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Uit met die Ouija Board! Hoe die gewilde hulpmiddel vir waarsêery 'n moderne moordsaak beïnvloed het


'N Veroordeelde dubbele moordenaar het die reg op 'n herverhoor gewen op grond van die feit dat vier van die jurie 'n bord van Ouija gebruik het voordat hy hom skuldig bevind het. Beteken dit dat die Britse regstelsel nou die getuienis van ander wêreldse agentskappe in die hof aanvaar? Sekerlik nie?

Die woord "Ouija" is 'n kombinasie van die Franse woord "oui" en die Duitse woord "ja" en beteken "ja, ja". Regoor die antieke wêreld het mense vorms in sand geteken en profesieë gemaak deur te glo dat hulle data uit demoniese en geestelike bronne kanaliseer. Deesdae word Ouija -borde meestal gemaak van eenvoudige houtpanele wat met letters en syfers geverf is, met die woorde "ja" en "nee", en verskyn dit gewoonlik in gruwelverhale as leidrade vir geeste om met gebruikers te kommunikeer. In 'n Smithsonian Magazine -artikel word verduidelik hoe die 'Amerikaanse obsessie met spiritualisme uit die 19de eeu en die oortuiging dat dooies met die lewendes kan kommunikeer' miljoene aanhangers lok voordat belangstelling in die tweede helfte van die 19de eeu 'n hoogtepunt bereik het.

Cesare Lombroso en Charles Richet "beheer" terwyl Palladino tafel swaai, Milaan, 1892. ( Publieke domein )

In hierdie verhaal speel 'n ouija-raad egter 'n sentrale rol in die verandering van die verloop van 'n moordsaak toe Stephen Young van Pembury, Kent, 'n 35-jarige 'n versekeringsmakelaar, in Maart verlede jaar 'n lewenslange vonnis opgelê is vir die moord op die pas -getroude paartjie Harry en Nicola Fuller by hul kothuis in Wadhurst, East Sussex. Die Onafhanklike berig dat die advokaat van mnr. Young, David Penry-Davey QC, sedertdien aan die hof gesê het dat "vier jurylede 'n ouija-raad in 'n hotel gebruik het voordat hulle hul uitsprake teruggekeer het", wat 'n "wesenlike onreëlmatigheid was wat tot die wortel van die hofsaak."

Volgens 'n onderhoud met 'n regter wat in 'n Inside Story -artikel gepubliseer is, in die hotelkamer die aand voor die beoordeling van Stephen Young, is die letters van die alfabet op stukkies papier gedruk en 'n kamerglas is as 'n wyser gebruik. Die jurielede het elkeen 'n vinger op die glas gesit, wat eers na die letters "Walther PPK" beweeg het - wat die tipe geweer was wat in die moordsaak gebruik is. Toe onthul die gees dat dit homself is as "Harry Fuller" en dit het uiteindelik die boodskap geskryf: "Stem môre skuldig ..."

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Deelnemers aan 'n Ouija -speletjie. ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Die regter het gesê:

"Dit is net reg om te sê dat ek teen hierdie tyd gehuil het, en die ander dames was ook ontsteld. Ons het besef dat dit te ver gegaan het en ons het die oefening beëindig. Ray het die papier weggegooi. Ons het teruggetrek na ons kamers en het ingestem om nie vertel wat ons aan iemand gedoen het. ”

Michael Lawson QC for the Crown het aangevoer "die hof moet nie ''n dronk eksperiment' verhef tot 'n erkenning dat dit 'n praktiese uitwerking het nie ', maar hierdie spesifieke bewering kan nie so maklik van die hand gewys word nie. Terwyl die Ouija -raad gebruik is, het 'n paar van die jurie 'geglo' dat hulle met Harry Fuller in verbinding getree het, wat inligting verskaf het oor en wat die uitkoms van die saak beïnvloed.

Lordships het hierdie gebeurtenis uiteindelik as 'op 'n wesenlike onreëlmatigheid' beskou, en dit het vir hulle nie saak gemaak of die Ouija -raad antwoorde van geeste was of nie. Meer nog, hulle was bekommerd dat die regters 'geglo het dat hulle van die oorledene was' en hoeveel hulle oortuigings deur die ontvangde antwoorde beïnvloed kan word.

'N Moderne Ouija -bord plus planchette. ( Publieke domein )

Dit was slegs 400 jaar gelede dat die lot van mense se lewens tydens heksebepalings deur gode, engele en geeste beslis is, en Victoriaanse salonsmediums het geld verdien met behulp van luukse kommunikasietoestelle soos dryf tafels en Ouija -borde. Gelowiges in die paranormale en bonatuurlike beskou Ouija -borde as breëbandverbindings na die ander kant, en sedert die vroeë tye in die geskiedenis van die Ouija -raad het Christelike denominasies dit uitgeslaan.

In 'n onlangse artikel in Jezebel Magazine word godsdienstige kritici bespreek wat meen Ouija -borde onthul inligting wat slegs aan God behoort, en dit is dus 'n instrument van Satan. En in 2001 berig die Houston Chronicle dat 'Ouija -borde in Alamogordo, New Mexico, verbrand is deur fundamentalistiese groepe Harry Potter boeke as 'simbole van heksery'.

'N Verskeidenheid hekstipes word uitgebeeld in Frans Francken The Younger's (Belgain), Heksesabbat , 1606, Victoria en Albert Museum, Londen. ( Publieke domein )

Ek dink wat ons hier sien in die vernietiging van boeke en ikone van die okkulte en regters wat die gevolge daarvan in die hof moet oorweeg, is woede wat manifesteer as woede, veroorsaak deur 'n vrees. Ek sê dit omdat ideologiese denkers boeke in velde verbrand, dat die wetenskaplike gemeenskap sonder vrees of woede oor die weg kom, met die wete dat die 'Ouija -verskynsels', soos hulle dit noem, veroorsaak word deur die ideomotoriese reaksie en dissosiatiewe gemoedstoestande. .

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In leek se terme, professor in neurologie Terence Hines in sy boek Pseudowetenskap en die paranormale (2003) gesê

'Die onbewuste spierbewegings wat verantwoordelik is vir die bewegende tafels en Ouija -bordverskynsels wat by seances gesien word, is voorbeelde van 'n klas verskynsels as gevolg van wat sielkundiges 'n dissosiatiewe toestand noem ... wanneer die bewussyn op een of ander manier verdeel of afgesny is van sekere aspekte van die individu se normale kognitiewe, motoriese of sensoriese funksies. ”

Omdat daar meer gelowiges in die paranormale en bonatuurlike is as wat daar skeptici is, is dit miskien die beste dat die beoordelaars die uitspraak tydens Stephen Young se verhoor heroorweeg het. Hulle het geweet dat met soveel mense wat in die buitengewone magte van Ouija -rade glo, die jurie inderdaad daardeur beïnvloed is, en die beoordelaars het op die wetenskaplike metode gesteun en die menslike sielkunde en geloofstelsels slim ingebou in hul redenasies in die hofsaal.


Waarsêery

Waarsêery (uit Latyn waarsê, 'om te voorsien, te voorspel, te voorspel, te profeteer', [2] wat verband hou met divinus, 'goddelik'), of 'om deur 'n god geïnspireer te word', [3] is die poging om insig te verkry in 'n vraag of situasie deur middel van 'n okkultiese, gestandaardiseerde proses of ritueel. [4] In verskillende vorme deur die geskiedenis heen, bepaal waarsêers hul interpretasies van hoe 'n querent moet verloop deur tekens, gebeurtenisse of voortekens te lees, of deur beweerde kontak met 'n bonatuurlike agentskap. [5]

Waarsêery kan gesien word as 'n stelselmatige metode om die willekeurige fasette van die bestaan ​​wat so verenig is, so te organiseer dat dit insig bied in 'n probleem. As daar 'n onderskeid getref moet word tussen waarsêery en waarsêery, het waarsêery 'n meer formele of ritualistiese element en bevat dit dikwels 'n meer sosiale karakter, gewoonlik in 'n godsdienstige konteks, soos gesien in tradisionele Afrikaanse medisyne. Waarsêery, aan die ander kant, is 'n meer daaglikse praktyk vir persoonlike doeleindes. Spesiale waarsêermetodes wissel volgens kultuur en godsdiens.

