliegtuigvertoning bespreek en adverteer het, net om een ​​van die spanne op die 11de uur te laat kanselleer. Omdat hy geweet het dat hy 'n redelike plaasvervanger nodig het, het Mack 'n draai gemaak deur die Super Pro-baanbane in die hoop om 'n geskikte plaasvervanger te vind wat pas by die legendariese Roger Gustin se Monza Jet-aangedrewe Funny Car. Op hierdie punt in die spel was Mack se doel om iemand te vind om die vertoning te red. Hy het 'n paar duisend aanhangers uit die DC-gebied gehad wat hy daardie aand moes verantwoord.

Die enigste motor wat sy aandag getrek het, behoort aan 'n voormalige renjaer en rekordhouer van die NHRA, genaamd Tommy "The Who" Howes. Howes het 'n vroeë model Camaro bestuur met 'n 6-71 GMC-aanjaer wat deur die enjinkap steek.

Hy was altyd 'n sakeman, maar hy het die idee gehad of die prys reg is. Aangesien nie Howes of Mack 'n idee gehad het van wat 'n billike prys is nie, is die vraag gevra oor hoeveel geld Super Pro betaal. Mack het $ 300 geantwoord, so Howes het ingestem om teen die vliegtuig teen die prys te hardloop.

Mack se waagstuk was meer as wat hy bedink het. Howes se gestremdheid van twee sekondes was nie naastenby genoeg om 'n voorsprong te kry om die skepping van Gustin se mega-perdekrag af te weer nie, maar die improvisasie het vir 'n goeie vertoning gesorg en die skare was mal daaroor.

Nie lank daarna nie, bespreek Mack Howes om wedstryde by MIR en sy ander baan in Colonial Beach aan te bied teen verskeie ander supercharged -inskrywings. Namate die woord oor hierdie groep, wat nou "The Wild Bunch" genoem word, versprei het, het hulle uitgebrei in omvang en besprekingsreeks. Teen 1984 het hulle byna 24 datums gehad, wat wissel van Kanada tot Georgië. Howes, saam met die tweedejaarse Bunch-lid, Camp Stanley, het 'n reputasie ontwikkel as 'n paar van die slegste deurslapers in die land.

Denny Brightwell se Camaro was ook 'n speler in die groep. "Ek was nie in die oorspronklike eerste groep nie," verduidelik Stanley. "Ons was in die middel van 'n resessie van die Jimmy Carter, byna 'n depressie. Tommy Howes, ek en Nelson Grimes was 'n groot blok, alkohol -deurslammers.

Ek kon nie jaag op die skaal wat ek wou nie, en ek het my renmotor in 'n straatvoertuig verander. In 1980 en 1981 het ek daardie motor op straat gehad.

'Die uiteinde van die hele transaksie, om 'n lyn van Aussies te steel, was om gatte in die sitplekke te sit,' het Stanley voortgegaan. "Elmer (Wachter) se Jeep en my Luv Truck was voorbeelde van wat ons gedink het nodig was om aandag te trek en borge te lok. Almal kon 'n Camaro gehad het." 'N Mens sou wonder wat die meer onstabiele was, die motors of die bestuurders. Wallace het daarop gewys dat die Wild Bunch die beste in 'n bestuurder gebring het.

'Ek dink hulle was baie talentvol,' verduidelik Wallace. "Die motors was uit hul aard redelik onstabiel. Hulle het almal as regte motors begin. Terwyl hulle verander het in buisraam-motors, was hulle redelik ru.

Vir die asafstand, wat voorraad was, en so hoog as wat hulle sit, het hulle wielstande gedoen en neergestort en was baie opwindend. Die bestuurders was in staat. Daar was nie sulke motors met die hoë perdekrag met deure daarop nie. ”

The Wild Bunch het baanbrekers 'n winskopie aangebied tydens 'n era toe die superster -brandstofmotors bykans 'n prys van $ 10 000 beloop het en dit miskien twee lopies opgelewer het.

Vir die klein tot medium snitte bied die "Wild Bunch" die winskopie van die eeu vir byna $ 4000 (afhangende van die ligging) vir die hele groep. Hierdie groep was allesbehalwe koekiedrukker.

Howes het lankal in sy Camaro ruil vir 'n Datsun Z-motor. Ander het by die groep aangesluit, waaronder die voormalige IHRA Funny Car -kampioen, Scott Weney, agter die stuur van 'n AA/Altered roadster. Toe die opmerking gemaak word dat daar nie 'n enkele Ford in die Wild Bunch was nie, het Stanley die saak in eie hande geneem. Sy skepping pas perfek by die persona, 'n geblaasde Tauruswa.

"Die Wagon gaan eintlik terug na Jim McGraw toe hy by Super Stock en Drag Illustrated was," het Stanley gesê. "Hy het die vraag gevra waarom daar nie Fords in die Wild Bunch was nie. Die gesprek het plaasgevind in Bob Rizzolo se RCD Performance, die een wat my motors sowel as Tommy Howes se motors gebou het. Iemand het die idee gekry om 'n Taurus -wa. McGraw het met Ford Motorsports in aanraking gekom en hulle het die lyk in wit aan my verkoop.

Die oorspronklike lid van die Wild Bunch was Tommy Howes, wat uiteindelik met hierdie 300 ZX na die eerste ses-sekonde ren in die geskiedenis van deurslammers gery het. het met 'n haelgeweer Ford geëksperimenteer en daar was 'n tydstip dat Dale Armstrong sy bemanningshoof was. Hulle het gevoel dat daar 'n potensiaal was in 'n gewapende haelgeweer Ford met nitro. Hulle het die projek van kant gemaak en iemand het vir my gesê dat hy dit vir Ek het hom gebel en 'n ooreenkoms aangegaan en toe my duallie na Indy geneem en dit alles gelaai. "

Kort daarna het die Wild Bunch -aantrekkingskrag internasionaal geword, en wat sou 'n beter plek wees as Australië? 'N Besoeker uit die Aussie -land was getuie van die groeploop en het geweet dat daar potensiaal is vir die groep in sy geboorteland.

"Dennis Syrmis, een van die eienaars en operateurs van Willowbank Raceway in Brisbane het die idee daar afgeneem," het Stanley gesê. "Hy was op 75-80 Dragway in Maryland toe ek en Tommy in hierdie motors was. Hy was mal oor die idee. Die Wild Bunch-idee het nogal geformuleer en hulle het 'n plan opgestel vir deurslammers, behalwe dat hulle hulle s'n met 'n skakelaar opgestel het. daar was 'n tydstip toe Peter Kapiris, 'n Aussie Top Doorslammer -legende, as deel van hierdie vertoning hardloop. "

Wallace onthou dat die konsep in Australië begin het, en die besoek deur Howes en Stanley in 1989 het slegs die brand aangevuur.

