Inligting

Wanneer is die eerste Amerikaanse rybewys uitgereik?


In 1886 het die Duitse uitvinder Karl Benz 'n patent wat algemeen beskou word as die eerste moderne motor. Minder as twee dekades later, in 1903, het Massachusetts en Missouri die eerste state geword wat 'n rybewys benodig het, hoewel dit nie nodig was om 'n toets te slaag om dit te bekom nie. In 1908 het Henry Ford die Model T bekendgestel, die eerste bekostigbare motor vir baie Amerikaners in die middelklas. (In 1919, toe Ford se geboorteland Michigan begin rybewyse uitreik, het hy sy eerste een op 56 -jarige ouderdom gekry.) Dieselfde jaar as die Model T debuteer, word Rhode Island die eerste staat wat beide 'n lisensie en 'n bestuurderseksamen benodig (Massachusetts het in 1907 'n chauffeur -eksamen ingestel en in 1920 begin toetse vereis vir alle ander bestuurders).

Kalifornië, wat nou bekend is vir sy motorkultuur, het in 1913 lisensies en eksamens in 1927 vereis. Dit het egter 'n paar dekades geneem voordat lisensies en toetse deur alle state aanvaar is. In 1930 het slegs 24 state 'n lisensie nodig om 'n motor te bestuur en slegs 15 state het verpligte bestuurdereksamens gehad. Suid -Dakota was die laaste staat wat in 1954 begin het met die uitreiking van lisensies (sonder eksamens). Boonop het 'n handjievol state eers in die vyftigerjare bestuurstoetse opgelê, waaronder Alaska (1956), Arizona (1951), Idaho (1951), Illinois (1953), Missouri (1952) en Wisconsin (1956). In 1959 het Suid -Dakota die finale staat geword om 'n bestuurderseksamenvereiste in te stel.

Om 'n lisensie te kry, word vir baie Amerikaanse tieners lank as 'n oorgangsrit beskou; die afgelope paar jaar het die aantal jongmense wat wettig bestuur mag word egter afgeneem. Ongeveer 77 persent van die Amerikaners tussen die ouderdomme van 20 en 24 het bestuurslisensies in 2014 gehad, vergeleke met byna 92 ​​persent in 1983, volgens 'n verslag van die University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute van 2016. Onder 16 -jariges het minder as 25 persent in 2014 lisensies gehad, teenoor ongeveer 46 persent in 1983. Alhoewel die studie nie spesifieke redes vir die daling genoem het nie, het ander navorsing voorgestel dat bydraende faktore nuwe vervoeropsies sowel as die Internet, wat dit vir mense moontlik gemaak het om sosiaal te verkeer en aanlyn te koop in plaas daarvan om in 'n motor te klim.


Dit is die rede waarom motors nommerplate het

Toe New York Maandag 115 jaar gelede die eerste Amerikaanse staat was wat nommerplate benodig het, was die plate nie die lang alfanumeriese kombinasies wat bestuurders van vandag af sou herken nie.

Op 25 April 1901 onderteken goewerneur New York, Benjamin Odell Jr., 'n wetsontwerp wat die eienaars van motorvoertuie vereis om by die staat te registreer. Dit het ook opdrag gegee dat elke motor of motorfiets die afsonderlike voorletters van die naam van die eienaar op 'n opvallende plek op die opvallende plek moet dra. Daar word van hulle verwag om hul eie identifikasiebriewe te verskaf, en in die vroeë dae was daar geen beperkings op materiaal, styl of kleur nie. Sommige het metaalhuisletters op leer of hout gebruik, ander het die letters direk op hul voertuie geverf, volgens kentekenversamelaar en historikus Keith Marvin.

Hoewel die nuwe wet 'n ekstra las op bestuurders gelê het, het hulle die nuus gelaat dat die wetsontwerp onderteken is, het die New York geskryf. Tribune. Die rede hiervoor was dat, voordat die wet aangeneem is, die plaaslike regulasies dikwels verskil, wat beteken dat dit nie net moeilik was om die wette na te kom nie, maar ook dat bestuurders hulself dikwels verloor by mense wat op die ou manier weggekom het. Soos die New York Tye gerapporteer, het motorbobiliste bevind dat hulle in baie gevalle nie gelyke regte met die bestuurders van perde verleen nie, en die verwarring as gevolg van hierdie verskillende wette het gelei tot die behoefte aan 'n eenvormige standaard. ”

Dit was in 1901 nie 'n wilde idee dat motors onder die gebrek aan amptelike erkenning ly nie: die New York Tribune later herhaal dat een van die oogmerke van die wet was om 'n einde te maak aan die teistering van die eienaars van motors met plaaslike regulasies, en#8221 Grasveld, veld en plaas noem motors in hul verslaggewing oor die rekening. Nadat die lisensie- en registrasiewet aangeneem is, kon die plaaslike owerhede egter nie, as hulle 'n snelweg of straat beheer het, motors nie verbied om dit te gebruik nie. Die wet het ook 'n minimum spoedbeperking opgelê (8 km / h in stede en 15 km / h in landelike gebiede) waaronder plaaslike spoedbeperkings nie kon gaan nie.

Op 2 Mei het die Tye berig dat 17 mense reeds om lisensies aansoek gedoen het en dat 'n man met die naam George F. Chamberlain die eerste een sou ontvang. Teen September het die Tribune berig 715 het aansoek gedoen, en lisensies beloop 1 566 teen die begin van April die volgende jaar, volgens Marvin.

Maar namate die aantal motors en bestuurders toeneem, het die geverfde op-voorletters-stelsel om 'n eenvoudige rede begin misluk: Daar was net te veel mense met dieselfde voorletters. Vandaar die moderne kenteken.

Op 15 Mei 1903 het die staatswetgewer 'n nuwe wet aangeneem waarin die minister van buitelandse sake van New York vereis word om aan elke geregistreerde eienaar 'n nommer toe te wys wat op die agterkant van die voertuig verskyn. En in dieselfde jaar sou bestuurders in New York hul eie borde tot 1910 moes voorsien, en mdash Massachusetts het die eerste geword om plate wat deur die staat uitgereik is, te versprei.


Die geskiedenis van bestuursouderdom

Die meeste state vereis dat 'n persoon onder sekere omstandighede minstens 16 jaar oud is om 'n motor te bestuur, terwyl die minimum ouderdom om 'n volledige lisensie te ontvang gewoonlik 18 jaar is. die minimum lisensie -ouderdom vir die meeste state. Vandag is daar 'n wydverspreide debat oor die verhoging van die minimumouderdom om sterftes in tieners te verminder.

Agtergrond

Namate die motor in die 1920's meer algemeen geword het, het state volgens die Insurance Institute for Highway Safety oor die algemeen arbitrêre ouderdomsbeperkings gestel waarvolgens 'n persoon 'n rybewys kan kry. In 1921 was Connecticut die eerste staat wat 'n persoon van 16 jaar of ouer toegelaat het om te bestuur, vergesel van iemand met 'n lisensie. Tussen 1919 en 1937 het 15 state minimum ouderdomsvereistes uitgevaardig, met nege wat 16-jariges toegelaat het om lisensies te bekom. Teen die veertigerjare het die meeste state 16 as die minimum ouderdom goedgekeur.

Gegradueerde lisensiëring

Teen die 1980's het die meeste state wette ingestel wat 'gegradueerde lisensiëring' moontlik maak. Dit beteken gewoonlik dat 'n 16-jarige 'n bestuurderslisensietoets kan aflê en mag ry, alhoewel nie met tienerpassasiers nie, gewoonlik onder toesig van ouers en dikwels nie snags nie.