Waarsêery word al lank gekritiseer. In die moderne era is dit deur die wetenskaplike gemeenskap afgemaak en skeptici as bygelowige eksperimente ondersteun nie die idee dat waarsêerystegnieke die toekoms eintlik betroubaarder of akkurater kan voorspel as wat daarsonder moontlik sou wees nie. [6] [7] In die oudheid is dit aangeval deur filosowe soos die akademiese skeptikus Cicero in De Divinatione en die Pyrrhonist Sextus Empiricus in Teen die astroloë. Die satirikus, Lucian, het 'n geestige opstel daaraan gewy Alexander die valse profeet. [8]


Inhoud

Dowsing soos dit vandag toegepas word, het moontlik gedurende die 16de eeu in Duitsland ontstaan, toe dit gebruik is om metale te vind. [13]

Reeds in 1518 noem Martin Luther dowsing for metals as 'n daad wat die eerste gebod oortree het (m.a.w., as okkultisme). [14] Die 1550 -uitgawe van Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia bevat 'n houtsny van 'n dowser met 'n gevurkte staaf in die hand wat oor 'n afgesnyde beeld van 'n mynbedryf loop. Die staaf is gemerk "Virgula Divina-Glück-Rüt" (Latyn: Rod Divine German: Luck-Rod), maar daar is geen teks wat die houtsny vergesel nie. Teen 1556 het Georgius Agricola se behandeling van mynbou en ertsmelting, De Re Metallica, bevat 'n gedetailleerde beskrywing van dowsing vir metaalerts. [15]

. Daar is baie groot twiste tussen mynwerkers oor die gevurkte takkie, want sommige sê dat dit die grootste nut het om are te ontdek, en ander ontken dit. . Almal gryp die vurke van die takkie met hul hande vas, terwyl hulle hul vuiste klem. Dan dwaal hulle willekeurig heen en weer deur bergagtige streke. Daar word gesê dat op die oomblik dat hulle hul voete op 'n aar plaas, die takkie onmiddellik draai en draai, en deur die werking daarvan word die aar geopenbaar wanneer hulle hul voete weer beweeg en van daardie plek af weggaan, die takkie weer onbeweeglik word. . [16]

In die sestiende eeu was Duitse mynbou -tegnologie oor die hele Europa in groot aanvraag. Duitse mynwerkers het 'n lisensie om in Engeland te woon en te werk [17], veral in die Stannaries of Devon & Cornwall en in Cumbria. In ander dele van Engeland is die tegniek in die koninklike myne vir kalamien gebruik. Teen 1638 is Duitse mynwerkers aangeteken met behulp van die tegniek in silwer myne in Wallis. [18]

Die Midde-Nederduitse naam vir 'n gevurkte stok (Y-staaf) was Schlag-Ruthe [19] [20] ("slaanstaaf"). [21] Dit is in die 16de eeuse Cornish -dialek vertaal na duschen [22] (duschan volgens Barrett [21]) (Middel -Engels, om te "slaan" of te val [23]).

In 1691 gebruik die filosoof John Locke, wat in die Wes -land gebore is, die term deusing-staaf vir die ou Latynse naam virgula divina. [24] Dus, dows is sinoniem met staak, vandaar die frases: om dows/staak 'n lig, [25] tot dows/staak 'n seil. [26]

In die loodmyn-gebied van die Mendip-heuwels in Somerset in die 17de eeu het die natuurlike filosoof Robert Boyle, geïnspireer deur die geskrifte van Agricola, gekyk hoe 'n praktisyn 'latente are van metale' probeer vind. Boyle het gesien hoe die hassel -skeidingsstaaf ("virgula divinatoria") in die hande van die waarsêer buk, wat protesteer dat hy geen krag op die takkie uitoefen nie Boyle aanvaar die ware geloof van die man, maar homself bly oortuig. [27]

Alhoewel sommige op soek na water na 'n antieke gebruik beskou word, word daar in ou tekste oor die soektog na water nie melding gemaak van die gebruik van die spreekstaaf nie, en die eerste weergawe van hierdie gebruik was in 1568. [28] [29] Sir William F. Barrett in sy boek uit 1911 geskryf Psigiese navorsing daardie:

. in 'n onlangse bewonderenswaardige Life of St. Teresa van Spanje word die volgende voorval vertel: Teresa het in 1568 die terrein aangebied vir 'n klooster waarop daar slegs een beswaar was, daar was gelukkig geen watervoorsiening nie, 'n Friar Antonio het 'n takkie in sy hand, stop op 'n sekere plek en lyk asof hy die kruis teken, maar Teresa sê: 'Ek kan regtig nie seker wees of dit die teken is wat hy gemaak het nie, maar hy beweeg in elk geval met die takkie en dan hy het gesê: 'Grawe net hier', het hulle gegrawe, en kyk, 'n oorvloed fontein water het uitgespring, uitstekend vir 'drink, oorvloedig om te was, en dit het nooit opgedroog nie.' 'Soos die skrywer van hierdie lewe sê:' Teresa, wat nie van dowsing gehoor het nie, het geen verklaring vir hierdie gebeurtenis nie ', en beskou dit as 'n wonderwerk. Ek glo dat dit die eerste geskiedkundige verwysing is na water soek. [30] [31]

In 1662 word dowsing deur 'n Jesuïet, Gaspar Schott, as 'bygelowig of liewer satanies' verklaar, hoewel hy later opgemerk het dat hy nie seker was dat die duiwel altyd verantwoordelik was vir die beweging van die stok nie. [32] In die 17de eeu in die suide van Frankryk is dit gebruik om misdadigers en ketters op te spoor. Die misbruik daarvan het gelei tot 'n bevel van die inkwisisie in 1701, wat die indiensneming daarvan vir geregtigheidsdoeleindes verbied het. [33]

'N Epigram van Samuel Sheppard, uit Epigramme teologies, filosofies en romanties (1651) loop so:

Sommige towenaars spog wel met 'n staaf,
Versamel met geloftes en offerande,
En (gedra) sal vreemd knik
Aan verborge skat waar dit lê
Die mensdom is (seker) dat Rod goddelik is,
Want na die rykste (ooit) neig hulle.

Vroeë pogings om 'n verduideliking van dowsing te verduidelik, was gebaseer op die idee dat die skeidingsstang fisies beïnvloed is deur afwykings van stowwe van belang. Die volgende verduideliking is uit William Pryce se 1778 Mineralogia Cornubiensis:

Die korpusse. wat uit die minerale styg en die staaf binnedring, bepaal dat dit moet buig, om dit parallel te maak met die vertikale lyne wat die effluvia beskryf in hul opkoms. Dit lyk asof die minerale deeltjies nou uit die aarde uitgestraal word. Die Virgula [staaf], wat van 'n ligte poreuse hout is, gee 'n maklike deurgang na hierdie deeltjies, wat ook baie fyn en subtiel is, wat dan deur die daaropvolgende gedryf word. hulle, en terselfdertyd ingedruk deur die atmosfeer wat op hulle rus, word gedwing om die klein tussenruimtes tussen die vesels van die hout binne te gaan, en deur hierdie poging verplig hulle dit om te skuins, of loodreg om te sak, om parallel met die klein te word kolomme wat die dampe in hul opkoms vorm.

