Inligting

Egiptiese faraoniese graf van elite -familie en ontelbare artefakte gevind!


Belangrike argeologiese vondste in Egipte word steeds opgegrawe, en dit behels 'n hele graf van 'n familie -familie. Argeoloë het 'n nuwe, ou Egiptiese faraoniese graf gevind wat aan 'n belangrike koninklike amptenaar behoort, wat ongeveer 2500 jaar oud is. Die onlangs opgegrawe Egiptiese faraoniese graf bevat die grafte van familielede en 'n magdom belangrike begrafniswerke en grafgoed.

Die span Egiptiese argeoloë het 'n merkwaardige ontdekking gemaak terwyl hulle 'n terrein in die al-Ghuraifah-oudheidsgebied in Sentraal-Egipte opgegrawe het. Dit is hul vierde seisoen wat hulle grawe in die gebied, wat eens 'n nekropolis was, en vandag bekend staan ​​as Tuna el-Gebel. Hulle het al verskeie belangrike vondste op die plek gemaak, waaronder 'n kalksteenkis van die hoëpriester van Djehuty, die Egiptiese maangod en wysheid. Die onlangse Egiptiese faraoniese grafontdekking in Tuna el-Gebel is vanjaar een van die belangrikste vondste in Egipte, omdat die graf nie deur rowers geplunder is nie, anders as so baie vondste uit die verlede.

Net 'n klein greep uit die artefakte en grafgoed wat onlangs in Egipte gevind is. ( Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudhede )

Egiptiese faraoniese graf van 'n farao se tesourier

Mostafa Waziri, sekretaris-generaal van die Egiptiese Hoogste Raad van Oudhede, het aan Albawaba.com gesê dat die span 'n begraafplaas gevind het wat 'bestaan ​​uit 'n 10 meter diep begraafput wat lei na 'n groot kamer met nisse wat in die rots ingekerf is'. Die put of as is uitgevoer deur gereeld gevormde klipblokke. Dit is deur die Egiptiese Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudhede in 'n Facebook -plasing berig dat die kenners 'Die graf van die toesighouer van die koninklike tesourie' Badi Eset 'gevind het. " Sy naam word ook in sommige bronne as Badi Est of Pa Di Eset geskryf.

  • Egiptiese Elite Sarcophagi en unieke goue skatte opgegrawe
  • Graf van Kaires, die 'Bewaarder van die geheim' en die farao se 'enigste vriend' wat in Egipte opgegrawe is
  • Koper laat goud lyk: 1400-jarige Moche-grafte onthul ryk artefakte van die ou elite

As toesighouer van die koninklike tesourie sou Badi Eset destyds een van die magtigste manne in Egipte gewees het, met 'n geweldige invloed in die koninklike samelewing. In wese sou Badi Eset verantwoordelik gewees het vir die persoonlike rykdom van die farao. Sy verantwoordelikhede sou die bewaring van die tesourie en die onderhoud van die farao se huishouding en paleise insluit.

'N Standbeeld van 'n Apis -kalf, 'n heilige bul, wat in Memphis aanbid is, is in die Egiptiese faraoniese graf gevind. ( Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudhede )

Die Egiptiese farao -graf van Badi Eset was vol grafte

Die ou faraoniese graf is gedateer tot die laat tydperk van die Egiptiese geskiedenis, wat die era van die 26ste is ste aan die 30 ste dinastie. Twee pragtige kalksteenbeelde is ook in die graf gevind. Die een is in die vorm van die Apis -kalf, 'n heilige bul, wat in Memphis aanbid is. Die ander standbeeld is van 'n vrou, moontlik 'n godin. Die syfers is in 'n merkwaardige toestand.

'' 'N Canopiese vaartuig is ook gevind, gemaak van albast in die vorm van die vier seuns van Horus', volgens die Egyptian Independent. Dit is 'n verseëlde pot wat gewoonlik die ingewande van die oorledene bevat. Op die Facebook -blad van die Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudhede word mnr Wazari aangehaal dat die kruikblikke van kalksteen 'van die mooiste potte is wat gevind is'. Dit was begrafnisbeelde en hulle is begrawe by die dooies sodat hulle as dienaars in die hiernamaals kon optree.

Die graf bevat ook byna 1000 Ushabti-beeldjies gemaak van keramiek met glas. Sommige amulette, waaronder baie skarabee, is ook in die graf opgegrawe, wat vermoedelik gebruik is om die oorledene in die hiernamaals te help. En 'n stel pottebakke, moontlik kombuisgereedskap, is ook in die Badi Eset -graf gevind.

Die graf van die toesighouer van die koninklike tesourie bevat ook die sarkofae van lede van die familie van Badi Eset.

Family Stone Sarcophagi gevind in die Egiptiese faraoniese graf

Die Facebook -blad van die Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudhede berig dat "Daar is ook vier klip -sarkofae gevind" in die Egiptiese farao -graf. Hulle is almal ongeskonde en word steeds met mortel verseël. Dit is 'n opwindende vonds, en dit kan aandui dat meer ongeskonde begrafnisse wag om ontdek te word.

Die ontdekking van die graf van Badi Eset en die sarkofae van sy familie is 'n unieke geleentheid vir navorsers om die begrafnisgebruik uit die laat periode te begryp, en dit kan insigte gee in elite sosiale verhoudings in hierdie tydperk. Volgens die Ministerie van Toerisme en Oudheid se Facebook-blad "is daar nog meer om te ontdek en skatte om in El-Ghorefa te onthul." Opgrawings gaan voort op die terrein.


Bladsye opsies

In die Egiptiese mite was magie (heka) een van die kragte wat die skepper gebruik het om die wêreld te maak. Deur heka kan simboliese handelinge praktiese gevolge hê. Daar word vermoed dat alle gode en mense hierdie krag in 'n mate besit, maar daar was reëls oor waarom en hoe dit gebruik kan word.

Die mees gerespekteerde gebruikers van toorkuns was die lektorpriesters.

Priesters was die belangrikste beoefenaars van towery in die faraoniese Egipte, waar hulle gesien is as bewakers van 'n geheime kennis wat die gode aan die mensdom gegee het om 'die noodlot te weerhou'. Die mees gerespekteerde gebruikers van toorkuns was die lektorpriesters, wat die antieke towerkuns kon lees wat in tempel- en paleisbiblioteke gehou is. In gewilde verhale word sulke manne toegeskryf aan die mag om wasdiere lewendig te maak of die waters van 'n meer terug te keer.

Standbeeld van Sekhmet © Egte lektorpriesters het magiese rituele uitgevoer om hul koning te beskerm en om die dooies te help tot wedergeboorte. Teen die eerste millennium vC blyk dit dat hul rol deur towenaars (hekau) oorgeneem is. Genesende magie was 'n spesialiteit van die priesters wat Sekhmet gedien het, die vreesaanjaende godin van pes.

Laer in status was die skerpioen-sjarme, wat magie gebruik het om 'n gebied van giftige reptiele en insekte te verwyder. Vroedvroue en verpleegsters het ook magie by hul vaardighede ingesluit, en wyse vroue kan geraadpleeg word oor watter spook of godheid 'n persoon probleme veroorsaak.

Amulette was nog 'n bron van towerkrag, verkrygbaar by 'beskermingsmakers', wat manlik of vroulik kan wees. Nie een van hierdie magiese gebruike is afgekeur nie - hetsy deur die staat of deur die priesterskap. Slegs buitelanders word gereeld daarvan beskuldig dat hulle bose magie gebruik het. Daar is eers in die Romeinse tydperk baie bewyse dat individuele towenaars skadelike magie beoefen vir finansiële beloning.


