Inligting

Slagveld van Salamanca


Die Salamanca -slagveld was die plek van die Slag van Salamanca in 1812, 'n groot botsing in die Skiereilandoorloë, wat deel uitmaak van die Napoleontiese oorloë tussen Napoleon Bonaparte en die hertog van Wellington. Daar is 'n klein monument op die Salamanca -slagveld ter herdenking van hierdie historiese gebeurtenis.

Die geskiedenis van die slagveld van Salamanca

In April 1812 het die hertog van Wellington die Anglo-Portugese leër noord gelei om die Franse leër van marskalk Auguste Marmont, wat Portugal binnegeval het, te verdryf. Marmont trek terug na Slaamanca, naby Arapiles, in Spanje. Wellington het kort daarna beveel dat die brug by Almaraz vernietig moet word, wat die enigste direkte kontak tussen Marmont en 'n ander Franse bevelvoerder, Jean-de-Dieu Soult, verbreek.

Teen Junie het Wellington die Agueda oorgesteek en ooswaarts gevorder na Salamanca - 'n belangrike voorraadstad vir die Franse leër. Die Franse het drie kloosters omskep in vestings om die stad te verdedig, maar binne 'n bietjie meer as 'n week was twee van die vestings in vlamme.

Wellington vind weke lank dat sy bewegings deur Marmont geblokkeer word, wat toenemend versterkings kry. Teen die dag van die geveg op 22 Julie het Wellington besluit om sy troepe terug te trek na Portugal. Maar sonder om te besef Marmont het sy leër uitgerek en sy linkerflank van die res van die weermag geskei. Wellington het dadelik van hierdie geleentheid gebruik gemaak om die linker Franse vleuel aan te val.

Marmont kon sommige van Wellington se troepe op die rand van die Arapiles sien, en vanuit 'n stofwolk het die Britte aangeneem dat hulle terugtrek. Hy was verkeerd: die meeste van Wellington se magte het agter die rif gesit. Marmont is vroeg in die geveg gewond en het aangevoer dat sy gebreekte arm en ribbes voor die aanval gekom het, en hy het nie tyd gehad om die Franse plan reg te stel nie. Die Franse het ontsnap weens 'n wankommunikasie tussen 'n nabygeleë Spaanse fort en Wellington, maar die bevelvoerder was 'n taktiese offensiewe generaal.

Salamanca Slagveld vandag

Die Slag van Salamanca het plaasgevind op die groot vlakte naby die Arapiles, ses myl van die stad Salamanca af. Die beste uitkykpunt om te sien wat eens 'n bloedige slagveld was, is van Calvarassa de Arriba-die uitsig wat marskalk Marmont die oggend van 21 Julie 1812 sou gesien het toe sy troepe aan die linkerkant afgejaag het om Wellington regs na die Greater Arapiles te verslaan. .

Kom na Salamanca Battlefield

U kan vanaf die rif die slagveld sien vanuit die dorp Calvarrasa de Arriba of Los Arapiles, albei 15 minute se ry van Salamanca. Vir diegene wat voorbereid is, kan u ook die Via Verde Salamanca-Alba in 2 en 'n half uur vanuit die stad oor die vlakte stap.


Salamanca geskiedenis

Salamanca: vroeë geskiedenis
Salamanca begin vroeg in 400 v.C., toe inheemse Keltiese stamme, bekend as die Vacceos, die gebied eers versterk het om hul gebiede langs die Duerorivier te beskerm. Nie eers 150 jaar later nie, het Hannibal en sy Kartago -magte die gebied gesmeek en hulle gevestig totdat die Romeinse Ryk die gebied binnegedring en dit vinnig ingehaal het. Tydens sy inlywing in die Romeinse provinsie Lusitania, het Salamanca- destyds Salmantica of Helmantica- 'n opvoerplek op die V & iacutea Lata (Silwerroete) geword en sy eerste smaak geniet as 'n belangrike spilpunt vir kommersiële aktiwiteite.
Die Christendom het sy eerste verskyning in Salamanca gemaak met die agteruitgang van die Romeinse Ryk en die koms van die Visigote, voor 600 nC. Die Moslem -ryk het 'n tydperk van heerskappy in Salamanca en sy omgewing geniet, maar binnekort het Salamanca weer die belangstelling van Christelike magte gewek wat die stad oor en oor herwin het.

Salamanca-geskiedenis: 11de-14de eeu
Hierdie ping-pong-magspel het uiteindelik tot 'n einde gekom met die Spaanse monarg Alfonso VI, wat die Moslem-moondhede na die suide gedryf het, waar Moslem-vestings tot in die 15de eeu die mag sou behou. Kort na hierdie oorwinning, is Salamanca aan die einde van die 11de eeu sy eerste munisipaliteit toegestaan ​​en daarna in die vroeë deel van die 12de eeu as deel van Castilla ingelyf. Dit het die weg gebaan vir die herbevolking van wat binnekort die Salamanca-provinsie sou word.

In die 13de eeu was een van die grootste keerpunte in die geskiedenis van Salamanca met die stigting van die universiteit deur 'n ander koninklike Alfonso- hierdie keer Alfonso IX. Net 'n paar jaar onderweg het pous Alexander IV reeds verklaar dat die universiteit een van die vier voorste ligte van die wêreld is. Deur die gevestigde akademiese sentrums van Parys, Bologna en Oxford te skuur, het die roemryke reputasie van die universiteit nie net gelei tot die verdere opbloei van sy akademiese kant nie, maar ook van die stad self- vandag kan u steeds historiese geboue besoek wat toegeskryf word aan hierdie tydperk van groeiende welvaart.

Salamanca-geskiedenis: 15de-16de eeu
Die belangrikheid van die universiteit het tot in die 16de eeu voortgeduur en die stad akademiese, kulturele en ekonomiese rykdom gebied. Deels te danke aan die vrygewige beskerming van koningin Isabel, die beroemde Katolieke monarg, was Salamanca die fokuspunt van sommige van die rykste kulturele aktiwiteite van Spanje gedurende die 15de eeu- die Gotiese en Renaissance-argitektuur van die stad dien as spore uit hierdie welvarende era.

Hierdie tydperk het ook 'n toename in politieke en sosiale onrus beleef. Saam met politieke kwessies wat die stad verdeel en bebloed het, het Salamanca 'n belangrike pos geword vir die Christelike teologie in Spanje as deel van die teenhervorming- 'n beweging wat in wese probeer het om mense terug te keer na die katolisisme tydens 'n tydperk waarin Protestantisme aan die toeneem was in 'n groot deel van Europa. Uiteraard het dit van Salamanca 'n brandpunt gemaak van die wrede, genadelose heksejag, bekend as die Spaanse Inkwisisie. U sal miskien verbaas wees om te weet dat die grasieuse Plaza Mayor, wat nou gevul is met kafees en kuierpaartjies op die terras, eens gasheer was vir massiewe boekverbrandings en wrede teregstellings van beweerde ketters.

Salamanca-geskiedenis: 17de-19de eeu
Gedurende die 17de eeu het Salamanca die res van die omliggende Castilla agteruitgegaan, wat weens 'n reeks oorloë, epidemies en ekonomiese krisisse tot in die 19de eeu sou duur. Die Spaanse opvolgingsoorlog na die dood van die erflose koning Carlos II het die land vir 13 jaar ingehaal en verdeel. Toe Felipe V uiteindelik die oorwinnaar is, beveel hy egter die bou van Salamanca se Plaza Mayor, een van die mees gewaardeerde bates van die stad, om die stad te bedank vir sy onwrikbare ondersteuning.

Die volgende oorlog, terwyl dit baie korter daarin geslaag het om Salamanca op 'n baie meer duidelike manier te beïnvloed. Terwyl Napoleon ambisieus probeer het om heel Europa syne te maak, het Spanje teruggeveg. Met die hegemonie van Europa aan die gang, het die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog (1808-1811) uiteindelik sy weg geneem na die poorte van Salamanca met die beslissende Slag van Arapiles- ook bekend as die Slag vir Salamanca. Lord Wellington het die Spaanse troepe tot 'n oorwinning oor Napoleon se troepe gelei, wat die eerste groot keerpunt was in die rigting van die terugtrekking van Napoleon uit Spanje. Terwyl baie van die geboue van Salamanca in verskillende toestande van verwoesting gelaat is en die universiteit natuurlik 'n laagtepunt bereik het, was die Franse magte ten minste uit die prentjie wat herstel en heropbou moontlik gemaak het.