'N Studie aan die einde van die negentiende eeu het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die verskynsel toegeskryf word aan kriptestesie, waardeur die praktisyn bewusteloos die terrein waargeneem het en die beweging van die staaf onwillekeurig beïnvloed het. [34]

Dowsing is in die laat 19de en vroeë 20ste eeu in Suid -Dakota uitgevoer om opstalters, boere en boere te help om waterputte op hul eiendom op te spoor. [35]

Aan die einde van die sestigerjare tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog het sommige mariniers in die Verenigde State gebruik gemaak om wapens en tonnels op te spoor. [36] So laat as in 1986, toe 31 soldate tydens 'n operasie in die NAVO -boor Anchor Express in Vassdalen, Noorweë, deur 'n stortvloed geneem is, het die Noorse weermag probeer om soldate wat in die lawine begrawe was, op te spoor met behulp van 'n soekmetode. [37]

Sommige boere en deur wateringenieurs in die VK gebruik nog steeds dowsing, maar baie van die Britse watervoorrade het sedertdien probeer om hulself van die praktyk te distansieer. [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] In Australië beweer 'n webblaaier dat hy die Gruyere -goudneerslag gevind het. [43]

Y-stawe wysig

Tradisioneel is die mees algemene wipstok 'n gevurkte (Y-vormige) tak van 'n boom of bos. Sommige dowsers verkies takke van spesifieke bome, en sommige verkies dat die takke vars gesny word. Hazel takkies in Europa en heksehasel in die Verenigde State word tradisioneel algemeen gekies, net soos takke van wilger- of perskebome. Die twee ente aan die gevurkte kant word een in elke hand gehou, terwyl die derde (die stam van die Y) reguit vorentoe wys. Die loper loop dan stadig oor die plekke waar hy vermoed dat die teiken (byvoorbeeld minerale of water) kan wees, en daar word verwag dat die wipstang sal daal, neig of ruk wanneer 'n ontdekking gemaak word. Hierdie metode staan ​​soms bekend as "wilgerheks".

L-Rods Edit

Baie dowsers gebruik vandag 'n paar eenvoudige L-vormige metaalstawe. Een staaf word in elke hand gehou, met die kort arm van die L regop gehou en die lang arm vorentoe. As iets "gevind" word, steek die stawe oor mekaar. As die voorwerp lank en reguit is, soos 'n waterpyp, kan die stawe in teenoorgestelde rigtings wys en die rigting daarvan wys. Die stawe kan gemaak word van draadjashangers of draadvlae wat gebruik word vir die opsporing van hulpmiddels. Glas- of plastiekstawe is ook aanvaar. Reguit stange word ook soms vir dieselfde doeleindes gebruik, en was nie ongewoon in die vroeë 19de-eeuse New England nie.

Polisie en militêre toestelle Redigeer

'N Aantal toestelle is vir moderne polisie- en militêre gebruik bemark, byvoorbeeld ADE 651, Sniffex en die GT200. [44] [45] 'n Studie van die Amerikaanse regering het afgeraai om "valse plofbare opsporingstoerusting" te koop, en het opgemerk dat alle toetse getoon het dat die toestelle nie beter as 'n toevallige kans is nie. [46]

    het die MOLE -programmeerbare stelsel wat deur Global Technical Ltd. in Kent, die Verenigde Koninkryk vervaardig is, getoets en dit ondoeltreffend gevind. [44]
  • Die ADE 651 is 'n toestel wat deur ATSC (VK) vervaardig word en wyd gebruik word deur die Irakse polisie om plofstof op te spoor. [45] Baie [45] [47] het die doeltreffendheid daarvan ontken en beweer dat die ADE 651 nie baie bomaanvalle in Irak kon voorkom nie. Op 23 April 2013 is die direkteur van ATSC, James McCormick, skuldig bevind aan bedrog deur wanvoorstelling en later tot 10 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis. [48] ​​Vroeër het die Britse regering 'n verbod op die uitvoer van die ADE 651 aangekondig. [49] was die onderwerp van 'n verslag deur die Amerikaanse vloot van die ontploffing van die ontploffing van die Amerikaanse vloot wat tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het: "Die handheld Sniffex -plofstofdetektor werk nie." [50]
  • Global Technical GT200 is 'n plofbare detektor van die tipe wat geen wetenskaplike meganisme bevat nie. [51] [52]
  • Dowsing studies uit die vroeë 20ste eeu is deur die geoloog John Walter Gregory ondersoek in 'n verslag vir die Smithsonian Institution. Gregory het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die resultate 'n toeval was of verklaar is deur waarnemings van leidrade op die grondoppervlak. [53] [54]
  • Geoloog W.A. MacFadyen het gedurende 1943–1944 in Algerië drie dowsers getoets. Die resultate was heeltemal negatief. [55]
  • 'N Studie van 1948 in Nieu -Seeland deur P. A. Ongley het die vermoë van 75 dokters getoets om water op te spoor. Nie een van hulle was meer betroubaar as toeval nie. Volgens Ongley het "niemand die minste akkuraatheid getoon nie." [56] Martin Aitken het die Britse dowser P. A. Raine in 1959 getoets. Raine kon nie die plek van 'n begrawe oond wat deur 'n magnetometer geïdentifiseer is, opspoor nie. [57] [58]
  • In 1971 is die Britse ingenieur R.A. Foulkes namens die Ministerie van Verdediging deur eksperimente georganiseer. Die resultate was 'nie meer betroubaar as 'n reeks raaiskote' nie. [59]
  • Die natuurkundiges John Taylor en Eduardo Balanovski het in 1978 berig oor 'n reeks eksperimente wat hulle uitgevoer het, wat op soek was na ongewone elektromagnetiese velde wat deur neersuigende persone uitgestraal word, wat hulle nie opgemerk het nie. [60]
  • 'N Oorsig uit 1979 deur Evon Z. Vogt en Ray Hyman het baie gekontroleerde ondersoeke na wateropname ondersoek en bevind dat nie een van hulle beter as toevallige resultate toon nie. [6]
  • Drie Britse akademici Richard N Bailey, Eric Cambridge en H. Denis Briggs het eksperimente op die terrein van verskillende kerke uitgevoer. Hulle het suksesvolle resultate in hul boek gerapporteer Dowsing en Kerkargeologie (1988). [61] Hulle eksperimente is krities ondersoek deur die argeoloog Martijn Van Leusen wat voorgestel het dat hulle swak ontwerp is en die outeurs het die toetsparameters herdefinieer oor wat as 'treffer' of 'gemis' geklassifiseer is om positiewe resultate te verkry. [61]
  • 'N Studie van grafdowing in Iowa in 2006 het 14 gepubliseerde studies hersien en vasgestel dat nie een van hulle die ligging van menslike begrafnisse korrek voorspel het nie, en eenvoudige wetenskaplike eksperimente het getoon dat die fundamentele beginsels wat algemeen gebruik word om grafte te verduidelik, verkeerd was. [62]
  • 'N Gerandomiseerde dubbelblinde proefneming in 2012 is uitgevoer om vas te stel of homeopate in staat was om tussen Bryonia en placebo te onderskei deur middel van 'n afwykingsmetode. Die resultate was negatief. [63]

Kassel 1991 studie Edit

'N 1990-dubbelblinde studie [64] [65] [66] is in Kassel, Duitsland, onder leiding van die Gesellschaft zur Wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung von Parawissenschaften (Society for the Scientific Investigation of the Parasciences). James Randi het 'n prys van $ 10 000 aan enige suksesvolle webblaaier aangebied. Die driedaagse toets van ongeveer 30 dowsers behels plastiekpype waardeur die watervloei beheer en gelei kan word. Die pype is 50 sentimeter (19,7 duim) begrawe onder 'n gelyk veld, waar elkeen op die oppervlak gemerk is met 'n gekleurde strook. Die dowsers moes vertel of water deur elke pyp loop. Al die dokters het 'n verklaring onderteken waarin hulle saamstem dat dit 'n eerlike toets van hul vermoëns is en dat hulle 'n 100 persent sukseskoers verwag. Die resultate was egter nie beter as toevallig nie, en daarom is niemand die prys toegeken nie.