'Australië het destyds net 'n baie vinnige deurstorm gehad, en dit was 'n Thunderbird met die naam Warlord, 'n motor met regterstuur,' onthou Wallace. "Hulle het almal tussen hakies gehardloop, so toe Stanley en Howes in 1989 daarnatoe gaan, was die Warlord van Ray Ward die enigste wat saam met hulle kon hardloop. Die Wild Bunch het aan die Top Doorslammer -klas gedoen wat die toeristiese Funny Cars and Dragsters gebruik het om die Aussie -brandstofklasse te doen. Hierdie ervaring het 'n weg geskep vir vooruitgang en nuwe tegnologie.

'Hulle het snaakse motors daarheen gebring, en dit het die ontwikkeling van die motors daaronder versnel,' het Wallace gesê. "Dieselfde het gebeur nadat die Wild Bunch daar afgekom het. Tommy Howes en Camp Stanley het die internasionale toneel werklik beïnvloed. Jy kan aktief sê dat dit ook Pro Modified beïnvloed het."


The Wild Bunch - Geskiedenis

Meer as 100 jaar gelede in 'n stil klein dorpie in die Oklahoma-gebied, het lede van die berugte Doolin-Dalton-bende teen 'n pos van afgevaardigdes in een van die dodelikste konfrontasies in die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse marshalle afgereken.

Teen die einde van die skietgeveg het nege mans dood of gewond gelê, en die mense van Ingalls het 'n duidelike beeld van Westerse wetteloosheid en die harde middele wat nodig is om geregtigheid te herstel.

Vier lede van die berugte Dalton -bende (l. Tot r.) - Bill Power, Bob Dalton, Grat Dalton en Dick Broadwell - lê dood ná 'n skietgeveg in Coffeyville, Kansas, op 5 Oktober 1892. Toe die bende probeer beroof twee van die stad se oewers op dieselfde tyd, het dapper stedelinge die wapens teen die indringers aangevat. Nadat die rook verdwyn het, is agt mense dood en drie gewond.

Bill Doolin is gebore in 1858 in Johnson County, Ark. Op 23 -jarige ouderdom dryf hy wes en werk vreemd totdat hy hom as 'n boerdery langs die Cimarron -rivier in die Oklahoma -gebied kom vestig het.

Terwyl hy as 'n cowboy gewerk het. hy het die meeste mans ontmoet wat later sy eie bende sou vorm, 'n groep kleurvolle outlaws wat bekend staan ​​as die Wild Bunch.

Een verhaal vertel dat die bende in 1891 op die been gekom het toe hy die vierde Julie -vakansie in Coffeyville, Kan., Gevier het deur 'n biervat te tik.

Die probleem was dat Kansas 'n droë toestand was. Toe polisielede die toneel binnegaan om die alkohol te konfiskeer, is hulle met koeëls in die gesig gestaar. Van daardie dag af was Doolin en sy groepe op die vlug, en diefstal het hulle ondersteun.

Teen September 1891 het die Wild Bunch saamgewerk met die Dalton Brothers Gang om verskeie banke in die hele streek te beroof. 'N Jaar later neem Doolin egter beheer nadat die meeste Daltons dood is tydens 'n aanval op twee oewers in Coffeyville.

'N Rits rooftogte het gevolg vir die nuut gekonsolideerde Doolin-Dalton-bende, wie se lede redelik goed was in die verwysing na gevangenskap. Maar in die herfs van 1893 het adjunk -marshalle nul ingestel toe hulle ontdek dat die oproeriges die stad Ingalls as 'n skuilplek tussen strooptogte gebruik.

Die verhoog was gereed vir 'n noodlottige stryd.

Die middag van 1 September 1893 vind die bende in die salon van George Ransom. Saam met Doolin en Bill Dalton was Dan "Dynamite Dick" Clifton, George "Red Buck" Weightman, George "Bitter Creek" Newcomb, "Arkansas Tom" Jones "Roy Daugherty] en Bill" Tulsa Jack "Blake.

Die wetmanne wat vir die arrestasies ingetrek het, was onder leiding van adjunkmaarskalk John Hixon, wat vier ander afgevaardigdes saamgebring het - Lafe Shadley, Tom Hueston, Dick Speed ​​en Jim Masterson. 'N Bykomende agt mans het as posse lede by die geledere aangesluit.

In die grusame konfrontasie die middag is op Hueston gevuur terwyl hy duik soek. Doolin het Speed ​​doodgeskiet toe die adjunk tevergeefs probeer aansluit by Shadley, wat agter die lyk van 'n perd weggesteek was.

Toe Shadley sien dat een van die outlawes gewond raak, het hy ingetrek. Maar Dalton het hom in sy spore geskiet. Masterson het later dinamiet in die skuilplek van die outlawes gegooi en Jones gevang, maar die ander het suidoos uit die stad gevlug.

Die ontsnapende outlaws het lank genoeg bo -op 'n nabygeleë rant gestop om 'n paar laaste skote op die regsmanne af te vuur, en een van daardie koeëls het Frank Briggs, 'n onskuldige omstander, doodgemaak.

Alles gesê, mans aan beide kante van die wet het daardie middag hul lot bereik. Adjunksnelheid is dood tydens die werklike gevegte Deputate Hueston en Shadley sterf die volgende dag aan hul wonde.

Daar was sprake van 'n lynch van Arkansas Tom Jones, maar in plaas daarvan is hy na die federale gevangenis in Guthrie, Oklahoma Territory, ongeveer 35 kilometer daarvandaan gestuur.

In die marshal se eie woorde

E.D. Nix was destyds die marskalk vir die Oklahoma -gebied. In sy boek, "Okklahombres," wat in 1929 gepubliseer is, het hy hierdie stryd as een van die meer kritiese in sy hele loopbaan genoem. Dit was natuurlik ook een van die verwoestendste, met drie afgevaardigdes wat hul lewens verloor het. (Nix, regs getoon, is deur president Grover Cleveland aangestel as Amerikaanse marskalk oor die Oklahoma -gebied. Hy het toesig gehou oor die werk van meer as 150 afgevaardigdes, waaronder die beroemde Drie Garde.)

Byna twee jaar na die Ingalls -konfrontasie het die maarskalk die besonderhede van die geveg saamgevoeg in 'n brief wat hy aan prokureur -generaal Judson Harmon geskryf het. Die brief kom as 'n reaksie op 'n man met die naam Murray, wat die stryd aangestel het.