Salamanca: Moderne geskiedenis
Teen 1900 het die stad herstel, al was dit vinniger as die universiteit. Miguel de Unamuno, een van die invloedrykste skrywers en denkers in die geskiedenis van Spanje, was egter tans visekanselier van die universiteit, 'n teken van sy stadige maar bestendige herstel. Die universiteit en die stad het voortgegaan om hul eertydse glorie te herstel, maar die herstel het werklik begin blom met die herstel van die demokrasie na die dood van diktator Francisco Franco na dekades van onderdrukkende bewind.

Tussen 1975 en vandag het Salamanca sosiaal sowel as polities hervorm tot 'n moderne stad wat voortgaan om te koester in die gees van sy roemryke geskiedenis. In onlangse jare is Salamanca nie net 'n UNESCO -erfenisstad nie, maar ook die titel van Europese kultuurhoofstad in 2002. Kom besoek gerus om te sien hoekom!


Slagveld van Salamanca - Geskiedenis

Deur Mike Phifer

Marshal Auguste Marmont het aandagtig toegekyk hoe die linkervleuel van sy Franse leër teen die Anglo-Portugese leër tydens die Slag van Salamanca middernag op 22 Julie 1812 maneuveer. Hy het opgemerk dat die 5de afdeling van generaal Antoine Louis Popon de Maucune in gevaar om vernietig te word namate dit na die dorp Los Arapiles gevorder het. Die 5de afdeling moes ten nouste ondersteun gewees het deur generaal Jean Guillaume Barthelemy Thomieres se 7de afdeling, maar die afdeling het te ver wes opgeruk. As die afdeling van Thomieres voortgaan met die huidige gang, sou dit nie net die afdeling van Maucune ondersteun nie, maar ook die kontak met die hoofleër verloor.

In die besef dat Arthur Wellesley, graaf van Wellington, die bevelvoerder van die geallieerde weermag, na alle waarskynlikheid die verwarring sou ontgin wat die hoofeenhede van die Franse linkervleuel verswelg het, besluit Marmont om in die vallei te ry om die bevel oor die linkervleuel te neem. homself. Hy het sy perd aangespoor en deur die puin geloop op die westelike helling van die Greater Arapile, 'n dorre rant waar hy 'n uitsig oor die slagveld geniet het.

Marmont wou die optog van Thomieres stop en sy troepe herlei. Maar toe die Franse bevelvoerder van die rif af wegbeweeg, het 'n Britse dop langs sy perd ontplof en ernstige wonde aan Marmont se arm en ribbes veroorsaak. Terwyl sy hulpverleners hom van die veld af vervoer het, het die ruiters afgelaai om die bevelvoerder van die tweede afdeling, generaal Bertrand Clausel, in kennis te stel dat hy nou in bevel was van die Marmont -leër van Portugal. Die geveg het destyds verhit en die Franse leër was byna 'n uur lank sonder 'n bevelvoerder. Gedurende daardie tyd het die situasie op die Franse linkerflank aansienlik versleg.

Die graaf van Wellington het in die lente van 1812 'n werklike gevoel van prestasie beleef nadat hy die Franse uit Portugal verdryf het. Tussen Januarie en April het hy die Franse uit die vestings Ciudad Rodrigo en Badajoz gesteel. Spoel met hierdie oorwinnings, was die Britse bevelvoerder gereed om dieper na Spanje te stoot. Hy kan in Andalusië vorder en die leër van marskalk Jean-de-Dieu Soult betrek in 'n poging om die beleërde Anglo-Portugese garnisoen in Cadiz te verlig, of hy kan die leër van marskalk Auguste Marmont in Castilië agtervolg. Hy het laasgenoemde gekies.

Na die val van Badajoz het Wellington sy toevoerlyne van Lissabon en Porto verbeter. Dit was 'n kritieke stap voordat die Anglo-Portugese leër na Castilië gevorder het. Terwyl hierdie pogings aan die gang was, het Wellington 'n klopjag gelas om die verband tussen Marmont se weermag en Soult se weermag te onderbreek. Op 7 Mei is luitenant -generaal Rowland Hill beveel om uit te trek met 'n mag van ongeveer 10 000 Britse en Portugese troepe, saam met 'n battery swaar gewere, en die pontonbrug oor die wye Taagrivier wat die twee Franse leërs verbind het, te vernietig.

Die beleg van Badajoz is onthou vir die woeste intensiteit van die gevegte wat plaasgevind het toe die Britte probeer het om die vesting te oortree.

Die aanval was 'n totale sukses, met Hill se mag wat die forte en verdedigingswerke wat die brug beskerm het, bestorm en die Franse verdedigers op 19 Mei afstuur. Die pontonbrug en vestings is gou verwoes, wat Wellington se kommer oor Soult wat direkte kommunikasie met Marmont het, verlig.

Wellington het op 13 Junie ooswaarts geloop met 18 000 troepe naby Badajoz aan die Spaanse grens om die suidelike roete tussen die twee lande en sy suidelike flank te beskerm. Die hoofsaaklik Anglo-Portugese leër het etlike duisende Spaanse troepe ingesluit.

Agt honderd Franse troepe het drie forte in die suidwestelike hoek van Salamanca beset. Die forte was op 'n hoë grond met 'n uitsig oor die ou Romeinse brug oor die Tormesrivier. Fort San Vincente, met 30 gewere, was die sterkste van die drie forte. Franse ingenieurs het geboue vernietig om seker te maak dat die enigste benadering tot die klipfort oor oop grond is. Die twee kleiner forte, Le Merced en San Gaetano, is deur 'n steil kloof van San Vincente geskei.

Wellington is deur sy Spaanse agente ingelig dat die forte swak was, maar hy het vinnig anders geleer. Om die klip forte te breek en te breek, het die Britte slegs vier pond van 18 pond gehad, hoewel ses swaar gewere op pad was na Salamanca.

Wellington het genl. Generaal sir Henry Clinton se 6de afdeling die taak gegee om die drie forte vas te lê. Die geallieerde bevelvoerder het die 14de Light Dragoon vergesel toe hy Salamanca binnegegaan het tot die geroep van die inwoners. Wellington het sy hoofkwartier in die stad gevestig, en die 6de afdeling het die forte die aand belê. Toe die Franse met artillerie en handwapens op die Geallieerde troepe losskiet, het honderde skutters van die Ligte Brigade van die King's German Legion tussen die ruïnes van die stad versprei. Hulle maak oop met 'n vinnige vuur wat die Franse vasgehou het. Dit het die Britse artilleriste in staat gestel om hul gewere teen die forte in aksie te kry.

Wat die grootste deel van die Geallieerde weermag betref, het dit die stad op 19 Junie omseil en op die hoogtes by San Cristobal drie myl na die noorde ingeneem. Marmont sukkel om sy troepe te voorsien, en daarom versprei hy sy eenhede totdat hy weet waar Wellington gaan toeslaan. Op 19 Junie het die Franse bevelvoerder vyf van sy agt afdelings bymekaargemaak en die garnisoene van die drie forte in Salamanca verlig.

Die agtste afdeling van generaal Jean Pierre François Bonet sou eers vroeg in Julie aankom, want dit moes van Asturië na die noorde optrek. Marmont het ook 'n versoek om hulp gestuur aan generaal Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli in bevel van die weermag van die noorde. Caffarelli het voorheen belowe om 8 000 infanterie, 'n brigade van ligte kavallerie en 22 gewere te stuur as Wellington Marmont aanval. Marmont het ook 'n boodskap gestuur aan Joseph Bonaparte, die broer van Napoleon wat as die koning van Spanje geïnstalleer is, waarin hy troepe versoek het.

Wellington het gekyk hoe Marmont se 25 000 troepe aankom, en hoop dat die Franse sy numeries superieure mag sou aanval. Die weermag van Wellington beklee 'n sterk posisie van San Cristobal tot Cabrerizos met kavallerie wat sy flanke bedek. Britse gewere wat op die hoogtes aangebring is, het die Franse beskiet toe hulle in drie kolomme vorder, wat binne 800 meter van Wellington se lyne af kom. Die Franse gewere het na alle waarskynlikheid geantwoord om die beleërde garnisoene in Salamanca te laat weet dat hulp op pad is.

Twee maande voor Salamanca vernietig die Britse luitenant -generaal Rowland Hill die Franse pontonbrug wat oor die Taagrivier strek wat die Franse leërs in Noord- en Suid -Spanje verbind het.

Teen skemer val 'n Franse regiment op die Britse voorpos in die dorpie Morisco, aan die voet van die hoogtes. Die dorpie is in besit van die 68ste Ligte Infanterie van die 7de Afdeling wat drie Franse aanvalle verslaan het. Na donker onthou Wellington die 68ste en verlaat Morisco. Wellington het gehoop dat Marmont hom die oggend sou aanval, maar Marmont het nie die aas gevat nie.