Betz 1990 studie Wysig

In 'n studie van 1987–88 in München deur Hans-Dieter Betz en ander wetenskaplikes, is 500 dowsers aanvanklik op hul vaardigheid getoets, en die eksperimenteerder het die beste 43 onder hulle gekies vir verdere toetse. Water is deur 'n pyp op die grondvloer van 'n skuur met twee verdiepings gepomp. Voor elke toets is die pyp in 'n loodregte rigting van die watervloei beweeg. Op die boonste verdieping is elke dowser gevra om die posisie van die pyp te bepaal. Gedurende twee jaar het die dowsers 843 sulke toetse uitgevoer, en van die 43 vooraf geselekteerde en uitgebreide getoetste kandidate het ten minste 37 geen dowe-vermoë getoon nie. Daar word gesê dat die resultate van die oorblywende 6 beter as toevallig was, wat tot die gevolgtrekking gekom het dat sommige dokters 'in besonder take' 'n buitengewone hoë suksessyfer toon, wat amper nie as toevallig verklaar kan word nie. Die ware kern van dowser-verskynsels kan as empiries bewys word. " [67]

Vyf jaar nadat die München -studie gepubliseer is, beweer Jim T. Enright, 'n professor in fisiologie wat die korrekte data -analise -prosedure beklemtoon het, dat die resultate van die studie slegs in ooreenstemming is met statistiese skommelinge en nie betekenisvol is nie. Hy was van mening dat die eksperimente 'die mees oortuigende onveiligheid wat denkbaar is, kan wees dat lopers kan doen wat hulle beweer', [68] en verklaar dat die data -analise 'spesiaal, onkonvensioneel en aangepas' is. Deur dit te vervang met 'meer gewone ontledings', [69] het hy opgemerk dat die beste dowser was gemiddeld 4 millimeter (10,16 in) uit 10 meter (32,81 voet) nader aan 'n middellyn-raaiskoot, 'n voordeel van 0,04%, en dat die vyf ander 'goeie' dowsers gemiddeld verder as 'n middellyn was raai. Enright het beklemtoon dat die proefpersone vooraf moes besluit het hoe om die resultate statisties te ontleed as hulle eers daarna die statistiese analise kies wat die grootste sukses getoon het, en dan sou hul gevolgtrekkings nie geldig wees nie, totdat dit deur 'n ander toets wat met dieselfde metode geanaliseer is, herhaal is. Hy het verder daarop gewys dat die ses 'goeie' dowsers in afsonderlike toetse nie beter gevaar het as die kans nie. [70] 'n Ander studie gepubliseer in Patofisiologie veronderstel dat eksperimente soos hierdie wat in die 20ste eeu uitgevoer is, deur mensgemaakte radiofrekwensie-straling inmeng kon word, aangesien die proefpersone se liggame die radiogolwe absorbeer en onbewuste handbewegingsreaksies plaasgevind het na die staande golwe of intensiteit variasies. [71]

Dowsing word beskou as 'n pseudowetenskap. [72] [73] [74]

Wetenskapsskrywers soos William Benjamin Carpenter (1877), Millais Culpin (1920) en Martin Gardner (1957) beskou die beweging van dowe stokke as gevolg van onbewuste spieraksie. [75] [76] [77] Hierdie siening word algemeen aanvaar onder die wetenskaplike gemeenskap [9] [10] [78] [79] en ook deur sommige in die dowsing -gemeenskap. [80] Dit is bekend dat die dowsing -apparaat ligte bewegings van die hande versterk wat veroorsaak word deur 'n verskynsel wat bekend staan ​​as die ideomotoriese reaksie: mense se onderbewussyn kan hul liggame beïnvloed sonder om bewustelik te besluit om op te tree. Dit sou die wipstang vatbaar maak vir die onderbewuste kennis of persepsie van die dowsers en ook vir bevestigingsvooroordeel. [9] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Sielkundige David Marks in 'n 1986 -artikel in Natuur Dit bevat 'n lys van 'effekte wat tot onlangs beweer is paranormaal te wees, maar wat nou vanuit die ortodokse wetenskap verklaar kan word'. [85] Spesifiek kan dowsing verklaar word in terme van sensoriese aanwysings, verwagtingseffekte en waarskynlikheid. [85]

Die wetenskapskrywer Peter Daempfle het opgemerk dat dit nie slaag as dowsing aan wetenskaplike toetse onderwerp word nie. Daempfle het geskryf dat hoewel sommige dowsers sukses beweer, dit toegeskryf kan word aan die ondergrondse watertafel wat relatief eenvormig in sekere gebiede versprei is. [86]

Met betrekking tot dowsing en die gebruik daarvan in argeologie, het Kenneth Feder geskryf dat "die oorgrote meerderheid argeoloë nie dowsing gebruik nie, omdat hulle nie glo dat dit werk nie." [58]

Die sielkundige Chris French het opgemerk dat "afloop nie werk as dit getoets word onder behoorlik beheerde toestande wat die gebruik van ander leidrade om die teikenlokasie aan te dui, uitsluit nie." [79]


Hoe die Ouija -raad sy sinvolle reputasie gekry het

Teen die tyd het die meeste vae idees oor die Ouija -bord -gruwelvertelling, waarin demoniese geeste met kinders kommunikeer - selfs besit. Die regisseur Mike Flanagan bevorder hierdie troepe in sy nuwe film 'Ouija: Origin of Evil'. Die familieonderneming is relatief skadeloos totdat die jongste dogter 'n ou Ouija -bord ontdek, probeer om met haar oorlede pa kontak te maak en in plaas daarvan deur die bose geeste besete raak.

Die Ouija -raad het nie altyd 'n sinistere reputasie gehad nie
Trouens, die Ouija-raad het ontwikkel uit Spiritualisme, 'n beweging uit die 19de eeu wat bekend is vir sy optimistiese sienings oor die toekoms en die hiernamaals. Namate die gewildheid van spiritualisme afneem, het die Ouija -bord na vore gekom as 'n gewilde salonspel, eers in die 20ste eeu het die Katolieke Kerk en die gruwelfilmbedryf die spel hermerk as 'n deur na die demoniese.

Spiritualistiese oorsprong
Daar word gereeld gesê dat die Spiritualist -beweging in 1848 in Hydesville, New York, begin het toe twee susters, Kate en Maggie Fox, 'n reeks geheimsinnige rappte in hul klein huis gehoor het. Niemand kon onderskei waar die raps vandaan kom nie en dit manifesteer in ander huise wat die susters besoek het. Sonder 'n duidelike bron, is die raps toegeskryf aan geeste en dit lyk asof hulle op die vrae van die susters reageer.

Die Fox -susters het oornag bekendes geword en Spiritualisme, 'n godsdienstige beweging wat gebaseer is op kommunikasie met die dooies, is gebore. Spiritualisme het oor die Atlantiese Oseaan en na Suid -Amerika versprei, maar die gewildheid daarvan het na die burgeroorlog toegeneem. Die bloedigste oorlog in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis het baie bedroefde gesinne laat verlang na maniere om met hul verlore geliefdes te praat, en baie het troos gesoek by geestesmediums - mense soos die Fox -susters wat na bewering met die dooies kon praat. In 1893 word spiritualisme 'n amptelike godsdienstige denominasie en in 1897 berig The New York Times dat Spiritualisme wêreldwyd agt miljoen volgelinge het.

Van die begin af het Christen -kritici beweer Spiritualisme is net dun vermomde heksery. Maar spiritualiste was selde donker of morbied. Die spiritualistiese skrywer Andrew Jackson Davis daag selfs die idee van die hel uit en beweer dat alle geeste 'n salige 'Somerland' in die hiernamaals kan betree. Spiritualiste ondersteun ook progressiewe oorsake, waaronder afskaffing, matigheid en stemreg vir vroue.