Murray is die dag gearresteer omdat hy die misdadigers huisves. Nadat hy tydens die geveg deur adjunk -marshale geskiet is, kla hy nou oor skade en soek regstelling.

Nix se brief aan Harmon, gedateer 30 Julie 1895, word in die Nasionale Argief gehuisves. die transkripsie, wat die oorspronklike spelling en leestekens bevat, volg.

Ene George Ransom het 'n salon in die stad Ingalls besit, en hierdie man het Murray vir hom as kroegtender gewerk. Die outlaws Bill Doolan, & quot; Bitter Creek, & quot; & quot; Tulsa gebrek, & quot; "Dynamite Dick," & quot; Red Buck, & quot; Tom] en talle ander het hierdie salon hul hoofkwartier gemaak, en Ransom, Murray en ander burgers het vir hulle handel gesorg, het hulle nuus van die bewegings van die adjunkmarshalle, wat hulle met ammunisie voorsien het, vir hul perde versorg het, kon hulle aan hul tafels eet en in hul beddens slaap. Hierdie feite was welbekend by die gemeenskap, hoewel 'n skuldigbevinding op die aanklag van die aanhouding of hulp aan misdadigers teen die wette van die Verenigde State nooit kon volhou nie, omdat die hele gemeenskap onder dwang was en nie sou getuig nie uit vrees om hul lewens en eiendom te verloor.

Op die 1ste dag van September 1893 het 'n groep adjunkmarshals wat deur my na hierdie outlaws gestuur is, in die omgewing van Ingalls aangekom, en die outlaws hierin was destyds in die stad en in die salon van Rensom, waar hierdie man het Murray gewerk. Soos gewoonlik het die outlaws kennis geneem van die nabyheid van die afgevaardigdes, en hulle het 'n boodskapper na die afgevaardigdes gestuur om hulle uit te nooi om die stad in te kom as hulle dink dat hulle, die afgevaardigdes, hulle kon neem. Die afgevaardigdes het die uitnodiging aanvaar en nadat hulle hul magte geplaas het, 'n boodskapper na die buitegebied gestuur met 'n versoek om oor te gee en is met Winchester -skote beantwoord. "Bitter Creek" hardloop uit die betrokke salon en skiet een skoot in die rigting van die noorde waar 'n paar afgevaardigdes gestasioneer is, en ontvang die vuur van die afgevaardigdes wat die tydskrif van sy winchester bars en hom in die dy gewond. Intussen is 'n hewige brand op die afgevaardigdes gerig deur die balans van die outlaws uit die salongebou, en die brand is teruggestuur deur die afgevaardigdes wat letterlik deur die salon was. 'N Perd is doodgemaak deur die afgevaardigdes wat voor die sitkamer vasgemaak was. Die vuur van die afgevaardigdes wat te warm geword het vir die oortreders, het uit 'n sydeur ontsnap en hul toevlug geneem in 'n groot stal. Hierdie man wat Murray by die voordeur van die salon gekom het, net voor die outlaws die gebou verlaat het, of net daarna, is dit bekend watter. Toe hy egter die eerste keer in die deur verskyn, het hy die deur net 'n entjie oopgemaak en sy winchester op sy skouer tydens die vuur. Dit was voordat die afgevaardigdes bewus geword het van die feit dat die oortreders die gebou verlaat het. Drie van die afgevaardigdes wat hom sien in die posisie waarin hy was, het gelyktydig op hom afgevuur. Twee skote tref hom in die ribbes en een breek sy arm op twee plekke.

Agt of tien perde is doodgemaak en nege mense is dood en gewond. Een adjunk is op die eerste brand dood en twee die volgende dag dood. Drie oortreders is gewond en een gevang. Die een wat gevang is, is daarna tot vyftig jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis en dien nou sy tyd uit.

Baie respekvol, E.D. Nix Amerikaanse marskalk

Evitt Dumas Nix
Marshal van die Verenigde State 1893-1896


Die aksietonele is sorgvuldig verfilm

Om die veelhoekige en gejaagde aksiesekwensies soos die opening van die film en die klimaksgeveg vas te lê, gebruik Peckinpah die nuutste tegniek om met meer kameras te verfilm om soveel moontlik van die toneel op te neem om te voorkom dat dit herstel word. Volgens die toesighouer van die klerekas, Gordon Dawson, het dit nog steeds weke geneem om hierdie massiewe tonele op te neem, alhoewel die multi-cam-opstelling die hoeveelheid opnames wat Peckinpah gebruik het, verminder het. Hy het verduidelik:

[Daar was] vyf of ses kameras langs mekaar wat die hele meester geskiet het, met verskillende lense, maar die hele ding geskiet. En die hele opstelling vyf voet beweeg. En dan weer alles skiet. En beweeg dit dan vyf voet en skiet alles weer ...

Alle bloedtreffers teen die muur moes elke keer skoongemaak word. Al die mense wat net ingehardloop en geskiet is, nou skiet ons dit weer, en hulle gaan weer geskiet word. Hulle moet in skoon klere terugkom. Ek weet nie. Dit was so vyf of ses dae so. En dan sê hulle: 'OK, seuns, draai om, ons gaan die ander kant terug.'


Net geskiedenis.

Een van die suksesvolste treinroofbendes tydens die Ou Weste -era was Butch Cassidy's Wild Bunch Gang. Hulle was slegs een van 'n paar los georganiseerde bendes wat in Wyoming bedrywig was. Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) was die leier en ander lede was die naaste vriend van Cassidy, Elzy Lay, die Sundance Kid (Harry Alonzo Longabaugh), Tall Texan (Ben Kilpatrick), News Carver (William Carver), Camila “Deaf Charlie & #8221 Hanks, Laura Bullion, Flat-Nose Curry (George Sutherland Curry), Kid Curry (Harvey Alexander Logan) en Bob Meeks.

Hulle beweer dat hulle alles probeer doen om niemand te vermoor nie, en Cassidy sou daarop roem dat hy nooit 'n man vermoor het nie. Ongelukkig was dit onwaar omdat Kid Curry alleen 9 regsgeleerdes doodgemaak het terwyl hy by die bende was, en nog twee burgerlikes tydens skietgevegte, wat die mees gevreesde lid van die bende geword het. Elzy Lay het nog twee regsmanne doodgemaak ná 'n rooftog, waarvoor hy gewond, gearresteer en tot lewenslange gevangenisstraf gevonnis is. “Flat-Nose ” George Curry het ten minste twee regsgeleerdes vermoor, voordat hy self deur Grand County, Utah, doodgemaak is.