Omdat hy geweet het dat hy in die minderheid was, het Marmont die volgende dag min gedoen, alhoewel daar nog twee afdelings en 'n brigade drake die middag opgedaag het. Selfs met die versterkings was Marmont in 'n slegte posisie, sonder flankbeskerming en slegs oop grond agter hom wat geen beskerming bied in geval van terugtog nie. Die oorlogsraad was byna in die middel verdeel. Marmont het besluit dat dit die beste sou wees om versigtig te wees, en daarom het hy daarvan weerhou om 'n aanval te begin.

Teen 22 Junie was dit vir Wellington duidelik dat die Franse nie sou aanval nie. Daar was 'n paar skermutselinge in die oggend voordat die Franse daardie aand ses myl teruggetrek het na Aldea Rubia. Die volgende vier dae het Marmont sy leër oos van Salamanca gemanoeuvreer. Hy het wel 'n deel van sy leër oor die Tormes gestuur in 'n poging om Wellington te kry om sy mag te verdeel, maar die vaardige Geallieerde bevelvoerder het die Franse bewegings maklik teëgestaan.

Die boodskap het op 26 Junie van Caffarelli gekom dat hy nie versterkings na Marmont sal stuur nie weens guerrilla -aktiwiteite en dreigende bewegings deur die Royal Navy in sy verantwoordelikheidsgebied. Die volgende dag het die nuus gekom dat die forte in Salamanca geval het. Die garnisoene het tien dae lank aangehou. Clinton se 6de afdeling het 120 man verloor in mislukte aanvalle op San Gaetano. 'N Tekort aan ammunisie het Clinton se pogings vertraag, maar vars ammunisie het gekom om die weegskaal ten gunste van die belegers te verbeter. Geallieerde gewere het uiteindelik die val van al drie forte gedwing.

Met die val van die forte en sonder versterkings van Caffarelli op pad, het Marmont noordooswaarts teruggetrek na Valladolid aan die noordekant van die Duero -rivier, wat hom nader aan Bonet se 8ste afdeling marsjeer vanuit die noorde. Wellington volg hom na die Duero, maar val nie aan nie. Die eerste twee weke van Julie het min gebeur, behalwe die aankoms van Bonet, wat die opponerende leërs ewe sterk gemaak het, alhoewel die Britte sterker was in kavallerie, terwyl die Franse meer artillerie gehad het.

Marshal Auguste Marmont (links) en Arthur Wellesley, graaf van Wellington.

Wellington het die Franse posisie gesoek vir 'n geleentheid om aan te val, maar hy hou nie van die vooruitsigte vir 'n frontale aanval nie. Wat meer is, elke poging om hulle te flank, sou sy kommunikasielyne aan die weste blootstel. Hy was ook bewus daarvan dat Joseph Bonaparte ongeveer 14 000 troepe versamel het om Marmont te hulp te kom. Marmont het dit nie geweet nie, want Spaanse guerrillas het die versendings wat na hom gestuur is, onderskep.

Die onaktiwiteit langs die Duero het op 16 Julie tot 'n einde gekom toe twee Franse afdelings die rivier by Toro oorgesteek het. Marmont was bekommerd dat die Britte versterk kon word en het op die aanval gegaan. Toe Wellington verneem dat die Franse teen hom beweeg, het hy 'n deel van sy leër na die weste verskuif om die bedreiging sowel as die Franse opmars van Toro te hanteer. Maar die voorskot van Toro was niks anders as 'n manier om Wellington te mislei nie.

Marmont stuur die grootste deel van sy leër oor die Duero by Tordesillas, wat 20 myl oos van Toro lê. Die twee Franse afdelings by Toro het oor die brug gekruis en dit agter hulle opgeblaas en na die ooste opgeruk om die Duero oor te steek en weer by die res van die leër aan te sluit. Teen die nag van 17 Julie was die Franse leër oorkant die Duero. Marmont het Wellington geflous. As gevolg hiervan het die 4de afdeling en die ligte afdeling gevaar om afgesny te word.

Die volgende oggend het Wellington stappe gedoen om die twee blootgestelde afdelings te onttrek. Kort na sonsopkoms het hy besluit om seker te maak dat hulle in ooreenstemming met sy bevele teruggetrek word. Toe hy om 07:00 aankom, vind hy 'n skermutseling aan die gang. Die Franse kavallerie het twee eskaders aangeval, een elk van die 11de en 12de Light Dragoons, wat twee gewere perde -artillerie beskerm het.

Wellington en diegene rondom hom trek hul swaarde uit toe die eskader van die 12de Light Dragoons onder die gewig van die lading breek en die eskader van die 11de Light Dragoons terugval. Die 11de Light Dragoons het egter spoedig 'n teenaanval gekry, maar dit het die situasie gestabiliseer. Dit was nietemin 'n noue oproep vir Wellington. Die twee Britse afdelings het veilig teruggetrek en nuwe posisies ingeneem by die hoofleër wes van die Guarenarivier.

Die twee leërs het op 20 Julie 'n parallelle opmars na die suide begin terwyl Marmont probeer het om Wellington se regs te draai. Die volgende dag trek Wellington weswaarts terwyl Marmont suidwes draai om die Tormesrivier oor te steek. Toe die twee leërs daardie aand bivak, val 'n swaar reën op die twee kampe.

Die oggend van 22 Julie het die twee ewewydige leërs probeer verdroog uit die donderstorm van die vorige nag. Die Anglo-Portugese leër van Wellington het 47 449 infanterie, 3,254 kavallerie en 60 gewere, en Marmont se leër van Portugal het 46 600 infanterie, 3 400 kavallerie en 78 gewere.

In die verkeerde oortuiging dat Wellington hom voorberei om terug te trek, jaag Marmont sy afdelings vorentoe en laat hulle gevaarlik blootgestel word aan aanvalle.

Ten spyte van die slegte weer, was die Britse troepe hoogmoedig en wou hulle veg, hoewel hulle geïrriteerd was om voor die Franse terug te trek. "Die idee dat ons voor 'n gelyke aantal troepe in die wêreld sou uittree, moes nie met algemene geduld verduur word nie," het luitenant John Kincaid van die 95th Rifles onthou. Maar die weermag van Wellington sou nie veel verder terugtrek nie.

Twee rante - die Klein Arapile en die Groter Arapile - was suid van Salamanca geleë. Die Greater Arapile was ongeveer 300 meter lank met steil sye en ontoeganklike rotspunte. Suid van hierdie rant was 'n groot beboste gebied met lae bome en growwe struikgewas.

Die Lesser Arapile was 900 meter noord van die Greater Arapile. 'N Afdeling van luitenant -generaal sir Galbraith Lowry Cole se 4de afdeling het met dagbreek op die Lesser Arapile gevorder om te verhoed dat dit in vyandelike hande val, wat die posisie van die Geallieerde onhoudbaar gemaak het.

'N skermutseling het met dagbreek uitgebreek by 'n klein kapel op die hoogtes van Calvarrasa de Arriba, waar ligte troepe van generaal Maximilien Sebastien Foy se afdeling 'n voorpos van Brunswick Oels jagers teëgekom het uit majoor John Hope se 7de afdeling. Die 68ste brigade van die 7de afdeling, saam met die 4de Caçadores van brig. Genl. Denis Pack se onafhanklike Portugese brigade is vinnig in die slag gebring. Die geveg tussen opponerende kavallerie het noordwaarts versprei, maar op daardie stadium het die gevegte nie uitgegroei tot 'n algemene verbintenis nie.

Wellington was van plan om Salamanca te laat vaar en terug te val na Ciudad Rodrigo as Marmont aanhou flank. Die Britse bevelvoerder is die vorige aand in kennis gestel dat 'n brigade kavallerie wat deur Caffarelli gestuur is, suidwaarts gery het om Marmont te versterk en binnekort sou kom. Maar as die geleentheid sou ontstaan ​​om die Franse 'n beslissende slag te gee, was Wellington van plan om dit te benut voordat die Franse verder versterk word. Tot groot ergernis van sy troepe beveel Wellington die bagasie -trein van die weermag om terug te trek na Ciudad Rodrigo begelei deur 'n Portugese kavalerieregiment.

Marmont het probeer om die geallieerde lyn, wat drie myl van Santa Marta langs die Tormesrivier suid gestrek het, langs 'n hoogtehoogte tot by die Klein Arapile te sien. Uit sy posisie by Foy se afdeling kon Marmont nie veel van Wellington se leër sien nie, aangesien dit 'vir ons weggesteek was deur die hoogteketting wat van noord na suid loop', het Foy later geskryf. Hulle kon egter die bagasie -trein van die geallieerde weermag sien wes dreun na Ciudad Rodrigo.