DMV Geskiedenis

Die vroegste moontlike verwysings na voertuigregistrasie en moontlik nommerplate dateer uit antieke Rome in die tyd van Julius Caesar, 102 - 44 v.C. Daar is verwysings na die lisensiëring van waens, maar of 'n nommer op die wa self of op 'n aanhegsel aan die voertuig gemerk is, is nie bekend nie.

Wat moontlik deur die eeue voortgeduur het, is 'n raaisel tot die Victoriaanse Engeland in die 1880's. In Die hond van die Baskervilles deur Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Sherlock Holmes en dr Watson word tevergeefs probeer om 'n publiek te vang Hansom -taxi. Holmes het egter naby genoeg aan die kajuit gekom om sy lisensienommer op te spoor, wat 'n belangrike idee geword het om die saak te bestry.

Namate motors aan die einde van die negentiende en vroeë twintigste eeu meer algemeen geword het, het 'n behoefte aan registrasie ontstaan. Voor universele lisensiëring op staatsvlak het stede en provinsies hul eie nommerplate uitgereik. Alhoewel daar soms werklike borde was, was hierdie sogenaamde vooraf-state meestal tuisgemaak-gewoonlik metaalhuisnommers wat aan 'n leerblok geheg is.

Deur optrede van sy wetgewer het New York op 25 April 1901 die eerste staat geword wat voertuigregistrasie vereis het, en Kalifornië het later dieselfde jaar sy voorbeeld gevolg. Die eerste uitgawes in New York was tuisgemaakte borde, met die voorletters van die eienaar sonder getalle. Massachusetts was die eerste staat wat werklik plate uitgereik het, begin in 1903. Teen 1918 reik al 48 die aangrensende Verenigde State nommerplaat uit. Alhoewel dit destyds gebiede was, het Alaska en Hawaii in 1921 en 1922 onderskeidelik plate begin uitreik.

Kentekenplate het oor die jare aansienlik verander. Vroeë borde was nie 'n luukse nie - net die staatsnaam of afkorting, 'n registrasienommer en, meer gereeld, die jaar. Uitstekende letters, reflektorisering, slagspreuke, graafname, illustrasies of logo's wat eie is aan 'n spesifieke staat, word al hoe meer algemeen. Sedert die Amerikaanse honderdjarige bestaan ​​het die state begin met die uitreiking van grafiese plate met tonele, slagspreuke of uitgebreide toestelle wat op die plate vertoon is. Vir baie jare is die nommers en letters in die metaal gegraveer of in die metaal gestempel en geverf. Die neiging is nou na plat, nie-reliëfborde.

Sedert 1957 was die meeste tipes Noord -Amerikaanse borde 'n standaardmaat, ses by twaalf duim. Voor dit was verskillende groottes en vorms nie ongewoon nie. Plate was gewoonlik reghoekig, maar ovaal, vierkantig, rond en driehoekig is gebruik. Vir 'n aantal jare het Kansas en Tennessee hul borde gesny volgens die vorm van die staat self. Die onderskeid vir die mees ongewoon gevormde plate gaan na Northwest Territories en Nunavut in Kanada, wat hul borde in die vorm van 'n beer laat sny.

'N Groot verskeidenheid materiale is vir kentekens gebruik. Metaal word die algemeenste gebruik, met staal en aluminium. Tin, koper en koper is ook gebruik. Vroeë plate vir baie state was porselein bedekte staal, maar dit was gou te duur om in die hoeveelheid benodig te word. Hout, rubber, geperste sojameel, karton en plastiek is gebruik in plaas van metaal of wanneer metaalvoorraad beperk was, soos tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Voorruitplakkers, of metaalblaaie of plakkers wat aan die plate self geheg is, is gebruik vir die hernuwing van plate. In April 1909 het die staat vir die eerste keer aan alle geregistreerde voertuigeienaars die pasgemaakte pare wit op swart porseleinplate verskaf. Die nommeringsvolgorde het daardie jaar op 1 000 begin om die gebruik van vroeëre registrasies tot die einde van 1909 moontlik te maak. Die ongewone nommervolgorde van die vorige jaar is vir 1910 verander. Plate is in numeriese volgorde uitgereik, begin met nommer 1 en styg opwaarts .

Die staat het elke jaar van 1910 tot 1915 'n nuwe porseleinbord uitgereik aan voertuigeienaars. In 'n vroeë eienaardigheid was daar twee verskillende variasies van plate van 1913 en 1914. 'N Verdere feit is dat motorfietse en motors tot 1913 dieselfde nommerplate ontvang het.' N Afsonderlike reeks is in 1914 bekendgestel.

In 1916 het die staat oorgegaan van porselein na 'n geverfde reliëfstaalplaat. Tussen 1929 en 1937, en weer in 1940 en 1941, is blou en geel as 'n standaard kleurskema aangeneem, wat elke jaar wissel van agtergrond tot nommerkleur. Die borde gemaak vir 1938 en 1939 bevat 'n afwisselende kombinasie van silwer en kastanjebruin. Die 1929 -uitgawe het ook die bekendstelling van die beroemde "diamant" grafiese simbool bekendgestel. Motorregistrasies het eers in 1917 vyf syfers bereik.

Kommersiële voertuie het 'n aparte plaatreeks in 1923 gekry. Die kenmerkende ovaalvormige etikette is deur 1928 uitgereik. In 1929 is die meer algemene letter "C" -voorvoegsel bygevoeg en die ovaalvorm gestaak. Die vroegste bekende plaat met die voorvoegsel aanduiding "T", vir sleepwa, is 1920. 'n Ander unieke punt van die kenteken in Delaware het die letter "X" as 'n voorvoegselmerker op voertuighandelaarplate van 1914 tot 1936 gesien. Sedert 1937 handelaarplate is vervaardig met die letter "D" as 'n identifiseerder.

'N Bietjie bekende detail is dat daar geen gedateerde bord van 1940 is nie. Plate van hierdie jaar en die daaropvolgende jaar het die vervaldatums van onderskeidelik 3-31-41 (31 Maart 1941) en 3-31-42 (31 Maart 1942) bevat. Dit was die laaste van die eenjarige geverfde staalplate. Die verskillende tipes registrasie, behalwe passasiers-, kommersiële en motorfiets, is meestal volledig op die turkoois en geelkleurige 3-31-41 borde uitgespel.

Die hoogs herkenbare wit op swart porselein nommerplate met 'n datum-blad, is in 1941 in première gelewer, as pasgemaakte pare aan nuwe registrante. Kort daarna het die koms van die oorlogstydse ekonomie daartoe gelei dat die staat nie meer plate "pare" uitreik of vereis nie. Baie motoriste het eenvoudig die voorplaat verwyder en dit op die rak in die motorhuis geplaas, wat die hoë oorlewingsyfer in 'n goeie toestand van hierdie 50+ jaar oue plate aandui. Daar is drie verskillende variëteite, of reekse, van die oorspronklike porseleinborde in 'DEL.-styl'. Die eerste reeks, gemaak deur die Baltimore Enamel and Novelty Co., het op nommer 1 begin en twee -twee aan die einde van die 75 000's gehardloop. 'N Klein diamant gaan die laaste drie syfers van 4 en 5 -syfer plate van hierdie reeks vooraf. Die duidelike diamantvorm verskyn nie op drie -syfer of laer passasiersborde nie. Die tweede porseleinreeks is 'n kort reeks getalle van ongeveer 76 000 tot by die lae 77 000. Die belangrikste kenmerk van hierdie enkele plate is dat daar geen diamantmerk van enige van die syfers is nie. Subtiele verskille in die getalstensilontwerp kan ook herken word. Die derde reeks strek van ongeveer nommer 77,120 tot ongeveer 87,000. Hierdie plate is vervaardig in Lansdale, PA, en bevat die syfers met 'n skuinsslag wat identies is aan dié wat op Pennsylvania-kentekens van hierdie era gebruik is. Beide reeks 2 en 3 porselein word selde gesien.