Inhoud

Alhoewel daar geen geskrifte uit die predynastiese tydperk in Egipte oorleef het nie (ongeveer 6000 - ongeveer 3150 v.G.J.), glo geleerdes dat die belangrikheid van die fisiese liggaam en die bewaring daarvan ontstaan ​​het. Dit verklaar waarskynlik waarom mense van daardie tyd nie die algemene gebruik van verassing gevolg het nie, maar eerder dooies begrawe het. Sommige glo ook dat hulle moontlik gevrees het dat die lyke weer sou opstaan ​​as hulle na die dood mishandel word. [3]

Vroeë lyke is begrawe in eenvoudige, vlak ovaal kuipe, met 'n paar begraafgoed. Soms is verskeie mense en diere in dieselfde graf geplaas. Met verloop van tyd het grafte meer kompleks geword. Op 'n stadium is lyke in 'n vlegmandjie geplaas, maar uiteindelik was lyke plekke in hout- of terracottakiste. Die nuutste grafte wat die Egiptenare gemaak het, was sarkofae. Hierdie grafte bevat begraafgoed soos juweliersware, kos, speletjies en skerp spalk. [4]

Tussen die predynastiese tydperk en die Ptolemaïese dinastie was daar 'n konstante fokus op die ewige lewe en die sekerheid van persoonlike bestaan ​​buite die dood. Hierdie geloof in 'n hiernamaals word weerspieël in die begrawe van grafgoed in grafte. Die oortuiging van die Egiptenare in die hiernamaals het in die antieke wêreld bekend geword by wyse van handel en kulturele oordrag wat 'n invloed op ander beskawings en godsdienste het. Hierdie oortuiging het veral bekend geword by die Silk Road. Daar word geglo dat individue in die hiernamaals opgeneem is op grond daarvan dat hulle 'n doel daar kon dien. Daar word byvoorbeeld gedink dat die farao in die hiernamaals toegelaat sou word vanweë sy rol as heerser van Antieke Egipte, wat 'n doel sou wees wat in sy hiernamaals vertaal is.

Menslike offers wat in vroeë koninklike grafte gevind is, versterk die idee om 'n doel in die hiernamaals te dien. Diegene wat geoffer is, was waarskynlik bedoel om die farao in sy hiernamaals te dien. Uiteindelik begin beeldjies en muurskilderye menslike slagoffers vervang. [5] Sommige van hierdie beeldjies is moontlik gemaak om op sekere mense te lyk, sodat hulle die farao kon volg nadat hulle lewens geëindig het.

Die laer klasse het nie net op die farao se guns staatgemaak nie, maar ook op die edele klasse. Hulle het geglo dat die farao met sy dood 'n soort god geword het wat sekere individue die vermoë kon gee om 'n hiernamaals te hê. Hierdie oortuiging het bestaan ​​vanaf die predinastiese tydperk deur die Ou Koninkryk.

Alhoewel baie spreuke uit die voorafgaande tekste oorgedra is, het die nuwe Coffin Texts ook ekstra nuwe spreuke bygevoeg, tesame met geringe veranderinge wat aangebring is om hierdie nuwe begrafnisteks meer verwant aan die adel te maak. [6] In die eerste tussenperiode het die belangrikheid van die farao egter afgeneem. Begrafnistekste, wat voorheen tot koninklike gebruik beperk was, het meer algemeen geword. Die farao was nie meer 'n godskoning nie, in die sin dat slegs hy in die volgende lewe toegelaat is vanweë sy status hier, nou was hy bloot die heerser van die bevolking wat na sy dood in die rigting van die sterflike mense sou val. . [7]

Voorgeskiedenis, vroegste begrafnisse Redigeer

Die eerste begrafnisse in Egipte is bekend uit die dorpe Omari en Maadi in die noorde, naby die huidige Kaïro. Die mense van hierdie dorpe begrawe hul dooies in 'n eenvoudige, ronde graf met 'n pot. Die liggaam is nie behandel of ingerig op 'n spesifieke manier wat later in die historiese tydperk sou verander nie. Sonder skriftelike bewyse is daar min inligting oor hedendaagse oortuigings rakende die hiernamaals, behalwe die gereelde insluiting van 'n enkele pot in die graf. Gegewe latere gebruike, was die pot waarskynlik bedoel om voedsel vir die oorledene te hou. [8]

Predinastiese tydperk, ontwikkeling van doeane wysig

Begrafnisgebruike is gedurende die predynastiese tydperk ontwikkel uit die van die Prehistoriese tydperk. Aanvanklik het mense ronde grafte met een pot in die Badarian -periode (4400–3800 vC) opgegrawe, wat die tradisie van die Omari- en Maadi -kulture voortgesit het. Aan die einde van die predynastiese tydperk was daar toenemende aantal voorwerpe wat in die reghoekige grafte met die liggaam neergelê is, en daar is toenemende bewyse van rituele wat deur Egiptenare in die Naqada II -periode (3650–3300 v.C.) beoefen is. Op hierdie punt is lyke gereeld in 'n gehurkte of fetale posisie gerangskik met die gesig na die ooste, die opkomende son of die weste (wat in hierdie historiese tydperk die land van die dooies was). Kunstenaars het potte geverf met begrafnisoptogte en miskien rituele dans. Daar verskyn ook figure van kaalborsvroue met voëlagtige gesigte en hul bene onder rokke versteek. Sommige grafte was baie ryker aan goedere as ander, wat die begin van sosiale stratifikasie toon. Geslagsverskille in begrafnis kom na vore met die insluiting van wapens in mansgrafte en kosmetiese palette in vrouegrafte. [9]

Teen 3600 v.C. het die Egiptenare die dooies begin mompel en dit in linneverbande toegedraai met balsemingsolies (naaldhars en aromatiese plantekstrakte). [10] [11]

Vroeë dinastiese tydperk, grafte en kiste wysig

Teen die Eerste Dinastie was sommige Egiptenare ryk genoeg om grafte oor hul begrafnisse te bou eerder as om hul liggame in eenvoudige putgrafte in die sand te plaas. Die reghoekige, modderbakgraf met 'n ondergrondse grafkamer wat 'n mastaba genoem word, het in hierdie tydperk ontwikkel. Hierdie grafte het nismure gehad, 'n boustyl wat die paleis-fasade-motief genoem word omdat die mure die wat rondom die paleis van die koning was, nageboots het. Aangesien gewone mense sowel as konings egter sulke grafte gehad het, dui die argitektuur daarop dat sommige welgestelde mense in die dood wel 'n verhoogde status behaal het. Later in die historiese tydperk is dit seker dat die oorledene geassosieer is met die god van die dooies, Osiris.

Grafgoed het uitgebrei tot meubels, juweliersware en speletjies, asook die wapens, kosmetiese palette en voedselvoorrade in versierde potte wat vroeër bekend was, in die predynastiese tydperk. Maar nou, in die rykste grafte, was daar grafgoed in duisende. Slegs die nuut uitgevinde kiste vir die liggaam is spesiaal vir die graf gemaak. Daar is ook 'n paar onomwonde bewyse vir mummifikasie. Ander voorwerpe in die grafte wat gedurende die daaglikse lewe gebruik is, dui daarop dat Egiptenare reeds in die Eerste Dinastie in die volgende lewe behoeftes verwag het. Verdere kontinuïteit van hierdie lewe na die volgende kan gevind word in die plasing van grafte: die persone wat die koning gedien het gedurende hul leeftyd, het begrawe naby hul heer gekies. Die gebruik van stela voor die graf begin in die Eerste Dinastie, wat dui op 'n begeerte om die graf met die naam van die oorledene te individualiseer. [12]

Old Kingdom, Piramides and Mummification Edit

In die ou koninkryk het konings eers piramides vir hul grafte gebou, omring deur klipmastaba -grafte vir hul hoë amptenare. Die feit dat die meeste hoë amptenare ook koninklike familielede was, dui op 'n ander motivering vir hierdie plasing: hierdie komplekse was ook familie begraafplase.

Onder die elite is lyke gemummifiseer, toegedraai in linneverbande, soms bedek met gegote gips, en in klipsarkofagies of gewone houtkiste geplaas. Aan die einde van die Ou Koninkryk verskyn ook mammasmaskers in kartonne (linne geweek in gips, gemodelleer en geverf). Canopiese potte het nou hul interne organe gehou. Amulette van goud, fajance en karneool verskyn eers in verskillende vorms om verskillende dele van die liggaam te beskerm. Daar is ook die eerste bewys van inskripsies in die kiste van die elite tydens die Ou Koninkryk. Dikwels is reliëfs van alledaagse voorwerpe op die mure gegraveer en grafgoed aangevul, wat dit deur hul voorstelling beskikbaar gestel het.

Die nuwe vals deur was 'n nie-funksionele klipbeeld van 'n deur, wat binne-in die kapel of aan die buitekant van die mastaba gevind is, en dit dien as 'n plek om offers te bring en gebede vir die oorledene op te sê. Standbeelde van die oorledene is nou in grafkelders opgeneem en vir rituele doeleindes gebruik. Begraafkamers van sommige privaat mense het hul eerste versierings ontvang, benewens die versiering van die kapelle. Aan die einde van die Ou Koninkryk het die versierings van die grafkamer offerandes uitgebeeld, maar nie mense nie. [13]

Eerste intermediêre periode, streeksvariasie wysig

Die politieke situasie in die Eerste Tussenperiode, met baie magsentrums, word weerspieël in die vele plaaslike kuns- en begrafnisstyle in hierdie tyd. Die vele streeksstyle vir die versiering van kiste maak dit maklik om hul oorsprong van mekaar te onderskei. Byvoorbeeld, sommige kiste het eenlyn-inskripsies, en baie style bevat die uitbeelding van Wadjet oë (die menslike oog met die merke van 'n valk). Daar is ook plaaslike variasies in die hiërogliewe wat gebruik word om kiste te versier.