Die bende was ook nou verbonde aan vroulike outlaws Ann Bassett en Josie Bassett, wie se boerdery naby Browns Park die bende gereeld van vars perde en beesvleis voorsien het. Beide Bassett -meisies sou romanties betrokke raak by verskeie lede van die bende, en albei sou soms die bende vergesel na een van hul skuilplekke, genaamd “Robbers Roost ”.

2 Junie 1899 beroof Cassidy, Sundance Kid, Harvey Logan en Lay 'n Union Pacific -trein naby Wilcox, Wyoming. Hulle het maskers van wit servette gedra, en tydens die ophou het hulle tussen $ 30,000 en $ 60,000 gesteel. Die bende het geskei en verskeie het na New Mexico gevlug. Op 11 Julie 1899 beroof bendelede 'n trein naby Folsom, New Mexico (sonder Cassidy se teenwoordigheid). Die agtervolging deur 'n pos onder leiding van balju Ed Farr het geëindig in twee geweergevegte waartydens balju Farr en twee afgevaardigdes gedood is. Elzy Lay is tydens hierdie skietgeveg gewond en gevange geneem.

Cassidy en die ander lede hergroepeer in Wyoming. Op 29 Augustus 1900 het Cassidy, die Sundance Kid, Kid Curry en 'n ander ongeïdentifiseerde bendelid wat Will Carver was, 'n ander Union Pacific -trein in Tipton, Wyoming, opgehou. Minder as 'n maand later, op 19 September 1900, het hulle 'n klopjag op die First National Bank of Winnemucca, Nevada, gedoen en 32,640 dollar gesteel.

Vroeg in 1901 verhuis Cassidy, die Sundance Kid en die vriendin Etta Place van Cassidy na Patagonië, Argentinië, waar hulle tyd by La Leona buite 'n provinsie Santa Cruz deurgebring het om die agtervolging van Pinkerton -speurders en ander regsgeleerdes te ontduik. Dieselfde jaar op 1 April is Will Carver deur regsgeleerdes gewond en in Mei dood. Ben Kilpatrick en Laura Bullion is in Desember 1901 in Tennessee gevange geneem, hy het 'n gevangenisstraf van 20 jaar gekry en sy is tot vyf jaar gevonnis. Kid Curry het twee regsgeleerdes in Knoxville, Tennessee, vermoor. Hy het ontsnap uit gevangenskap en na Montana gereis, waar hy die boer wat sy broer Johnny jare tevore vermoor het, vermoor het. Hy is gevang met sy terugkeer na Tennessee, maar het weer ontsnap. Kid Curry het homself in 1904 in Colorado doodgemaak tydens 'n skietgeveg met regsgeleerdes, want hy het gesê dat geen wetgewer hom ooit lewend sou neem nie. In 1908 is Cassidy en Sundance dood in 'n skietgeveg met Boliviaanse kavallerie. Etta Place het spoorloos verdwyn.

Elzy Lay is in 1906 uit die tronk vrygelaat, en na 'n kort besoek aan die Bassett -boerdery in Utah, verhuis hy na Kalifornië, waar hy 'n gerespekteerde sakeman word en sterf daar in 1934. Ben Kilpatrick is in 1911 uit die gevangenis vrygelaat en is dood tydens 'n treinroof in Texas in 1912. Laura Bullion is in 1905 uit die tronk vrygelaat en het die res van haar lewe as 'n naaister geleef en sterf in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1961, die laaste van die Wild Bunch. Hulle bekendheid het gelei tot baie films en boeke oor hul eskapades, wat tot hul gewildheid gelei het. Hulle legende leef vandag nog voort.


6. Die besonderhede van sy dood bly 'n raaisel.

'N Merker naby San Vicente, Bolivia, wat beweer dat dit die laaste rusplek van Butch Cassidy en die Sundance Kid is.  

Tyler Bridges/Miami Herald/Tribune News Service/Getty Images

Sommige rekeninge beweer dat op 4 November 1908, naby die stad Tupiza in die suide van Bolivia, twee mans vermoedelik Cassidy was en die Sundance Kid 'n betaalstaat beroof het toe dit na die Aramayo -myn vervoer is. Drie dae later het die vermeende bandiete in San Vicente, Bolivia, aangekom, maar nadat dorpenaars agterdogtig geraak het dat die vreemdelinge verband hou met die rooftog, is Boliviaanse soldate ingeroep en het 'n skietgeveg ontstaan. Tydens die skietgeveg het die Bolivianers na bewering die verdagtes doodgeskiet, of een van die outlawes het sy lewensmaat doodgemaak en toe die geweer op homself gedraai. Daarna is die lyke begrawe in ongemerkte grafte in 'n begraafplaas in San Vicente.  


Butch Cassidy and the Wild Bunch

George Leroy Parker is in 1867 gebore aan Maximilian en Ann Parker, die oudste van sewe kinders. Die gesin het in Circleville, Utah, gewoon. Sy pa het 'n plaas daar gekoop en by die oorspronklike personeel aangehou. Mike Cassidy was een van die cowboys wat daar gewerk het. Cassidy en 'n paar van sy vriende was betrokke by geritsel. Hy het die jong George alles geleer wat hy weet van ry, skiet, tou en brandmerk van beeste, alles in die kuns van ritsel. Deur die jare het Cassidy vir hom 'n groot kudde bymekaargemaak. Hy het Parker gehuur om hom te help om hulle na die Henry -berge in die suidooste van Utah te skuif. Teen daardie tyd was dit bekend dat Parker lojaal was aan sy vriende en sy woord gestand gedoen het. Hy was baie geliefd by almal. Hierdie eienskappe het hom gedurende sy loopbaan as outlaw meegebring.

'N Rukkie later het Cassidy probleme ondervind met die wet en na Mexiko gevlug. Dit was toe Parker die naam Cassidy aangeneem het, ter nagedagtenis aan sy mentor. Butch was 'n bynaam wat hom later toegeken is. Kort daarna het hy in sy eie skraap beland. Hy is betrap dat hy 'n paar perde gesteel het. Terwyl hy deur twee afgevaardigdes opgeneem is, het hy hulle oorrompel en ontsnap. Daarna het hy gedink hy moet die gebied verlaat.

Cassidy en twee vriende is na Telluride, Colorado, waar 'n mynbou -oplewing aan die gang was. Hulle het werk gekry by een van die myne. Terwyl hy daar was, ontmoet Cassidy Matt Warner, wat 'n paar perde in 'n plaaslike perderesies gehardloop het. Hy was ook op die vlug van vorige kriminele aktiwiteite. Hy was deur 'n huwelik verwant aan die berugte McCarty -bende, wat die banke in Oregon geterroriseer het. Die McCartys het eens 'n welvarende veeboerdery in die La Sal -gebergte van Utah gehou. Hulle het dit verkoop en ritsers geword. Tom McCarty skuil ook vir die wet toe Cassidy opdaag.