Die meerderheid van die swart porseleinplate wat vandag gebruik word, is reproduksie -afskrifte van die oorspronklike reeks een -styl. Dit kan maklik van die oorspronklike onderskei word deur die groter afstand tussen die boutgleuwe. In 1986 wettig die afdeling motorvoertuie die vervaardiging van akkurate replika's as gevolg van die algemene aanvraag deur die aanneming van DMV "Policy Regulation 79". Daar is slegs een onderneming wat aktief in die vraag na hierdie plate voorsien. Die Delaware Historic Plate Company produseer 'n konsekwent hoë kwaliteit etiket wat getrou is aan die oorspronklike ontwerp. Delaware is die enigste staat wat privaat vervaardiging van plate vir wettige registrasiedoeleindes moontlik maak, en die enigste staat wat die beroemde porseleinplate in die moderne era behou het.

Die porseleinplate is in ongeveer 1947 vervang deur swart geverfde vlekvrye staalborde met kaal vlekvrye syfers. Die volledige spelling vir "DELAWARE" is bo -op die reliëf aangebring en die oortjiesgleuwe is na die onderkant van die bord verskuif. In 1951 het die toevoeging van wit weerkaatsende materiaal by die syfers die sigbaarheid van hierdie plate aansienlik verbeter. Op hierdie tydstip is die "P/C" -benaming eers bekendgestel.

In 1957 het die hele land oorgeskakel na nommerplate van standaard grootte 6 "x 12". Delaware was die laaste staat wat by hierdie omskakeling aangepas het, en bly die enigste staat met nie-standaard grootte plate in die huidige gebruik.

Die moderne reflektiewe goud op blou bord is die eerste keer in 1958 bekendgestel. Die bekende slagspreuk "DIE EERSTE STAAT" is vier jaar later bygevoeg. Aan die einde van 1968 is plat plate met systrepe bekendgestel as 'n vervaardigingsverbetering in vergelyking met die klinknagelstelsel.

Die styl van die kenteken van Delaware het in amper 50 jaar nie veel verander nie. 'N Duidelike aanduiding van die respek wat getoon word vir die eenvoudige en kenmerkende ontwerp. Die swart oniks en erfenis goudkleurige Centennial -kenteken is 'n viering van 100 jaar kentekenplate wat deur die staat uitgereik is. Dit is ons opregte hoop dat die Eeufeesplaat nog 'n unieke hoofstuk sal toevoeg tot die 100 jaar van ons staat se kentekengeskiedenis.

Spesiale dank aan ons goeie vriend en ywerige kentekenversamelaar, Dave Lincoln. Dave se uitgebreide kennis was die belangrikste bron vir hierdie afdeling oor die geskiedenis van Delaware -kentekens.


In die Verenigde State word bestuurslisensies deur die individuele state uitgereik vir hul inwoners. Beskerming van die openbare belangstelling is die hoofdoel van bestuurderslisensies. Dit is nodig vir die bestuur van alle soorte motorvoertuie. Bestuurslisensies word ook gebruik as 'n belangrike vorm van foto-identifikasie in die Verenigde State, veral in baie nie-bestuurdersituasies waar bewys van identiteit of ouderdom vereis word. As identifikasie is dit nuttig om aan boord van lugrederye te gaan, tjeks te betaal en bewys te lewer van ouderdom vir aktiwiteite soos die aankoop van alkoholiese drank.

Die eerste bestuurderslisensies is in 1893 in Parys uitgereik. Om een ​​van hierdie lisensies te bekom, moes die bestuurder weet hoe om sy eie motor te herstel en te bestuur. In die Verenigde State begin die registrasie van voertuie in 1901. Bestuurders van lisensies begin in 1916, en teen die middel van die twintigerjare was daar ouderdomsvereistes en ander beperkings op wie 'n motorlisensie kon kry.

Hierdie gesag word aan die state gedelegeer, alhoewel daar sedert die vroegste jare uitdagings was vir spesifieke aspekte van staatslisensieregte, sowel as direkte uitdagings vir die state en die regte op lisensievoertuie en bestuurders. Wat laasgenoemde aangeleentheid betref, het die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof in 1915 opgemerk in die geval van Hendrick v. Maryland dat die beweging van motorvoertuie oor die snelweë gepaard gaan met konstante en ernstige gevare vir die publiek en ook abnormaal vernietigend is vir die [hoë] maniere self ... [A] staat mag met reg eenvormige regulasies voorskryf wat nodig is vir openbare veiligheid en orde ten opsigte van die werking op alle snelweë van alle motorvoertuie - diegene wat in die interstaatlike handel beweeg, sowel as ander ... Dit is slegs 'n uitoefening van die polisiemag wat eenvormig erken word as deel van die state en noodsaaklik is vir die behoud van die gesondheid, veiligheid en gemak van hul burgers.#8221 235 US 610.

Bestuurslisensies verrig verskeie belangrike funksies. Toe hulle vir die eerste keer in die Verenigde State uitgereik is, was bestuurslisensies bedoel om te verifieer dat die houer voldoen het aan die regulasies wat verband hou met die bestuur van 'n motorvoertuig. Benewens die verifikasie van die nakoming van staatswette, het bestuurderslisensies 'n byna noodsaaklike vorm van identifikasie geword vir individue, wetstoepassingsowerhede en ander wat identiteitsbevestiging benodig. Later is foto's bygevoeg om positiewe identifikasie te help en om gevalle te verminder bedrog. Ander maatreëls om te voorkom vervalsing bestuurderslisensies sluit in die gebruik van duimafdruk en hologram -beelde op die lisensie. Vandag gee baie state lisensies uit met magnetiese stroke en strepieskodes om elektroniese inligting oor bestuurslisensie -inligting as 'n verkeer op te neem aanhaling uitgereik word.


Die geskiedenis van die DMV

Toe motorvoertuie eers teen die einde van die 19de eeu op die paaie bekendgestel word, het 'n behoefte ontstaan ​​om 'n stel reëls op te stel wat hul beweging en interaksie met ander deelnemers aan die verkeer reguleer. Dit was nodig om die veiligheid van voetgangers en fietsryers te verseker, aangesien motorvoertuie as gevaarlik beskou is en steeds is. Daar was aanvanklik beperkings op wanneer en hoe dit gebruik kan word. Daar was byvoorbeeld 'n vereiste om na die kant van die pad te trek wanneer perdekarre voertuie nader, of die reël om dit slegs in daglig te gebruik. Aangesien motorvoertuie vinnig in getalle toegeneem het, het 'n nuwe stel wette gekom wat vereis dat eienaars nommerplate vir hul voertuie en 'n rybewys vir hulself moes kry. Dit was die begin van die registrasieproses van voertuie en bestuurders wat in die vroeë 1900's plaasgevind het.

Vandag word hierdie prosedures hanteer deur die staatsowerhede, die Departement van Motorvoertuie (DMV).