Soms het mans gereedskap en wapens in hul grafte gehad, terwyl sommige vroue juwele en kosmetiese voorwerpe soos spieëls gehad het. Skerpstene is soms in vrouegrafte opgeneem, miskien as 'n hulpmiddel vir voedselvoorbereiding in die volgende wêreld, net soos die wapens in mansgrafte impliseer dat mans 'n rol speel in die geveg. [14]

Middelryk, Nuwe grafinhoud Wysig

Begrafnisgebruike in die Middelryk weerspieël sommige van die politieke tendense van hierdie tydperk. Tydens die elfde dinastie is grafte in die berge van Thebe om die graf van die koning gesny of op plaaslike begraafplase in Bo- en Midde -Egipte. Maar tydens die twaalfde dinastie het hoë amptenare die konings van 'n nuwe familie bedien wat nou uit die noorde in Lisht heers, en hierdie hoë amptenare verkies om begrawe te word in 'n mastaba naby die piramides wat aan hul meesters behoort. Boonop het die verskil in topografie tussen Thebe en Lisht gelei tot 'n verskil in graftipe: in die noorde bou edeles mastaba -grafte op die plat woestynvlaktes, terwyl in die suide die plaaslike hooggeplaastes voortgegaan het met die opgrawing van grafte in die berg.

Vir diegene met laer rang as koninklike hofdienaars tydens die Elfde Dinastie, was grafte eenvoudiger. Kiste kan eenvoudige houtkaste wees met die liggaam gemummifiseer en toegedraai in linne of eenvoudig toegedraai sonder om te mummifiseer, en die toevoeging van 'n kartonmummie-masker, 'n gebruik wat tot die Grieks-Romeinse tydperk voortduur. Sommige grafte bevat beboste skoene en 'n eenvoudige standbeeld naby die liggaam. In een begrafnis was daar net twaalf brode, 'n beesboud en 'n fles bier vir kosoffers. Juweliersware kan ingesluit word, maar slegs selde is voorwerpe van groot waarde gevind in nie-elite grafte. Sommige begrafnisse bevat steeds die houtmodelle wat gewild was gedurende die Eerste Tussenperiode. Houtmodelle van bote, tonele van voedselproduksie, vakmanne en werkswinkels, en beroepe soos skrifgeleerdes of soldate is in die grafte van hierdie tydperk gevind.

Sommige reghoekige kiste van die twaalfde dinastie bevat kort inskripsies en voorstellings van die belangrikste offers wat die oorledene benodig het. Vir mans was die voorwerpe wat uitgebeeld word wapens en ampssimbole sowel as kos. Vroue se kiste het spieëls, sandale en potte met voedsel en drank uitgebeeld. Sommige kiste bevat tekste wat later weergawes van die koninklike piramide -tekste was.

'N Ander soort faience -model van die oorledene as 'n mummie blyk die gebruik van shabti beeldjies (ook genoem shawabti of 'n ushabti) later in die twaalfde dinastie. Hierdie vroeë beeldjies bevat nie die teks wat die figuur aan die werk stel in die plek van die oorledene wat in latere beeldjies gevind word nie. Die rykste mense het klipbeeldjies gehad wat lyk asof hulle dit verwag shabtis, hoewel sommige geleerdes dit eerder as mummievervangers beskou het as as dienaarsfigure.

In die latere twaalfde dinastie het beduidende veranderinge in begrafnisse plaasgevind, wat moontlik weerspieël administratiewe veranderinge wat deur koning Senwosret III (1836–1818 vC) ingestel is. Die liggaam is nou gereeld op sy rug geplaas, eerder as op sy sy, soos al duisende jare lank gedoen is. Kisttekste en houtmodelle het uit nuwe grafte van die tydperk verdwyn, terwyl hartkarakters en beeldjies in die vorm van mummies nou dikwels by begrafnisse ingesluit is, soos dit sou wees vir die res van die Egiptiese geskiedenis. Kisversiering is vereenvoudig. Die dertiende dinastie het nog 'n verandering in versiering beleef. Verskillende motiewe is in die noorde en suide gevind, 'n weerspieëling van destydse gedesentraliseerde regeringsmag. Daar was ook 'n merkbare toename in die aantal begrafnisse in een graf, 'n seldsame voorkoms in vroeëre periodes. Dit lyk asof die hergebruik van een graf deur 'n gesin oor geslagte heen plaasgevind het toe rykdom meer regverdig versprei is. [15]

Tweede intermediêre tydperk, begrafnisse vir buitelanders wysig

Bekende grafte uit die Tweede Tussenperiode onthul die teenwoordigheid van nie-Egiptenare wat in die land begrawe is. In die noorde bevat grafte wat verband hou met die Hyksos, 'n westelike Semitiese volk wat uit die noordoostelike delta uit die noorde heers, klein moddersteenstrukture met die liggaam, erdebakke, 'n dolk in 'n mansgrafte en dikwels 'n nabygeleë eselbegrafnis. Daar word vermoed dat eenvoudige panvormige grafte in verskillende dele van die land aan die Nubiese soldate behoort. Sulke grafte weerspieël baie ou gebruike en beskik oor vlak, ronde kuile, lyke wat gekontrakteer is en minimale voedselaanbiedings in potte. Die af en toe opname van herkenbare Egiptiese materiaal uit die Tweede Tussentydperk bied die enigste tekens wat hierdie begrafnisse onderskei van dié van predynastiese en selfs vroeëre periodes. [16]

New Kingdom, New Object Purposes Wysig

Die meerderheid elite-grafte in die Nuwe Koninkryk was rotsafgesnyde kamers. Konings is begrawe in meervoudige, met rotse afgekapte grafte in die Vallei van die Konings en nie meer in piramides nie. Priesters het begrafnisrituele vir hulle uitgevoer in kliptempels wat op die westelike oewer van die Nyl, teenoor Thebe, gebou is. Uit die huidige getuienis blyk dit dat die agtiende dinastie die laaste tydperk is waarin Egiptenare gereeld verskeie voorwerpe uit hul daaglikse lewe in hul grafte begin, wat in die negentiende dinastie begin het, grawe bevat minder items uit die daaglikse lewe en bevat voorwerpe wat spesiaal vir die volgende wêreld gemaak is . Die verandering van die agtiende tot die negentiende dinastieë vorm dus 'n skeidingslyn in die begrafnisstradisies: die agtiende dinastie onthou die onmiddellike verlede in sy gebruike nog meer, terwyl die negentiende dinastie die gebruike van die laat periode voorsien het.

Mense uit die elite -geledere in die agtiende dinastie het meubels sowel as klere en ander items in hul grafte geplaas, voorwerpe wat hulle ongetwyfeld tydens hul lewe op aarde gebruik het. Beddens, kopstutte, stoele, stoelgang, leersandale, juweliersware, musiekinstrumente en houtbergkiste was in hierdie grafte. Al die voorwerpe wat vir die elite genoem word, was vir die elite, maar baie arm mense het niks anders as wapens en skoonheidsmiddels in hul grafte geplaas nie.

Geen elite -grafte oorleef ongedeerd uit die Ramesside -tydperk nie. In hierdie tydperk het kunstenaars grafte van die elite versier met meer toneel van godsdienstige gebeurtenisse, eerder as die alledaagse toneel wat sedert die Ou Koninkryk gewild was. Die begrafnis self, die begrafnismaal met verskeie familielede, die aanbidding van die gode, selfs figure in die onderwêreld was onderdane in elite grafversierings. Die meerderheid voorwerpe wat in die Ramesside -graf gevind is, is vir die hiernamaals gemaak. Afgesien van die juweliersware, wat ook tydens die lewe gebruik kon word, is voorwerpe in die grafte van Ramesside vir die volgende wêreld vervaardig. [17]

Derde intermediêre tydperk wysig

Alhoewel die politieke struktuur van die Nuwe Ryk aan die einde van die twintigste dinastie in duie gestort het, weerspieël die meerderheid begrafnisse in die 21ste dinastie die ontwikkelinge uit die vroeëre tydperk direk. Aan die begin van hierdie tyd het verligting gelyk aan dié uit die Ramesside -tydperk. Eers aan die einde van die Derde Tussenperiode het nuwe begrafnispraktyke van die Laat Tydperk begin blyk.