Cassidy, Warner en McCarty het saamgesweer om die Telluride -bank op te hou. Op 24 Junie 1889 het hulle by die bank ingeglip en dit van $ 10 500 onthef. Die oortreders, en nog 'n man met die naam Bert Maddern, wat hul perde vasgehou het, het maklik weggekom voordat iemand dit agtergekom het. Hulle het 'n rukkie by Brown's Hole weggekruip.

Brown's Hole, was geleë op die kruising van die grense van Utah, Colorado en Wyoming. Die gebied is vernoem na Baptiste Brown, 'n vroeë bontvangster wat eens daar gewoon het. Die vangvangers het die gebied gebruik, aangesien die omliggende berge dit beskerm het teen moeraswinters. Daar was ook volop wild wat in die winters na die warmer vallei gesoek het. Toe die spoorlyn begin bou, het dit begin dien as 'n plek om vee vir die spoorwegpersoneel in te samel. Dit het natuurlik die ritselaars ingebring en dit was 'n gebore outlaw -skuilplek.

Na hul verblyf is McCarty en Warner na Star Valley, Wyoming, terwyl Cassidy na Lander, Wyoming, is. Die volgende somer is Warner en McCarty na Oregon, waar die McCarty -familie 'n plaas besit het. Die McCartys terroriseer die noordweste met bankrooftogte. Hulle het weggekruip op 'n plaas oos van Spokane, Washington. Nadat hulle byna skuldig bevind is aan 'n rooftog in Roslyn Washington, keer hulle terug om weg te kruip by Robber's Roost. Die McCarty's het later die bank in Delta, Colorado, gehou. Bill en Fred McCarty is tydens die geleentheid geskiet en Tom het weggery. Daarna is die McCartys nooit weer met Butch Cassidy of the Wild Bunch verbind nie.

Intussen werk Cassidy as cowboy by verskillende boerderye in Wyoming. Uiteindelik het hy genoeg saamgekrap om sy eie boerdery naby Lander te koop. Op 'n stadium is hy daarvan beskuldig dat hy 'n dronk persoon beroof het. Hy is later vrygelaat weens gebrek aan bewyse. Die voorval het Cassidy baie bitter gemaak teen die stad Rock Springs, die provinsie Sweetwater, in die staat Wyoming, omdat hy geglo het dat hy so laag kan sak. Hy het nooit skade berokken of gesteel van individue nie, net van banke en ander groot maatskappye. Hy het wraak gesweer vir die belediging van sy naam.

In 1893 vind Cassidy 'n nuwe vennoot genaamd Al Haines. Hulle het in Star Valley, Wyoming, weggekruip. They were captured by the law when they were found to have stolen horses in their possession. Cassidy was found guilty and was sentenced to two years in the Wyoming State Penitentiary. It would be the only time he served behind bars. He entered the prison on July 15, 1894, when he was 27 years old. He received an early release pardon by the Wyoming governor on January 19, 1896. He had to promise the governor he would never commit crimes in Wyoming in order to receive the pardon.

He returned to Brown’s Hole directly after being released. But he had decided that rustling wasn’t big enough. He started picking some men to be part of his gang. He chose Ellsworth “Elza” Lay as his right hand man. He also chose Bob Meeks, a friend of Lay’s, and three or four others. He established a hideout on the face of Diamond Mountain that was protected on three sides by a cliff so it was easily defensible.

Soon after, Matt Warner got into a bit of a scrape when he agreed to “scare off” some men from a prospecting area. When two of the men ended up dead, Warner found himself locked up in the Vernal, Utah jail. Cassidy promised he’d get a lawyer for him, but he had no cash. He had promised not to commit crimes in Wyoming, so he picked the bank in Montpelier, Idaho as his target. On August 13, 1896, Cassidy, Lay, and Meeks held up in the bank. They got $7,165 in cash and gold and silver. They got away easily and hired Warner’s attorney. Unfortunately for him, Warner was convicted and served the next 3 ½ years at the Utah State Penitentiary. After his release, he stayed a law-abiding citizen.

Cassidy returned to Hole in the Wall, where he planned his next job. Cassidy and Elza Lay and Bob Meeks would rob the mining payroll at Castle Gate, Utah. The payroll arrived via train from Salt Lake City. Cassidy patiently watched the trains every day to watch the railroad employees’ routine. On the appointed day, April 21, 1987, he made his move. The outlaws jumped the officials just as they were carrying the money into their office. The outlaws got away with $8,800 in gold and silver. They hid at Robber’s Roost until the excitement died down. They got bored, though, and rode north to Wyoming. They shot up the small towns of Dixon and Baggs.

Their next big job was on June 2, 1899. The picked a train near Wilcox, Wyoming. They blew up a bridge as the train was crossing. They blew out the door of the express car and then blew the door off the safe. They got about $30,000 in unsigned bank notes. Flat Nose George Curry, Harvey Logan (Kid Curry), and Elza Lay, and three others pulled the job. Because of Cassidy’s promise to the Wyoming governor, it is thought that he didn’t directly participate in this robbery, but did direct how it should be carried out. Several posses chased the robbers but their efforts were futile. The gang split up the money and hid out at Robber’s Roost.

After resting, Cassidy, Lay, and Kid Curry fled to New Mexico. Cassidy hired on as a ranch hand at the WS Ranch. One by one, several other members of the Wild Bunch also hid out by hiring on as hands. The owner may or may not have known who they were, but he did know that rustling came to a halt while they were there. On July 11, 1899, a train was robbed near Folsom, New Mexico. The robbery was executed in the same manner as the robbery at Wilcox. It was pulled off by Lay, Kid Curry, and Sam Ketchum. The law got the last laugh on this one–the express car had no money. A posse chased them down and Ketchum and Lay were both injured. Ketchum later died from his wound. Lay was later given up by the man at whose ranch he was recuperating. He was tried for murder of Sheriff Farr, who was killed in the shootout after the holdup. He was sentenced to life in the New Mexico penitentiary. Cassidy was probably not part of this holdup either, but he came under scrutiny because he was known to be their leader. He decided to leave the WS ranch before the law could take him in.