Die DMV het mettertyd sy omvang van aktiwiteite en verantwoordelikhede uitgebrei, wat verkeersveiligheid, bestuurderopleiding, toetsing, lisensiëring en registrasie reguleer. Met die opkoms van nuwe tegnologieë, het sommige DMV's onlangs aanlyndienste begin aanbied, soos die hantering van verkeersaanhalings, sake- en versekeringstransaksies, rekordpunte vir bestuurders en lisensie -statuskontroles, ens.

Sommige van die eerste groot veranderinge in die voertuigregistrasieproses wat gedurende die 1950's en 1960's plaasgevind het, was die bekendstelling van rookmisbeheertoestelle as 'n verpligte voorwaarde vir die eerste keer om te registreer. In die vroeë 70's het die DMV begin met die uitreik van persoonlike nommerplate, of wasbordjies, waarmee voertuigeienaars hul eie name of 'n kombinasie van letters en syfers op hul bord kon plaas.


Tydlyn van vroue in vervoergeskiedenis

Die oorspronklike 13 state het wette aangeneem wat vroue verbied het om te stem. Abigail Smith Adams (vrou van John Adams, die tweede president, en die moeder van John Quincy Adams, die sesde president) het geskryf dat vroue "ons nie sal bind aan enige wette waaroor ons geen stem het nie".

Hannah Adams was die eerste Amerikaanse vrou wat haarself onderhou het deur te skryf.

Rebecca Lukens het die leiding geneem oor die Brandywine Iron Works, 'n onderneming wat yster vervaardig het vir ketels en rompe van skepe en spoorwaens en relings.

Die eerste openbare hoërskole vir meisies is in New York en Boston geopen.

Maria Mitchell, 'n Amerikaanse sterrekundige, het 'n komeet ontdek. Sy word die eerste vrouelid van die American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848 en van die American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1850. Sy werk later by die US Nautical Almanac Office en dra berekenings by tot die Nautical Almanac wat deur die US Naval Sterrewag.

Die eerste vroueregtekonvensie is in Seneca Falls, New York, gehou. Na 2 dae se bespreking en debat het 68 vroue en 32 mans 'n verklaring van gevoelens onderteken wat griewe uiteensit en die agenda vir die vroueregtebeweging bepaal.

Van 1850 tot 1858 het Harriet Tubman meer as 300 slawe gehelp om vryheid te bereik deur die Underground Railroad.

Die eerste National Women's Rights Convention het in Worcester, Massachusetts, plaasgevind en het meer as 1 000 deelnemers gelok.

Susan Morningstar het een van die eerste vroue op rekord by 'n spoorlyn geword.

Toe haar man siek word, neem Mary Patten die bevel oor sy skip, Neptunus se motor, en sy bemanning onderweg van Europa na San Francisco, en vyftig dae lank suksesvol die skip om Kaapse Horn na die kus van Chili.

Martha J. Coston het 'n patent verwerf vir Telegraphic Night Signals, 'n pirotegniese seinstelsel wat 'n omwenteling in maritieme kommunikasie veroorsaak het. Die Amerikaanse vloot het die stelsel gebruik om gevegte te wen en skipbreukelinge te red.

Die eerste vroulike prokureurs is in die VSA gelisensieer

In November het Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell en ander die American Woman Suffrage Association gestig, 'n organisasie wat gehelp het om stemreg vir vroue te verkry deur wysigings aan individuele grondwette.

In Desember het die gebied van Wyoming die eerste stemreg vir vroue goedgekeur. Die jaar daarna het vroue in die jurie in die gebied begin dien.

Eliza Murfey het 16 toestelle gepatenteer vir die verbetering van spoorwa -asse. Hierdie toestelle is gebruik om die asse met olie te smeer, wat die ontsporings wat veroorsaak is deur asse en laers wat beslag gelê het, verminder het.

Die Burlington Railroad in Illinois het E. F. Sawyer aangestel as die eerste Amerikaanse vroulike telegraafoperateur.

Elizabeth Bragg Cumming het die eerste vrou in die Verenigde State geword wat 'n graad in siviele ingenieurswese ontvang het toe sy aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Berkeley studeer.

Emily Gross het 'n patent gekry vir verbeterings in klippaadjies.

Mary Walton het patent nr. 221.880 ontvang vir 'n metode om rookvrystellings deur watertenks af te weer om besoedelstowwe op te vang, wat dan deur die water deur die stad se rioolstelsel vervoer word. Sy het die stelsel aangepas vir gebruik op lokomotiewe.

Mary Myers was die eerste Amerikaanse vrou wat solo in 'n regie eet.

Die Brooklyn -brug het oopgemaak. Emily Warren Roebling was die surrogaathoofingenieur van 1872 tot 1883. Sy het toesig gehou oor die daaglikse konstruksie nadat haar man, Washington Roebling, die hoofingenieur, siek geword het. Sy behaal later 'n regsgraad en word een van die eerste vroulike prokureurs in die staat New York.

Julia Brainerd Hall het saam met haar broer, Charles Hall, 'n kommersieel lewensvatbare aluminium ontwikkel.

Mary Meyers het 'n nuwe wêreldrekord van vier myl opgestel in 'n ballon gevul met aardgas in plaas van waterstof - sy het tot op hierdie hoogte gestyg sonder die voordeel van suurstoftoerusting.

Joernalis Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman, beter bekend as Nellie Bly, het begin met haar poging om die rekord van Phineas Fogg, die denkbeeldige held van Jules Verne se roman, Around the World in Tighty Days, te verslaan. Nellie Bly voltooi haar reis op 25 Januarie 1890, 15:51, presies 72 dae, 6 uur en 11 minute vanaf die dag dat sy met haar reis begin het.

Thea Foss begin 'n skeepsboumaatskappy in Tacoma, Washington, wat die Foss Maritime Company geword het.

Die National Women Suffrage Association en die American Women Suffrage Association het saamgesmelt om die National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) te vorm.

Annie H. Chilton het 'n gekombineerde perdeskakelaar en voertuigrem uitgevind en gepatenteer. Die toestel maak dit moontlik om die rem en die losmaak van die perd gelyktydig aan te trek, wat die kans op beserings van bestuurders verminder het.

Mary Walton het 'n patent verwerf vir haar spoorweg-klankdempingsapparaat vir verhoogde spoorweë, wat die spore gelê het in 'n houtkas wat met katoen uitgevoer was en met sand gevul was.

Colorado het die eerste staat geword om 'n wysiging aan te neem wat vroue stemreg gee. Utah en Idaho volg in 1896, Washington State in 1910, Kalifornië in 1911, Oregon, Kansas en Arizona in 1912, Alaska en Illinois in 1913, Montana en Nevada in 1914, New York in 1917 Michigan, South Dakota en Oklahoma in 1918.

Twee jaar nadat die eerste federale padagentskap, die Office of Road Enquiry, gestig is, is Clara K. Bragdon aangestel as 'n assistent -boodskapper teen $ 840 per jaar.

Mary Church Terrell het die National Association of Colored Women gestig.

Anne Rainsford French Bush, blykbaar die eerste vrou wat 'n lisensie gekry het om 'n motor te bestuur, het 'n 'stoomingenieurslisensie' gekry, wat haar geregtig het om 'n 'vierwielmotor met stoom of gas' te bestuur.

Sarah Clark Kidder het die president geword van die Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad in Kalifornië.

Mary Anderson het 'n patent om 'n venster skoon te maak, die voorganger van die huidige ruitveërs.

Die National Women's Trade Union League (WTUL) is gestig om te pleit vir verbeterde lone en werksomstandighede vir vroue.