Van grafte uit hierdie tydperk is min bekend. Dit lyk asof die gebrek aan versierings in grafte tot baie meer uitgebreide versiering van kiste gelei het. Die oorblywende grafgoed uit die tydperk word redelik goedkoop vervaardig shabtis, selfs toe die eienaar 'n koningin of 'n prinses was. [18]

Laat tydperk, monumentaliteit en terugkeer na tradisies Wysig

By begrafnisse in die laat periode kan gebruik gemaak word van grootskaalse, tempelagtige grafte wat vir die eerste keer vir die nie-koninklike elite gebou is. Maar die meerderheid grafte in hierdie tydperk was in skagte wat in die woestynvloer gesink is. Benewens fyn beeldhouwerke en reliëfs wat die styl van die ou koninkryk weerspieël, is die meerderheid grafgoed spesiaal vir die graf gemaak. Kiste het steeds godsdienstige tekste en tonele gedra. Sommige skagte is gepersonaliseer deur die gebruik van stela met die oorlede gebede en die naam daarop. Shabtis in faience vir alle klasse is bekend. Canopiese flesse, hoewel dit dikwels nie funksioneel is nie, is steeds ingesluit. Stokke en scepters wat die oorledene se kantoor in die lewe verteenwoordig, was ook dikwels teenwoordig. 'N Houtfiguur van óf die god Osiris [19] óf van die saamgestelde god Ptah-Sokar-Osiris kan gevind word, [20] [21] saam met hartskerpe, beide goud en fajanse voorbeelde van djed-kolomme, Eye of Horus-amulette , figure van gode en beelde van die oorledene BA. Gereedskap vir die ritueel van die graf, die 'opening van die mond' sowel as 'magiese stene' by die vier kompaspunte, kan ingesluit word. [22]

Ptolemaïese tydperk, Hellenistiese invloede Redigeer

Na die verowering van Egipte deur Alexander die Grote, is die land beheer deur die afstammelinge van Ptolemeus, een van sy generaals. Die Masedoniese Griekse familie het 'n kultuur bevorder wat beide Hellenistiese en antieke Egiptiese lewenswyses bevorder het: terwyl baie Griekssprekende mense wat in Alexandrië gewoon het, die gebruike van die vasteland van Griekeland volg, het ander Egiptiese gebruike aangeneem, terwyl Egiptenare hul eie reeds ou gebruike volg.

Baie min Ptolemaïese grafte is bekend. 'N Pragtige tempelbeeld van die tydperk dui op die moontlikheid van grafbeelde en tafels. Egiptiese elite -begrafnisse het steeds van steensarkofae gebruik gemaak. Boeke van die dooies en amulette was ook steeds gewild. [23]

Romeinse tydperk, Romeinse invloede Redigeer

Die Romeine verower Egipte in 30 vC en beëindig die bewind van die laaste en bekendste lid van die Ptolemaïese dinastie, Cleopatra VII. Tydens die Romeinse bewind het 'n elite -hibriede begrafnisstyl ontwikkel wat Egiptiese en Romeinse elemente bevat.

Sommige mense is gemummifiseer en toegedraai in linneverbande. Die voorkant van die mummie is dikwels geverf met 'n verskeidenheid tradisionele Egiptiese simbole. Mummies in tradisionele Egiptiese of Romeinse styl kan by die mummies gevoeg word. 'N Ander moontlikheid was 'n mummieportret in Romeinse styl, uitgevoer in encaustic (pigment in was geslinger) op 'n houtpaneel. Soms was die voete van die mummie bedek. 'N Alternatief hiervoor was 'n volledige omhulsel met Egiptiese motiewe, maar 'n portret in die Romeinse styl. Die grafte van die elite kan ook fyn juwele insluit. [24]

Die Griekse historici Herodotus (5de eeu v.C.) en Diodorus Siculus (1ste eeu v.C.) lewer die mees volledige bewyse van hoe antieke Egiptenare die bewaring van 'n dooie liggaam benader het. [25] Voordat balseming, of bewaring van die dooie liggaam om verval te vertraag of te voorkom, bedroef rouklaers, veral as die oorledene 'n hoë status gehad het, hul gesigte met modder bedek en in die stad gestap terwyl hulle hul bors slaan. [25] As die vrou van 'n man met 'n hoë status gesterf het, is haar liggaam eers gebalsem totdat drie of vier dae verby is, omdat dit die misbruik van die lyk verhoed het. [25] In die geval dat iemand verdrink of aangeval is, is daar op 'n heilige en versigtige manier onmiddellik balseming op hul liggaam uitgevoer. Hierdie soort dood is as eerbiedig beskou, en slegs priesters mag die liggaam aanraak. [25]

Na balseming het die rouklaers moontlik 'n ritueel uitgevoer met betrekking tot die uitvaardiging van die oordeel tydens die Uurwaak, met vrywilligers om die rol van Osiris en sy vyand broer Set te speel, sowel as die gode Isis, Nephthys, Horus, Anubis en Thoth . [26] Soos die verhaal vertel, was Set afgunstig op sy broer Osiris omdat hy die troon voor hom gekry het, en daarom het hy besluit om hom dood te maak. Osiris se vrou, Isis, baklei heen en weer met Set om die liggaam van Osiris in besit te neem, en deur hierdie stryd het Osiris se gees verlore gegaan. [27] Nietemin het Osiris opgewek en is hy as 'n god heringestel. [28] Benewens die hersiening van die uitspraak van Osiris, is talle begrafnisoptogte in die nabygeleë nekropolis gehou, wat verskillende heilige reise simboliseer. [26]

Die begrafnisstoet na die graf het oor die algemeen ingesluit dat beeste die lyk in 'n sleetipe draer trek, saam met vriende en familie. Tydens die optog het die priester wierook verbrand en melk voor die dooie liggaam gegooi. [26] By aankoms by die graf, en in wese die volgende lewe, het die priester die opening van die mondplegtigheid op die oorledene uitgevoer. Die oorledene se kop is na die suide gedraai, en die lyk was 'n beeld van die oorledene. Deur die mond van die oorledene oop te maak, is 'n simbool van toelaat dat die persoon tydens die oordeelproses kan praat en hom kan verdedig. Daarna is goedere aan die oorledene aangebied om die seremonie af te sluit. [26]

Balseming Redigeer

Die bewaring van 'n dooie liggaam was van kritieke belang as die oorledene 'n kans op aanvaarding in die hiernamaals wou hê. Binne die Ou Egiptiese konsep van die siel, ka, wat lewenskragtigheid verteenwoordig, verlaat die liggaam sodra die persoon sterf. [29] Slegs as die liggaam op 'n spesifieke manier gebalsem word ka na die oorlede liggaam terugkeer, en wedergeboorte sal plaasvind. [25] Die balsemers het die lyk na die dood ontvang en op 'n sistematiese wyse dit vir mummifikasie voorberei. Die familie en vriende van die oorledene het 'n keuse gehad wat wissel in prys vir die voorbereiding van die lyk, soortgelyk aan die proses by moderne begrafnisondernemings. Daarna het die balsemers die lyk begelei ibw, vertaal na "reinigingsplek", 'n tent waarin die liggaam gewas is, en dan per persoon, "The House of Beauty", waar mummifikasie plaasgevind het. [25]

Mummifikasie proses Wysig

Om vir ewig te kan lewe en voor Osiris voorgehou te word, moes die liggaam van die oorledene deur mummifikasie bewaar word, sodat die siel daarmee kon herenig en plesier kon vind uit die hiernamaals. Die belangrikste proses van mummifikasie was die behoud van die liggaam deur dit te ontwater met natron, 'n natuurlike sout wat in Wadi Natrun voorkom. Die liggaam is uit alle vloeistowwe gedreineer en die vel, hare en spiere is bewaar. [30] Die mummifikasieproses het tot sewentig dae geneem. Tydens hierdie proses het spesiale priesters as balsemers gewerk terwyl hulle die liggaam van die oorledene behandel en toegedraai het ter voorbereiding op die begrafnis.