Cassidy was starting to get nervous. Several of his friends had been sent to prison or killed. He figured it was only a matter of time before it was his turn. He tried to make a deal with the Union Pacific–they would excuse his past crimes and he would hire on as their express rider, guaranteed to keep the outlaws away. When the Union Pacific men didn’t keep the appointment, due to unexpected bad weather, Cassidy thought he’d been double-crossed. In anger, he targeted a Union Pacific trail for another job.

On August 29, 1900, he and three others held up a train near Tipton, Wyoming. They did it with their usual method and blew up the express car. Unfortunately, there was only $50.40 to be stolen. Cassidy had intended this robbery to help finance his departure for South America, where he hoped to evade the law forever. He would need to try again.

He chose the bank at Winnemucca, Nevada. It was September 19, 1900. This time he was accompanied by Harry Longabaugh (Sundance Kid) and Bill Carver. They completed the robber in five minutes and got $32,640. A posse formed almost immediately, but it never quite caught up to the outlaws. The three men rode to Fort Worth, Texas to hide at “Hell’s Half Acre.” They split up the money and went out on the town. They were joined by Kid Curry and Ben Kilpatrick. While in Texas, the five men posed for a picture in a studio that has been often reprinted. An alert Pinkerton detective used it to try to track the men down.

They had one last trick up their sleeves. Cassidy, Sundance, Kid Curry, and Camilla Hanks, headed to Montana. Kid Curry and Sundance got on the train at Malta. Some distance down the track near Wagner, they ordered the engineer to stop. As usual, Cassidy blew up the safe. This time they got $65,000 in paper money. They split up afterwards and rode away. Kilpatrick was eventually caught and sentenced to 15 years in Atlanta. Hanks was later killed while resisting arrest in San Antonio on April 16, 1902. Kid Curry was caught but he escaped from a Knoxville jail. He later shot himself after being wounded in a shootout following a train robbery at Parachute, Colorado, on July 7, 1903.

Cassidy and Sundance met up in New York City on February 1, 1902. Sundance brought along Etta Place. On February 20, they left for South America on the U.S.S. Soldier Prince. They lived there peaceably on a ranch until 1906. For some reason they returned to their old ways, perhaps after hearing rumors that the law was on their tail. In March 1906, they robbed the bank at Mercedes and got $20,000. The banker was shot in the process. A few months later they held up the bank at Bahia Blanca and got another $20,000. They also held up a pay train in Eucalyptus, Bolivia.

On December 7, 1907, they held up a bank in Rio Gallegos, Argentina. They got away with $10,000. Their last job was holding up the pack train with the mine payroll at the Aramayo mines near Quechisla, Bolivia. Afterward, they stopped at San Vicente to stay for the night and get something to eat. A constable recognized that one of their mules belonged to a friend of his. He challenged them, and a shootout commenced. Sundance was mortally wounded first. In his attempt to drag him away, Cassidy was wounded. Ultimately, he saved the last two shots to shoot his friend and then himself. No one knows what happened to Etta Place.


Butch Cassidy

These days, Butch Cassidy might have trouble recognizing his hometown of Circleville. While the Butch Cassidy Hotel and Restaurant still serves up rooms and a meal, and the Butch Cassidy Museum and Antique Store offers up a rather predictable palette, the town these days is perhaps better known as the main staging point for the Paiute Trail, the serpentine all-terrain vehicle trail that winds up and down the mountains surrounding this small town. Indeed, there are more all-terrain vehicles on Main Street during the summer than there are horses. Butch would be perplexed.

Sorting Facts from Fiction

Maybe. In 1969, when 20th Century Fox released its box office smash 'Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid,' reporters came to Cassidy's childhood home, looking for his family. They found Mrs. Lula Parker Betenson, 86, Butch's youngest sister. Among other things, she told reporters that Cassidy had not died in South America in 1909, as was widely believed, but had come back to visit some 16 years later, in 1925. Lula said that Butch instead died in Spokane, Wash., in 1937, and spent his last years as a trapper and prospector. Could it be true?

Recently, diligent scholars like Larry Pointer, who wrote In Search of Butch Cassidy, have dug up evidence showing that in all likelihood Butch Cassidy did fake his death in San Vicente, Bolivia. They suggest that after making it big in Bolivian train, payroll and bank robberies, Cassidy sailed to Europe, got a facelift, moved back to America, married, then became an entrepreneur in Washington. Some of the evidence is convincing, especially a detailed manuscript about Cassidy which actually appears to have been authored by Cassidy.

The Early Years

Born Robert LeRoy Parker in Beaver, Utah on April 13, 1866, Cassidy was the first of 13 children. His Mormon parents had come to Utah from England in 1856. His parents moved over the mountains to Circleville in 1879 and young Roy, as he was known about the house, worked in ranches across western Utah, including at Hay Springs, near Milford. On one of these early jobs Roy had his first run-in with the law - he let himself into a closed shop, took a pair of jeans, and left a note promising to return later to pay his debt. But things did not go well in Circleville for the Parker family - Roy's dad, Maximilian, lost land to another homesteader in a property rights dispute - and Roy ended up looking to a shady local rancher, Mike Cassidy, in admiration. By 1884, Roy was rustling cattle from Parowan (just over the Markagunt Plateau) and his life on the lam had begun. He soon took on the name Butch Cassidy, perhaps in honor of his childhood hero.

Roy Parker has been called a sort of Robin Hood of the Western frontier, a man who bristled at the notion that large cattle outfits were squeezing the smaller rancher out of business. In the years following 1884, Roy drifted west to Telluride, Colo., stopping along the way in the back of beyond territory known as the Robber's Roost, which is in the rough foothills of the Henry Mountains. He also worked in Green River.

Life as an Outlaw & Telluride

The first major crime attributed to Cassidy is the robbery of the San Miguel Valley Bank in Telluride, on June 24, 1889. He and three cowboys got away with $20,000 by thoroughly casing the joint first. The bandits then made their way over a choice hideout, Brown's Park, along the Green River at the Utah-Wyoming border. They made forays to Green River and Vernal before moving north to Lander, Wyo.

Cassidy was one of the first to break ground on the Outlaw Trail, a meandering ghostlike path that began in Mexico, ran through Utah, and ended in Montana. The unofficial trail linked together a series of hideouts and ranches, like the Carlisle Ranch near Monticello, where ranch owners seemed willing to give jobs to outlaw cowboys. The Carlisle, actually, was close to Robber's Roost, and it was here where Butch camped out for a night or two before and after the Telluride holdup.