E. Lillian Todd was die eerste vrou wat 'n vliegtuig ontwerp en gebou het - dit het nooit gevlieg nie.

Alice Huyler Ramsey was die eerste vrou wat van kus tot kus gery het, van New York na Kalifornië. Sy het ook die Women's Motoring Club gestig.

Mev. Ralph Van Deman was die eerste vrou wat as vliegtuigpassasier in die Verenigde State vlieg - Wilbur Wright het haar vir 'n kort vlug geneem.

Bessica Raiche het die eerste vrouevlieënier in Amerika geword wat 'n beplande vlug gemaak het.

Blanche Stuart Scott, sonder toestemming of kennis van Glenn Curtiss, die eienaar en bouer van die vliegtuig, het een van sy vliegtuie in die lug laat ry - sonder vlieglesse - en word sodoende die eerste Amerikaanse vrou wat 'n vliegtuig bestuur.

Helene Mallard het die eerste vrou geword wat met 'n vlieër, wat deur Samuel F. Perkins ontwerp is, opgevaar het.

Harriet Quimby was die eerste Amerikaanse vrou wat 'n vlieëniersertifikaat van die in Frankryk gevestigde Federation Aeronautique Internationale (FAI) verwerf het. Sy was ook die eerste vroue wat snags vlieg, en in 1912 die eerste vroue wat haar eie vliegtuig oor die Engelse Kanaal geloods het.

Bernetta Miller het die eerste persoon geword wat 'n eenvliegtuig vir die Amerikaanse regering gedemonstreer het.

Georgia "Tiny" Broadwick was die eerste vrou ter wêreld wat 'n valskerm spring van 'n vliegtuig.

Alice Paul en Lucy Burns het die Congressional Union gestig om 'n federale wysiging deur te voer om vroue die stem te gee. Die groep is later herdoop tot die National Women's Party.

Katherine Stinson was die eerste vroulike vlieënier.

Wilma Russey het die eerste vrou geword wat as taxibestuurder in New York gewerk het en was 'n kundige motorwerktuigkundige.

Die Girl Scouts het 'n 'Automobling Badge' begin waarvoor meisies die bestuursvaardigheid, motorwerktuigkunde en noodhulpvaardighede moes demonstreer.

Republikein Jeannette Rankin van Montana het die eerste vroue geword wat in enige tak van die kongres gedien het. Sy is verkies in 'n tyd toe vroue in die meeste state nie mag stem nie.

Ruth Law was die eerste persoon wat lugpos in die Filippyne gevlieg het.

Charlotte Bridgwood het die eerste outomatiese ruitveër gepatenteer.

Katherine Blodgett het die eerste vroulike wetenskaplike geword wat by General Electric se navorsingslaboratorium in Schenectady, New York, gehuur is.

'N Groot aantal vroue het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog die personeellede betree.

Luella Bates het vir die Four Wheel Drive Auto Co begin werk. Tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het sy as 'n toetsbestuurder in 'n Model B -vragmotor gewerk. Na die oorlog, toe die maatskappy die meerderheid vroue laat gaan, het Luella as demonstrateur en bestuurder gebly. In Januarie 1920 reis Luella na New York City waar sy die New York Auto Show bywoon. Tydens haar verblyf word sy die eerste vroulike vragmotorbestuurder wat 'n bestuurslisensie in New York ontvang het. In 1920 stuur Four Wheel Drive Bates op drie transkontinentale toere deur die Verenigde State om die idee bekend te stel dat die vragmotor so maklik is om te bestuur dat 'n vrou dit kan bestuur.

Die federale stemregwysiging, wat oorspronklik deur Susan B. Anthony geskryf is en in 1878 in die kongres ingevoer is, is deur die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en die Senaat goedgekeur en daarna vir bekragtiging na die state gestuur.

Op 26 Augustus het Bainbridge Colby, minister van buitelandse sake, die 19de wysiging van die Grondwet onderteken en vroue die stemreg verleen.

Die Departement van Arbeid het die Vroueburo gestig om inligting oor vroue in die arbeidsmag te versamel en goeie werksomstandighede vir vroue te beskerm. Mary Anderson was die eerste direkteur van die nuwe organisasie.

Olive Dennis het die diensingenieur van die Baltimore & Ohio Railroad geword. Sy het ook verskeie patente gehad, soos een vir die Dennis -ventilator, wat in die vensterbanke van passasiersmotors geplaas is en deur passasiers beheer is. Sy het ook bygedra tot die ontwikkeling van koetse met lugversorging, dimmers op die hoofligte, individuele sitstoele en vlekbestande stoffering. Boonop was sy die eerste vroulike lid van die American Railway Engineering Association.

Bessie Coleman was die eerste Afro-Amerikaner, man of vrou wat 'n vlieënierslisensie van die FAI verwerf het.

Lillian Boyer, een van die eerste vroulike lugvaartakrobate en vleuelwandelaars, het haar loopbaan begin.

Helen Schultz, die "Iowa Bus Queen", het die Red Ball Transportation Company gestig en het van stad tot stad vervoer per bus gelewer.

Elinor Smith became the youngest licensed pilot to date in the U.S. at the age of 16. In 1930, she became the youngest pilot, male or female, granted a transport license by the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Phoebe Fairgrave Omlie was the first woman to obtain a pilot’s license and an aircraft mechanics license from the U.S. federal government.

Kathrine Gerhardt Beckert was one of the first women hired by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad as part of its clerical and platform force.

Louise Thaden was the first pilot to hold the women's altitude, endurance, and speed records in light planes simultaneously. In 1929 she won the first All Women's Air Race, which became known as the Power Puff Derby.

Amelia Earhart became the first president of the Ninety-Nines, an organization of women pilots.

Elizabeth Drennan received her commercial truck driver’s license and went on to run a trucking company.

Evelyn “Bobbi” Trout was the first woman to perform in-flight aerial refueling.

Florence "Pancho" Barnes was the first female stunt pilot in motion pictures.

Fay Gillis Wells became the first woman pilot to parachute from a disabled airplane to save her life. This qualified her to be the first woman member of the Caterpillar Club, an informal association of people who successfully used a parachute to bail out of a disabled aircraft.

Ellen Church, a registered nurse, served as the first airline stewardess in the U.S.

Helen Blair Bartlett developed new insulations for spark plugs.

Amelia Earhart set the woman’s autogiro altitude record of 18,415 feet. The following year, she became the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic.

Katherine Cheung became the first woman of Chinese ancestry to earn a pilot's license.

Ruth Nichols failed in her attempt to fly solo across the Atlantic, but broke the world distance record flying from California to Kentucky.

Hattie W. Caraway of Arkansas became the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate. Rebecca Felton of Georgia had previously been appointed to the Senate, but served just one day.

Olive Ann Beech, along with her husband Walter, co-founded Beech Aircraft Company.

Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins became the first woman cabinet officer.

Helen Richey was the first woman hired as a pilot for a U.S. commercial airline (Central Airlines).

Amelia Earhart became the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to the American mainland.

Mary McLeod Bethune organized the National Council of Negro Women, a coalition of black women's groups that lobbied against job discrimination, racism, and sexism.

Blanche Noyes joined the Air Marking Group of the Bureau of Air Commerce becoming the first female pilot hired by a federal agency.

Louise Thaden and Blanche Noyes beat male pilots in the Bendix Trophy Race, the first victory of women over men in a race which both men and women could enter.

Nadine Jeppesen and her husband Captain Elry Jeppesen established a flight chart business, producing the Jeppesen Airway Manual.