Kommunikeer met die Spirit World
In hul bloeitydperk het die Spiritualiste talle tegnieke en instrumente ontwikkel om met die dooies te praat. Vroeë spiritualiste was besig met 'n praktyk genaamd 'alfabet roeping', waarin iemand van die alfabet af rammel totdat die gees klop om 'n spesifieke letter aan te dui. Hierdie moeisame metode het 'n vraag na meer doeltreffende maniere om met die dooies te kommunikeer.

Sommige mediums is besig met 'outomatiese skryfwerk'. Die medium gaan in 'n beswymingstoestand en laat die geeste hul hand lei terwyl hulle boodskappe skryf ('n verskynsel wat ook in die film verskyn). Die Franse Spiritualis Allan Kardec het berig dat die geeste tydens 'n seance van 1853 (letterlik ''n sitting' 'of 'n sessie wat met geeste praat) voorstel dat die deelnemers 'n potlood deur 'n onderstebo mandjie steek. Dit het almal in staat gestel om hul hande op die mandjie te plaas om die geeste te help om die potlood oor die papier te lei. Die mandjie het ontwikkel tot 'n toestel genaamd 'n planchette (van die Franse planche, wat bord beteken).

-Wees versigtig waarvoor u wens: Ouija -borde is ontrafel
-Die eksorsisme van Marthe Brossier: die eerste eksorcisme met wetenskaplike kontroles
-Uit met die Ouija -raad! Hoe die gewilde hulpmiddel vir waarsêery 'n moderne moordsaak beïnvloed het

Teen 1886 het Spiritualiste die planchette verder ontwikkel. Die potlode is weggegooi en die planchette is gekoppel aan 'n bord met die alfabet daarop. Daar was talle modelle van hierdie 'praatborde'. Brandon Hodge is die voorste historikus van hierdie outomatiese skryfapparate, met 'n privaat versameling van meer as 200 planchette, asook praatborde en ander séance -apparaat.

Die ontwerp wat die meeste Amerikaners vandag ken, is in 1891 deur die Kennard Novelty Company gepatenteer. Helen Peters, 'n skoonsuster van een van die stigters van die onderneming, het die direksie gevra hoe dit genoem moet word en die kriptiese antwoord 'Ouija' ontvang. In 1882 word William Fuld toesighouer van die onderneming. Fuld het 'n fortuin verdien op die Ouija -bord en verskeie nuwe fabrieke geopen. Eerlik, is hy in 1927 dood toe hy van die dak van 'n fabriek val, beweer hy dat die bord hom opdrag gegee het om te bou.

Van stalspel tot portaal in die hel
Teen die 20ste eeu het die gewildheid van spiritualisme begin afneem, deels as gevolg van bedrog.

Terwyl die meeste mediums aanspraak gemaak het op subjektiewe ervarings van geeste tydens trance-toestande, het sogenaamde 'fisiese mediums' steeds meer uitgebreide chikanery gedoen om die gehoor te oortuig dat hulle 'n werklike ontmoeting met die bonatuurlike het. Sommige van hierdie truuks, soos om kinders in kaste te verberg waar hulle geluide kan maak of voorwerpe kan beweeg, word in Flanagan se film uitgebeeld. In die veertigerjare het die National Association of Spiritualism fisiese mediumskap verbied. Maar toe was die skade aangerig. Die meeste mense het gedink jy is 'n sukkel as jy glo dat jy met die dooies kan praat.

Die Ouija -bord word oor die algemeen beskou as 'n speelkamer met min verband met die okkulte. Maar tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die gewildheid van die Ouija -raad toegeneem, veral op universiteitskampusse. Die volkskundige Bill Ellis berig dat een professor teen 1920 'n ernstige nasionale bedreiging verklaar het.

Intussen het baie Amerikaanse Katolieke wat reeds tot die heiliges gebid het, aangetrokke tot Spiritualisme. Kerkowerhede het vinnig beweeg om dit teë te werk.

J. Godfrey Raupert was 'n 'psigiese ondersoeker' wat gehoop het om spiritualisme wetenskaplik te 'bewys' voordat hy hom tot Katolisisme bekeer en daarvan afstand doen. Pous Pius X het Raupert opdrag gegee om Katolieke te waarsku oor die Ouija -raad. In 1919 publiseer hy 'n boek genaamd 'The New Black Magic and the Truth About the Ouija Board'.

“Om meer as een rede”, het Raupert gesê, “moet die direksie in geen Christelike huishouding geduld word of binne die bereik van die jongmense geplaas word nie.”

Ondanks sulke waarskuwings het die verkope steeds gegroei. Hulle het 'n hoogtepunt bereik gedurende die 1960's, toe dit deur die teenkultuur en die gewilde belangstelling in die okkulte versterk is, het die Ouija -raad Monopoly uitverkoop.

Maar dit was William Peter Blatty se roman 'The Exorcist' uit 1971 - tesame met die filmverwerking van 1973 - wat die sinvolle reputasie van die Ouija -bord in die algemene verbeelding bevestig het. Blatty based his story on an actual case of an allegedly possessed boy that occurred in Maryland in 1949. According to a ‘ diary’ seen by Jesuit priests Blatty met at Georgetown University, the boy had been introduced to the Ouija board by an aunt who was interested in Spiritualism the first signs of the boy’s possession began shortly after the aunt died. Blatty’s story took these details and filled in the gaps.

The result was a national obsession with exorcism and the demonic.

‘Ouija: Origin of Evil’ pays homage to the film adaptation of ‘The Exorcist.’ The trailer shows a young girl in the so-called ‘hysterical arch,’ recalling the famous contortions in the film. This pose was first popularized by early French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, who photographed women in ‘hysteria’ and suggested this condition was the true cause of demonic possession.

Paradoxically, this demonic reputation only enhanced the Ouija board’s popularity with adolescents. The board wasn’t just a way to talk to a dead relative it also became a way to conjure up dark forces and dismiss them from the safety of one’s basement. Ellis suggests that as a window to the demonic, the Ouija board allows teenagers to “participate directly in myth.” In this sense, it’s a quasi-religious experience, in which the board conjures up a demonic ‘anti-world’ that brave adolescents can challenge and reject.

Meanwhile, thrill-seekers who don’t want to get so personal with the demonic can simply watch the movie.


Methods of divination

Methods of divination can be found around the world, and many cultures practice the same methods under different names. During the Middle Ages, scholars coined terms for many of these methods—some of which had hitherto been unnamed—in Medieval Latin, very often utilizing the suffix -mantia when the art seemed more mystical (ultimately from Ancient Greek μαντεία , manteía , 'prophecy' or 'the power to prophesy') and the suffix -scopia when the art seemed more scientific (ultimately from Greek σκοπεῖν , skopeîn , 'to observe'). Names like drimimantia, nigromantia, en horoscopia arose, along with other pseudosciences such as phrenology and physiognomy. [1]

Some forms of divination are much older than the Middle Ages, like haruspication, while others (such as megapolisomancy or coffee-based tasseomancy) originated in the 20th and 21st centuries.

The chapter "How Panurge consulteth with Herr Trippa" of Gargantua and Pantagruel, a parody on occult treatises of Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa, contains a list of over two dozen "mancies", described as "common knowledge". [2]


Paranormal

From the very beginning of the American spiritualist movement, divination using letter direction has been embraced by the occult practitioners.

While well-known occultist Aleister Crowley used the board as part of his magical workings, his companion at the Abby of Thelema, Jane Wolfe, used the board extensively. Crowley frequently discussed Ouija board ideas with his student Charles Stansfield Jones. In fact, Crowley and Jones discussed production of their own version of the board in a letter from 21 February 1919.