After Telluride, Butch's notoriety as an outlaw grew - an outlaw fighting for 'settlers rights, as citizens of the united States of America against the old time cattle baron (sic)' as written in a mysterious manuscript now believed to be Roy Parker's memoir. After the cruel winter of 1886-87, these resentments were ripe. Small cattle operations were crippled by the loss of stock, and larger operations paid a premium for rustled cattle. During this time, Cassidy and his gang established what would become their greatest hideout, the Hole-In-The-Wall, in central Wyoming. After spending a few years in a gloomy prison in Wyoming, Cassidy returned to rustling, this time along the Utah-Arizona border. During this period he began to assemble a sort of elite corps of outlaw cowboys, the Wild Bunch, which included Dick Maxwell, Elzy Lay, and Harry Longabaugh, who was perhaps better known as the Sundance Kid. Later the group was joined by Henry Wilbur 'Bub' Meeks, another Utah Mormon escapee, and George Currie.

Montpelier Bank Robbery

The first robbery credited the Wild Bunch was the August 13, 1896 holdup of a bank in Montpelier, Idaho. This robbery showed the trappings of what would become the Wild Bunch signature holdup: a well-planned attack. The bandits made off with over $7,000, and Cassidy, in part of an elaborate escape attempt, fled to Iowa, then Michigan, where he came face to face with an old foe - a deputy sheriff from western Wyoming who was on the lookout for him. Narrowly escaping (Cassidy even claimed to have shared a hotel room with a sheriff who was hunting for him but apparently never got a good look at him) Cassidy headed south then west again, where he met the gang and planned perhaps their greatest robbery, the $8,800 heist of the Pleasant Valley Coal Company payroll.

In and Out of Utah

Here, in narrow Price Canyon a few miles from Helper, Cassidy and his gang stole the payroll simply by shoving a revolver into the gut of the paymaster, who forked over the loot. Then, using an ingenious scheme, Cassidy and his gang rode hard for several days, employing a series of cached top-quality horses that could ride for hours at high speeds without tiring. The gang split up, and Butch fled to northern Wyoming, where he persuaded a rancher to hire him temporarily.

Castle Gate was the Wild Bunch's one and only major holdup in Utah. After that, the outlaws held up banks and trains in South Dakota, Wyoming, New Mexico and Nevada, and managed to bring home increasingly large sums of money - like an estimated $70,000 for the holdup of a Rio Grande train near Folsom, New Mexico. But by then, the good old days seemed to be over. By this time, the Wild Bunch had an extensive ally of law officers hunting them wherever they went, and Butch had an impressive folio compiled by the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, whose operatives seemed to follow his every move, waiting for a slip-up. The Gang often came back to Utah, either for protection or transportation, and once to ask Gov. Heber Wells in 1900 for amnesty in exchange for the promise to shape up. Abandoning that idea, the group later traveled across the Great Salt Lake Desert en route to Nevada, where they robbed the bank in Winnemucca.

Death in South America?

The heat was on in a serious way, and by 1902 the group had disbanded, and Butch had gone to England, then Argentina, where Butch, Harry Longabaugh and his girlfriend Etta bought a small ranch. All was well until a stock buyer and former Wyoming deputy came through the country, ending the gang's seclusion. From here, Cassidy went back to robbing trains and payrolls up until his supposed death in 1908.

The Legend Lives

After a trip back to Europe, Cassidy returned to the United States, this time with the name William Phillips. Phillips went to Michigan, where he met and fell in love with Gertrude Livesay. The two were married in May, 1908. The happy couple moved to Arizona, where Phillips apparently made a little cash on the side by fighting with Pancho Villa in the Mexican Revolution, then north to Spokane, where he founded the Phillips Manufacturing Company and later worked for Riblet, who made chairlifts and tramways. But things went downhill, and Phillips was close to bankrupt. He embarked on a few desperate trips back to Utah and Wyoming in hopes of finding some buried caches, but he apparently was unsuccessful. He was diagnosed with cancer, and died on July 20, 1937.

The Essence of Butch Cassidy

In a way, Cassidy captured the essence of a land that, in many respects, is still wild. Back in Circleville, his old home is frail and weathered. Back in 1976, in a story for National Geographic, Robert Redford followed the Outlaw Trail. In his story, Redford wrote: 'As technology thrusts us relentlessly into the future, I find myself, perversely, more interested in the past. We seem to have lost something - something vital, something of individuality and passion. That may be why we tend to view the western outlaw, rightly or not, as a romantic figure.'

Maybe. Cassidy had his own reasons, though. He wrote: 'The best way to hurt them is through their pocket book. They will Holler louder than if you cut off both legs. I steal their money just to hear them holler. Then I pass it out among those who really need it.'


The Wild Bunch Showed the Mexican Revolution as it Really Was

A little more than 50 years ago, director Sam Peckinpah was looking forward to making a western, The Diamond Story, with Lee Marvin who was a huge box office star at the time.

Then, Marvin abruptly changed his mind and went off to make the musical western Paint Your Wagon with Clint Eastwood instead.

Peckinpah was left without a project, and that’s when he heard about a script written not by a professional screenwriter but by a movie stuntman, Roy Sickner.

The director sets up the climactic gun battle sequences at “Agua Verde” (the Hacienda Ciénaga del Carmen).

Peckinpah read the script, liked it and set out to make what has been called “one of the great masterpieces of modern cinema.” It also happens to be among the best action movies you’re ever likely to see.

Professionally, Peckinpah wasn’t in a good place in the late 1960s. In 1965, he had completed what he believed was his best film to date, Major Dundee, a story set in Mexico about an obsessed, driven cavalry commander, wonderfully played by Charlton Heston.

Charlton Heston.

The studio took a look at the 160-minute long final cut and disagreed. They didn’t even bother with previews – instead they brutally cut the film before release, removing most of the violence which Peckinpah believed was intrinsic to the story. Peckinpah was actually barred from the editing room during this process and then abruptly fired.

After that, Peckinpah was effectively blacklisted in Hollywood, and he worked in television for a time before Warner studios relented and offered him the opportunity to direct the Lee Marvin western. When that fell through, Peckinpah persuaded them to back a new project based on the screenplay by Roy Sickner. The movie was to be called The Wild Bunch.

Like many movies that had gone before, The Wild Bunch was about a group of outlaws. But that was where the similarities ended.

Mexican Revolution: Northern leaders of the revolt against Díaz pose for a photo after the First Battle of Juárez.

The film was set during the Mexican Revolution, and Peckinpah was determined that it should be as authentic as possible. It was to be filmed on location in Mexico and should reflect the casual brutality of the revolution.

The script included lots of Mexican characters and Peckinpah insisted that these should be played by Mexican actors. That may not seem strange now, but in 1969 it was a radical approach for a Hollywood movie.