Die proses van mummifikasie was beskikbaar vir almal wat dit kon bekostig. Daar word geglo dat selfs diegene wat hierdie proses nie kon bekostig nie, steeds die hiernamaals kan geniet met die regte opsê van spel. Mummifikasie bestaan ​​in drie verskillende prosesse, wat wissel van die duurste, matig duurste en eenvoudigste of goedkoopste. [25] Die mees klassieke, algemeenste en duurste metode van mummifikasie dateer uit die 18de Dinastie. Die eerste stap was om die interne organe en vloeistof te verwyder sodat die liggaam nie verval nie. Nadat dit op 'n tafel neergelê is, het die balsemers die brein uitgehaal deur 'n proses met die naam ekserebrasie deur 'n metaalhaak deur die neusgat te steek en daardeur in die brein te breek. Hulle het soveel as moontlik met die haak verwyder, en die res het hulle met dwelms vloeibaar gemaak en uitgetap. [25] Hulle het die brein uitgegooi omdat hulle gedink het dat die hart al die denke doen. Die volgende stap was om die inwendige organe, die longe, lewer, maag en ingewande te verwyder en dit in kanopiese potte te plaas met deksels gevorm soos die koppe van die beskermende gode, die vier seuns van Horus: Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef en Qebhseneuf. Imsety was met 'n menslike kop en bewaak die lewer. Hapy het 'n aapkop, en bewaak die longe. Duamutef het 'n jakkalskop en 'n wag vir die maag. [25] Soms is die vier canopiese potte in 'n canopiese kis geplaas en met die gemummifiseerde liggaam begrawe. 'N Canopiese bors lyk soos 'n "miniatuur kis" en is ingewikkeld geverf. Die eertydse Egiptenare het geglo dat deur die oorledene met hul organe te begrawe, hulle weer saam met hulle in die hiernamaals kan aansluit. [26] Ander kere is die organe skoongemaak en gereinig, en dan in die liggaam teruggekeer. [25] The body cavity was then rinsed and cleaned with wine and an array of spices. The body was sewn up with aromatic plants and spices left inside. [25] The heart stayed in the body, because in the hall of judgement, it would be weighed against the feather of Maat. After the body was washed with wine, it was stuffed with bags of natron. The dehydration process took 40 days. [27]

The second part of the process took 30 days. This was the time where the deceased turned into a semi divine being, and all that was left in the body from the first part was removed, followed by applying first wine and then oils. The oils were for ritual purposes, as well as for preventing the limbs and bones from breaking while being wrapped. The body was sometimes colored with a golden resin, which protected the body from bacteria and insects. Additionally, this practice was based on the belief that divine beings had flesh of gold. Next, the body was wrapped in linen cut into strips with amulets while a priest recited prayers and burned incense. The linen was adhered to the body using gum, opposed to a glue. [25] The dressing provided the body physical protection from the elements, and depending on how wealthy the deceased's family was, the deceased could be dressed with an ornamented funeral mask and shroud. [25] Special care was given to the head, hands, feet, and genitals, as contemporary mummies reveal extra wrappings and paddings in these areas. [31] Mummies were identified via small, wooden name-tags tied typically around the deceased's neck. [25] The 70-day process is connected to Osiris and the length the star Sothis was absent from the sky. [28]

The second, moderately expensive option for mummification did not involve an incision into the abdominal cavity or the removal of the internal organs. Instead, the embalmers injected the oil of a cedar tree into the body, which prevented liquid from leaving the body. The body was then laid in natron for a specific number of days. The oil was then drained out of the body, and with it came the internal organs, the stomach and the intestines, which were liquefied by the cedar oil. The flesh dissolved in the natron, which left only skin and bones left of the deceased body. The remains are given back to the family. [25] The cheapest, most basic method of mummification, which was often chosen by the poor, involved purging out the deceased's internal organs, and then laying the body in natron for 70 days. The body was then given back to the family. [25]

Animal mummification Edit

Animals were mummified in Ancient Egypt for many reasons. Household pets that held a special important to their owners were buried alongside them. However, animals were not only viewed as pets but as incarnations of the gods. Therefore, these animals were buried to honor ancient Egyptian deities. Some animal mummifications were performed to serve as sacred offerings to the gods who often took the form of animals such as cats, frogs, cows, baboons, and vultures. Other animals were mummified with the intention of being a food offering to humans in the afterlife. Additionally, household pets that held a special important to their owners were buried alongside them.

Several kinds of animal remains have been discovered in tombs all around Dayr al-Barsha, a Coptic village in Middle Egypt. The remains found in the shafts and burial chambers included dogs, foxes, eagle owls, bats, rodents, and snakes. These were determined to be individuals that had entered the deposits by accident. Other animal remains that were found were more common and recurred more than those individuals that wound up accidentally trapped in these tombs. These remains included numerous gazelle and cattle bones, as well as calves and goats which were believed to have been in result of human behavior. This was due to finding that some remains had fragments altered, missing, or separated from their original skeletons. These remains also had traces of paint and cut marks on them, seen especially with cattle skulls and feet. Based on this, the natural environment of the Dayr al-Barsha tombs, and the fact that only some parts of these animals were found, the possibility of natural deposition can be ruled out, and the cause of these remains in fact are most likely caused by animal sacrifices, as only the head, foreleg, and feet were apparently selected for deposition within the tombs. According to a study by Christopher Eyre, cattle meat was actually not a part of the daily diet in Ancient Egypt, as the consumption of meat only took place during celebrations including funerary and mortuary rituals, and the practice of providing the deceased with offerings of cattle going back to the Predynastic Period. [32]

After the mummy was prepared, it would need to be re-animated, symbolically, by a priest. The opening of the mouth ceremony was conducted by a priest who would utter a spell and touch the mummy or sarcophagus with a ceremonial adze – a copper or stone blade. This ceremony ensured that the mummy could breathe and speak in the afterlife. In a similar fashion, the priest could utter spells to reanimate the mummy's arms, legs, and other body parts.

The priests, maybe even the king's successor, proceeded to move the body through the causeway to the mortuary temple. This is where prayers were recited, incense was burned, and more rituals were performed to help prepare the king for his final journey. The king's mummy was then placed inside the pyramid along with enormous amount of food, drink, furniture, clothes, and jewelry which were to be used in the afterlife. The pyramid was sealed so that no one would ever enter it again. However, the king's soul could move through the burial chamber as it wished. After the funeral the king becomes a god and could be worshipped in the temples beside his pyramid. [33]

In ancient times Egyptians were buried directly in the ground. Since the weather was so hot and dry, it was easy for the bodies to remain preserved. Usually the bodies would be buried in the fetal position. [34] Ancient Egyptians believed the burial process to be an important part in sending humans to a comfortable afterlife. The Egyptians believed that, after death, the deceased could still have such feelings of anger, or hold a grudge as the living. The deceased were also expected to support and help their living family. [35] They believed that the Ba en Ka are what enabled the dead to support their family. Die Ba made it possible for an invisible twin to be released from the body to support the family, while the Ka would recognize the twin when it would come back to the body. [36] With the ideas of the dead being so valuable, it is clear why the Egyptians treated the deceased with respect. The less fortunate Egyptians still wanted their family members to be given a proper burial. A typical burial would be held in the desert where the family would wrap the body in a cloth and bury it with everyday objects for the dead to be comfortable. [37] Although some could afford mummification, most commoners were not mummified due to the expense. [38] Often the poor are found in mass graves where their bodies are not mummified and only with minimal household objects, spread out throughout the desert, often in areas that are now populated. [ aanhaling nodig ]

The tomb was the housing for the deceased and served two crucial functions: the tomb provided infinite protection for the deceased to rest, as well as a place for mourners to perform rituals in which aided the deceased into eternal life. Therefore, the ancient Egyptians were very serious about the way in which the tombs were built. [39] Two hallmarks of the tomb included: a burial chamber, which housed the physical body of the deceased (inside a coffin) as well as funerary objects deemed most important, and a "cult place," which resembled a chapel where mourners, family, and friends could congregate. The tomb of a king included a full temple, instead of a chapel. [39]

Typically, the tomb of a deceased person was located somewhere close by their home community. The ancient Egyptians opted to bury the deceased in land that was not particularly fertile or useful for vegetation. Therefore, tombs were mostly built in desert areas. Tombs were usually built near each other and rarely stood alone. For a deceased king, however, the tomb was located in a place of utmost sacredness. [39]

In the Prehistoric Egypt, bodies were buried in deserts because they would naturally be preserved by dehydration. The "graves" were small oval or rectangular pits dug in the sand. They could give the body of the deceased in a tight position on its left side alongside a few jars of food and drink and slate palettes with magical religious spells. The size of graves eventually increased according to status and wealth. The dry, desert conditions were a benefit in ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the complex burial preparations that the wealthy had.