The Fair Labor Standards Act codified the 40-hour workweek, paid overtime, minimum wages, and child labor laws.

Jacqueline Cochran set an international speed record the same year, she became the first woman to make a blind landing.

Willa Brown was first African-American commercial pilot and first African-American woman officer in the Civil Air Patrol. She also helped establish the National Airmen's Association of America which worked to open the U.S. Armed Forces to African-American men.

Dorothy Layne McIntyre was one of the first African-American women accepted into a pilot training program run by the Civil Aeronautics Authority. During World War II, she taught aircraft mechanics at the War Production Training School in Baltimore, Maryland. She applied for admission to the Women Airforce Service Pilots, a program staffed by civilian women pilots who ferried military aircraft from manufacturing plants to Air Force bases, but was denied admission because of her race.

Frances Prothero became the first female manager for UPS.

Mary Converse became the first woman to earn captain’s papers (for yachts of any tonnage) in the U.S. Merchant Marine. During World War II, she taught navigation to Naval Reserve officers.

The Civil Aeronautics Administration began hiring and training women to be air traffic controllers.

Jacqueline Cochrane was the first woman to ferry a bomber across the Atlantic.

Rose Rolls Cousins was the first African-American woman in West Virginia licensed as a solo pilot under the government sponsored Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPTP). She earned her wings at West Virginia State College, Institute. A member of West Virginia State University's first graduating Civilian Pilot Training Program class in 1941, Cousins traveled to Tuskegee in hopes of becoming a military pilot like her male counterparts. She was refused admission because she was a woman. Cousins stayed at West Virginia State University and became an instructor in the CPTP program. Tuskegee Airmen Inc. made her an honorary member before her death in 2006.

Beatrice Alice Hicks became the first female engineer employed by Western Electric. She developed a crystal oscillator, which generated radio frequencies, a technology used in aircraft communications. Later, while working as vice president and chief engineer at her family’s Newark Controls Company, she developed environmental sensors for heating and cooling systems – NASA later used much of this technology in its space program.

Nancy Harkness Love and Jackie Cochran organized women flying units and training detachments.

Helene Rother became the first woman to work as an automotive designer when she joined the interior styling staff of General Motors in Detroit.

Janet Waterford Bragg became the first African-American woman to earn a federal commercial pilot's license.

Mazie Lanham became the first female drive for UPS.

Arcola Philpott broke the color line at Los Angeles Railways when she became the first African-American “motormanette.”

Ivey Parker, Ph.D., a chemist and research engineer for the petroleum industry, became the first editor of Corrosion, the official publication of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers.

By 1945, 18 million women were in the U.S. labor force, an increase of 50 percent from 1940. "Rosie the Riveter" became a symbol for women's role in the defense industry.

Ann Shaw Carter was the first woman to receive a helicopter rating.

Marilyn Jorgenson Reece became the first female engineer for California’s Division of Highways (now Caltrans). In 1965 she designed the I-10/405 interchange (now named after her), and later worked on construction of the I-605 Freeway, the I-210 extension, and the I-105 Century Freeway.

Grace Hopper, a U.S. Navy officer, was the first programmer of the Harvard Mark I, known as the "Mother of COBOL." She developed the first ever compiler for an electronic computer, known as A-0.

From 1952 to 1953, Ann Davison became the first woman to cross the Atlantic solo in a sailboat.

M. Gertrude Rand, Ph.D., became the first female fellow of the Illuminating Society of North America. During her career, she worked on the design for lighting the Holland Tunnel under the Hudson River between New York City and Jersey City, New Jersey. She also developed vision standards for airplane pilots and ship lookouts during World War II. In 1959, Gertrude was the first woman to receive the Optical Society of America's Edgar D. Tillyer Medal in recognition of distinguished work in the field of vision.

Jacqueline Cochran was the first woman to break the sound barrier.

A group of women helicopter pilots, led by Jean Ross Howard, formed Whirly Girls International, a support network for women pilots and to exchange information on rotary wing aircraft.

Rosa Parks refused to obey bus driver James Blake’s order that she give up her seat to make room for a white passenger sparking the Montgomery County Bus Boycott led by Dr. Martin Luther King. Parks became an icon of resistance and an important symbol of the modern Civil Rights Movement.

Edith M. Flanigen began work on crystalline zeolytes, or "molecular sieves," which could be used to filter and separate complex mixtures. Zeolyte technology improved the conversion of crude oil to gasoline, water purification, and environmental clean-up processes.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower named Mabel MacFerran Rockwell Woman Engineer of the Year for her contributions to national defense. She was one of the first woman aeronautical engineers in the United States and is known for demonstrating the greater effectiveness and efficiency of spot welding as opposed to riveting. She designed the guidance systems for the Polaris missile and the Atlas guided missile launcher, and helped design the electrical installations at the Boulder and Hoover Dams. She also designed underwater propulsion systems and submarine guidance mechanisms.

Irmgard Flugge-Lotz, an aerodynamics researcher, became Stanford University's first female professor in engineering. In 1970, she was awarded the Achievement Award by the Society of Women Engineers. She was the first woman elected to be a Fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1970, and in 1971 she was the first woman to be selected to give the prestigious von Karman Lecture.

Dana Ulery was the first female engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developing real-time tracking systems using a North American Aviation Recomp II, a 40-bit word size computer.

Jane Jacobs published a book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, one of the most influential books in the history of city planning. Her concepts of bringing life to city streets still influence pedestrian and transit planning efforts today.

A group of women aviators, known as the Mercury 13, underwent and passed the same physical and psychological exams that were given to the Mercury 7 male astronauts. None of the women were ever selected for a space mission.

President John Kennedy established the President's Commission on the Status of Women and appointed former first lady Eleanor Roosevelt as chairwoman. The report issued by the Commission in 1963 documented substantial discrimination against women in the workplace and made specific recommendations for improvement, including fair hiring practices, paid maternity leave, and affordable child care.

Beverly Cover became the first woman highway engineer to join the Bureau of Public Roads, the predecessor of the Federal Highway Administration.

Congress passed the Equal Pay Act, which made it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than what a man would receive for the same job.

Geraldine "Jerrie" Mock was the first woman to fly around the world.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex. At the same time it established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate complaints and impose penalties.

The Labor Department created the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs to hold federal contractors to a higher obligation for affirmative action in response to Executive Order 11246. The Executive Order prohibited federal contractors and subcontractors and federally assisted construction contractors and subcontractors from employment decisions that discriminate based on race, sex, color, religion or national origin.

Stephanie Louise Kwolek discovered liquid crystalline polymers, which eventually led to the development of Kevlar. Originally intended to reinforce the rubber in radial tires, Kevlar is now used for mooring cables, aircraft and space vehicle parts, sails, and bullet-proof vests.

Ensign Gale Ann Gordon became the first woman to solo in a Navy training plane.

A group of feminists, including Betty Friedan, established the National Organization for Women (NOW).

Executive Order 11375 expanded President Lyndon Johnson's affirmative action policy of 1965 to cover discrimination based on gender. As a result, federal agencies and contractors had to take active measures to ensure that women as well as minorities enjoyed the same educational and employment opportunities as white males.

Ida Van Smith founded a number of flight training clubs for minority children to encourage their involvement in aviation and aerospace sciences.

Elinor Williams became the first African-American air traffic controller.

The EEOC ruled that sex-segregated help wanted ads in newspapers were illegal. The ruling was upheld in 1973 by the Supreme Court, opening the way for women to apply for higher-paying jobs hitherto open only to men.