One of the first movies to link the use of a talking board to haunted houses and paranormal was the 1940 horror film The Uninvited . In the film, a couple purchases a haunted house. Eventually to communicate with the ghosts haunting the house, a séance is performed using an improvised talking board made from scrabble and a wine glass.

While the sales of Ouija board continued throughout the twentieth century, the public awareness of the product as a paranormal tool faded following World War II.

While the general public lost interest in the Ouija board, there was a brief resurgence in using the board to speak with the dead thanks to the 1960 film Thirteen Ghosts . Using the board, the ghosts announce that they will H-U-R-T and K-I-L-L the family living in the house.

By the mid-1960s, the product was largely viewed simply as a children’s game. This ease in perceptions was partial responsible for the acquisition of the product by Parker Brothers.

The success of the 1971 Peter Blatty book, The Exorcist , changed the perception of Ouija boards. In the book, the young Regan MacNeil uses a Ouija board to communicate with the demon Pazuzu pretending to be the spirit of a man named Captain Howdy. While Regan uses the board, she can also hear the spirit’s voice. While the success of The Exorcist book lay the groundwork for the relationship between demons and the Ouija board, the massive success of the movie solidified the Ouija board as a demonic portal in the minds of millions of people for generations.

With the new Ouija board demonic paradigm established, the subsequent decades would find dozens of television shows and movies warning of the demonic dangers of using Ouija boards.

In spite of an overwhelming pop-culture relationship between Ouija boards and demons, Hasbro continues to sell the toy to children age eight and up.

Over the past few decades a legend of a Ouija board demon calling itself Zozo has dominated Ouija board discussions. As mentioned earlier, the idea of a single demon dedicated solely to Ouija boards that crisscrosses the United States to terrorize toy owners is dubious.

The earliest known mention of a demon named Zozo is found in the Jacques Collin de Plancy’s 1816 book Dictionanaire Infernal . The entry tells the story of a French girl from Picardy, France that claims to be possessed by three demons: Mimi, Zozo and Grapoulet. What Zozo “historians” (that most likely never actually read the old French text) fail to mention is that the entire possession case was considered a fraud. Not only had the girl been previously arrested for pretending to be possessed but when priests tested her by reading Latin prayers mingled with Cicero, the girl reacted negatively to both. Here is a brief exert in both the original French and in English evidencing the fraud:

Fortunately, the entire Dictionanaire Infernal is available for free in old French on the Internet here. ( http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5754923d/f8.image )

One of the most concrete linkages to the name Zozo and the idea of magic and demons may be traced to the 1835 French play Zazezizozu that was an adaptation of a story from the Arabian Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night . The original tale which appears in Sir Richard Francis Burton’s Supplement Book III as Prince Ahmad and the Fairy Pero-Banu (Fairy Queen) was also retold as by the Greek writer Pio as Contres Populaires Grecs as the Golden box (Το χρυσό κουτάκι).

In the play Zazezizozu , three princes plot for their father’s throne and the hand of their sister, the princess. The princes are named Zizi, Zozo, and Zuzu (which translate to “childish”, “a fool”, but Zuzu does not translate). Each son enters a magical land (one of cards, one of dominoes, and one of dice), to compete for a prize and to win the princess. The victor brings roses from the lands of cards. In 1836, Edward “Fitzball” Ball used the French play as the basis for a comedic play he wrote called Zazezizozu or Cards, Dominoes, and Dice . The story quickly gained in popularity and toured in England and the United States.

During the 1880s, a popular opera was titled “Zozo the Magic Queen.” Noted for over 200 mechanical pieces, the story moves from a shipwreck to fairy land to a demon cavern. It ends with an enchanted island and Grand military ballet. When an American ship wrecks on the coast of Fairyland, the captain and the crew are washed ashore. Zozo, the queen of the land, and her entourage, discover the men, who are the first mortals they have seen. The captain falls in love with Zozo, and eventually, wins her heart. But part of the story also involves the capture of Fairyland by a group of evil men that also discover the land. Like many operas of the time, the event was partially comedy, partially burlesque, and ,partially, an elaborate ballet. At least one of the touring companies featured famous comedian George H. Adams, actress Bertie Crawford, and scenery by Henry E. Hoyt. The opera toured America from 1884 until at least 1895. Part of its duration was the result of a retool of both the script and scenery in 1893.

The next alleged mention of the name Zozo as a demon is cited in Alberto Malet’s book, L'Antiquité l'Orient la Grèce (The Ancient East of Greece). Zozo sources claim that in his 1916 version of the book, Malet asserts that Pazuzu is also known as Zozo. A review of the text from Malet’s 31 May 1902 version of the book does feature a photo of Pazuzu on page 62 of the book. However, Pazuzu is never named except as “Le Vent du Sud-Est.” The words “Zozo” is never used in the text.:


The Spirited History of Ouija Boards

The Ouija board (Wee-ja), also known as a spirit board or talking board, is a flat board marked with the letters of the alphabet, numbers 0-9, and the words “yes”, “no”, and “hello” and “goodbye”. The “invention” of the original design in unknown. American history can trace the first time people claimed to have communicated with spirits using a table that led to its original design to two sister. In 1848 in Hydesville, New York, two sisters, Kate and Margaret Fox, contacted the spirit of a dead peddler using their table. They became instant celebrities, and sparked a national obsession that spread all across the United States and Europe. It was the birth of modern Spiritualism.

The original form of allowing spiritualists to communicate with the dead was by way of using a table. This process involved placing ones hands on top of the table and asking the spirits to communicate. The message from the spirits was literally “knocked out” on the floor by use of the table legs or by the table literally tilting off its legs. This involved counting out the amount of times the table hit the floor and corresponding it to the letters of the alphabet. Since this process become tiresome over the years, this method of communicating with spirits eventually died out. Eventually a wooden board came onto the scene with letters and numbers available to spell out a message. Thus the “spirit” board was born.

This first patent, filed on May 28, 1890 and granted on February 10, 1891, lists Elijah J. Bond as the inventor and the assignees as Charles W. Kennard and William H. A. Maupin, all from Baltimore, Maryland. Whether Bond or his Baltimore friends actually invented anything or merely took advantage of an existing fad using their own design is fairly obvious, but there is no question that they were the first to market the board as a novelty.

Charles Kennard stated that he named the new board Ouija after a session with Miss Peters, Elijah Bond’s sister-in-law: “I remarked that we had not yet settled upon a name, and as the board had helped us in other ways, we would ask it to propose one. It spelled out O-U-I-J-A. When I asked the meaning of the word it said ‘Good Luck.’

Through generations of families and under the name of different toy companies, the look of the board kept changing. It was not until 1897 that William Fuld held the sole legal right to manufacture and sell the boards. Although Fuld himself did not believe that the boards were actually communicating with spirits, he did believe that the subconscious minds of the users were pushing the planchette towards answers.

The Ouija board was regarded as a harmless parlor game unrelated to the occult until American Spiritualist Pearl Curran popularized its use as a divining tool during World War I. Mainstream religions and some occultists have associated use of the Ouija board with the threat of demonic possession and some have cautioned their followers not to use Ouija boards.

Despite being repeatedly debunked by the efforts of the scientific community and denounced as a tool of Satan by conservative Christians, the Ouija Board remains popular among many people today.