The simple graves evolved into mudbrick structures called mastabas. Royal mastabas later developed into step pyramids and then "true pyramids." [40] As soon as a king took the throne he would start to build his pyramid. Rituals of the burial, including the "Opening of the mouth ceremony" took place at the Valley Temple. [33] [41] While a pyramid's large size was made to protect against robbery, it may also be connected to a religious belief about the sun god, Ra. [42]

A majority of cemeteries were located on the west bank of the Nile, which was metaphorically viewed as "the realm of the dead." The tomb was said to represent the deceased's place in the cosmos, which ultimately depended on the social class of the deceased. If the deceased was of a notably high-class, they were buried near the king, whereas middle and lower class individuals were simply buried near the communities in which they had lived. [39] In many cases, the tombs of the high-class were situated in accordance with the tombs of the lower classes so that they would be viewed as a "focal point." For example, one burial site was designed so that the tombs of the governors were placed alongside the slope of a hill, whereas the tombs of the governor's attendants were placed at the foot of the hill. [39]

After having been preserved, the mummy was placed into a coffin. Although the coffins that housed the deceased bodies were made simply of wood, they were intricately painted and designed to suit each individual. During the Old Kingdom, the following was included on each coffin: the title of the deceased, a list of offerings, a false compartment through which ka could pass through, and painted eyes so that the deceased could look through the coffin. [43] The decorations on the coffin usually fit the deceased's status.

During the Middle Kingdom, the coffin was treated as if it were a "miniature tomb" and was painted and inscribed like so. Goddesses Isis and Nephthys were painted on the coffins, and were said to guard the deceased in the afterlife. Along the sides of the coffins, the four sons of Horus were painted, amongst other gods. Prayers were often inscribed on the coffins as well. [43]

Anthropoid coffins soon emerged, which were tailored to the contour of the deceased's body. The deceased's face and hair was painted onto the coffin so to personalize it further. [43] A sarcophagus, which is a large, stone container, was used to house the coffin, and provide supplementary protection to the dead body. The Ancient Egyptians translated the word "sarcophagus" to mean "possessor of life," and therefore, the sarcophagus would aid the deceased into the afterlife. [44]

One of the funerary practices followed by the Egyptians was preparing properly for the afterlife. Ka, the vital force within the Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul, would not return to the deceased body if embalming was not carried out in the proper fashion. [29] In this case, the body decayed, and possibly became unrecognizable, which rendered the afterlife unattainable for the deceased person. [25] If the proper precautions were not taken, damnation would occur. Damnation meant that Egyptians would not experience the glories of the afterlife where they became a deified figure and would be welcomed by the Gods. [45] Instead, damnation was depicted in the books of the underworld. It was a place of opposites chaos, fire, and struggle. [45] Different pages of the books of the underworld depict different perspectives of what happens during damnation. It discusses cutting out humanity and individuality from the person and reversing the cosmic order. [45]

The idea of judgement went as follows: in order to be considered for the admittance into the afterlife, those who died were obligated to undergo a multi-step judgement by certain gods. [39] The concept and belief in judgement is outlined in the Book of the Dead, a funerary text of the New Kingdom. The Book of the Dead is composed of spells relating to the deceased and the afterlife. Spell 125, in particular, is understood to be delivered by the deceased at the outset of the judgement process. [39]

The visual picture of what judgement looks like has been discovered through ancient Egyptian ruins and artefacts. The procedure was depicted as follows: the deceased's heart was weighed in comparison to the feather of Maat, while Ammit awaited to eat the heart (if the deceased was found to be a sinner). [39] Osiris was the judge (among others), and represented an ideal output of the judgement process for the deceased who entered his judgement hall. This is because he resurrected and regained his godly status after he was justified against his brother Set, who wrongly murdered him. [28] The deceased pleaded to Osiris that they had not committed sin, which is known as a "negative confession." [28] The forty-two Assessors of Maat judged how virtuous the life of the deceased was, and this represented the principal element of the deceased entering the afterlife. After passing judgement, the family and friends of the deceased celebrated them and boasted about their righteousness to attain entry into the afterlife. [25]

Many mummies were provided with some form of funerary literature to take with them to the afterlife. Most funerary literature consists of lists of spells and instructions for navigating the afterlife. During the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh had access to this material, which scholars refer to as the Pyramid Texts. The Pyramid Texts are a collection of spells to assure the royal resurrection and protect the pharaoh from various malignant influences. The Pharaoh Unas was the first to use this collection of spells, as he and a few subsequent pharaohs had them carved on the walls of their pyramids. [46] These texts were individually chosen from a larger bank of spells.

In the First Intermediate Period and in the Middle Kingdom, some of the Pyramid Text spells also are found in burial chambers of high officials and on many coffins, where they begin to evolve into what scholars call the Coffin Texts. In this period, the nobles and many non-royal Egyptians began to have access to funerary literature. Although many spells from the earlier texts were carried over, the new coffin texts also had additional spells, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more fit for the nobility. [6]

In the New Kingdom, the Coffin Texts became the Book of the Dead, or the Funeral Papyri, and would last through the Late Kingdom. The text in these books was divided according to chapters/ spells, which were almost two-hundred in number. Each one of these texts was individualized for the deceased, though to varying degrees. If the person was rich enough, then they could commission their own personal version of the text that would include only the spells that they wanted. However, if one was not so wealthy, then one had to make do with the pre-made versions that had spaces left for the name of the deceased.

If the scribe ran out of room while doing the transcription, he would just stop the spell wherever he was and would not continue. [47] It is not until the Twenty-sixth Dynasty that there began to be any regulation of the order or even the number of spells that were to be included in the Book of the Dead. At this time, the regulation is set at 192 spells to be placed in the book, with certain ones holding the same place at all times. [48] This makes it seem as if the order of the texts was not what was important, so the person could place them in an order that he was comfortable with, but rather that it was what was written that mattered.

Although the types of burial goods changed throughout ancient Egyptian history, their purpose to protect the deceased and provide sustenance in the afterlife remained.

From the earliest periods of Egyptian history, all Egyptians were buried with at least some goods that they thought were necessary after death. At a minimum, these consisted of everyday objects such as bowls, combs, and other trinkets, along with food. Wealthier Egyptians could afford to be buried with jewelry, furniture, and other valuables, which made them targets of tomb robbers. In the early Dynastic Period, tombs were filled with daily life objects, such as furniture, jewelry and other valuables. They also contained many stone and pottery vessels. [49] One important factor in the development of Ancient Egyptian tombs was the need of storage space for funerary goods.

As burial customs developed in the Old Kingdom, wealthy citizens were buried in wooden or stone coffins. However, the number of burial goods declined. They were often just a set of copper models, tools and vessels. [50] Starting in the First Intermediate period, wooden models became very popular burial goods. These wooden models often depict everyday activities that the deceased expected to continue doing in the afterlife. Also, a type of rectangular coffin became the standard, being brightly painted and often including an offering formula. Objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs during this period.

At the end of the Middle Kingdom, new object types were introduced into burials, such as the first shabtis and the first heart scarabs. Shabtis were little clay statues made to perform tasks on command for the pharaoh. Now objects of daily use appear in tombs again, often magical items already employed for protecting the living. Scarabs (beetles) collect animal dung and roll it into little balls. To the Egyptians, these balls looked like the life-giving Sun, so they hoped that scarabs would bring them long life. Scarabs have been found in tombs and graves. [51]

In the New Kingdom, some of the old burial customs changed. For example, an anthropoid coffin shape became standardized, and the deceased were provided with a small shabti statue, which the Egyptians believed would perform work for them in the afterlife. Elite burials were often filled with objects of daily use. Under Ramesses II and later all daily life objects disappear from tombs. They most often only contained a selection of items especially made for the burial. Also, in later burials, the numbers of shabti statues increased in some burials, numbering more than four hundred statues. In addition to these shabti statues, the deceased could be buried with many different types of magical figurines to protect them from harm.

Funerary boats were a part of some ancient Egyptian burials. [52] Boats played a major role in Egyptian religion because they were conceived as the main means by which the gods traveled across the sky and through to the netherworld. One type of boat used at funerals was for making pilgrimages to holy sites such as Abydos. A large funerary boat, for example, was found near the pyramid of the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khufu. The funerary boats were usually made of wood the Egyptians used a collection of papyrus reeds and tied them together with the wood very tightly. [53] The most common route for funerary boats was the River Nile to the afterlife. The boat carried the coffin and often had a dog in the boat since they believed a dog would lead the deceased to the afterlife. [54] The boats usually measured about 20 feet or longer. These however did not match those of the great pharaohs like Pharaoh Khufu (who built the Great Pyramid). His funerary boat was approximately 144 foot long with 12 oars. Common funerary boats were smaller sized with few oars. [55]

At the Ure Museum, there is an Egyptian funerary boat on display that represents a typical tomb offering. This boat symbolizes the transport of the dead from life to the afterlife. In Ancient Egypt death was seen as a boat journey. More specifically, it was seen as a trip across their River Nile that joined the North and South. This funerary boat offering was added to the museum's collection in 1923 from the Liverpool Institute of Archaeology from the Tomb of the Officials at Beni Hassan.

Through the study of mummies themselves in addition to ancient writers and modern scientists, a better understanding of the Ancient Egyptian mummification process is promoted. The majority of what is known to be true about the mummification process is based on the writing of early historians who carefully recorded the processes-- one of which was Herodotus. Now, modern day archaeologists are using the writings of early historians as a basis for their study. The advancement of new technology including x-rays has allowed for the analysis of mummies without destroying the elaborate outer wrappings of the body. In addition to the use of x-rays, autopsies are also being performed in order to gain a better understanding of the diseases suffered by Ancient Egyptians as well as the treatments used for these diseases. A pregnant mummy sheds light on pregnancy complications and prenatal care and treatments. [56] [57] In learning their age of death, experts are able to create a timeline of the dates regarding the ruling of Egyptian kings. In looking at the bones of the mummified bodies, experts get a better idea of the average height and life span. Studying Ancient Egyptian Mummies, archaeologists are able to learn about the past.


Ancient genomes uncover Irish passage tomb dynastic elite

Archaeologists and geneticists, led by those from Trinity College Dublin, have shed new light on the earliest periods of Ireland's human history.

Among their incredible findings is the discovery that the genome of an adult male buried in the heart of the Newgrange passage tomb points to first-degree incest, implying he was among a ruling social elite akin to the similarly inbred Inca god-kings and Egyptian pharaohs.

Older than the pyramids, Newgrange passage tomb in Ireland is world famous for its annual solar alignment where the winter solstice sunrise illuminates its sacred inner chamber in a golden blast of light. However, little is known about who was interred in the heart of this imposing 200,000 tonne monument or of the Neolithic society which built it over 5,000 years ago.

The survey of ancient Irish genomes, published today in leading international journal, Natuur, suggests a man who had been buried in this chamber belonged to a dynastic elite. The research, led by the research team from Trinity, was carried out in collaboration with colleagues from University College London, National University of Ireland Galway, University College Cork, University of Cambridge, Queen's University Belfast, and Institute of Technology Sligo.

"I'd never seen anything like it," said Dr Lara Cassidy, Trinity, first author of the paper. "We all inherit two copies of the genome, one from our mother and one from our father well, this individual's copies were extremely similar, a tell-tale sign of close inbreeding. In fact, our analyses allowed us to confirm that his parents were first-degree relatives."

Matings of this type (e.g. brother-sister unions) are a near universal taboo for entwined cultural and biological reasons. The only confirmed social acceptances of first-degree incest are found among the elites -- typically within a deified royal family. By breaking the rules, the elite separates itself from the general population, intensifying hierarchy and legitimizing power. Public ritual and extravagant monumental architecture often co-occur with dynastic incest, to achieve the same ends.

"Here the auspicious location of the male skeletal remains is matched by the unprecedented nature of his ancient genome," said Professor of Population Genetics at Trinity, Dan Bradley. "The prestige of the burial makes this very likely a socially sanctioned union and speaks of a hierarchy so extreme that the only partners worthy of the elite were family members."

The team also unearthed a web of distant familial relations between this man and other individuals from sites of the passage tomb tradition across the country, including the mega-cemeteries of Carrowmore and Carrowkeel in Co. Sligo.

"It seems what we have here is a powerful extended kin-group, who had access to elite burial sites in many regions of the island for at least half a millennium," added Dr Cassidy.

Remarkably, a local myth resonates with these results and the Newgrange solar phenomenon. First recorded in the 11th century AD, four millennia after construction, the story tells of a builder-king who restarted the daily solar cycle by sleeping with his sister. The Middle Irish place name for the neighbouring Dowth passage tomb, Fertae Chuile, is based on this lore and can be translated as 'Hill of Sin'.

"Given the world-famous solstice alignments of Brú na Bóinne, the magical solar manipulations in this myth already had scholars questioning how long an oral tradition could survive," said Dr Ros Ó Maoldúin, an archaeologist on the study. "To now discover a potential prehistoric precedent for the incestuous aspect is extraordinary."

The genome survey stretched over two millennia and unearthed other unexpected results. Within the oldest known burial structure on the island, Poulnabrone portal tomb, the earliest yet diagnosed case of Down Syndrome was discovered in a male infant who was buried there five and a half thousand years ago. Isotope analyses of this infant showed a dietary signature of breastfeeding. In combination, this provides an indication that visible difference was not a barrier to prestige burial in the deep past.

Additionally, the analyses showed that the monument builders were early farmers who migrated to Ireland and replaced the hunter-gatherers who preceded them. However, this replacement was not absolute a single western Irish individual was found to have an Irish hunter-gatherer in his recent family tree, pointing toward a swamping of the earlier population rather than an extermination.

Genomes from the rare remains of Irish hunter-gatherers themselves showed they were most closely related to the hunter-gatherer populations from Britain (e.g. Cheddar Man) and mainland Europe. However, unlike British samples, these earliest Irelanders had the genetic imprint of a prolonged island isolation. This fits with what we know about prehistoric sea levels after the Ice Age: Britain maintained a land bridge to the continent long after the retreat of the glaciers, while Ireland was separated by sea and its small early populations must have arrived in primitive boats.

This work was funded by a Science Foundation Ireland/Health Research Board/Wellcome Trust Biomedical Research Partnership Investigator Award to Dan Bradley and an earlier Irish Research Council Government of Ireland Scholarship to Lara Cassidy.


Artifact Trove at Egyptian Tomb Illuminates Life Before Pharaohs

Archaeologist uncovers human sacrifices and evidence of strife.

A recently discovered tomb at a key Egyptian settlement has yielded the largest trove of artifacts ever found in a tomb there—including a young man's burned and scattered bones—and is shedding new light on the ancestors of the pharaohs.

Part of a cemetery complex that predates the formation of the ancient Egyptian state, the find is one of the richest "predynastic" burials archaeologists have ever seen.

The tomb, at the site known as Hierakonpolis, yielded 54 objects, including combs, spearheads, arrowheads, and a figurine made of hippopotamus ivory. Arrayed around the tomb are dozens more burials, including possible human sacrifices and exotic animals.

The latest find, announced earlier this month, is adding to the remarkable story coming out of the Hierakonpolis cemetery, which has been under investigation since 1979.

"It demonstrates the importance of this cemetery, with its high-status burials," says Boston University archaeologist Kathryn Bard. "They have some very interesting secondary burials of humans and animals and wooden structures that are unique to Hierakonpolis."

Hierakonpolis, located on the Nile River about 300 miles (500 kilometers) south of Cairo, was the most important settlement in Egypt's predynastic period, a five-century stretch that began around 3,500 B.C. and preceded the formation of the ancient Egyptian state.

The finds at Hierakonpolis show that the roots of ancient Egyptian civilization stretched back centuries. There are clear signs of social divisions, with elite tombs that are richer and larger than others. "There must have been a whole dynasty of predynastic kings," says Renee Friedman, a British Museum archaeologist who is director of the expedition.

The Hierakonpolis elite erected elaborate wooden structures over their tombs, parts of which have been preserved for more than 6,000 years by the dry climate. Their graves were surrounded by retainers, wild animals, and other accoutrements for their journey into the afterlife, foreshadowings of the mighty civilization that followed.

Human Sacrifices, Posthumous Desecration

The man buried in what's known at Hierakonpolis as Tomb 72 was between 17 and 20 years old when he died. His high status in life is reflected in the deadly ceremony that must have accompanied his death: He was buried with at least 20 people.

"It's unlikely their deaths were natural," Friedman says. Analysis of their skeletons suggests most were well nourished and unusually tall for the time, between five feet eight and five feet ten. Two of them were dwarfs, which were a fascination for ancient Egyptians.

Because the tomb hadn't been disturbed for many millennia, Friedman's team was able to reconstruct a shocking act of desecration that took place there.

The occupant's skeleton had been scattered, and the tomb's wood posts show evidence of fire damage. Friedman thinks the grave had been violated soon after the owner's death, and the body and the wooden structure over the tomb deliberately set on fire.