Southern Pacific employee Leah “Rosie” Rosenfeld filled and settled a sex-discrimination suit against her employer that resulted in a change to California’s women’s protective laws and opened senior positions at the railroad for women.

President Richard Nixon chartered the Presidential Task Force on Women’s Rights and Responsibilities. This task force, chaired by Virginia Allan, Chairwoman, led to the appointment of more than 100 women into executive positions in government – four times more than in any previous administration.

In Schultz v. Wheaton Glass Co., a U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that jobs held by men and women had to be "substantially equal" but not "identical" to fall under the protection of the Equal Pay Act.

Mary Anderson was the first woman to successfully complete the Federal Highway Administration’s 27-month highway engineer training program

Wally Funk became the first female FAA inspector and, in 1973, the first female in the FAA's System Airworthiness Analysis Program. Funk moved on to the NTSB in 1974, where she became one of the Board's first female air safety investigators.

Congress passed the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and sent it to the states for ratification. Originally drafted by Alice Paul in 1923, the amendment read: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." The amendment died in 1982 when it failed to achieve ratification by a minimum of 38 states.

Title IX of the Education Amendments banned sex discrimination in schools. It states: "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance." As a result of Title IX, the enrollment of women in athletics programs and professional schools increased dramatically.

Emily Howell Warner and Bonnie Tiburzi

  • Emily Howell Warner was the first woman hired as an air transport pilot for a modern, jet-equipped scheduled airline (Frontier Airlines).
  • Bonnie Tiburzi became the first women pilot for a major U.S. commercial airline (American Airlines).

Santa Fe Railway hired its first female locomotive engineer, Christene Gonzales.

U.S. Navy announced it would begin training women to be pilots.

In Corning Glass Works v. Brennan, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers could not justify paying women lower wages because that was what they traditionally received under the "going market rate." A wage differential occurring "simply because men would not work at the low rates paid to women" was unacceptable.

Mary Barr became the first woman pilot with the Forest Service.

Sally Murphy and Barbara Allen Rainey

  • Sally Murphy became the first woman to qualify as a helicopter pilot with the U.S. Army.
  • Barbara Allen Rainey became the first female pilot in U.S. Navy.

U.S. Merchant Marine Academy accepted its first group of women.

Janet Guthrie qualified for and competed in the Indianapolis 500. Before becoming a race car driver, Guthrie worked as a pilot, flight instructor, aerospace engineer, technical editor, and public representative for major corporations.

Joan Claybrook became the first female administrator of NHTSA.

The Women’s Transportation Seminar (WTS) was founded to improve professional and personal advancement and develop industry and government recognition for women in transportation.

Congress passed a bill recognizing the WASP pilots of World War II as military personnel, and President Jimmy Carter signed the bill into law.

Gary Gayton, former Special Assistant to the U.S. Secretary of Transportation Brock Adams and Department of Transportation’s White House Liaison, drafted the DOT Minority Business and Women Business Enterprise program later adopted by President Jimmy Carter for all Executive level departments. His work led to his appointment to the Interagency Committee on Women Business Enterprise.

Barbara Wilson became the first African-American woman automobile dealer in her role as President and Dealer Operator of the Honda dealership in Ferndale, Michigan.

Lynn Spruill became the first woman U.S. Navy aviator to obtain carrier qualification.

Alinda Burke became the first woman deputy administrator of FHWA.

Candy Lightner, founded Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD), which has grown into one of the most influential safety advocacy groups in the country.

Lynn Rippelmeyer was the first woman to pilot a Boeing 747.

Arlene Feldman became the first woman to head a state division of aeronautics. In 1984 she began her career with the FAA as the first female deputy director of the FAA Technical Center in Atlantic City, New Jersey. In 1986 she became the first female deputy director of the FAA's Western Pacific Region in Los Angeles, California. She became the FAA's highest ranking, non-politically appointed woman in 1988 when she became the New England Regional Administrator. In 1994, she became the director of FAA’s Eastern Region.

Rose Albert was the first Native woman to compete in the Iditarod sled dog race.

Carmen Turner became the General Manager of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA). She was the first African-American woman to lead a major transit agency.

Elizabeth Hanford Dole was sworn in as the first woman Secretary of the Department of Transportation.

Ellen Evak Paneok became the first Alaska Native woman bush pilot. After flying for air taxi operations throughout Alaska, she worked for the Federal Aviation Administration as an operations inspector, and then for the Alaska Aviation Safety Foundation as the statewide aviation safety coordinator.

Sally Ride, Ph.D., became the first U.S. woman in space.

Beverly Burns was the first woman to captain a Boeing 747 cross country.

Geraldine Ferraro was nominated as the first female vice presidential candidate by the Democratic presidential candidate, Walter Mondale.

Kathryn Sullivan was the first U.S. woman to walk in space.

The Retirement Equity Act amended the Employee Retirement Income Security Act by addressing women’s rights not included in the original 1974 version of ERISA—including survivorship benefits, vesting, and domestic relations.

Jeana Yeager served as copilot of first around-the-world, non-stop, non-refueled flight.

Jo Ann Tidwell graduated from the Spartan School of Aeronautics and became the first woman to work for a major airline as a mechanic and the first Native American woman to work for Continental Airlines.

Arlene Westermeyer became UPS's first female pilot.

Barbara McConnell Barrett became FAA’s first female deputy administrator.

Captain Jacquelyn “Jackie” Parker was the first woman Air Force pilot to attend the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Christine Owens became the first woman district manager for UPS.

Courtney Caldwell started the first automotive publication aimed at women, American Woman Road & Travel.

Elaine Chao was confirmed as the first woman deputy secretary of the Department of Transportation.

The Glass Ceiling Commission was established to investigate the “artificial barriers” that prevent qualified women and minorities from moving into more senior positions.

Patty Wagstaff became the first woman to win the title of U.S. National Aerobatic Champion.

Kathy Thornton, Ph.D., made the longest walk in space by a woman.

Mae Jemison, MD, was the first African-American woman in space.

Dr. Sheila Widnall served as the first female Secretary of the Air Force from 1993 to 1997. She held three patents on airflow technology and is recognized for her contributions to fluid mechanics, specifically in the areas of aircraft turbulence and spiraling airflows called vortices.

Ellen Ochoa, Ph.D., became the first Hispanic woman in the world to go to space when she served on a nine-day mission aboard the shuttle Discovery.

Jolene Molitoris became the first female to head the Federal Railroad Administration.

Engineering News-Record selected Ginger Evan, a civil engineer, as the first female to receive its “Man of the Year Award.” She received the award for her work overseeing the construction of the Denver International Airport. The award is now called the “Award of Excellence and Woman of the Year.”

Jackie Parker became the first woman to qualify to fly an F-16 combat plane.

Patti Grace Smith joined the Department of Transportation Office of Commercial Space as associate managing director. She became the office’s chief of staff in 1995. That year, the office moved from the Department into the Federal Aviation Administration. In 1998, she became the Associate Administrator for Commercial Space Transportation.

Susan J. Binder, formerly Chief of the Industry and Economic Analysis Branch, Office of Policy Development, reported for duty as Maryland Division Administrator, the first woman to become an FHWA Division Administrator.

Vicki Van Meter became the youngest pilot (12 years old) to date to fly across the Atlantic.

Julie Anna Cirillo became the first woman to become an FHWA regional administrator when she took over management of FHWA’s Region 9 (San Francisco, CA).

Lea Soupata became the first women to serve on UPS's Management Committee.

Gail C. McDonald became the first woman to serve as the administrator of the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.

Shannon Lucid became the first American to walk in space for the longest period of time and the first American woman with most missions in space.