When Orson Wells had made A Touch Of Evil just ten years earlier, no-one would countenance the main character, a Mexican policeman, being played by a Mexican actor. So the role was given to Charlton Heston who was provided with laughable “blackface make-up.

Charlton Heston

The other thing that Peckinpah was concerned about was guns. He was a keen shooter and an ex-Marine, so he knew his way around firearms. He was disgusted with the way that guns and shooting were portrayed in the films of the mid-sixties.

Whether it was war films or westerns, all the guns sounded the same, and when someone got shot, they generally just collapsed bloodlessly to the ground or tied a handkerchief round the afflicted part and carried on. Peckinpah wanted the guns and the effects of being shot to look real in this movie. He said:

“We wanted to show violence in real terms. Dying is not fun and games. Movies make it look so detached.”

Mexican Revolution: Northern Revolutionary Gen. Francisco “Pancho” Villa with his staff in 1913.

The Wild Bunch was accused of many things, but never detachment. Stunt arrangers showed Peckinpah squibs,” small capsules of blood which could be exploded to simulate the effect of a gunshot wound to the human body. They detonated several of these on card cut-outs propped against a fence.

Peckinpah wasn’t impressed. He produced a large-caliber handgun and blasted holes in the targets. “That’s what I want!” he told those nervously watching.

The special effects crew went off and designed bigger squibs, loaded with fake blood and meat and coupled these to a larger explosive charge. They tried that. It was better, but Peckinpah still wasn’t entirely satisfied – the blood, he said, was too red and unrealistic.

Mexican Revolution: Rebel camp.

The blood was darkened, but the director still wasn’t happy – the guns didn’t sound right because they were firing blanks loaded with small charges. The amount of powder in the blanks was increased until Peckinpah finally seemed to be content.

Then the crew prepared the blank ammunition for the actual filming. It amounted to 90,000 rounds in all, which is more ammunition than was expended during the actual Mexican Revolution.

Five Members of the Wild Bunch.

The guns used in this movie were carefully chosen by Peckinpah to be in keeping with the period. It’s set in around 1912/13 and the outlaws, who spend some time disguised as US soldiers, carry the new (at the time) Colt M1911 in addition to revolvers.

However, in some shots it’s obvious that they are using Astra Star Model B pistols, a later Spanish copy of the Colt 1911 which is recognizable by its external extractor and apparently works better with blanks.

There are also Colt Single Action revolvers, Winchester Model 1892s, Springfield M1903A3 rifles, and even a couple of Lugers. All were completely in keeping with the time in which the movie is set.

M1903 Springfield with loading clips. Photo: Curiosandrelics – CC BY-SA 3.0

In fact, there is only one real firearm anachronism in the whole film, and that’s the water-cooled, tripod-mounted machine gun which appears in the final shootout. It’s clearly a Browning M1917 which wasn’t around until several years later.

The outcome of all this care and attention was a film which scandalized and horrified many people when it was released in 1969 – “pure wasted insanity” was the comment of one viewer at an early screening. Cinema-goers just weren’t prepared for this level of violence. The final shootout alone involves more than 100 screen deaths in a little over four minutes.

Mexican Revolution: Uprising soldiers in action. 1913.

But audiences also weren’t prepared for protagonists who were really, deeply unpleasant. The members of the outlaw gang in this film have a Samurai-like code of personal honor, but this applies only to themselves.

Near the beginning of the story, the gang takes hostages, including a woman, during a bank robbery. William Holden tells one of the gang, who is covering the hostages with a shotgun, “If they move, kill ’em!” They move. They are brutally executed.

Peckinpah’s conception of Pike Bishop was strongly influenced by actor William Holden

To audiences of the time, this just wasn’t how cowboys were supposed to behave.

The film isn’t just about violence. There are long stretches when the main characters do little but talk to one another, mainly ruminating on the fact that growing old means that they find themselves in a world in which they have no place, a world in which honor and self-respect seem to have been abandoned.

However, it is the violence which remains in the memory long after the final credits have rolled.

The real Mexican Revolution was a bloody affair. It wasn’t so much a single revolution as a series of coups and counter-coups which ravaged Mexico from 1910-1920 and left up to 2,000,000 people dead.

Mexican Revolution: Insurrectos & their women.

Real violent death is seldom pretty or bloodless, and Peckinpah’s insistence on realism means that The Wild Bunch portrays this as accurately as 1960s special effects allow. We feel for the protagonists, despite some of the evil things that they do, partly because the potential violent death they face looks so painful and unpleasant. Just as it really is.

It wasn’t just moviegoers who were horrified by this film. In 1969, 20 th Century Fox were also planning to release a big-budget movie, but something very different to the gritty realism of The Wild Bunch.

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid was a feel-good western about a pair of men who were, despite being outlaws, all round nice guys.

Butch Cassidy as part of the Wild Bunch at Fort Worth, Texas.

In real life, Butch Cassidy’s outlaw band was called the Wild Bunch. But no-one at 20 th Century Fox wanted to risk audiences making a connection between the wholesome family entertainment of Butch and Sundance and the nastiness of Peckinpah’s movie. So Butch’s gang was hastily re-named the Hole-in-the-Wall gang.

It’s difficult to classify The Wild Bunch. It certainly isn’t a traditional Western, but then it isn’t entirely a war film either. Calling it an action movie probably does it a disservice – it’s much, much more thoughtful, intelligent, and melancholy than the vast majority of action movies.

I suppose that it’s unique, and perhaps that what makes it so significant. The Wild Bunch certainly changed the way that audiences thought about violent on-screen death.

Posse organized to give chase to the Wild Bunch. From left to right: standing, unidentified on horse, George Hiatt, Timothy Keliher, Joe Lefors, H. Davis, S. Funk, Thomas Jefferson Carr.

The sanitized deaths that had been a staple of war movies and westerns up to that point suddenly weren’t satisfying. Most movies which followed began to switch to a more realistic portrayal of violent death.

Even today, there are still arguments about whether this approach ends up glorifying violence or whether portraying it accurately prevents people from acting out violently.

The one thing The Wild Bunch is short on is laughs, but if you look carefully, the title sequence does include one shot that may make you smile.

William Holden.

Peckinpah famously fell out during filming with actor Robert Ryan, who demanded top billing. Ryan was certainly the most experienced actor on set and a former Hollywood leading man, but Peckinpah insisted that top billing went to William Holden and Ernest Borgnine.

In the opening sequence, as the outlaws ride into town, the screen freezes on a shot of William Holden’s face, and his name appears on the screen. Then, it does the same with Ernest Borgnine. Immediately after, the screen freezes on a shot of the rear ends of horses, and Robert Ryan’s name appears on the screen.


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