Die gewonding van Marmont deur 'n artillerie -dop het 'n leierskapskrisis veroorsaak wat die Franse leër lamgelê het.

Wellington, wat by Hope se 7de afdeling was, het die bewegings van die Franse weermag dopgehou. Net soos Marmont, kon hy nie veel van die vyand sien nie, behalwe Foy se afdeling wat hom in die gesig staar, aangesien die grootste deel van die Franse leër omring was deur bosse tussen Foy en die Tormes.

Met sy strategie om Wellington se regterflank te draai, het Marmont sy linkerkant uitgebrei. Die 8ste afdeling van Bonet is beveel om die Greater Arapile te vang, wat die leër van Portugal se flank sou beskerm terwyl die troepe weswaarts swaai. Wellington was aanvanklik nie bekommerd oor die Greater Arapile nie, aangesien dit 'n geïsoleerde hoogte was en nie deel was van die hoogtes wat hy gehou het nie. Met die toenemende lig en siende dat die Franse daarop afstuur, beveel Wellington die 7de Caçadores van Cole se 4de afdeling om die heuwel eerste te vang.

Die Portugese ligte troepe het die wedloop teen die Greater Arapile verloor. Die Franse, wat eers daar aangekom het, het hulle met 'n hewige vuur teruggery. Met hierdie hoë grond in Franse hande, verskuif Marmont vyf van sy afdelings na die rand van die bos om te wag vir verdere bevele. Hy het ook beveel dat generaal Claude François Ferey se 3de afdeling en brig. Genl Pierre Boyer se draakies om Foy te ondersteun.

Wat Wellington betref, het hy deur die loop van die dag sy posisie verskuif met behulp van die Lesser Arapile as 'n spilpunt van sy L-vormige lyn met Anson se brigade van die 4de afdeling wat sy posisie op die kleiner heuwel en die res van die afdeling 'n bietjie na die weste voortgesit het. staan ​​hoog agter Los Araphiles. Pack se brigade was tussen Anson en die res van die afdeling se posisie. Die Geallieerdes het met groot moeite twee batterye na die top van die Klein Arapile gesleep.

Luitenant -generaal James Leith se 5de afdeling was regs van Cole geplaas en na die suide gerig. Clinton se 6de afdeling ondersteun die 5de afdeling, terwyl die 7de teruggetrek word uit sy posisie noord van die Klein -Arapile en agter in die 5de afdeling geplaas word. Genl.maj. Henry Campbell se 1ste Afdeling, tesame met die Ligte Afdeling onder genl.maj Charles Alten, het 'n noord-suid posisie naby Calvarrassa de Arriba voortgesit. Generaal -majoor Edward Pakenham se 3de afdeling saam met brig. Gen. Benjamin D'Urban se kavallerie, wat anders as die res van die weermag noord van die Tormes geplaas is, is nou beveel oor die rivier na Aldea Tejada, vier kilometer noordwes van Los Arapiles, waar hulle op verdere bevel wag.

Die Franse het voortgegaan om hul greep op die Greater Arapile te versterk deur gewere op die top te plaas. Dit het 'n bietjie werk geverg, aangesien die heuwel te steil was vir perde om dit op te sleep, sodat die vate verwyder moes word en met granaatjies opgedra en die geweerwaens boontoe gehanteer kon word. Nadat die gewere weer bymekaargemaak is, was hulle in 'n goeie posisie om op die weermag van Wellington te skiet, veral die troepe wat die Klein Arapile vashou. Twintig gewere is ook op die nabygeleë rand van El Sierro geplaas om Marmont se troepe te bedek toe hulle uit die bos kom.

Wellington kyk met kommer na die Franse maneuver, wetende dat hulle binnekort sy flank sal kan draai. Hy het die middag besluit om Bonet se afdeling met die Greater Arapile aan te val. Die 1ste afdeling is in posisie geplaas om aan te val, maar voordat die rooi jasse aangeval is, is die bevel gekanselleer. Die versigtige marskalk William C. Beresford, bevelvoerder van die Portugese weermag, het sterk Franse magte agter hom opgemerk en Wellington oortuig teen 'n aanval. Dit het gelyk asof die Franse voorberei het om aan te val, maar niks het daarvan gekom nie.

Met verloop van dag het Marmont geglo Wellington berei hom voor om terug te trek, wat bevestig is deur stofwolke aan die agterkant van die Geallieerde leër wat veroorsaak is deur Pakenham en D'Urban wat hul troepe na Aldea Tejada marsjeer. Om 14:00 het Marmont sy linkerflank begin uitsteek oor die hoogtes bekend as Monte de Azan, suid van Los Arapiles. Maucune se 5de afdeling, saam met brig. Genl. Jean Baptiste T. Curto se afdeling Ligte Kavalerie tree op as 'n siftingsmag vir sy opmars en flank. Maucune stop op die hoogtes oorkant Los Arapiles en stuur skermutselinge na die suidekant om die Britte aan te val. Franse gewere op die Monte de Azan en die Greater Arapile het die Britse 4de en 5de afdeling afgebreek.

Thomieres se 7de afdeling ondersteun Maucune, tesame met Clausel se 2de afdeling wat agterbly as reserwe. Thomieres het nie sy afdeling agter Maucune gestuit nie, maar eerder na links verby hom gegaan en uiteindelik die voortou geneem. Dit het 'n gevaarlike gaping tussen die twee afdelings opgelewer. Die Franse linkerflank was in geen gevegsorde nie en gou was daar amper 'n kilometer tussen Maucune se regterflank en die Greater Arapile. Die 122ste Ligne uit Bonet se afdeling het probeer om die leemte te vul, maar die getalle was heeltemal te min. Foy en Ferey se 3de afdeling aan die Franse regterkant was twee kilometer ver.

Die uitsig vanaf die Groter Arapile na die Klein Arapile. Franse gewere bo -op die Greater Arapile het groot verwoesting veroorsaak, maar die Franse het uiteindelik die strategiese rant laat vaar.

Nadat Marmont ernstig deur 'n geallieerde dop gewond is, is 'n poging aangewend om die bevel oor die leër van Portugal aan Clausel oor te dra, maar hy het 'n wond aan sy hak opgedoen en was tydelik ongeskik. Om hierdie rede het die bevel van die leër oorgegee aan Bonet, die bevelvoerder van die 8ste afdeling. Bonet was slegs 'n kort rukkie in bevel voordat hy ook 'n ernstige wonde opgedoen het. Teen daardie tyd was Clausel toegedraai en was hy weer in die saal. Clausel het na die Greater Arapile gery om die bevel oor die hardgedrukte Franse leër te neem. Die verwarring rakende die bevel van die Army of Portugal het 'n nadelige uitwerking op die Franse linkerflank gehad.

Wellington het middagete op 'n plaaswerf geëet toe hy sien hoe die Franse hulle linkerkant verleng en weet dat dit tyd is om aan te val. Hy klim vinnig op en donder na Aldea Tejada. Toe hy die dorp bereik, beveel hy sy swaer, Pakenham, om aan te val.

'Edward, gaan voort met die 3de afdeling, neem die hoogtes voor u en ry alles voor u uit,' het Wellington gesê. Pakenham is ondersteun deur D'Urban se kavalerie, saam met genl.maj. Victor von Alten se kavalerie -brigade onder leiding van luitenant -kolonel Frederick von Arentshildt.

Nadat hy sy bevele aan Pakenham gegee het, galop Wellington oor na Las Torres, waar hy beveel dat genl.J.G. Le Marchant om sy swaar kavalerie -brigade gereed te hê om voordeel te trek uit die eerste geleentheid om die Franse ondanks die gevare aan te kla. Wellington ry toe verder om Leith te beveel om sy 5de afdeling te bevorder, wat aan sy regterkant ondersteun sou word deur brig. Gen. Thomas Bradford se Portugese Brigade, wat traag aangekom het en baie van die aksie sou misloop. Leith is ook regs ondersteun deur Le Marchant se kavallerie. Terwyl Pakenham die Franse langs die Monte de Azan gery het, sou Leith en Le Marchant die Franse voorlangs slaan. Cole se 4de afdeling sou aan die linkerkant van Leith vorder, terwyl die 7de afdeling in die ou posisie van die 5de afdeling sou beweeg om Leith van agter af te ondersteun.

Pakenham het sy afdeling vinnig vorentoe gestoot, ondersteun deur 'n groot kavallerie. Vir 21/2 myl was die kolomme buite sig van die Franse as gevolg van 'n reeks lae beboste heuwels. D'Urban ry voor met twee offisiere. Nadat hy 'n klein klomp bome skoongemaak het, skrik hy op 'n kolom van Thomieres se infanterie af. Hy het besluit om dadelik aan te val.

D'Urban galop terug na sy brigade van kavallerie en beveel die hoofregiment, die 1ste Portugese Dragoons, wat bestaan ​​uit drie eskaders wat ongeveer 200 sabel tel, in lyn en lei hulle vorentoe. Hulle is gou ondersteun deur die 11de Portugese Dragoons en twee eskaders van die Britse 14de Light Dragoons van Arentshildt se brigade, wat pas aangekom het.

Die 88ste Regiment of Foot (The Connaught Rangers) begin 'n lewendige aanval teen die Franse linkerflank by Salamanca.

Met geen kavalerie vedette wat sy flank bedek nie, is die voorste Franse bataljon heeltemal verras. Die Franse het daarin geslaag om swaar ongevalle aan twee eskaders van die Portugese dragons te veroorsaak, wat voorlangs aangeval het, maar die derde eskader het die Franse in hul linkerflank getref. The whole battalion broke and fled up the heights chased by the Portuguese cavalry which bagged many prisoners.

Strung out on the west end of Monte de Azan known as Pico de Miranda, Thomieres’ division was in some disarray when it faced Pakenham’s division led by Lt. Col. Alexander Wallace’s brigade, followed in support by Major James Campbell’s brigade and finally the Portuguese Brigade. French guns fired on the advancing infantry, while British artillery hammered back. At that point, Allied skirmishers drove in the French skirmishers.

As the Allied troops reached the brow of the heights, the French advanced to meet them and let loose a deadly volley. The front rank of Wallace’s brigade was hit hard by the hail of bullets, but his determined men kept coming this unsettled the French, who fired a poorly delivered second volley. Pakenham gave the signal, and the redcoats surged forward, intending to take their revenge on the French.

Thomieres’ division crumbled under the attack, suffering more than 2,000 casualties. Thomieres was among the slain. The survivors of the division fled east in panic as Pakenham’s division followed after them. During the Allied advance on the heights, Curto’s cavalry struck the right of Wallace’s brigade, which fortunately had enough time to prepare for the horsemen and caused them to veer away. The 1st Battalion of the 5th Regiment in Campbell’s brigade following behind was not so lucky. They were hit hard by the French cavalry and broke. The French, however, were quickly attacked by D’Urban’s cavalry and driven off. The shattered British battalion reformed after a few minutes and rejoined the advance.

With Pakenham’s attack underway, Wellington sent a staff officer to tell Leith to advance. “Thank you, Sir! That is the best news I have heard today.” Leith then took off his hat, waved, and cried, “Now boys! We’ll at them.” The men of Leith’s division, who had been enduring a French bombardment, were glad to finally be moving. The Allied skirmishers led the way at about 4:30 pm, followed by the rest of the division divided into two lines with Lt. Col. James Greville’s brigade, along with 1st Battalion of the 4th Regiment from Maj. Gen. William Pringle’s brigade in the lead. The second line was made up of the rest of Pringle’s brigade and Brig. Gen. William Spry’s Portuguese Brigade.

Leith’s men advanced steadily forward, enduring French artillery fire as they reached the heights and Maucune’s division. The French troops, which were positioned about 50 yards from the crest of the heights, formed into squares due to the appearance of Le Marchant’s heavy cavalry on the British right. They fired a volley, which was answered by a deadly one from the British. The redcoats then let out a cheer and surged forward in a bayonet charge. Maucune’s division collapsed, and the survivors fled for their lives.

Le Marchant’s cavalrymen rode toward the disaster, overtaking Thomieres. They climbed up the gentle slope and pushed along the plateau. Two regiments of Le Marchant’s cavalry crashed down on the French infantry from the 62nd and 101st Lignes of Thomieres’ division, while the third cavalry regiment struck the flank of Maucune’s division already reeling from Leith’s attack on their second line. Le Marchant’s cavalry were not done yet. The two regiments that struck Thomieres’ division raced forward and charged the 22nd Ligne of Taupin’s division. The French infantry was overtaken before they could form a square. Many were hacked down as a result.

By the late afternoon, the west end of Monte de Azan was a chaotic scene of French troops fleeing or small bands attempting to resist or escape. The British cavalry had lost all restraint and were chasing and sabering anyone they could. Unable to rally most of his men, Le Marchant joined a half squadron of the 4th Dragoons attempting to break a French square. As the thundering cavalrymen closed in on the square, the French let loose a volley that sent Le Marchant sprawling from the saddle mortally wounded. The French soldiers scrambled to safety in the nearby forest. Despite the loss of Le Marchant, the cavalry along with Pakenham and the wounded Leith had done their job. The French left was in shambles with heavy casualties, and two standards bearing the French Imperial Eagle were captured.

In the center, Cole’s 4th Division began its advance about 20 minutes after Leith had started his. As the troops marched forward, with skirmishers out front, they came under French artillery fire. Their objective was Clausel’s division, which was forming on the east end of the heights to support the guns hurling death at the British and Portuguese. To Cole’s left was Pack’s brigade, which was advancing toward Bonet’s division holding the Greater Arapile.

Looking to his left, Cole could see a lone enemy regiment, the 122nd Ligne of Bonet’s division, holding a low rocky ridge between the Greater Arapile and the plateau. To protect his flank from this unit, Cole dispatched the 7th Caçadores and possibly the rest of the Portuguese Brigade under Colonel George Stubbs to drive the French back. The French regiment withdrew back toward the Greater Arapile, and the 7th Caçadores kept a watch on them and the rest of Bonet’s division.

The rest of Cole’s 4th Division began advancing up the heights. The 2nd Brigade of Clausel’s division was waiting for them just past the crest. A tremendous crash of musketry erupted as the two sides collided. The fighting lasted for some time before the French gave way. The Allies had been bloodied in the exchange of lead, and for that reason they did not follow after the French. Cole was badly wounded during the fighting.

There is some debate whether Pack attacked because Wellington ordered him to attack or whether he did so of his own volition to support Cole. Whichever the case, Pack’s brigade attacked the Greater Arapile in two columns with unloaded muskets so the troops would be forced to rush the hill and not take time to shoot. Leading the way was a storming party, skirmishers, and four companies of grenadiers.

As the Allied troops struggled up the steep slope of the Greater Arapile, they were decimated by a brutal French volley. The Portuguese were flung from the hill with about 470 casualties. Cole’s 4th Division was doing little better to their right.

The remaining brigade that made up Clausel’s division counterattacked Cole’s 4th Division. At the same time, Bonet’s 8th Division, which had advanced from behind the Greater Arapile, struck the Allied flank, inflicting heavy casualties on the 7th Caçadores. Cole’s 4th Division broke, and his troops fled back down the heights toward the Lesser Arapile.

Clausel’s 2nd Division, together with three of Bonet’s four regiments and three regiments of Boyer’s dragoons, were advancing after the broken Allied troops, inflicting more casualties upon them. The French horsemen galloped ahead after the broken 4th Division, but had only limited success against the division as many of its troops were beginning to rally and form into squares or made it to the safety of the 6th Division, which had arrived to fill the gap. The eastern end of this division held by the 2nd Battalion of the 53rd Regiment was hit hard by the French dragoons, but repulsed them.

The French counterattack was brought to an abrupt halt by Clinton’s 6th Division, which struck them in the front and drove them back. In addition, the French were struck in the flank by a Portuguese brigade from the 5th Division that Beresford led into action.

The 6th Division continued to push forward, overlapping Bonet’s regiments and driving them back in disorder. Both Clausel and Beresford were wounded in the bloody contest of musketry. The French troops ultimately gave way and were in full retreat.

The French abandoned the Greater Arapile as the 6th Division advanced past it on the west, while the light companies of the King’s German Legion Brigade from the 1st Division advanced on its east flank. In an attempt to buy precious time to allow the shattered French divisions to escape through the woods and scrub to the south, Clausel ordered Ferey to position his fresh 3rd Division on El Sierro, a low ridge southeast of the Greater Arapile. Ferey had orders to hold until nightfall to prevent a full-scale disaster. Ferey deployed his nine battalions, which were supported by 15 guns, on the ridge in a single line three ranks deep with the flank battalions formed into squares to guard against cavalry.

Clinton was given the task of taking the ridge. He halted his division within sight of the French position to rest and reorganize. Unfortunately, he stopped within range of the French guns and his men suffered because of it. On Clinton’s left the Fusilier Brigade of the 4th Division rallied, while to his right were the 3rd and 5th Divisions both now reforming.

The day after the British victory at Salamanca, cavalry of the King’s German Legion shattered two French squares at Garcia Hernandez. Salamanca was one of the few battles in the Peninsular War in which cavalry had a profound influence on the outcome.

In the gloaming, Clinton began his bold advance on the French-held ridge. As the Allied line closed in on the ridge the French greeted it with a murderous fire that swept away whole sections of Clinton’s force. The 6th Division returned fire and a vicious exchange of musketry raged. Dry grass ignited by the sparks from the guns burned up the face of the hill, giving the landscape an eerie appearance. Although the French army continued its withdrawal, it managed to repulse the Portuguese Brigade of the 6th Division.

Ferey was killed as British gunners sent shot and shell into the French ranks. The retreating troops sought cover in nearby woods. Clinton’s exhausted 6th Division did not pursue. Foy’s division on the French right fell back safely, covering the right flank of the battered army that was stampeding through the woods.

Knowing the enemy was headed for a bend in the Tormes River where there were only two crossings, Wellington believed they would cross at the fords at Huerta. There was a bridge at the Alba de Tormes, the other crossing, but it was guarded by a castle held by a Spanish battalion. At midnight Wellington was shocked to discover that the French were crossing at Alba where, unbeknownst to him, the Spanish garrison had withdrawn.

The Army of Portugal had escaped, but it had been badly bloodied. The French army had suffered 12,500 casualties and lost 20 guns. Wellington’s losses were considerably less, with 5,000 killed, wounded, or missing.

As the Army of Portugal retreated east it had more pain inflicted on it the next day at Garcia Hernandez, where the King’s German Legion broke two French squares, inflicting more than 1,000 casualties in a sharp rearguard action.

Wellington broke off his pursuit at Flores de Avila on July 25. Shortly afterward, he marched to Madrid, entering the city on August 12. Because of the loss of Madrid and the defeat at Salamanca, Soult received orders to lift the siege of Cadiz and join King Joseph at Valencia on the eastern coast of Spain.

As for Wellington, his stay in Spain was not permanent. After the siege of Burgos was abandoned due to a shortage of supplies, Wellington’s army withdrew to the Portuguese frontier for the winter. The following year Wellington would return to central Spain. This time he would defeat the French on the Iberian Peninsula once and for all.


Find a Guide

The guide directory details all Guild Accredited Members. Each of these has passed our Accreditation Programme – so you can be sure they are all high quality guides and will give you a great tour!

You can filter by battle/campaign or country and then click on the name of an Accredited Guide to read their biography. Most Accredited Guides have contact details by which you can contact them directly. If not, or if you want to pass a message to them, please contact them via the Guild Secretary via our Contacts Page.

Many Guides can develop bespoke personalised tours and can research where particular ancestors might have fought or died. If you want to advice on following a particular ancestor and you have not identified a particular Accredited Guide, please contact the Guild Secretary. We guarantee we’ll have somebody that can help you!

Finally, this list shows only our Accredited Guides. Our Ordinary Members are not listed here and if you would like to check whether a particular individual is a member of the Guild, or for any other further help, please contact the Guild Secretary via our Contacts Page.

Slag

Land

Vermoë

Ian Gumm

Accredited Guide Number: 62

Ian Gumm is the founder and CEO of In The Footsteps, a leading independent battlefield tour operator, as well as a full-time battlefield historian and guide. He has led tours since 1998 and has visited the battlefield of the Norman Conquest, the Hundred Years War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Anglo-Zulu War, the First World War, the Second World War … and much more.

“Touring the battlefield is my passion, it is what I love to do and I feel extremely privileged to be able to escort people around the battlefields of the world visiting some of the most important historical sites that have shaped the world in which we live.”

Ian served in the British Army as a Reservist for thirty-six years during which time he commanded B (Rorke’s Drift) Company of the 2nd Battalion the Royal Regiment of Wales commanded the Regimental Contingent at the affiliation parade with 121 South African Infantry Battalion (a Zulu Battalion) in South Africa was the officer responsible for training all junior and potential officers in Wales and was the staff officer responsible for the First World War Centenary Commemorations for Wales.

His experience, gained both on the battlefield and with the British Army, allows him to add a soldier’s perspective and paint the picture of a battle on the canvas of the countryside. This enhances your tour experience, as Ian is not only able to impart an understanding of the history, but also a feel for the men who fought the battle and the ground over which they were fought.

“So whether you are ‘following in the footsteps’ of an ancestor or relative on a genealogy tour ‘following in the footsteps of heroes’ on a more general tour or retracing the steps of a military unit or formation on a battlefield study or staff ride you can be sure that Ian will deliver an experience that will leave you with memories that last a lifetime.”

As an Accredited Member of the International Guild of Battlefield Guides, Ian endeavours to maintain the high standards, both in terms of service and good practice, that are commensurate with the Guild’s ethos. In addition to being an Accredited Member of the International Guild of Battlefield Guides, Ian is a member of the Western Front Association, the Last Post Association and a registered tour guide with the European Tour Operators Association.

As well as leading battlefield tours Ian delivers interesting and informative military history talks and presentations to professional organisations, businesses, clubs, societies and other groups, small or large.

Caters For Battlefield Studies Staff Rides Adult Coach Groups . Battlefield Walks Bespoke Group Cultural Tours Group Types Clubs and Societies Evening Presentations College Groups Leadership & Management Training Corporate Tours Long Tours Families Self-drive Tours Individuals Short Tours Military & Veteran Pilgrimage Groups School Groups Small Groups

Malcolm Jones

Accredited Guide Number: 45

Malcolm is a British Military Historian, who specializes in the campaigns and battles of Wellington in Spain during the Peninsular War. He is a member of the ‘Society for Army Historical Research’ and a Badged member of the Guild since 2009.

Malcolm has always been interested in History and the military, which developed from an early age. His main love and focus has always been the Second World War, the Indian Mutiny, and the British colonial army of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. His passion for the Peninsular War campaigns and its Battlefields began some 35 years ago.

After serving in the Army, and obtaining his history degree, he worked in business management in Britain and the Middle East. Over the years he has travelled extensively throughout Portugal and Spain, much of it following in the footsteps of Wellington’s men. During this time, he fell in love with the Spanish landscape, history and culture.

Malcolm now lives in central Spain, close to many of the battlefield sites, which he has visited on many different occasions and therefore knows the areas he guides very well. He is an enthusiastic historian, who is happy to share his experience with anyone who is interested be it Wellington’s Army, the local history, culture, food or wine.

As a Badged Member of the ‘Guild of Battlefield Guides’, Malcolm has led many Military Battlefield Studies over the last ten years and has experience of leading battlefield tours since 1993 in Germany, Poland, Crete and Spain. With a rich and knowledgeable background, you can be assured of an informative tour, presented in an enjoyable and interesting manner.

Caters For Adult Coach Groups Bespoke Group Clubs and Societies . Families Individuals Military & Veteran


Salamanca, battle of

Salamanca, battle of, 1812. In July 1812 the French, under Marshal Marmont, with 42,000 men manœuvred to cut Wellington off from his base in Salamanca. Wellington, with 46,000 men, gave ground and appeared to retreat. On 22 July, 6 miles south of the city, Marmont sent his leading division to harass the British. However Wellington was already in position, quickly overcame the division, and then attacked Marmont's centre with a deadly rifle volley and bayonet charge. Marmont was wounded and the French were driven from the field with losses of 13,000. Wellington had destroyed the main French army in Spain and Joseph Bonaparte, the French puppet king, was forced to evacuate Madrid.

Haal hierdie artikel aan
Kies 'n styl hieronder en kopieer die teks vir u bibliografie.

"Salamanca, battle of ." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 16 Junie 2021 & lt https://www.encyclopedia.com & gt.

"Salamanca, battle of ." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved June 16, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/salamanca-battle

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.


Fort Harrison

This wartime image of the Chaffin's Bluff battlefield shows the Great Traverse of Fort Harrison in the distance.

Fort Harrison was key to General Butler's plan of attack. It represented the strongest point on the Confederate line of defenses. From it, one could see all the way to the James River. However, in 1864 most of the Confederate forces were in Petersburg and here the Confederate defenders numbered barely 200. Their guns were mostly so poor as to be scorned by the main field artillery. The Union attack pierced the fort quickly, with relatively few casualties. Had the Union attacks on the rest of the Confederate line succeeded as well as at New Market Heights and Fort Harrison, the overall military significance would have been greater.

On September 30, Robert E. Lee personally organized a major effort to recapture the lost fort. His attack also lacked coordination, and the well prepared Union defenders-some of them armed with multiple shot weapons crushed the Confederate effort and inflicted great loss on the attackers. The victors abolished the Confederate title for the fort and renamed it Fort Burnham after the Union general killed in the attack of September 29.

Walking Tour of the Fort

STOP 1 -- You are facing the side gate of Union Fort Burnham. The short wall to your left and the portion of the earthworks visible immediately to your right were added by the Federal defenders after their capture of Fort Harrison. These walls protected the defenders in the event of a Confederate attack, and shielded them from a daily harassing fire delivered by Confederate guns north of here.

STOP 2 -- Stay on the path to the left as you enter the fort. These earthworks make up the primary wall of Confederate Fort Harrison and are an extension of the exterior line of Richmond defenses. The height of this wall was 18-27 feet, and up to 15 feet wide. Beyond the wall is a deep ditch that discouraged attacks.

STOP 3 -- The freestanding wall on your right is a traverse. It was built by Federal defenders as an inner wall to deflect artillery shells fired from Fort Johnson and Fort Gilmer to the north.

STOP 4 -- The rectangular space in front of you was one of three Confederate artillery positions inside the fort. The other sections are not clearly visible because of alterations made by Union troops after the battle. On September 29, Federal troops first entered the fort over the wall on your left. This section was considerably weakened when two large artillery pieces became inoperable. The solid mass of earth to the right was called the Great Traverse, and was constructed by Confederate engineers as protection from artillery shells fired from Union gunboats on the James River.

STOP 5 -- To your right is another traverse, the largest in the fort. To your left, beside the Great Traverse, is the trace of an original road-way that was constructed after the battle to provide Union troops with full access to the fort. In this vicinity on September 29, General Grant narrowly escaped death when a Confederate shell exploded nearby, showering him with dirt.

STOP 6 -- This marks the abrupt end of Fort Harrison. The remaining walls to your right and front were built by Union troops as part of Fort Burnham. The Confederate walls are more substantial because the builders had two years in which to improve the position, while the Union walls were created in a few days with hostile Confederates in sight.

STOP 7 -- The guard rail encloses the location of a fresh water well, dug by Confederates and retained by the Federals after the battle. Union troops feared that the Confederates knew the location of the well, and they built a small traverse beside it as protection from Confederate artillery fire.

STOP 8 -- To the left is an emplacement for artillery called a barbette, built by Federal troops after the fighting. An artillery piece could be rolled up the ramp into position near the angle in the fort wall with its barrel projecting over the top of the wall. This provided little protection for the crewmen operating the piece, but gave the gun a wider angle of fire.

STOP 9 -- Along this wall are the remnants of Federal bombproofs, used to protect soldiers from shells and stray bullets.


Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation

Following the outbreak of war between the United States and Great Britain in June 1812, Sackets Harbor became the center of American naval and military activity for the upper St. Lawrence Valley and Lake Ontario. The brig Oneida, with a company of marines, was already at the harbor to suppress smuggling between northern New York and Canada. Local woodlands provided ample timber, and a large fleet was constructed at the harbors extensive shipyard. Barracks were also built for the thousands of soldiers, sailors, and mechanics who soon arrived to provide the manpower for the invasion and conquest of Canada.

Today the Sackets Harbor Battlefield is interpreted to the public by exhibits, outdoor signs, guided and self-guided tours, and a restored 1850's Navy Yard and Commandant's House. During the summer months, guides dressed in military clothing of 1813 reenact the camp life of the common soldier.

Pavilion Information
Sackets Harbor Battlefield has one pavilion. The day use price is $60 and can accommodate up to 60 people. Check availability at ReserveAmerica.com.

Hours of Operation

Grounds:
Open year-round, closed at dark

May 15 - June 27
Wed-Sat 10am - 5pm
Sunday 1pm - 5pm

June 28 - August 25:
Mon-Sat 10am-5pm
Sunday 1pm - 5pm

August 26 - September 8
Wed-Sat 10am - 5:00pm
Sunday 1pm - 5:00pm

Open Memorial Day, July 4 and Labor Day 10am to 5pm

Open Saturdays after Labor Day through October 10
10am - 5:00pm

Available for adult groups and school tours by appointment.

Fees & Rates

Most New York State Parks charge a vehicle use fee to enter the facility. Fees vary by location and season. A list of entry fees and other park use fees is available below. For fees not listed or to verify information, please contact the park directly.

The easy-to-use Empire Pass card is $80- and your key to all-season enjoyment with unlimited day-use entry at most facilities operated by State Parks and the State Dept. of Environmental Conservation including forests, beaches, trails and more. Purchase online or contact your favorite park for more information. Learn more about our Admission Programs including the Empire Pass.

  • Picnic Area
  • No Charge
  • Tour Fees
  • Adult $3
    Senior/Student $2

Fee Collection 10AM to 5PM

The Sackets Harbor Battlefield State Historic Site annually offers "The Commandant's Christmas," a curriculum-based learning experience for second grades that features period appropriate stories, music, a craft, food, and toys & games. The late spring "War of 1812 in Sackets Harbor" curriculum based immersive field trip program for elementary school students includes a craft, scavenger hunt, period toys and games, and demonstration by War of 1812 living history presenters. Call for details.

Following the outbreak of war between the United States and Great Britain in June 1812, Sackets Harbor became the center of American naval and military activity for the upper St. Lawrence Valley and Lake Ontario. The brig Oneida, with a company of marines, was already at the harbor to suppress smuggling between northern New York and Canada. Local woodlands provided ample timber, and a large fleet was constructed at the harbor's extensive shipyard. Barracks were also built for the thousands of soldiers, sailors, and mechanics who soon arrived to provide the manpower for the invasion and conquest of Canada.

In an attempt to destroy the American shipyard, a British-Canadian force launched an attack on May 29, 1813. At that time the majority of the American forces were across Lake Ontario attacking Fort George. The remaining Americans drove off the enemy, but their narrow victory was marred by a fire that destroyed their military stores. During the remainder of the war, Sackets Harbor was an active station where naval ships were constructed and supplied. In December 1814, the Treaty of Ghent officially ended the War of 1812, and the Lake Ontario fleet was placed in storage at Shiphouse Point.

After the war, the massive earthen fortifications protecting the harbor were graded off and the battlefield reverted to farmland. Several blockhouses were converted to barns and another became an office for the commandant of the Navy Yard.

The shipyard remained under Navy control because of the presence of an unfinished first-rate ship-of-the-line, the New Orleans. It was designed to carry a crew of 900 and was enclosed in a huge wooden ship house to protect it for future use. In 1817, the Rush-Bagot Agreement between the United States and Great Britain limited all naval forces on the Great Lakes. During the 1840s, old naval buildings were removed and new quarters were constructed for the naval commandant and sailing master (lieutenant), to meet the needs of a continuing naval presence.

The navy decided to scrap the New Orleans in 1883. The demolition of the vessel, together with improved Canadian-American relations, ended the need for a naval base in Sackets Harbor. The navy maintained the facility until 1955, although it was seldom used except for training by the state's naval militia.

The 1913 Centennial Park portion of the battlefield was recognized as early as 1866 as a special plot of land to be set aside to honor all the military personnel who had fought and died in the War of 1812. In 1878 the land was called the Old Battle Ground and was used for patriotic meetings, political rallies, church picnics, and other events.

New York State took control of the Navy Yard in 1967 and began acquiring more of the historic battlegrounds, including the most recent forty acres in 2006.

African American History Month

Across this nation and throughout the Empire State, African Americans have helped to shape American history, fight for independence, and secure freedom. The efforts of these individuals stand as a testament to their courage and an inspiration to us all.

In observance of African American History Month, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation gives special recognition to some of the many stories associated with the African American experience at state historic sites.

At Sackets Harbor Battlefield, there is a unique connection between African American history and maritime history. African Americans made up nearly 15% of the U.S. Navy during the War of 1812, which took place mainly in waterways and port sites. The sea was not a place of full equality, but it was a place of far greater tolerance. Many African Americans found a level of freedom at sea that was unavailable on land.

Visit with our volunteer re-enactors as they demonstrate military and civilian life of 200 years ago.

Visit with our volunteer re-enactors as they demonstrate military and civilian life of 200 years ago.

Visit with our volunteer re-enactors as they demonstrate military and civilian life of 200 years ago.

Visit with our volunteer re-enactors as they demonstrate military and civilian life of 200 years ago.