Ann Livermore became the first female to serve on the UPS board of directors.

The Association for Women in Aviation Maintenance was established to support women in the field of aviation maintenance. Members include avionics technicians, engineers, scientists, and educators.

Christine Owens became UPS's first female regional director.

Jane Garvey became the first woman administrator of the FAA and the first administrator to serve a five-year term.

Kalpana Chawla became the first Indian-American woman and the second Indian to travel in space aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. She was an aerospace engineer and one of seven crew members killed in the Columbia disaster.

The League of Railway Industry Women formed to provide leadership and support for the personal and professional growth of women at every level in railroading and railway-related business.

Karen Thorndike became the first American woman to sail around the world when she completed her two year and two week adventure.

The Supreme Court ruled in Kolstad v. American Dental Association that a woman can sue for punitive damages for sex discrimination if the anti-discrimination law was violated with malice or indifference to the law, even if that conduct was not especially severe.

Lt. Col. Eileen Collins served as NASA’s first female space shuttle commander.

Rodica Baranescu, Ph.D., became the first woman president of the Society of Automotive Engineers. As an engineer at the International Truck and Engine Corporation she worked on developing environmentally-friendly fuel, lubricants, and coolants for diesel engines.

Mary E. Peters was appointed as the first female Federal Highway Administrator.

Col. Martha McSally was the first woman to command an U.S. Air Force fighter squadron (354th Fighter Squadron).

Dr. Patricia Galloway became the first woman president of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Anousheh Ansari became the first female private space explorer. Launched on September 18, 2006, Iranian-born U.S. Citizen Ansari spent eight days at the International Space Station and carried out human physiology experiments for the European Space Agency.

Major Nicole Malachowski was the first U.S. Air Force woman Thunderbird pilot.

NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson became the first women to command the International Space Station.

Dr. Wanda Austin became the aerospace and defense industry’s first African-American female president and chief executive officer of The Aerospace Corporation.

Major Jennifer Grieves became the first female helicopter aircraft commander in the history of Marine One, the HMX-1 helicopter the president of the United States flies on.

Captain Rachelle Jones, first officer Stephanie Grant and flight attendants Diana Galloway and Robin Rogers became the first African-American, all female flight crew for Atlantic Southeast Airlines (ASA) Flight 5202.

Jennifer Smith created the nonprofit organization FocusDriven: Advocates for Cell-Free Driving to support victims and families of cell phone-related crashes. Smith became one of the leading advocates against distracted driving after her mother was killed by a driver talking on a cell phone.

President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allowed victims of pay discrimination to file a complaint with the government against their employer within 180 days of their last paycheck. Previously, victims (most often women) were only allowed 180 days from the date of the first unfair paycheck. The legislation was named after a former employee of Goodyear who alleged that she was paid 15–40% less than her male counterparts, which was later found to be accurate.

Deborah Ale Flint became the first African-American woman airport director in California’s bay area when she became the Director of Aviation for the Port of Oakland, the owner and operator of Oakland International Airport.

The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency selected its first female superintendents: Sarita Britt, Potrero Division Cindia Chambers, Presidio Division and Debra Franks, Kirkland Division. Cheryl Turner became the assistant superintendent of the Woods Division. During this year, Paulette Davis served as acting superintendent of the Presidio Division and Elizabeth Valdelon as acting superintendent of the Cable Car Division. Two additional women became superintendents in 2012: Leda Rozier, Woods Division, and Elizabeth Valdelon, Flynn Division.

Lisa Stabler was elected president of The Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI) Board of Directors. Stabler had been TTCI’s Vice President of Operations and Training since arriving from BNSF Railway, where she was Assistant Vice President of Quality and Reliability Engineering.

Carol Fenton became the first woman at the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation (SLSDC) to attain the SES rank as associate administrator, after a 34-year career at the SLSDC beginning in 1978 as a switchboard operator/receptionist.

The American Road and Transportation Builders Association’s Transportation Development Foundation awarded the Ethel S. Birchland Lifetime Achievement Award to Dr. Katie Turnbull for her 35 years of work in transportation, research, service, and education. Turnbull is a recognized expert on high-occupancy vehicle facilities, toll facilities, managed lanes, public transportation, transportation planning, travel demand management, and intelligent transportation systems.

Sue Cischke retired after 35 years of service in the automobile industry. She left the industry after serving as Ford's vice president of Sustainability, Environment and Safety Engineering since 2008. Before joining Ford in 2001, she was senior vice president of Regulatory Affairs and Passenger Car Operations for DaimlerChrysler. She began her career at Chrysler Corporation in 1976.

Danica Patrick made history as the first woman to take a NASCAR Sprint Cup pole position for the Daytona 500.

President Obama nominated Major General Michelle Johnson for the appointment to the rank of lieutenant general and for assignment to serve as the Air Force Academy’s first female superintendent. As an air force cadet at the Academy, she was the first woman to serve as Cadet Wing Commander – the senior ranking cadet.


A nation of drivers

When the first stretch of motorway was built in the late 50s, it paved the way for modern driving. Driving licences were changing too: from 1957, they were valid for drie jaar rather than one. During the 1960s, car ownership boomed, and major changes were afoot. Die eerste approved driving instructor register was set up in 1964, and a centralised licensing system came in 1965. The new central office was based in Swansea, where it remains to this day.

1969 saw some changes which will be familiar to today’s learners and drivers. The first change was that learners had to bring their licence to their test. If they didn’t, examiners could refuse to conduct the test—a rule which remains in force. Meanwhile, separate licences for automatic and manual cars were introduced. This meant that drivers who’d learned in an automatic could no longer legally drive manual cars. Manual and automatic pass rates differ to this day.

The changes in the 1970s were even more radical. By 1973, there were more than 20 million drivers on Britain’s roads. The old manual system was, therefore, increasingly unfit for purpose. So, in 1973, licensing was computerised. Out were the old red booklets—in were new green paper licences. Then, in 1976, full driving licences became valid until a driver’s 70th birthday, ending the need to renew every three years. The extension also applied to provisional licences from 1982.

Check out the DVSA’s history of road safety for an even more comprehensive look at the way our roads have changed over the decades.


Car Insurance Becomes Law

As more people started driving cars, more accidents started happening, along with more legal disputes.

The biggest issue that came from all of this was that even after fault was determined in an accident, there was no guarantee that the at-fault driver would be able to pay for the costs associated with that accident.

This issue kept growing in severity until finally someone had to step in.

In 1925, the state of Connecticut became the first state to adopt a financial responsibility law.

Under this law, owners of cars had to prove that they could pay for any injuries or property damage they cause to others in a car accident. While there was more than one option to prove financial responsibility, the easiest and most accessible way was by purchasing liability car insurance.

Connecticut’s financial responsibility law only required drivers to prove their financial responsibility after their first accident.

The state of Massachusetts also felt they had to do something about all the car accidents and legal troubles that followed so they, too, established their own financial responsibility laws.

However, Massachusetts’ laws required that driver prove their financial responsibility as a requirement for their car registration. This is what is considered a compulsory insurance law and is what the majority of us now have to face in our respective states (with very little exception).


Fees to Renew Your MI Driver's License

Your Michigan driver's license is valid for 4 years and will cost you the following to renew:

Accepted Forms of Payment

Vir renewals made online and by mail, the Michigan Secretary of State (SOS) accepts payment by:

LET WEL:Online transactions completed with a credit/debit card will be charged an additional processing fee.

For renewals at a Michigan DMV office in person, you can pay with: