Inligting

Die fassinerende verhale agter 8 beroemde foto's


1. “Migrantmoeder”, 1936, Kalifornië

In 1936 het die fotograaf Dorothea Lange hierdie beeld van 'n behoeftige vrou, die 32-jarige Florence Owens, saam met 'n baba en nog twee van haar sewe kinders in 'n ertjie-plukkerskamp in Nipomo, Kalifornië, geskiet. Lange het die foto, wat 'Migrant Mother' genoem word, geneem vir 'n projek wat in opdrag van die New Deal se Federale Hervestigingsadministrasie (later deel van die Farm Security Administration) in die gesig gestaar is om die lot van migrerende landbouwerkers te dokumenteer. Haar beeld van Owens is spoedig in koerante gepubliseer, wat die regering aangespoor het om voedselhulp aan die Nipomo -kamp te lewer, waar etlike duisende mense honger was en in haglike omstandighede geleef het; op daardie stadium het Owens en haar gesin egter aanbeweeg.

Lange se foto het 'n bepalende beeld geword van die Groot Depressie, maar die identiteit van die migrerende moeder bly dekades lank 'n raaisel vir die publiek omdat Lange nie haar naam gevra het nie. In die laat sewentigerjare het 'n verslaggewer Owens (wie se van toe Thompson was, opgespoor) by haar huis in Modesto, Kalifornië, opgespoor. Thompson was kritiek op Lange, wat in 1965 oorlede is, en verklaar dat sy deur die foto uitgebuit word en wens dat dit nie geneem is nie, en spyt haar ook dat sy geen geld daaruit verdien het nie. Thompson is in 1983 op 80 -jarige ouderdom oorlede. In 1998 word 'n afdruk van die prent, onderteken deur Lange, vir $ 244 500 op 'n veiling verkoop.

2. "Die vlag ophef op Iwo Jima," 1945, Mount Suribachi

Op 23 Februarie 1945 het die fotograaf van Associated Press, Joe Rosenthal, hierdie foto van vyf mariniers en een vlootkorpsman geskiet wat 'n Amerikaanse vlag op die berg Suribachi, die hoogste punt op die Japannese eiland Iwo Jima, gehys het. Die geveg, een van die bloedigste in die geskiedenis van die Marine Corps, het op 19 Februarie 1945 begin toe die Amerikaners die sterk versterkte eiland binnegeval het; vier dae later het hulle dit gegryp en 'n vlagjie bo -op Suribachi geplant. Later op dieselfde dag is die vlag egter beveel om vervang te word deur 'n veel groter vlag wat deur troepe oor die hele eiland en op skepe voor die see gesien kan word. Rosenthal se foto toon hierdie tweede verhoging van die Stars and Stripes. Die gevegsfotograaf is daarna beskuldig dat hy die dramatiese prentjie opgestel het, maar hy het die aanklag ontken en ooggetuies het hom gerugsteun. Die wydverspreide foto het 'n kragtige patriotiese simbool geword en 'n Pulitzer -prys gewen en dien as model vir die Marine Corps War Memorial naby Arlington National Cemetery.

Drie van die mariniers op die foto is dood in aksie op Iwo Jima (die geveg het eers amptelik tot 26 Maart 1945 geëindig), terwyl die drie oorlewende vlaghysers na die VSA teruggestuur is, waar hulle behandel is as helde en het byeenkomste regoor die land verskyn om die verkoop van oorlogsobligasies te bevorder.

3. VJ-dagviering, 1945, New York

Die beroemde fotograaf Alfred Eisenstaedt het hierdie beeld geneem van 'n matroos wat op 14 Augustus 1945 'n feestelike soen op 'n wit geklede vrou in die middel van die Times Square in New York City geplant het toe aangekondig is dat Japan hom aan die Geallieerdes oorgegee het, wat die Tweede Wêreldoorlog effektief beëindig het II en sy foto is op 27 Augustus in die tydskrif "Life" gepubliseer. Die marine -lensman Victor Jorgensen het ook toevallig 'n foto van die geïmproviseerde soen gekry, vanuit 'n ander (en minder bekende) hoek. Nie een van die fotograwe het die geleentheid gekry om die smokkelende paar hul name te vra nie (soos Eisenstaedt later van die dag gesê het: "Daar was duisende mense wat rondtrek ... almal soen mekaar"), en in die daaropvolgende jare het 'n aantal mans en verskeie vroue het na vore gekom om te beweer dat dit hulle was op die foto's, wat simbolies geword het van die opwinding wat aan die einde van die oorlog gevoel word. 'N Boek uit 2012, "The Kissing Sailor", het die egpaar geïdentifiseer as matroos George Mendonsa en Greta Zimmer, 'n tandheelkundige assistent wat Mendonsa nie geken het tydens sy spontane smook nie. Ander mense het egter geloofwaardige bewerings gemaak dat hulle die egpaar was, en tot dusver is die identiteit van die egpaar nog nooit definitief bewys nie.

4. Albert Einstein, 1951, New Jersey

Op 14 Maart 1951 het die lensman Arthur Sasse hierdie beeld geneem van Einstein wat 'n 72ste verjaardagviering verlaat ter ere van hom in Princeton, New Jersey. Teen die tyd dat die foto geneem is, het Sasse probeer om die Nobelpryswenner te laat glimlag, maar hy steek sy tong uit terwyl hy op die agterste sitplek van 'n motor sit. Soos dit blyk, hou Einstein so baie van die skoot dat hy 'n paar afdrukke vir homself laat maak het.

Die in Duitsland gebore Einstein, wat in 1940 'n Amerikaanse burger geword het, sterf vier jaar nadat Sasse sy beroemde foto geneem het. In 2009 word 'n oorspronklike druk onderteken deur die bekende wetenskaplike op 'n veiling verkoop vir meer as $ 74,000. In 1953, te midde van die anti-kommunistiese kruistog van senator Joseph McCarthy, het Einstein die afskrif aan die uitgesproke joernalis Howard K. Smith gegee, met die opskrif (vertaal uit Duits): "Hierdie gebaar wat u sal geniet, want dit is gemik op die hele mensdom. 'N Burger kan dit bekostig om te doen wat geen diplomaat sou waag nie. U lojale en dankbare luisteraar, A. Einstein. ” Einstein het hom uitgespreek teen McCarthyism, en historici het gesê die gebaar op die foto en die opskrif daarvan verteenwoordig sy gees van nie-ooreenstemming.

5. Che Guevara, 1960, Kuba

Op 5 Maart 1960 neem die Kubaanse modefotograaf die fotojoernalis Alberto Korda die beeld van die 31-jarige Marxistiese rewolusionêr by 'n gedenkdiens in Havana vir slagoffers van 'n ammunisie-skip, La Coubre, wat in die stad se hawe ontplof het. dag. Fidel Castro blameer die VSA vinnig vir die ontploffing, wat minstens 75 mense dood en honderde ander beseer het, hoewel die presiese oorsaak nooit bepaal is nie. Na die La Coubre -gedenkdiens het die koerant waarvoor Korda gewerk het, "Revolucion", foto's van Castro en ander hooggeplaastes gemaak en die foto van Guevara verwerp. Die prentjie het in die daaropvolgende jare in verskillende publikasies in Kuba en Europa verskyn, maar het min kennis geneem. In 1967 het Giangiacomo Feltrinelli, 'n linkse Italiaanse uitgewer wat in Guevara geïnteresseerd was, van die foto geleer tydens 'n besoek aan Kuba en 'n gratis eksemplaar van Korda gekry. Nadat die in Argentinië gebore Guevara later dieselfde jaar deur soldate in Bolivia gevang en vermoor is, het Feltrinelli plakkate versprei met behulp van Korda se foto, genaamd "Guerrillero Heroico" (Heroic Guerilla), en die beeld het spoedig oor die hele wêreld versprei en 'n simbool van rewolusie geword en jeugdige opstand. Dit het sedertdien een van die mees weergegee beelde in die geskiedenis geword, wat op alles verskyn, van muurskilderye tot bierbottels.

6. Lyndon Johnson, 1963, Air Force One

Twee uur nadat president John F. Kennedy op 22 November 1963 vermoor is, is vise -president Lyndon Johnson ingesweer as die land se 36ste president aan boord van Air Force One by Dallas Love Field. Cecil Stoughton, 'n voormalige fotograaf van die weermag wat sedert 1961 as amptelike fotograaf van die Withuis gedien het (die eerste persoon wat die pos beklee het), het die historiese foto geneem van regter Sarah Hughes wat die eed afgelê het aan 'n plegtige Johnson, geflankeer deur sy vrou , 'n groep personeellede en 'n verstomde kyk Jaqueline Kennedy, steeds geklee in die pienk Chanel-pak wat sy aangehad het toe haar man geskiet is.

Ten tyde van die sluipmoord op Kennedy, het Stoughton as deel van sy motor op verskeie motors agter die president gery. Daarna is Stoughton na die Parkland-hospitaal, waar Kennedy dood is, waarna hy na Love Field gejaag het om Johnson in te sweer. Stoughton was die enigste fotograaf op die vliegtuig toe Johnson ingehuldig is en aanvanklik, toe sy kamera nie werk nie, blyk dit dat daar geen fotografiese rekord sou wees nie. Hy het die probleem egter vinnig opgelos en kon die gebeurtenis dokumenteer. In 'n chaotiese tyd vir Amerika het die foto van Stoughton getoon dat die land steeds kontinuïteit in die regering het.

7. Richard Nixon & Elvis Presley, 1970, Withuis

Op 21 Desember 1970 ontmoet die King of Rock 'n 'Roll in die geheim die 37ste president van die land in die Oval Office, 'n gebeurtenis wat deur die Withuis -fotograaf Ollie Atkins gedokumenteer is. Die vergadering het plaasgevind nadat Presley vroeër die oggend onaangekondig by die hekke van die Withuis opgedaag het en 'n handgeskrewe inleidingsbrief vir die president afgelê het waarin hy verklaar dat hy die land van diens wil wees en voorstel dat hy 'n 'federale agent' word. at-Large ”om Amerika se oorlog teen dwelms te help beveg. Nadat die brief in die hande van 'n Nixon -assistent gevind is, is Presley die middag ingelui om die president te ontmoet.

Tydens die byeenkoms herhaal die entertainer sy wens om die president behulpsaam te wees, deel sy oortuiging dat die Beatles anti-Amerikanisme bevorder en sê dat hy kommunistiese breinspoeling en die dwelmkultuur bestudeer het. Presley, wat wapens en polisiekentekens versamel het, het Nixon gevra of hy 'n federale narkotika -kenteken vir hom kon kry, 'n versoek wat later die dag toegestaan ​​is. Op versoek van Presley is sy gesprek met die opperbevelhebber onder die knie gehou en die media het eers die volgende jaar daarvan geleer. In 1977 sterf die musieklegende, wat nooit saam met die Withuis werk nie, aan hartversaking, wat vermoedelik verband hou met sy misbruik van voorskrifmedisyne.

8. "The Situation Room", 2011, Withuis

Op die middag van 1 Mei 2011, toon hierdie beeld dat president Barack Obama en sy nasionale veiligheidspan opdaterings ontvang oor die hoogs geheime Navy SEAL-aanval op die Pakistaanse samestelling van een van die mees gesoekte mans in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis, al-Qaeda leier Osama bin Laden. Die aand om 11:35 ET verskyn die president op regstreekse TV om aan te kondig dat die brein agter die 9/11 terreuraanvalle deur die SEAL's vermoor is.

Wit huisfotograaf Pete Souza het die foto geneem nadat Obama en sy senior assistente in 'n klein konferensiekamer in die West Wing's Situation Room -kompleks saamgedrom het, waar brigadier -generaal Marshall "Brad" Webb die sending dopgehou het. Toe Obama die kamer binnegaan, bied Webb die president sy stoel aan. Soos Obama egter aan NBC News gesê het: 'Ek het gesê:' Jy hoef nie daaroor bekommerd te wees nie. U fokus net op wat u doen. Ek is seker ons kan 'n stoel vind en ek sal langs hom sit. 'En so beland ek [op 'n] klapstoel. " Obama verwys later na die aanval met 'n hoë inset, waartydens 'n SEAL-helikopter by bin Laden se skuilplek neergestort het as die langste 40 minute van sy lewe, terwyl minister van buitelandse sake, Hillary Clinton, gesê het dat sy so intens gekonsentreer het terwyl sy die aanval ondersoek het. dat sy nie geweet het dat die Withuis -fotograaf foto's neem nie.


Top 10 fassinerende sterfbedbelydenisse

As die dood onvermydelik is, besluit sommige mense dat dit 'n goeie tyd is om te bely oor dinge wat hulle gedurende hul leeftyd belas het. Miskien is dit om die wêreld met 'n skoon gewete te verlaat of om die lewendes wat hulle agterlaat, te bevoordeel. Hierdie lys bevat 10 belydenisse op die sterfbed en die verhale daaragter van mense wat om watter rede ook al besluit het om hul donkerste geheime te onthul.

Bely aan: met behulp van 'n Baskiese wiegeliedmelodie vir haar lied Jerusalem of Gold

Naomi Shemer is een van Israel se liedjieskrywers se gewildste liedjieskrywers. Die lied Jerusalem of Gold is die eerste keer in 1967 opgevoer tydens 'n Israeliese sangfees kort voor die Arabies-Israeliese oorlog en beskryf die Joodse volk en die verlange van 2000 jaar om na Jerusalem terug te keer. Dit dien steeds as 'n nie -amptelike Israeliese volkslied en word gereeld tydens nasionale seremonies gespeel. Shemer het jare lank die bewerings ontken dat sy 'n slaapliedjie geplagieer het en dit in Jerusalem van goud verander het. Toe, in 2004, na jare van kwaai ontkenning, bely sy 'n paar dae voor sy dood aan kanker aan 'n ander komponis Gil Aldema, en ek beskou die hele aangeleentheid as 'n betreurenswaardige werkongeluk en so jammer dat dit die rede kan wees dat ek siek word, En rdquo het sy ook geskryf dat sy 'n bekende Baskiese wiegelied hoor wat in die een oor loop en by die ander uit en die lied moet onbewustelik by haar ingesluip het. Aldema het gesê dat Shemer ingestem het dat haar geheim ná haar dood onthul word.

Interessante feit: In 2005 het die wiegelied Pello Joxepe wêreldwyd bekend geword toe dit gepubliseer is dat Jerusalem of Gold gebaseer is op die melodie daarvan. Die Spaanse sanger Paco Ib & aacute & ntildeez wat die lied in 1962 in Israel uitgevoer het waar Shemer dit die eerste keer gehoor het, is gevra hoe hy gevoel het toe hy hoor hoe Naomi Shemer die grootste deel van die melodie op die wiegelied baseer. Hy het geantwoord dat hy geëer het dat sy gekies het om sy melodie vir Jerusalem of Gold te gebruik. U kan die liedjie hier, uitgevoer deur Ofra Haza, tydens 'n Israel -konsert in 1998 luister.

Bely aan: die legendariese horlosieversameling

In 1983 het 106 uurwerke ter waarde van miljoene dollars uit die Jerusalemse museum in die duurste diefstal in die geskiedenis van Israel en die rsquos verdwyn. 'N Sakhorlosie vir Marie Antoinette is ter waarde van meer as £ 19 miljoen ($ 30 miljoen) ingesluit. Die saak was byna 25 jaar lank onopgelos tot 2006 toe 'n horlosiemaker in Tel Aviv aan die polisie gesê het dat hy ongeveer $ 40 000 aan 'n anonieme persoon betaal het om 40 items te koop, waaronder Marie Antoinette & rsquos sakhorlosie (foto hierbo). Forensiese deskundiges het die horlosies ondersoek en speurders het die prokureur wat die verkoop onderhandel het, ondervra. Die spoor het gelei tot 'n Israeliese vrou in Los Angeles met die naam Nili Shamrat, wat deur die polisie geïdentifiseer is as die weduwee van Naaman Diller, 'n berugte misdadiger in die 1960's en 1970's. Toe die Israeliese polisie en Amerikaanse amptenare by haar huis aankom om haar te ondervra, het hulle meer gesteelde horlosies gevind. Shamrat het toe aan die polisie gesê dat haar man met wie sy onlangs getroud is, net voor sy dood aan haar erken het dat hy die aanval gedoen het. Daarna het hy sy vrou aangeraai om sy versameling na sy dood te probeer verkoop.

Interessante feit: Die Marie Antoinette -horlosie was eintlik selfopwindend en is in 1783 deur een van haar bewonderaars bestel en sou deur die beroemde Switserse horlosiemakers Abraham Louis Breguet gemaak word. Die bevel het bepaal dat goud, waar moontlik, in plaas van ander metale gebruik moet word en dat dit die skouspelagtigste horlosie moontlik maak. Die horlosie is uiteindelik in 1827 klaar, 34 jaar nadat Marie-Antoinette guillotineer is en vier jaar na die dood van Breguet en rsquos.

Bely aan: vervals die beroemde Loch Ness Monster -foto

In 1934 bied 'n dokter met die naam Robert Kenneth Wilson 'n foto aan die Daily Mail -koerant aan. Wilson het aan die koerant gesê hy het opgemerk dat iets in Loch Ness beweeg, en sy motor gestop om die foto te neem. Wilson het geweier dat sy naam daarmee verband hou, sodat die foto eenvoudig bekend geword het as & ldquoThe Surgeon & rsquos Photo. & Rdquo Hierdie foto is dekades lank beskou as die beste bewys van die bestaan ​​van die Loch Ness -monster. In 1994, op die ouderdom van 93 en naby die dood, het Christian Spurling erken dat die foto van die chirurg en 60 jaar gelede 'n bedrog was en dat die meesterbrein daarvan sy stiefpa Marmaduke Wetherell was.

In die vroeë dertigerjare het waarnemings van die Loch Ness -monster algemeen geword, sodat die stiefpa van Spurling & rsquos, 'n grootwildjagter, deur die koerant Daily Mail gehuur is om ondersoek in te stel. Wetherell het groot spore gevind wat na die meer lei, wat hy met trots aan die pers gewys het. Toe die Natural History Museum dit ondersoek, het hulle vinnig ontdek dat die voetspore 'n bedrog was. Wetherell is verneder toe die koerant dit berig en omdat hy deur die grap mislei is. Om wraak het hy sy stiefseun, Chris Spurling, wat 'n professionele modelmaker was, gevra om iets te maak wat die publiek sou flous. Spurling begin met 'n speelgoed -duikboot en voeg dan 'n lang nek en klein kop by. Die finale produk was ongeveer 45 cm lank en ongeveer 30 cm hoog. Wetherell gaan toe af na die meer en neem 'n paar foto's van die & ldquomonster & rdquo. Om eerlikheid aan die hoax toe te voeg, oortuig hy dr Wilson wat hy deur 'n gemeenskaplike vriend geken het om die foto te ontwikkel en dit aan die Daily Mail te verkoop.

Interessante feit: Hierdie belydenis op die sterfbed word dikwels verkeerdelik toegeskryf aan die bekende roem van Roger Patterson. (The Paterson Film) Paterson is in 1972 aan kanker oorlede en het in hierdie geval op sy sterfbed gesweer dat die beeldmateriaal eg is en dat hy 'n groot tweevoetige dier ontmoet en verfilm het wat die wetenskap onbekend is.

Bely aan: die moord op haar man John Kelly

In 1991, na jare van gesinsgeweld, het Geraldine Kelly haar man doodgeskiet en sy lyk in 'n vrieskas by hul huis in Ventura, Kalifornië, gebêre. Sy het aan haar jong kinders gesê dat hul pa in 'n motorongeluk dood is. Toe sy sewe jaar later besluit om terug te keer huis toe na Somerville Massachusetts, laat sy die verhuisingsonderneming die vrieskas met die liggaam binne -in skuif en dit dwarsdeur die land na 'n plaaslike berging in Somerville ry. In 2004, 13 jaar na die moord, was Kelly ernstig siek aan borskanker en het aan haar dogter erken dat sy haar pa vermoor het deur te beweer dat hy haar jare lank mishandel het en toe vir haar gesê het waar hy sy lyk moes vind. Die owerhede het ondersoek ingestel en menslike oorskot gevind in 'n geslote vrieskas in die stoorkamer. Die lyk is gemummifiseer, maar word geïdentifiseer as John Kelly, gebaseer op kenmerkende tatoeëermerke waarvan hy bekend was, waaronder 'n panter, 'n Kewpie -pop en 'n skedel. Die oorsaak van die dood was 'n geweerskoot agterop die kop.

Interessante feit: Die distriksprokureur van Somerville het gesê dat dit nie duidelik is of Kelly haarself wil los nie, of dat sy wil hê dat haar kinders moet weet, en as hulle die lyk vind, sal hulle nie die skuld daarvoor kry nie.

Bely aan: die moord op Torunn Finstad en Sigrid Heggheim

In 1978 was Fritz Moen (op die sentrum hierbo) 36 toe hy gearresteer is vir die verkragting en moord op die 20-jarige Torunn Finstad in Trondheim, Noorweë. Daar was geen fisiese of forensiese bewyse wat Moen met die misdaad verbind het nie en geen getuies het hom by Finstad gesien nie. Moen was doof met 'n ernstige spraakgebrek en 'n tolk was nodig om effektief te kommunikeer. Moen is skuldig bevind aan die moord en tot 20 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis. 'N Paar jaar later beweer die polisie dat Moen die moord op die 20-jarige Sigrid Heggheim in 1976 erken het. Tydens die sewe ondervragings het sy bekentenis gekom gedurende die een tyd waarin hy nie die voordeel van 'n tolk gehad het nie. Hy is ook skuldig bevind aan hierdie moord en tot nog 5 jaar gevangenisstraf gevonnis. In 1996, nadat hy 18 jaar in die tronk was, is hy vrygelaat en onder voorkomende toesig geplaas.

Gedurende die volgende paar jaar het Moen & rsquos -prokureurs desperaat probeer om sy naam skoon te maak. In 2004 is hy vrygespreek vir die moord op Sigrid Heggheim en bevind dat redelike twyfel hom in die eerste plek moes vrygespreek het. In Desember 2005 het 'n veroordeelde misdadiger, Tor Hepso, toe hy in 'n hospitaal gebieg het, 'n dag voordat hy aan drie verpleegsters en later aan die polisie gesterf het dat hy twee vroue vermoor het en die name Heggheim en Finstad genoem het. Nadat Hepso & rsquos se doodsbelydenis deeglik ondersoek is, is Moen uiteindelik vrygespreek van die moord. Ongelukkig is Fritz Moen vroeër daardie jaar in Maart aan natuurlike oorsake oorlede en was hy nog nie lewendig toe hy heeltemal onskuldig verklaar is vir albei misdade nie.

Interessante feit: Hierdie saak is in die openbaar gekritiseer as een van die skandelikste misbruik van geregtigheid in Noorweë. Daar is selfs sprake van die oprig van 'n borsbeeld of standbeeld van Moen voor die Noorse ministerie van justisie as 'n simbool van die verantwoordelikhede van die strafregstelsel.

Bely aan: die moord op Willie Edwards

Ek dink die meeste sal saamstem dat hierdie belydenis te min te laat was en nog 'n voorbeeld van regsverydeling. In 1957 is die lyk van 'n 25 -jarige swart man Willie Edwards aan die oewer van die Alabamarivier uitgespoel. Alhoewel daar baie agterdog rondom sy dood was, het amptenare gesê dat ontbinding dit onmoontlik maak om die oorsaak van die dood te bepaal. In 1976 heropen 'n aggressiewe prokureur die Edwards-saak en vier Klansmen is in hegtenis geneem, waaronder Henry Alexander. Een van die mans het 'n beëdigde verklaring afgelê (in ruil vir immuniteit). In die verklaring beskryf die man hoe hy en drie ander mans vir Willie Edwards geslaan en gedwing het om van die Tyler-Goodwin-brug af te spring omdat hy iets aanstootlik aan 'n wit vrou gesê het. Selfs met een van die getuies van die mans en die rsquos, het regter Frank Embry in Alabama die aanklagte van die hand gewys omdat daar nooit 'n oorsaak van dood vasgestel is nie. Hy het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'n persoon dwing om van 'n brug te spring nie natuurlik en waarskynlik tot die dood van so 'n persoon lei nie. & Rdquo In 1992 was Henry Alexander nou 63 naby die dood as gevolg van longkanker en het hy besluit om aan sy vrou te bely. Hy het vir haar gesê dat dinge hom pla en gesê het dat Willie Edwards nie sou gesterf het as hy hom nie valslik geïdentifiseer het as die een wat die wit vrou aanstoot gegee het nie. Hy het toe gesê dat hy en die ander Klansmen vir meneer Edwards 'n keuse gegee het om te hardloop of te spring, en hy het nie gedink dat hy sou spring nie. Hy het gesê. & ldquo As hy 'n drafstap geloop het, sou hulle hom nooit geskiet het nie. & rdquo

Interessante feit: Na haar man en rsquos se belydenis het mevrou Alexander 'n verskoningsbrief geskryf aan die weduwee van Edwards en rsquos. In die brief skryf sy en ek hoop ek kan jou eendag ontmoet om jou van aangesig tot aangesig te vertel hoe jammer ek is. Mag God u en u gesin seën en ek bid dat hierdie brief u op een of ander manier sal help. & Rdquo

Bely aan: Hy vermoor sy buurman Jimmy Carroll

In 1977 is James Brewer in Tennessee gearresteer op die vermoede dat hy sy buurman vermoor het weens jaloerse woede. Brewer het borgtog gespring en na Oklahoma gevlug waar hy en sy vrou 'n nuwe lewe begin onder die name Michael en Dorothy Anderson. Hulle het aktiewe lidmate geword van die plaaslike kerk waar sy vrou 'n Bybelstudiegroep gestig het. Hulle het ook 'n getroude dogter en is grootouers. In 2009 het Brewer 'n ernstige beroerte gehad en voordat hy gesterf het, was hy verplig om die misdaad wat meer as drie dekades lank op sy gewete was, te erken. Sy vrou het toe die polisiekantoor na die hospitaal gebel en gesê dat haar man 'n moord wil erken. Brewer het sy misdaad erken met die hulp van sy vrou wat moes vertaal weens die gevolge van die beroerte. Die enigste probleem met hierdie belydenis op die sterfbed is dat hy gelukkig nie ongelukkig vir meneer Brewer gesterf het nie. Toe Brewer uit die hospitaal ontslaan is, het hy oorgegee aan die Tennessee -owerheid en verskyn hy in die hof saam met dieselfde prokureur wat hy byna 32 jaar tevore gehad het toe hy borgtog gespring het. Die foto hierbo toon meneer en mevrou Brewer na hul arrestasie.

Interessante feit: Die pastoor van die kerk waar mev. Brewer 'n Bybelstudiegroep gestig het, het gesê: 'Ek weet nie wat hulle vorige lewe was nie, maar ek weet dat hulle albei aan die Here toegewy was. Hulle was 30 jaar in hul eie gevangenis. Ek dink hulle het hul tyd gedoen. & Rdquo

Bely aan: die moord op William Desmond Taylor

William Desmond Taylor was 'n akteur en 'n top Amerikaanse filmregisseur van stille films in die vroeë dae van Hollywood. Toe Taylor in 1922 doodgeskiet word, word dit een van Hollywood se bekendste skandale en raaisels. In 1964, 42 jaar na die moord, het 'n teruggetrokke ou vrou wat op die Hollywood -heuwel gebly het, 'n hartaanval gekry en haar buurvrou ontbied. Met haar onlangse bekering tot Katolisisme het sy 'n priester gevra om te bely, maar toe daar geen priester beskikbaar was nie, het sy haar belydenis aan haar buurman afgelê. Terwyl sy op haar kombuisvloer sterf, het sy gesê dat sy 'n stille filmaktrise was met die naam Margaret Gibson en dat sy 'n man met die naam William Desmond Taylor doodgeskiet het. Daar word beweer dat sy romanties by Taylor betrokke was, maar 'n motief waarom sy hom vermoor het, is nooit genoem nie. Die moord op Taylor & rsquos bly amptelik onopgelos, maar die een ding wat opval, is dat Gibson absoluut niks kon behaal met haar bekentenis nie. 'N Ander onthullende feit wat genoem moet word, is die buurvrou wat getuie van Gibson en rsquos was, het gesê dat sy ma (wat 'n vriend van Gibson en rsquos was) later gesê het dat hulle histeries geraak het toe sy 'n TV -stuk oor die Taylor -moord gekyk het en dat sy hom vermoor het.

Interessante feit: In die 1950 -rolprent Sunset Boulevard verwys die naam Norma Desmond na beide Taylor & rsquos se middelnaam en een van sy aktrise -vriende Mabel Normand.

U kan 'n stille film met die naam & ldquoThe Kiss & rdquo met William Desmond Taylor en Margaret Gibson in die hoofrol hier sien.

Bely aan: die moorde op Constance Smootz Hevener en Carolyn Hevener Perry

In 1967 is die 20-jarige Carolyn Hevener Perry en die 19-jarige Constance Smootz Hevener doodgeskiet terwyl hulle by 'n roomyswinkel in Staunton Virginia gewerk het. Elkeen is met sluitingstyd een keer in die kop geskiet en sowat $ 138 uit die winkel gesteel. Deur die jare het die polisie die saak gewerk, maar sonder sukses. In November 2008 is die polisie na Diane Crawford gelei deur nuwe inligting wat deur 'n getuie onthul is. Toe die polisie Crawford gaan ondervra, was sy in die eindstadium van hartversaking en het sy aan chroniese niersiekte gely en besluit om die moorde wat sy meer as 40 jaar gelede gepleeg het, in detail te erken. Die aand van die skietery het Crawford, wat destyds 19 was, gesê dat sy na die winkel gegaan het waar sy deeltyds gewerk het om vir die vroue te sê dat sy nie die volgende dag kan werk nie, en beland in 'n skofstryd met hulle. Crawford haal toe 'n .25 kaliber pistool uit en skiet die twee vroue omdat hulle met haar spot gemaak het omdat sy lesbies was. Perry was die eerste wat op 'n nabygeleë afstand geskiet is en toe Hevener haar te hulp snel, het Crawford haar ook van net 'n paar sentimeter weg geskiet. Sy het toe geld uit die winkel geneem toe sy gevlug het, wat die polisie laat dink het dat dit 'n rooftog was. Crawford is in Januarie 2009 dood, 2 maande nadat hy die moorde erken het. Die foto hierbo toon Crawford in haar boekfoto van die hoërskool uit 1966 en in haar polisiebeker.

Interessante feit: Diane Crawford het na die moorde vir 20 jaar weggetrek, getroud en twee dogters gehad. Sy keer toe terug na Staunton sonder haar man en trek by 'n vrou in en woon saam met haar nuwe lewensmaat tot haar dood.

Bely aan: steel 'n Stradivarius -viool van Bronis? aw Huberman

Ek plaas dit op die eerste plek, nie vanweë die erns van die misdaad nie, maar vanweë die algemene verhaal rondom hierdie belydenis op die sterfbed. In 1936 tree die Poolse virtuoos Hall Huberman op in Carnegie Hall en besluit om die Stradivarius wat hy in die eerste helfte van sy uitvoering gespeel het, oor te skakel na sy nuut aangeskafte Guarnerius -viool. Na die pouse is die Stradivarius uit die kleedkamer gesteel deur die 20 -jarige Julian Altman, 'n nagklubmusikant in New York. Altman word 'n violis by die National Symphony Orchestra in Washington, DC, en tree vir jare saam met die gesteelde Stradivarius op vir presidente en politici. In 1985, 49 jaar na die diefstal, het Julian Altman, wat in die tronk was vir kindermishandeling en ernstig siek, aan sy vrou erken dat hy die viool gesteel het. Daarna het hy sy vrou opdrag gegee om die Stradivarius by die huis van die egpaar te vind. Saam met die Stradivarius het sy koerantuitknipsels gevind wat die diefstal vertel. Dit was eers in 1987 (2 jaar later) dat sy vrou die Stradivarius na Lloyds van Londen terugbesorg het in ruil vir 'n $ 263,000 -soekersfooi.

Interessante feit: Hierdie viool word nou die Gibson-eks-Huberman Stradivarius genoem wat vernoem is na sy twee vorige eienaars, George Alfred Gibson en Hall Huberman (ek vermoed geen liefde vir Altman nie). Dit is nou die eienaar van die violis Joshua Bell, wat op die foto hierbo gespeel word en die beroemde viool speel waarvoor hy byna 4 miljoen dollar betaal het.


1. The Brown Lady van Raynham Hall

In die herfs van 1936 reis Hubert C. Provand en Indre Shira na Raynham Hall, die weelderige landhuis in Norfolk, Engeland wat in die 17de eeu gebou is en bekend is as die setel van die Townshend -familie, om dit te fotografeer vir Plattelandse lewe tydskrif. Die sessie het sonder voorval begin - maar terwyl hulle die sentrale trap van die huis afskiet, gebeur daar iets nuuskierigs: Tussen die opstellings het Shira beweer dat sy ''n eteriese, bedekte vorm wat stadig by die trappe afkom' opgemerk het. Shira en Provand maak haastig nog 'n skoot - en toe hulle dit ontwikkel, het hulle 'n spook op hul hande gekry.

Die 'gees' op die foto word die Brown Lady of Raynham Hall genoem. Sy is vermoedelik die spook van Lady Dorothy Walpole, wat omstreeks 1713 met Charles, 2de Burggraaf Townshend getroud is en onder raaiselagtige omstandighede gesterf het - moontlik as gevolg van pokke, maar moontlik nie - in 1726. Sy is sedertdien in spektrale vorm op en af ​​rondom Raynham Hall opgemerk omstreeks 1835, maar het werklik bekendheid verwerf ná die publikasie van die foto van Shira en Provand in Plattelandse lewe en Lewe tydskrifte in onderskeidelik 1936 en 1937.

Is dit moontlik dat die foto 'n hoax is, of selfs net 'n toeval? Ja. Is dit moontlik dat ons die Brown Lady verkeerdelik geïdentifiseer het? Natuurlik. Is dit moontlik dat die Brown Lady glad nie bestaan ​​nie? Jip. Maar die foto het steeds een van die bekendste geesfoto's van alle tye geword-en eerlikwaar, dit is nog steeds spookagtig.


Bekende moorde: The Boy In The Box

Wikimedia Commons Die seuntjie in die boks, uitgebeeld op 'n flyer wat na inwoners van omliggende dorpe gestuur is.

Na 60 jaar is ons nog nie nader aan die oplossing van die raaisel van die Boy in the Box nie.

Dit begin op 'n koue Februarie -dag in 1957, langs 'n snelweg langs Philadelphia. 'N Jong muishondjagter, wat sy lokvalle nagaan, het op 'n kartondoos gestapel wat in die bos lê. Binne was die lyk van 'n jong seun, kaal en vermink gestroop.

Die muishondjagter het 'n siel nie vertel nie. Hy was doodsbang dat die polisie, as hy dit sou aanmeld, op hom sou afkom weens sy onwettige lokvalle. En so, vir dae, totdat 'n dapperder siel hom vind, lê die seuntjie se liggaam koud en vrot, alleen in die bos.

Wikimedia Commons Die misdaadtoneel waar die seun in die boks gevind is.

Die seuntjie was iewers drie en sewe jaar oud, en hy het vreeslik verwaarloos. Hy was klein, ondervoed en onversorg. Sy hare was afgesny ten tye van sy dood, klonte daarvan het steeds aan sy liggaam vasgeklou. Die liggaam self was bedek met klein littekens, veral op sy enkel, lies en ken.

Slegs 'n klein daadjie van sorg is gegee aan die seuntjie wat kaal in die boks gelos is. Wie hom doodgemaak het, het styf in 'n kombers toegedraai voordat hy hom laat verrot het. Dit was die enigste sweempie liefde wat hy getoon het.

Wikimedia Commons 'n Gesigsrekonstruksie van die seun in die boks.

Die polisie het die seun met die vingerafdruk gedruk in die hoop om 'n vuurhoutjie te vind, maar niks het gekom nie. Honderde duisende pamflette is na die omliggende gebied gestuur om inligting oor die ongeïdentifiseerde seun te smeek, maar niemand het na vore gekom nie. Sy ouers het hom nooit as hul eie opgeëis nie.

Die ondersoekers het alles probeer wat hulle kon. They analyzed the evidence from the crime scene, from the cardboard box to the blanket he was wrapped in. Every clue they followed, though, just led to a new dead end.

To this day, more than 60 years later, one of America’s most famous murders remains unsolved. Nobody knows who the child was, who his parents were, or how he ended up naked and mutilated in a box in the woods.

Tragically, after all these years, the world will probably never even learn the name of “America’s Unknown Child.”


20 Singaporean Street Names And The Fascinating Stories Behind Them

Stories of war and love and all sorts of interesting tales are littered all over our island disguised as street names. Though vastly different, these stories reflect the diverse nature of Singapore and its inhabitants. Look through this list of street names and learn the histories of streets you pass daily, often without a second look, and think of the rich histories they hide.

Singapore might be 50 this year, but some streets are far older than that. Can you trace your family’s history in any of these 20 streets?

1. Sentosa

The story: Lovely beach, lovely name. Sentosa means “peace and tranquility”, it’s such a lovely place, isn’t it? Sentosa was actually named in 1972, and prior to that it was known as Pulau Blakang Mati, which means “behind the dead”.

Did you know?: No one really knows why the island was named as such, but here are a few guesses:

Sentosa used to be a pirate den and as such many gruesome murders took place on this island, earning it its scary, unauspicious name.

In the 1840s, a mysterious disease that was later found to be malaria obliterated all the original Buginese settlers here. The many sudden deaths gave birth to the belief that the island was cursed, hence they gave it this fitting name to warn people.

This island is behind Pulau Brani where many warriors are buried, hence the name “behind the dead”.

2. Bugis Street

The story: The first settlers in this area were Buginese traders from Indonesia who arrived on our shores in 1820, heralding the start of Bugis-the-shopping-hotspot. They stayed in the Bugis area after depositing their goods to drink and have fun, resulting in the area being eponymously named after them.

Between the 1950s and 1980s, Bugis was internationally famous for its transgender parades in the dark hours of the morning. It also had a very, um, interesting tradition named “The Dance of the Flamers” – a tradition in which visiting sailors danced on the roof of a toilet in Bugis street with a flaming piece of cloth up their poopers. I’m not even kidding.

Did you know?: The Buginese divide their people into 5 genders instead of the usual 2 including Bussi, Calabai and Calalai, comparable to modern ideas of bisexuality and homosexuality. It’s intriguing how such a controversial issue today was already accepted into a minority society hundreds of years ago.

3. Ang Mo Kio

The story: There are many stories behind the naming of Ang Mo Kio, with the most interesting being the story of Lady Jennifer Windsor. In 1923 Lady Windsor’s 3 children were playing in the woods at the Upper Thomson area and were swept away by a sudden gush at a river. Only 2 of 3 bodies were found.

Locals later reported hearing the cries of a little girl, and Lady Windsor decided that it was her duty to stay at the bridge by the river at Peirce Reservoir to keep the spirit of her little girl company. Her constant presence at that bridge caused the locals to end up calling it “ang mo kio”, meaning “ang moh’s bridge”. Freaky, right?

Unfortunately, the more widely accepted (boring) version is that the ang moh in question is actually J.T. Thomson, who built the bridge across Kallang River.

Did you know?: Many people believe that Ang Mo Kio was named after rambutans (“ang mo dan” in Mandarin) or tomatoes (“ang mo kio”, literally translated, means red tomato) that grew rampant in this area, but it was really because of an ang moh.

4. Kay Poh Road

The story: We wanted a funny story, but it’s just named after a guy named Wee Kay Poh.

Did you know?: Kay Poh was probably cooler than you and I will ever be. Apart from having a road named after him, he owned a large opium and liquor farm. A FARM. He must’ve been THE party host.

5. Tanah Merah

The story: This place was named Tanah Merah, meaning red land, all the way back from at least the 15th century because of its red cliffs along the coast that could be seen from sea.

Did you know?: This name is over 500 years old – it was written in a 1604 version of the Singapore map! The sea nomads in the region probably used Tanah Merah as a marker or meeting point to coordinate their activities back then.

6. Albert Street

The story: Named after Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria of England. Before his death in 1861, Prince Albert played roles in social movements such as the global abolition of slavery and educational reform. While he had no discernable ties to Singapore that we could find, Singapore’s naming of a road after him is a nod to our colonial past, to the fact that Singapore existed before our recognition as a sovereign state.

Did you know?: This place was once known by the Hindus as thimiri thidal of thimeethi thidal , meaning “place where people tread on fire”. And it’s exactly what it sounds like. In the 1800s, the Hindus conducted their fire-walking ceremonies on this very street! These activities continued till the 1870s, when the rituals were shifted to Sri Mariamman Temple in South Bridge Road, a temple that still hosts firewalking rituals!

7. Tank Road

The story: There are two educated guesses as to how Tank Road got its name. The first one is that it was named after an ex-reservoir at the back of Fort Canning where royal concubines used to bathe – where the now-disused River Valley Swimming Complex stands.

The other is that it was named as such because there was a pool dug in front of Fort Canning, which was named “Soldier’s Tank” because it was used by soldiers.

Did you know?: Either way, this road is inextricably linked to some sort of giant tank in which “nobility” used to soak in.

8. Jalan Besar

The story: Its name means “wide road”, which is self-explanatory. It used to be a massive area of open ground and was a popular hunting ground teeming with snipes – a species of wading birds, not snipers.

Did you know?: The smaller street names in Jalan Besar are named after British and French war heroes (Allenby, Kitchener, Maude, etc.)! Which is kinda strange considering there isn’t much of a relation between the two…

9. Rotan Lane

The story: There used to be a rotan factory on Chander Street, just adjacent to this lane.

Did you know?: Childhood trauma anyone? This is hands down the scariest street name we have.

10. Middle Road

The story: Middle Road was a boundary between White and Asian settlements in the 1800s, and we’re guessing that’s why it’s called the middle.

But the more interesting part is all the various people who resided along this road. On one end were a bunch of Japanese who called the place their shitamachi (meaning downtown), similar to how the Chinese had Chinatown. There was a sizeable Japanese population in Singapore until WWII happened.

The other end of the road housed poorer Baghdadi Jews. Many famous businessmen today were raised here, including the late Jacob Ballas.

Did you know?: Even before the Japanese and Jews settled here, this place was central to Singapore’s Hainanese population and as such, was a buzzing F&B hub. This is possibly one of the most culturally and historically rich streets Singapore has!

11. Thomson Road

The story: Named after John Turnbull Thomson, the same JT Thomson as the one from Ang Mo Kio, who laid the road and was instrumental in the development of Singapore’s water supply and distribution systems.

Did you know?: This place was referred to by the Chinese as chia chui kang (fresh water stream) and thanir pilei sadakku (waterpipe street) by the Tamils in reference to the Kallang River that runs by it.

12. Duxton Hill/Road

The story: The naming of this area is ambiguous, but our best guess is that it was named after Duxton House, a house built by J. William Montgomerie.

This place used to be notorious through the 1800s to early 1900s, and it’s not hard to see why. It housed many opium dens, gambling dens and criminals. There were also many fights among the plentiful rickshaw drivers here because they all had strong ties with their clans. When they clashed, everyone got involved.

Did you know?: At the time, white people inhabited the north and ethnics inhabited the south. Yet, although Duxton Hill is on the south of the Singapore River, it was occupied by a white man. J. William Montgomerie was a hipster before being hipster was cool.

13. Siglap

The story: It’s said that when a Malay chief landed here, darkness congealed in the sky and a crazy thunderstorm took place, so he decided to name this place ‘siglap’, which is a corruption of the Malay word ‘gelap’, which means ‘darkness that conceals’.

Did you know?: It really was a dark place records show that in about 1845, there was a full village of pirates living here!

14. Adam Park/Road

The story: It was named after Frank Adam in 1922, who was a managing director at a tin smelting company and president of the St Andrew’s Society for over 5 years.

Did you know?: In February 1942, a fierce 3-day fight took place at the site of Adam Park. Despite the intense fighting that happened here, Adam Park is the only battlefield that has emerged from the dark WWII days largely untouched by the war.

15. Short Street

The story: The naming of this street was a baie creative process it is a short street. It’s only 350m long!

Did you know?: Unfortunately, this isn’t the shortest street on our little island – Finlayson Green is the the shortest road in Singapore at approximately 80m long.

16. Sengkang

The story: The site of the current residential area was once a fishing port, and was also filled with prosperous rubber, pineapple and pepper plantations. Chances are that it was given its name because it was such a prosperous harbour (Sengkang literally means prosperous harbour in Mandarin).

Did you know?: Wanna know what’s cute? Themed roads.

Sengkang has a web of marine themed roads (Anchorvale, Compassvale, Rivervale) and plantation themed roads (fernvale, palmville etc.).

17. Club Street

The story: There used to be many prominent Chinese clubs in this area, and this was the place where rich businessmen hung out to relax. There isn’t a consensus as to which of the many clubs conferred the name Club Street onto the street, but it was probably a good combination of all of them that made this place so popular.

Did you know?: Although this place was situated in a predominantly Chinese area, there was a famous community club for the Bawaean Malay community here – Pondok Peranakan Gelam Club. This was evidently a fun place where work was forgotten. Even today, this street is full of great places to unwind after a long day.

18. Novena

The story: Contrary to conventional belief, Novena is named after the immensely popular Novena Church (proper name: The Church of Saint Alphonsus) and not the other way around. Novena Church, in turn, is named after its services held every Saturday which are called Novena Services, which were so popular that even non-Catholics attended them.

Did you know?: Novena was named after a church, but Church Street was named after a man named Thomas Church, a resident councilor in Singapore from 1837-1856. How odd.

19. Mount Pleasant

The story: It was owned by George Henry Brown in the mid 1800s, and he named it Mount Pleasant because he found it to be a pleasant hill. He tried to grow nutmeg and coffee here but failed on both occasions. Guess it wasn’t so pleasant after all.

Did you know?: That’s not the only unpleasant thing about Mount Pleasant. Its name may be pleasant, but it certainly isn’t.

There are crazy rumours that this place is extremely haunted, and these stem from the Sook Ching massacre where the Japanese killed close to 50,000 Chinese who they established to be anti-Japanese. And as if that wasn’t enough, this was also the place that housed comfort women, essentially forced sex slaves to the Japanese soldiers. Talk about a bad history.

20. Orchard Road/Street

The story: This area used to flourish with nutmeg plantations and fruit orchards. A common sighting in the mid 1800s was a Mr Orchard tending his garden which was near the intersection between Scotts and Orchard Roads, entrenching Orchard Road as the name of the road.

Did you know?: Apart from orchard gardens, this area used to be littered with cemeteries. The whole of Dhoby Ghaut was once a Jewish cemetery, and there were many Chinese cemeteries on the land where a few established hotels now stand.

In fact, most places in Singapore were, at some point in time, dotted with burial grounds. Famously, Bishan and Tiong Bahru were, since even their names literally translate into “cemetery” or “burial ground”.

Have a favourite street?

From lazy names to streets bursting with flavour and culture, seems like our little red dot has it all. Even this limited list resembles rojak in story form. If you know any more interesting stories behind Singapore’s street names, do add to the discussion and leave them in the comments below!


The Legacy of the Fallen Heroes

Richard Drew Another famous photograph from the 9/11 attacks shows a man falling from one of the towers.

A week after the attacks, McLamb brought a stack of his developed photos from that day to the firehouse. The remaining firefighters at the Brooklyn Heights location recognized the trademarks of Ladder 118.

“Once we realized it was ours, it sent chills down your spine,” said retired firefighter John Sorrentino in an interview with New York Daily News.

McLamb gave his photo to the New York Daily News, and days later it was plastered across the front page.

Like other famous photos from the terror attack on 9/11, the picture of the doomed fire truck now represents the patriotism and tragedy of that September day.

“They say a picture is worth a thousand words,” said Sorrentino. “I don’t think there’s any word that describes that picture.”

While many people have struggled with survivor’s guilt after the attacks, Aaron McLamb being one of them, those who knew the Ladder 118 team have found a way to remember them.

At their old firehouse, the duty board has remained untouched since that September morning, the names of the six men still written in chalk next to their assignments.

Their portraits have also been hung, alongside Robert Wallace and Martin Egan, two other firefighters from that firehouse who were killed that day.

Saturday Night Live star Pete Davidson, who was only seven years old when his father Scott Davidson died, has a tattoo of his dad’s badge number, 8418.

As Sorrentino said: “What happened that day will never be forgotten. And those men will never be forgotten. We won’t let that happen.”

Now that you know the story behind the 9/11 photo of Ladder 118, check out more photos that reveal the tragedy of September 11, 2001. Then read about how 9/11 is still claiming victims, years after the attacks.


40 Must-See Photos From The Past

The phrase &ldquoa picture is worth a thousand words&rdquo was coined by American newspaper editor Arthur Brisbane in 1911. It&rsquos a simple notion that applies to many aspects of our lives, but especially to historical photos. Sometimes, one simple picture can tell you more about history than any story you might read or any document you might analyze.

These old time photos all tell stories about the historical figures or events that they represent. Once taken merely to document their present, they now help us witness the past. Many images only become iconic shots years later, once we understand their importance and historical context. From historical landmarks and famous people to the basic daily routines of the past, these old photos portray the history in a way that we can empathize with and understand more intimately.

Perhaps the wars, poverty, fights for freedom and little miracles of the past have lessons for us that we can use today? Scroll through our list of rare historical photos and see if we&rsquove learned anything.


Van Gogh's Time in Arles

In 1853, Van Gogh was born in the Netherlands. Though he expressed an interest in art as a child, he pursued several different careers before seriously considering painting full-time at the age of 27. After seeing no artistic success in the Netherlands, he decided to join his art dealer brother Theo in Paris in 1886.

Unfortunately, Van Gogh's time in the French capital was equally futile. &ldquoIt seems to me almost impossible to be able to work in Paris, unless you have a refuge in which to recover and regain your peace of mind and self-composure,&rdquo he wrote in a letter to Theo in 1888. &ldquoWithout that, you&rsquod be bound to get utterly numbed.&rdquo In pursuit of this “peace of mind,” Van Gogh headed south, landing in the idyllic commune of Arles.

Vincent van Gogh, “Café Terrace at Night,” 1888 (Photo: Wikimedia Commons Public Domain)

While in Arles, Van Gogh developed his signature style, characterized by a vivid color palette and expressive brushwork. This approach is increasingly evident in all of his work completed in 1888, including his Bedroom at Arles series, Café Terrace at Night, en Starry Night Over the Rhône.


Behind The Famous Story, A Difficult 'Wild Truth'

Jon Krakauer's 1996 book Into the Wild delved into the riveting story of Chris McCandless, a 24-year-old man from an affluent family outside Washington, D.C., who graduated with honors from Emory, then gave away the bulk of his money, burned the rest and severed all ties with his family. After tramping around the country for nearly two years, he headed into the Alaska wilderness in April 1992. His emaciated body was found a little over four months later.

Krakauer's book struck a nerve with readers. But he never fully answered what motivated McCandless' ascetic renunciation, and the book drew scores of letters accusing him of arrogance, ignorance and selfishness.

In a fascinating 2013 followup article in The New Yorker, Krakauer finally confirmed the cause of McCandless' death: a toxic amino acid in wild potato seeds, previously thought to be benign. He hoped that the new findings would squelch some of those accusations.

Now Chris' younger sister, Carine McCandless, 21 at the time of her brother's death, has come out with The Wild Truth, which tells a story as poisonous as wild potato seeds. Her memoir reveals what Chris was running from — and should lay to rest allegations that her brother's behavior was cruel to their parents.

Carine McCandless gets the grim truth out of the way up front in her introduction, with the quick determination of someone tearing off a painful Band-Aid: She and her brother Chris grew up with a volatile, viciously abusive father who made their weak-willed yet hyper-competent mother both his victim and his accomplice.

Carine, who was a valuable source for both Krakauer's book and Sean Penn's movie adaptation, had shared this dark family history with Krakauer back in the early 1990s, though strictly off the record in order to protect her parents "from full exposure in case they could change for the better." (Not surprisingly, they didn't.) And even though it compromised his book, Krakauer honored Carine's restrictions. Instead, he hinted at the truth with repeated allusions to an "overbearing" father, which some readers caught, though many did not.

Related NPR Stories

The Wild Truth opens with several harrowing scenes. After vividly describing one of their father's attacks on her mother, McCandless moves on to the double beatings she and her brother suffered, "forced down, side by side" across his lap. She writes, "The snap of the leather was sharp and quick between our wails. I will never forget craning my neck in search of leniency, only to see the look of sadistic pleasure that lit up my father's eyes and his terrifying smile — like an addict in the climax of his high."

Fortunately, McCandless — while searingly honest — doesn't sustain this level of distressing intensity, or I doubt I would have been able to make it through. What she does do is chronicle Billie and Walt McCandless' miserable wine- and gin-fueled marriage and its lasting repercussions on their children.

In her efforts to present a balanced picture, Carine flags happier times, too — like the camping trips her brother loved. Family photos paint a sunnier picture, though she makes clear that these command performances were part of an elaborate false front.

Billie and Walt's relationship began at Hughes Aircraft, where she was a young secretary and he was her married boss, a rising star electrical engineer. In the next few years, he would father two more children with his wife, Marcia, and two with Billie — Chris and Carine — while brutalizing and lying to both women. When Carine was 1 year old, Marcia finally escaped with her six children. But although Billie repeatedly vowed to leave Walt, raising her children's hopes, she never followed through.

The Wild Truth moves swiftly from Carine's closeness with her brother — invariably pictured hugging her protectively — to a candid (though, not surprisingly, less compelling) account of her lifelong search for unconditional love and self-worth through three marriages, close bonding with her half-siblings, devoted motherhood and owning a successful business. Interestingly, she accepts her beloved brother's abandonment without bitterness, seeing it as an unfortunate casualty of his clean break with their parents.

The Wild Truth is undoubtedly a "courageous book," as Krakauer asserts in his gracious foreword, and Carine McCandless comes across above all as a resilient survivor. It lacks the resonance of great literature (including Into the Wild ), which less focus on her marriages and a deeper exploration of the journalistic ramifications of restricting information, or of the psychology of abusers might have provided.

Maar The Wild Truth is an important book on two fronts: It sets the record straight about a story that has touched thousands of readers, and it opens up a conversation about hideous domestic violence hidden behind a mask of prosperity and propriety.


The Fascinating Story Behind “Convoy” and the Secret Trucker Lingo

“Convoy” by C.W. McCall is one of the most interesting songs in all of country music because of its defiant, unique story. It is about a fictional group of truckers that organize a protest over Citizen’s Band (CB) radio using their own made up code words. Although the story in the song is fictional, it is inspired by real protests and the CB radio fad.

CB radio was a relatively cheap radio that, unlike amateur radio, could be used by anyone without a license. For these reasons CB radio become incredibly popular in the 1970’s. CB radio caught on the same way social media and online communication does today. People were excited to have a platform that would connect them to strangers all over the nation for practical and personal uses. CB radio was used for everything from small businesses communicating with employees to hobbyists just looking for entertainment.

Trucker drivers also began to using CB radio to communicate, especially after the United States enforced a nationwide 55 mph speed limit during the oil crisis of 1973 . This, among other regulations, angered truckers who then used their CB radios to form convoys. Convoys were groups of truckers that drove together down highways faster than the speed limit because the police couldn’t catch all of them. Convoys would also tell each other where police officers set up speed traps, if there was a roadside emergency, or even block off roads with their trucks in protest. Because police would also listen to the CB radio channels, the trucker drivers developed an elaborate slang including code names called handles to protect their identities. After hearing about this unique dialogue, McCall and songwriter Chip Davis bought a CB radio which inspired them to write “Convoy”. The song is filled with this trucker slang including lyrics like “Ah, breaker one-nine, this here’s the Rubber Duck. You gotta copy on me, Pig Pen, c’mon?”. If you are curious, you can find a list of the slang online to figure out what the lyrics mean.

“Convoy” topped the country and pop charts and was included in Rolling Stone’s 100 Greatest Country Songs of All Time in 2014. After “Convoy” was released, people became obsessed with CB radio and trucker culture. Millions of people in the United States began buying CB radios to join in on the fun and even created their own handles and slang words. Many other songs and movies about truckers were made including an action-packed, fairly successful movie that was also called “Convoy” and was based off of the song. The movie featured none other than Kris Kristofferson as the lead trucker, Rubber Duck.

In 1979 another oil crisis emerged causing another wave of protests, but this time it became violent . Many truckers went on strike and would use CB radio to threaten those who didn’t. Some of the more extreme truckers would even throw rocks or shoot at the trucks of drivers who were not participating in the strike. This violence lead to the decline in popularity of trucker culture, culminating in the murder of a truck driver in 1983.

Despite its unfortunate ending, the rise of trucker culture was a fascinating trend. “Convoy” was instrumental in creating and recording the history of this fad. Although seemingly light and fun, the song has a captivating story about serious political issues and how technology can unite people all over the country.


Mungo Man: The Story Behind The Bones That Forever Changed Australia’s History

This is a story about bones. About what can and can’t be explained by them, and the tales we choose for them to tell. It spans more than 50,000 years, but it begins like it ends, in a remote corner of the red-rubbled Australian Outback some 700 kilometers (435 miles) west of Sydney known as Lake Mungo.

Lake Mungo isn’t actually a lake -- at least not anymore. But up until about 20,000 years ago, this lunar-like landscape of silver-blue saltbush and antagonistic flies was a lush lagoon teeming with fish and waterbirds.

It was an Aboriginal paradise with easy hunting and abundant resources. These early humans shared the land with jumbo-sized kangaroos, mammoth wombats, and emus of a scale that would make Big Bird look like Tweety. But within 6,000 years of the glacial maximum, the rapidly warming climate had turned Lake Mungo salty, then parched. A prehistoric paradise was lost.

We know a lot of this, of course, because of the bones.

“There is a 90 percent chance we’ve got a cremated human right beneath us,” my traditional Paakantji Aboriginal guide Graham Clarke shares as we walk through the sands of time back to the start of Australia’s human history. “See that branch over there,” he adds, pointing to a mangled root that’s collecting a mound of rubble. “That’s a marker for the bones of a giant wombat [known as a Diprotodon].”

“Over here we’ve got a fossilized eucalyptus tree,” he continues. “It’s never-ending because things are constantly appearing and disappearing and you can never keep up with it.”

Massive erosion has left the internal anatomy of Lake Mungo, like many of the dry Willandra Lakes scattered about this UNESCO World Heritage area, exposed at the surface. Every year the lake produces a new crop of exposures as the skin-baking Outback air strips the surface with each gust to reveal a veritable time capsule buried underneath.

Tiny bone fragments tumble like confetti in the wind as Clarke and I walk along the sandy lunette that curves around the lake’s eastern shore. We follow a set of arrow-shaped emu tracks to the top of the lunette’s highest dune where Clarke plops down onto all fours and begins to draw.

“I’m going to teach you a different kind of history,” he says, forming circles in the sand. “I want to show you the other side of the coin, because people always grow up seeing one side and never take the time to see the world from a different perspective.”

Clarke mixes science with dreaming as he describes weather patterns, explains his theories of time and makes his standpoint on evolution abundantly clear: “The 'out of Africa' idea is a joke.”

Then he tells me something his mom told him when he was a kid.

“Archeologists created big words to make themselves sound better and smarter than the rest of us. They made up ideas about history and sold them for profit. But my people have been on this land for thousands of years. I’ve got storylines about my history. What I want to know is what are the Europeans’ storylines?”

It was exactly 40 years ago last week that a geologist named Jim Bowler revealed a set of bones at Lake Mungo that would prove something the Aboriginal people say they knew all along: that they’d been on the Australian continent for an inconceivable length of time.

The going theory among scientists before Bowler stumbled upon “Mungo Man” was that Aboriginals had arrived in Australia from Asia around 20,000 years ago. Mungo Man pushed that date back by at least another 20,000 years, while his ritualistic burial proved that a sophisticated culture had emerged on the far side of the Indian Ocean from Africa much earlier than anyone (except the Aboriginals) could ever have imagined.

Further archeological finds at Lake Mungo point to human occupation of the area as far back as 50,000 years ago, making it one of the world’s most important archeological sites for understanding human evolution and prehistory. But just what exactly its bones mean, who should tell their story, and where the region’s most famous resident should rest in peace remain matters of heated debate 40 years after this curious new actor arrived on Australia’s historical stage.

‘We’re Here Now And We’ve Always Been Here

It was February 1974 and Dr. Bowler was waiting at Mungo Station for the rains to stop so he could return to the site where six years earlier he’d found “Mungo Lady,” Mungo Man’s slightly younger female companion whose bones are notable as evidence of the world’s oldest cremation. The then-professor at Australian National University, or ANU, in Canberra got his chance on the 26th, when the late-afternoon sun shined down like a spotlight on a white bulbous tip emerging from the eroding sands.

Bowler scraped away the dirt to find a fully intact jawbone. It was to be the first glimpse of some of the oldest bones ever discovered outside of Africa.

“I immediately rang my colleagues at ANU and they came out two days later to excavate the remains,” Bowler, now in his 80s, recalls as we sit together on a sofa in his Melbourne apartment. “In the process of that excavation, this amazing articulated expression of tremendous ritual emerged. The body had either been anointed, painted in ochre or ochre had been sprinkled on the grave.

“That was an amazing shock,” he continues. “Nobody had ever imagined that a person of this antiquity in Australia would be of such a sophisticated cultural development.”

Mungo Man emerged at a time when the fight for Aboriginal rights had just picked up steam. Activists quickly integrated the findings into their slogans and made T-shirts saying: “We’ve been here for 40,000 years.” This became one of the mantras in the greater land rights movement of the mid 1970s.

“The Aboriginal people were having a bit of a fight with the scientists on one hand, but on the other they said: ‘Look, these scientists are demonstrating what we’ve been saying all the time. We’ve been telling you that we’re here now and we’ve always been here’,” Bowler recalls.

While Mungo Man dramatically changed the way Australians now view their own history, Bolwer laments that “this has not filtered through to most of the white Australian psyche.”

“Our challenge now is to ensure that the reality of his contribution to both science and the traditional people is made quite explicit.”

A Home For Bones

When Bowler began his work in Lake Mungo, there weren’t any Aboriginal people living there they had all been systematically moved off in the decades prior. Consequently, the bones of Mungo Man and Mungo Lady were removed from the area without the knowledge of its traditional owners.

“When news of these finds hit the press with Mungo Man, some of them were understandably upset,” Bowler recalls. “One Aboriginal Elder said to me: 'You did not find Mungo Lady and Mungo Man they found you.' Which puts the burden back onto me to ensure that their skeletal remains are properly cared for. They have an immense message to deliver. And that message has yet to be delivered.”

Unlike Mungo Lady, Mungo Man was never returned to his traditional homeland. Instead, he remains under lock and key in a box at ANU -- despite the fact that scientists stopped studying him more than a decade ago.

“The bones have been in the care of ANU for 40 years, and 40 years is long enough,” Bowler decries. “The scientific view is that it’s time for those remains to come home to Mungo. And I believe that view is shared almost without reservation by the indigenous people. But ultimately it’s their responsibility.”

Richard Mintern, executive officer of the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area, says the traditional owners of the region have been working with government agency staff and scientists to develop repatriation plans that will facilitate the return of the ancestral remains in a culturally sensitive way.

“Part of this process has included extensive consultation in the development of a Mungo Centre proposal, which could provide a worthy commemoration to Australia’s oldest human if funding can be secured,” he explains. “Ultimately the decision as to what happens with the ancestral remains rests with the traditional owners, and those discussions are continuing.”

Part of the problem, it seems, is that there’s somewhat of a disagreement among the three Aboriginal tribes who claim ownership of the land: the Mutthi Mutthi, the Ngiyampaa and the Paakantji. Jacki Roberts of the New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage says that while discussions and associated planning are well underway, “it’s still early days.”

There was much speculation in the Australian media that the government and Aboriginal Elders would make a big announcement about the repatriation of the bones on the anniversary Wednesday. But the day came and went like any other without so much as a peep.

The Sands Of Time

Clarke and I watch from a viewpoint atop the lunette as the sun carves a path over the Willandra Lakes, blanketing the late-summer sky in a tangerine haze and heralding the start of a new day for the Outback’s curious nocturnal inhabitants.

The kangaroos spring into action first, then the echidnas scuttle away to forage for insects while the flies disappear to their mysterious nighttime homes. It’s really only in this violet hour that one can begin to imagine what wind-ravished Mungo might have looked like 40,000 to 50,000 years ago when Mungo Man and Mungo Lady called it home.

The indigo sky above morphs into an ocean of stars as Clarke swerves to avoid bounding grey kangaroos along the bumpy road back to the Grand Hotel in Mildura 110 kilometers (70 miles) away. The veteran guide of more than two decades hasn’t stopped yapping since we got in the car, so I ask him a question that’s been on my mind all afternoon.

If this is an archeological site, I say, then what’s to stop would-be grave robbers or souvenir-seeking tourists from nabbing the emerging artifacts?

Clarke explains that visitors are forbidden from stepping off the boardwalks at Mungo unless accompanied by an Aboriginal guide. Yet in this remote pocket of Australia’s arid center, you’d be hard-pressed to find anyone around to stop them.

The Paakantji Aboriginal says he recently buried fake artifacts throughout the lunette in an experiment for La Trobe University. Within two weeks, nearly all of the artificial bones had disappeared.

That they'd disappear is actually what he wanted, though he’d prefer that the bones go back into the earth rather than out of it.

Clarke visits this land perhaps more than anyone else, yet he says he doesn’t tell a soul about new “discoveries.” Sometimes he’ll leave a marker, like the one he’d shown me of the Diprotodon, but mostly he just walks on by and lets the bones return to the sand from which they came.

The thought of loosing such treasured data might horrify an archeologist, but Clarke says he prefers to let Mungo’s myriad bones rest in peace. No analysis. No labels. And no 40 years in a box at a university.

How To Visit Lake Mungo

Ligging: Mungo National Park is best visited via the quaint riverside city of Mildura about 110 kilometers (70 miles) to the south. You can attempt the largely unsealed road on your own with a sturdy vehicle or hire a guide like Graham Clarke from Harry Nanya Tours if you want to set foot on the lunette.

Where to stay: The Park itself has a small campground, but for more comfort, try the historic Grand Hotel in Mildura.

Where to learn more about Aboriginal history: Melbourne Museum recently opened the spectacular First Peoples exhibit, which provides a great introduction of Aboriginal history from Creation to present day.