The Organs of Salamanca

Histories of the organ draw a stark distinction between the instrument’s origins in antiquity, where it was deployed in the arena to accompany gladiatorial combat, and its later life in Christian Western Europe as a magnificent devotional tool—the apogee of technological advance and theology as sound. How is it that, after being reintroduced into the West from Byzantium in the eighth century a half-millennium after its invention as portable device used for state processions and real-life combat, the organ took on ever greater complexity and size to become a towering symbol of Augustine’s City of God in monasteries and churches? That the King Of Instruments would then return to baseball stadiums and roller rinks in North America completed the historical circle, if in a form less mortally than in the Roman Coliseum.

In the Cathedral of Salamanca in Spain this convenient wall between war and peace, between violent original purpose and pacific elevation above the congregation and the fray of earthly battle crumbles in the cavernous gloom and glory, wrecked by two glorious organs of unmatched majesty and mystery.

Salamanca occupies a hill above a vast surrounding plain: one can see the gothic-baroque spires of the cathedral for dozes of miles on the approach. The cathedral is built not on the very top of that hill but on an incline just below the summit: among the structure’s many marvels is the way its exterior descends as it follows the hill downward while the floor of the interior must remain level. The foundations to the edifice’s western end is significantly lower then the stairs leading to its eastern portal.

The main, “new” cathedral was built between 1513 and 1733 directly alongside and uphill from the old one, begun in the early twelfth century and, exceptionally, still standing. Visitors—and there are, surprisingly, only a handful on this breezy afternoon —enter near the younger, higher structure and after touring the nave, choir, and many chapels descend a broad staircase back in time and down through history to the old cathedral flanked by a cloister.

At the western end of the “new” nave is enshrined a bronze cross that the forces of El Cid are said to have carried into battle against the Moors. As in almost all Spanish sacred sites the contest between the Christian indigenes and the Muslim invaders is at the center of the story: it’s a story of good versus evil hardly modulated for the current state of geopolitical play. In such places as the Salamanca Cathedral, much more than in the JFK airport security line, one’s suspicions are more vigorously confirmed that the War on Terror is merely the latest name for the Crusades or the Reconquista, never mind that El Cid himself was an opportunist who fought on either side of the religious war, for both Muslims and Christians, at different junctures of his military career.

Some hundred yards to the east of El Cid’s cross is the cathedral’s choir. It is enclosed by an ornate iron screen placed well within the outer walls of the cathedral so that one can promenade around its periphery while remaining within the building. Facing each other from perches high up on either side of the choir are two organs. The older and smaller of these dates from the sixteenth century and was originally built for the first cathedral, but, exceptionally, was retained and moved to its current position more than a century later. This magnificent antique has thus been in continuous use for nearly five hundred years.

The organ’s case is crowned by pitched roofs and crenellations that suggest the just-mentioned Augstinian Holy City—the New Jerusalem, the old one chronically contested by various branches of monotheism. The architectural and theological context of the instrument’s construction and placement make it loom above like a fortress under siege. But it is bastion able to dish out retorts to any invader below. One of the most important organs of the Spanish renaissance, indeed of European music culture more generally, it was retro-fitted in the seventeenth century with horizontal trumpets that endow it with increased offensive power. The organ does not merely stake out a defensive position.

Admiring the façade of this Epistle organ (so called because it is on the left side as one faces into the choir) from the floor of the cathedral one sees and hears a military machine, its salvoes like the report of canon and musket, although the instrument is also kitted out with quieter stops that encourage pious reflection when the din has.

On the Gospel side is a much larger organ with a double façade that speaks into the choir and out into the side aisle of the cathedral depending on your point of view (or point of hearing) it is capable of either spreading the Good News in all directions or of protecting the Christian rear from encirclement by the infidel foe’s cavalry. This baroque organ from the mid-eighteenth century has a much larger battery of horizontal trumpets that are splayed so as to send a much wider span of volleys against the heathen attackers—and, of course, to embolden the Christian believers.

Whereas the diminutive Roman and Byzantinian organs could be carried into battle, these Spanish instruments stood immovable and impregnable in their ecclesiastical redoubts.

From the early seventeenth century, Spanish keyboard composers were masters of battle music, battaglias that anticipated later pieces like Wellington’s Victory by Beethoven and other blood-curdling symphonies and film soundtracks. With their evocations of the gathering of forces, charges, battles-joined, enemy flight, and victorious celebrations, these works were calls-to-arms for the faithful and a reminding of the glorious deeds of El Cid (when he was under the command for Christ) and later heroes. The two organs can even join forces in their portrayal of holy war: a bracing reminder that the contest between the forces fighting under the banners of East and West, Islam and Christianity shows no sign of abating.


Salamanca Battlefield - History

Panorama of the battlefield of Salamanca as seen from a position just south of the Lesser Arapile. The Greater Arapile can be seen on the left. The ground over which Clausel attacked lies ahead. To the right is the village of Arapiles, beyond which stands the hill from which Wellington controlled the battle.

On 17th June 1812, Wellington's advance into Spain reached the city of Salamanca. Wellington now found himself opposed by Marmont's "Army of Portugal". With the two armies being comparable in strength, neither commander could risk a full-scale attack without first manoeuvering his opponent into a disadvantageous position.

After several weeks in which Wellington and Marmont shadowed one another, the morning of 22nd July saw engagements breaking out between the two armies as they curved eastwards in parallel to the south of Salamanca.

As the morning of 22nd July wore on, Marmont imagined an opportunity to out-flank Wellington by propelling his leading divisions westwards. Unknown to Marmont, Wellington had guarded against such a threat by holding back Packenham's 3rd Division. As a consequence of Marmont's move, the French line became grossly overextended, a fact not lost on Wellington as he observed events from behind the village of Arapiles. Wellington now seized the chance to attack.

In mid-afternoon, D'Urban's cavalry and Packenham's 3rd Division slammed into the leading French division, commanded by Thomieres. The French, taken completely by surprise, were routed, with Thomieres himself being killed. A short time later, Leith's 5th Division and Bradford's Portuguese Brigade were launched against Maucune's division. The hard-pressed French were then torn asunder by the supporting charge of Le Marchant's heavy cavalry. The British cavalry swept on to wreak further havoc in Brennier's division. Three French divisions had now been broken, though the British were to mourn the loss of Le Marchant, killed in the charge.

Right: Replica of the Eagle of the French 22nd Regiment, captured at Salamanca by Ensign Pratt of the 2/30th Foot, Leith's 5th Division, courtesy of the Queen's Lancashire Regiment.

To the east, the French line was holding. After a tremendous struggle, an attack by Cole's 4th Division had been turned back by Clausel and Bonnet. The supporting attack on the Greater Arapile hill by Pack's Portuguese Brigade had also been repulsed.

With both Marmont and Bonnet wounded, Clausel assumed command. Rather than retire from the battlefield, Clausel threw his own division together with that of Bonnet into a desperate counter-attack. This last throw of the dice failed as Clinton's 6th Division moved in to face the onslaught and broke apart the attack.

The battle ended with a general British-Portuguese advance from the north and west being delayed by a gallant rearguard action by Ferrey's division.

Wellington's army of 48,600 suffered 5,200 casualties but inflicted in the region of 14,000 casualties on Marmont's 50,000-strong army. The Battle of Salamanca, also known as the Battle of the Arapiles, was probably Wellington's most impressive military success. No longer could he be regarded as a master only of the defensive battle.

Salamanca has to be one of the most rewarding battlefields to visit in the Peninsula, not least through having escaped enlistment into the Spanish motorway system. It is, in fact, essentially unchanged from the time of the battle.

The battlefield lies a few miles south of the magnificent university city of Salamanca, and is best approached by turning east off the N630 onto the signposted road to Arapiles. Follow the road through the small village until the tarmacked surface peters out under the Lesser Arapile at the site of the former railway station. The outlook from here to the south and west is that seen by the British 4th and 6th Divisions as they faced Clausel's desperate counter-attack.

A short distance back towards Arapiles (2.9km from the N630) a track to the south leads directly to the foot of the Greater Arapile at its western edge. From here a steep path leads to the summit, and on to the memorial to the battle.

In Arapiles itself, a small but interesting museum has recently been opened. As well as describing the battle through dioramas, relief maps, wall displays and a video presentation (available in English on request), the museum has a collection of items recovered from the battlefield. Unfortunately - as of March 2008 - opening hours are very limited (Saturdays only, from 10.30am to 2.00pm).

"Wellington in the Peninsula 1808-1814" by Jac Weller, published by Greenhill Books 1992, ISBN 1853671274.

"A History of the Peninsular War, Volume V" by Sir Charles Oman, published by Greenhill Books 1995, ISBN 1853672254.

Wellington's Dispatches courtesy of the War Times Journal.

Batalla de Los Arapiles, a Spanish-language site devoted to the Salamanca campaign.


Kyk die video: Salamanca (Januarie 2022).