Inhoud

Precursors Edit

One of the first mentions of the automatic writing method used in the ouija board is found in China around 1100 AD, in historical documents of the Song Dynasty. The method was known as fuji "planchette writing". The use of planchette writing as an ostensible means of necromancy and communion with the spirit-world continued, and, albeit under special rituals and supervisions, was a central practice of the Quanzhen School, until it was forbidden by the Qing Dynasty. [10]

Talking boards Edit

As a part of the spiritualist movement, mediums began to employ various means for communication with the dead. Following the American Civil War in the United States, mediums did significant business in allegedly allowing survivors to contact lost relatives. The ouija itself was created and named in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1890, but the use of talking boards was so common by 1886 that news reported the phenomenon taking over the spiritualists' camps in Ohio. [11]

Commercial parlor game Edit

Businessman Elijah Bond had the idea to patent a planchette sold with a board on which the alphabet was printed, much like the previously existing talking boards. Bond filed on 28 May 1890 for patent protection and thus is credited with the invention of the Ouija board. Issue date on the patent was 10 February 1891. He received U.S. Patent 446,054 . Bond was an attorney and was an inventor of other objects in addition to this device.

An employee of Elijah Bond, William Fuld, took over the talking board production. In 1901, Fuld started production of his own boards under the name "Ouija". [12] Charles Kennard, founder of Kennard Novelty Company which manufactured Fuld's talking boards and where Fuld had worked as a varnisher, claimed he learned the name "Ouija" from using the board and that it was an ancient Egyptian word meaning "good luck". When Fuld took over production of the boards, he popularized the more widely accepted etymology: that the name came from a combination of the French and German words for "yes". [13]

The Fuld name became synonymous with the Ouija board, as Fuld reinvented its history, claiming that he himself had invented it. The strange talk about the boards from Fuld's competitors flooded the market, and all these boards enjoyed a heyday from the 1920s.

The ouija phenomenon is considered by the scientific community to be the result of the ideomotor response. [4] [15] [16] [17] Michael Faraday first described this effect in 1853, while investigating table-turning. [18] [19]

Various studies have been conducted, recreating the effects of the ouija board in the lab and showing that, under laboratory conditions, the subjects were moving the planchette involuntarily. [15] [20] A 2012 study found that when answering yes or no questions, ouija use was significantly more accurate than guesswork, suggesting that it might draw on the unconscious mind. [16] Skeptics have described ouija board users as 'operators'. [21] Some critics have noted that the messages ostensibly spelled out by spirits were similar to whatever was going through the minds of the subjects. [22] According to professor of neurology Terence Hines in his book Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2003): [23]

The planchette is guided by unconscious muscular exertions like those responsible for table movement. Nonetheless, in both cases, the illusion that the object (table or planchette) is moving under its own control is often extremely powerful and sufficient to convince many people that spirits are truly at work . The unconscious muscle movements responsible for the moving tables and Ouija board phenomena seen at seances are examples of a class of phenomena due to what psychologists call a dissociative state. A dissociative state is one in which consciousness is somehow divided or cut off from some aspects of the individual's normal cognitive, motor, or sensory functions.

Ouija boards were already criticized by scholars early on, being described in a 1927 journal as " 'vestigial remains' of primitive belief-systems" and a con to part fools from their money. [24] Another 1921 journal described reports of ouija board findings as 'half truths' and suggested that their inclusion in national newspapers at the time lowered the national discourse overall. [25]

In the 1970s ouija board users were also described as "cult members" by sociologists, though this was severely scrutinised in the field. [26]

Since early in the Ouija board's history, it has been criticized by several Christian denominations. [8] The Catholic Church in the Catechism of the Catholic Church in paragraph 2116 explicitly forbids any practice of divination which includes the usage of Ouija boards. [27] Also, Catholic Answers, a Roman Catholic Christian apologetics organization, states that "The Ouija board is far from harmless, as it is a form of divination (seeking information from supernatural sources)." [28] Moreover, Catholic bishops in Micronesia called for the boards to be banned and warned congregations that they were talking to demons when using Ouija boards. [29] In a pastoral letter, The Dutch Reformed Churches encouraged its communicants to avoid Ouija boards, as it is a practice "related to the occult". [30] The Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod also forbids its faithful from using Ouija boards as it teaches that such would be a violation of the Ten Commandments. [31]

In 2001, Ouija boards were burned in Alamogordo, New Mexico, by fundamentalist groups alongside Harry Potter books as "symbols of witchcraft". [32] [33] [34] Religious criticism has also expressed beliefs that the Ouija board reveals information which should only be in God's hands, and thus it is a tool of Satan. [35] A spokesperson for Human Life International described the boards as a portal to talk to spirits and called for Hasbro to be prohibited from marketing them. [36]

These religious objections to use of the Ouija board have in turn given rise to ostension type folklore in the communities where they circulate. Cautionary tales that the board opens a door to evil spirits turn the game into the subject of a supernatural dare, especially for young people. [37]

Letterkunde Redigeer

Ouija boards have been the source of inspiration for literary works, used as guidance in writing or as a form of channeling literary works. As a result of Ouija boards' becoming popular in the early 20th century, by the 1920s many "psychic" books were written of varying quality often initiated by ouija board use. [38]

  • Emily Grant Hutchings claimed that her novel Jap Herron: A Novel Written from the Ouija Board (1917) was dictated by Mark Twain's spirit through the use of a Ouija board after his death. [39]
  • Pearl Lenore Curran (1883–1937), alleged that for over 20 years she was in contact with a spirit named Patience Worth.
    • This symbiotic relationship produced several novels, and works of poetry and prose, which Pearl Curran claimed were delivered to her through channelling Worth's spirit during sessions with a ouija board, and which works Curran then transcribed.
    • According to Roberts and Butts, on 2 December 1963, they began to receive coherent messages from a male personality (an "energy personality essence no longer focused in the physical world") who eventually identified himself as "Seth", culminating in a series of books dictated by "Seth".
    • Sandover, which received the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1983, [42] was published in three volumes beginning in 1976. The first contained a poem for each of the letters A through Z, and was called The Book of Ephraim. It appeared in the collection Divine Comedies, which won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1977. [43] According to Merrill, the spirits ordered him to write and publish the next two installments, Mirabell: Books of Number in 1978 (which won the National Book Award for Poetry) [44] and Scripts for the Pageant in 1980.

    Aleister Crowley Edit

    Aleister Crowley had great admiration for the use of the ouija board and it played a passing role in his magical workings. [45] [46] Jane Wolfe, who lived with Crowley at Abbey of Thelema, also used the Ouija board. She credits some of her greatest spiritual communications to use of this implement. Crowley also discussed the Ouija board with another of his students, and the most ardent of them, Frater Achad (Charles Stansfeld Jones): it is frequently mentioned in their unpublished letters. In 1917 Achad experimented with the board as a means of summoning Angels, as opposed to Elementals. In one letter Crowley told Jones:

    Your Ouija board experiment is rather fun. You see how very satisfactory it is, but I believe things improve greatly with practice. I think you should keep to one angel, and make the magical preparations more elaborate.

    Over the years, both became so fascinated by the board that they discussed marketing their own design. Their discourse culminated in a letter, dated 21 February 1919, in which Crowley tells Jones,

    Re: Ouija Board. I offer you the basis of ten percent of my net profit. You are, if you accept this, responsible for the legal protection of the ideas, and the marketing of the copyright designs. I trust that this may be satisfactory to you. I hope to let you have the material in the course of a week.

    In March, Crowley wrote to Achad to inform him, "I'll think up another name for Ouija." But their business venture never came to fruition and Crowley's new design, along with his name for the board, has not survived. Crowley has stated, of the Ouija Board that, [45]

    There is, however, a good way of using this instrument to get what you want, and that is to perform the whole operation in a consecrated circle, so that undesirable aliens cannot interfere with it. You should then employ the proper magical invocation in order to get into your circle just the one spirit you want. It is comparatively easy to do this. A few simple instructions are all that is necessary, and I shall be pleased to give these, free of charge, to any one who cares to apply.