The many grave goods left inside indicate that the grave robbers' goal wasn't loot, but some sort of postmortem vengeance. "The owner of the tomb had been yanked out, while the other objects had been left alone," Friedman says. "That's not plundering—this was an act of aggression. The point wasn't to take goodies, it was to destroy this person."

The destruction may have had something to do with political and social changes Friedman says rocked the Egyptian world not long after the man in Tomb 72 died. "There are no more elite burials, and the middle class seems to be getting richer," Friedman says. "There's a real change in the status quo. There must have been some kind of revolution."

Could the destruction of Tomb 72 and its owner have been an early form of class warfare? "Maybe this is about anger at those who have kept you down," Friedman suggests. "Is there something going on where the elite at Hierakonpolis are being called to book?"

Others are more cautious. The evidence for social upheaval is limited, and Bard says it's a stretch to even call the man buried in the tomb a king.

With no inscriptions or other written evidence in the tomb, "no one knows his exact political role, other than that he was a very high-status person," she cautions. "There's no way you can attribute a political role to a prehistoric burial."


Ancient Egyptian Artifacts

Die ancient Egyptian civilization has been blessed with a vast long history so when it comes to archaeological discoveries, very few countries can measure up to the ancient Egyptian artifacts.

For more than 4000 years the ancient Egyptian civilization created some of the most enchanting and beautiful artifacts the world has ever seen that remains virtually unchanged until over the current day.

The sense of artistic design was mainly affected by their profound reverence for the gods & holy pharaohs and was also used to tell the story of the elite upper class.

Egypt holds a massive trove of history which includes many incredible and mysterious discoveries within the tombs and temples of the Egyptian dunes.

All the ancient Egyptian artifacts were designed to fit an absolute vision of order, perfection, and symmetric imagery to showcase stories that would last forever.

Over the countless centuries, many archeologists and Egyptologists wondered across Egypt to search for the hidden heavenly treasures all across this holy country.

Many majestic artifacts have been discovered that attract travelers from all over the world which come in different shapes, functions, and sizes which can be found in the Egyptian museum such as:


Nut and Geb

Nut Raised Above Geb. Image © Bernard Perroud

Nut, the goddess of the night sky, and her brother Geb, the god of the earth, were originally thought to be in a constant state of love making. Ra grew angry with his grandchildren, and commanded their father Shu to separate the two lovers. The god of the air took his place, and trampled on the ithyphallic Geb, and lifted Nut high into the air. Nut was found to be pregnant, and was then cursed by Ra – she would never be able to bear her children on any month of the 360 day year. Thoth managed to win a game against Khonsu, god of the moon, and used some of the light of the moon to create five extra days (making the year 365 days). During those days Nut gave birth to her five children – Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, Set and Horus the Elder (not to be confused with Horus, the child of Isis and Osiris).


Rich legacy

Tomb painting of dignitary of ancient Egypt © Our fascination with ancient Egypt is, to a large extent, a product of the vast amount of material information available. We know so much about the daily lives of the ancient Egyptians - we can read their words, meet their families, feel their clothes, taste their food and drink, enter their tombs and even touch their bodies - that it seems that we almost know them. And knowing them, maybe even loving them, we feel that we can understand the very human hopes and fears that dominated their lives.

Some of these myths passed from Egypt to Rome, and have had a direct effect on the development of modern religious belief.

Preserved in their writings and coded into their artwork the Egyptians asked, and answered, the questions that all societies ask. What happens after death? How was the world created? Where does the sun go at night? Lacking any real scientific understanding they answered their own questions with a series of myths and legends designed to explain the otherwise inexplicable.

Some of these myths passed from Egypt to Rome, and have had a direct effect on the development of modern religious belief. Reading and understanding the ancient stories allows us to abandon our modern preconceptions, step outside our own cultural experiences and enter a very different, life-enhancing world.

But, by no means everything about ancient Egypt is fully understood. This lack of certainty over some issues simply adds to the subject's appeal. There are enough unanswered questions - How were obelisks raised? Who was Nefertiti? Where is the lost capital of Itj-Tawi? What exactly are the curious fat cones that élite Egyptian party guests wore on their heads? - and enough published reference books, to allow every Egyptologist, amateur or professional, the hope that he or she might one day solve one of the many outstanding puzzles.


Who Was Sattjeni? Tomb Reveals Secrets About Ancient Egyptian Elite

Two eyes painted on a newly discovered Egyptian coffin seem to stare out from across millennia, conveying the secrets of the ancient Egyptian elite.

The coffin, discovered this year in the necropolis at Qubbet el-Hawa across the Nile River from Aswan, belonged to an important local woman, Sattjeni, daughter of one governor, wife of another and mother of two more, said excavation leader Alejandro Jiménez-Serrano, an Egyptologist at the University of Jaén in Spain.

Sattjeni's mummified body was buried in two cedar coffins made of wood imported from Lebanon. Though the outer coffin had degraded over the nearly 4,000 years since Sattjeni's death, her inner coffin was in excellent condition, according to Egypt's antiquities ministry, which announced the discovery May 24. [See Photos of Sattjeni's Elaborate Burial]

Sattjeni was not a royal, but her family practiced royal strategies to hold on to their governing power: She married her sister's widower, and the family also associated itself with the ram-headed deity Khnum, much as pharaohs intermarried to keep power in the family and claimed to be descended from the gods.

In an email interview with Live Science, Jiménez-Serrano revealed more about the excavations at Qubbet el-Hawa and the life of Sattjeni.

Live Science: Tell us about the excavations at west Aswan. What kinds of artifacts and structures do you find at this site? What was this area used for during the Middle Kingdom (between about 2000 B.C. and 1700 B.C.)?

Jiménez-Serrano: Qubbet el-Hawa is one of the most important nonroyal necropolises of ancient Egypt. Its importance lies in the great quantity and quality of the biographical inscriptions carved in the façades of the funerary complexes. The necropolis was mainly used to bury the highest officials of the nearby town of Elephantine, the capital of the southernmost province of Egypt, at the end of the third millennium and the beginning of the second (2200 B.C. to 1775 B.C). The governors were buried together with their relatives the members of their courts (officials and domestic service) were buried in other smaller and less-decorated tombs. Thus, today, we know the existence of 100 tombs, of which only 80 have been completely cleared.

During the Middle Kingdom, especially during the 12th Dynasty (1950 B.C. to 1775 B.C.), the governors of Elephantine built giant funerary complexes in the necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa. Some of them are beautifully decorated and have important inscriptions.

Live Science: How did you uncover the burial of Sattjeni? What was that moment like?

Jiménez-Serrano: In 2013, we discovered the upper part of a chamber, which belonged to a tomb that was probably quarried in the Byzantine period (fifth century A.D.). In the walls of this chamber, there was a Christian prayer painted by the Coptics. Thus, we thought that the area was disturbed. However, that chamber at the end was not a chamber, but the beginning of a shaft. During this year, we began the excavation of the shaft, and the more that we excavated, the more we got the sensation that a great discovery might appear . and it appeared!

The worker called me, and I went to the bottom of the shaft, where there was a tiny aperture. With a torch, I could have a look inside, and the first thing that I could see were hieroglyphs. Later, we could determine that those hieroglyphs were on the coffins of the Lady Sattjeni. [Photos: More Than 40 Tombs Discovered in Upper Egypt]

Live Science: Who was Sattjeni, and why was she an important figure?

Jiménez-Serrano: Sattjeni was the second daughter of one of the most important figures of the 12th Dynasty, the governor Sarenput II. Unfortunately, her brother Ankhu died shortly after his father, and there were no male successors. So she and her sister Gaut-Anuket had the rights of the rule in Elephantine. The latter married a certain official called Heqaib and converted him into the new governor of Elephantine: Heqaib II. However, we suspect that Gaut-Anuket did not live much time, because Sattjeni married Heqaib II. They had at least two children, who became the governors of Elephantine successively, as Heqaib III and Ameny-Seneb.

Live Science: What does this discovery tell you about 12th Dynasty society?

Jiménez-Serrano: This discovery shows that the local dynasties of the periphery of the State emulated the royal family. In this concrete case, we can confirm that women were the holders of the dynastic rights. Probably, the members of these families married as the royal family — brother with sister — in order to keep the divine blood "pure." We must not forget that Sattjeni's family declared themselves heirs of a local god.

Live Science: What were the coffins like, and was there anything interesting about their construction or preservation?

Jiménez-Serrano: We are still investigating why the outer coffin was so decayed compared to the inner [one], which was in perfect condition. Both were made with the same foreign wood: cedar from Lebanon. Perhaps the inner coffin was treated with an organic substance that we have not yet detected.