    Others Edit

      used a Ouija board, which the Catholic Church stated led to his possession by a demon. [47] , of the Houdini Museum in Scranton, Pennsylvania, uses a Ouija board as part of a paranormal and seance presentation. [48] used a Ouija board in his teenage years.
      • Around 1893, he had gone through a crisis of scepticism and depression, and during this period Chesterton experimented with the Ouija board and grew fascinated with the occult. [49]
      • According to Peter Popham of Die Onafhanklike: "Everybody here has long believed that Prodi's Ouija board tale was no more than an ill-advised and bizarre way to conceal the identity of his true source, probably a person from Bologna's seething far-left underground whom he was pledged to protect." [52]
      • According to their story (written for them by a fiction author, Jeremy Robert Johnson), Omar Rodriguez Lopez purchased one while traveling in Jerusalem. At first the board provided a story which became the theme for the album. Strange events allegedly related to this activity occurred during the recording of the album: the studio flooded, one of the album's main engineers had a nervous breakdown, equipment began to malfunction, and Cedric Bixler-Zavala's foot was injured. Following these bad experiences the band buried the Ouija board. [53]

      Ouija boards have figured prominently in horror tales in various media as devices enabling malevolent spirits to spook their users. Most often, they make brief appearances, relying heavily on the atmosphere of mystery the board already holds in the mind of the viewer, in order to add credence to the paranormal presence in the story being told.

      What Lies Beneath (2000) includes a séance scene with a board. Paranormale aktiwiteit (2007) involves a violent entity haunting a couple that becomes more powerful when the Ouija board is used. Another 2007 film, Ouija, depicted a group of adolescents whose use of the board causes a murderous spirit to follow them, while four years later, The Ouija Experiment portrayed a group of friends whose use of the board opens, and fails to close, a portal between the worlds of the living and the dead. [61] The 2014 film Ouija featured a group of friends whose use of the board prompted a series of deaths. [62] That film was followed by a 2016 prequel, Ouija: Origin of Evil, which also features the device.

      I Am Zozo follows a group of people that run afoul of a demon (based on Pazuzu) after using a Ouija board. [63]

      The British singer Morrissey released a controversial single titled "Ouija Board Ouija Board" in 1989. The lyrics and the video of the song mockingly play with the idea of supernaturally contacting dead persons.

      A Ouija board is an early part of the plot of the 1973 horror film The Exorcist. Using a Ouija board the young girl Regan makes what first appears to be harmless contact with an entity named "Captain Howdy". She later becomes possessed by a demon.

      The National Geographic show Brain Games Season 5 episode "Paranormal" clearly showed the board did not work when all participants were blindfolded. [64]


      Inhoud

      China [ edit | wysig bron]

      Wang Chongyang, founder of the Quanzhen School, depicted in Changchun Temple, Wuhan

      A modern Ouija board plus planchette

      One of the first mentions of the automatic writing method used in the Ouija board is found in China around 1100 AD, in historical documents of the Song Dynasty. The method was known as fuji (扶乩), "planchette writing". The use of planchette writing as an ostensible means of contacting the dead and the spirit-world continued, and, albeit under special rituals and supervisions, was a central practice of the Quanzhen School, until it was forbidden by the Qing Dynasty. Η] Several entire scriptures of the Daozang are supposedly works of automatic planchette writing. Similar methods of mediumistic spirit writing have been practiced in ancient India, Greece, Rome, and medieval Europe. ⎖]

      Toy [ edit | wysig bron]

      During the late 19th century, planchettes were widely sold as a novelty. Businessman Elijah Bond had the idea to patent a planchette sold with a board on which the alphabet was printed. The patentees filed on May 28, 1890 for patent protection and thus had invented the first Ouija board. Issue date on the patent was February 10, 1891. They received U.S. Patent 446,054 . Bond was an attorney and was an inventor of other objects in addition to this device.

      An employee of Elijah Bond, William Fuld took over the talking board production and in 1901, he started production of his own boards under the name "Ouija". ⎗] Charles Kennard (founder of Kennard Novelty Company which manufactured Fuld's talking boards and where Fuld had worked as a varnisher) claimed he learned the name "Ouija" from using the board and that it was an ancient Egyptian word meaning "good luck." When Fuld took over production of the boards, he popularized the more widely accepted etymology: that the name came from a combination of the French and German words for "yes". ⎘]

      The Fuld name would become synonymous with the Ouija board, as Fuld reinvented its history, claiming that he himself had invented it. The strange talk about the boards from Fuld's competitors flooded the market, and all these boards enjoyed a heyday from the 1920s through the 1960s. Fuld sued many companies over the "Ouija" name and concept right up until his death in 1927. In 1966, Fuld's estate sold the entire business to Parker Brothers, which was sold to Hasbro in 1991, and which continues to hold all trademarks and patents. About ten brands of talking boards are sold today under various names. ⎗ ]


      Notable users

      G. K. Chesterton used a Ouija board. Around 1893 he had gone through a crisis of skepticism and depression, and during this period Chesterton experimented with the Ouija board and grew fascinated with the occult. [ 36 ]

      Poet James Merrill used a Ouija board for years, as described above, and even encouraged entrance of spirits into his body. Before he died, he recommended that people not use Ouija boards. [ 37 ]

      Former Italian Prime Minister Romano Prodi claimed under oath that, in a séance held in 1978 with other professors at the University of Bologna, the "ghost" of Giorgio La Pira spelled the name of the street where Aldo Moro was being held by the Red Brigades in a Ouija. According to Peter Popham of The Independent: "Everybody here has long believed that Prodi's Ouija board tale was no more than an ill-advised and bizarre way to conceal the identity of his true source, probably a person from Bologna's seething far-left underground whom he was pledged to protect." [ 38 ]

      In London in 1994, convicted murderer Stephen Young was granted a retrial after it was learned that four of the jurors had conducted a Ouija board seance and had "contacted" the murdered man, who had named Young as his killer. Young was convicted for a second time at his retrial and jailed for life. [ 39 ] [ 40 ] [ 41 ]

      Bill Wilson, the co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, used a Ouija board and conducted seances in attempts to contact the dead. [ 42 ]

      On the July 25, 2007 edition of the paranormal radio show Coast to Coast AM, host George Noory attempted to carry out a live Ouija board experiment on national radio despite the strong objections of one of his guests, Jordan Maxwell, and with the encouragement of his other guests, Dr. Bruce Goldberg, Rosemary Ellen Guiley, and Jerry Edward Cornelius. [ aanhaling nodig ] In the days and hours leading up to the show, unfortunate events kept occurring to Noory's friends and family as well as some of his guests, but these events would likely be considered coincidences. After recounting a near-death experience in 2000 and noting bizarre events taking place, Noory canceled the experiment. [43]

      Dick Brooks of the Houdini Museum in Scranton, Pennsylvania, uses a Ouija board as part of a paranormal and seance presentation. [ 44 ]

      The Mars Volta wrote their album Bedlam in Goliath based on their alleged experiences with a Ouija board. According to their story (written for them by a fiction author, Jeremy Robert Johnson), Omar Rodriguez Lopez purchased a Ouija board while traveling in Jerusalem. At first the board provided a story which became the theme for the album. Strange events allegedly related to this activity occurred during the recording of the album: the studio flooded, one of the album's main engineers had a nervous breakdown, equipment began to malfunction, and Cedric Bixler-Zavala's foot was injured. Following these bad experiences the band buried the Ouija board. [ 45 ]

      Early press releases stated that Vincent Furnier's stage and band name "Alice Cooper" was agreed upon after a session with a Ouija board, during which it was revealed that Furnier was the reincarnation of a 17th century witch with that name. Alice Cooper later revealed that he just thought of the first name that came to his head while discussing a new band name with his band. [46]

      Brandon Flowers, the lead singer of The Killers, believes his death will be associated with the number 621 (which is also his birthday, June 21) from having used a Ouija board. [47]

      Michael Urie, known for his role on Ugly Betty, told a story about a Ouija board on Celebrity Ghost Stories Season 2, Episode 4.


      Kyk die video: The Scariest Ouija Board Experience Ever.. ZoZo (Januarie 2022).