Inligting

James Dean sterf in motorongeluk


Om 17:45 op 30 September 1955 word die 24-jarige akteur James Dean vermoor in Cholame, Kalifornië, toe die Porsche waarmee hy gery het, 'n Ford Tudor-sedan by 'n kruising raak. Die bestuurder van die ander motor, die 23-jarige student van die California Polytechnic State University, Donald Turnupseed, was bedwelm, maar meestal ongedeerd; Dean se passasier, die Duitse Porsche -werktuigkundige Rolf Wütherich, is ernstig beseer, maar het oorleef. Slegs een van Dean se films, "East of Eden", is tydens sy dood vrygestel ("Rebel Without a Cause" en "Giant" word kort daarna geopen), maar hy was reeds op pad na superster - en die ongeluk het hom 'n legende gemaak.

James Dean was mal oor renmotors, en eintlik was hy en sy splinternuwe $ 7000 Porsche Spyder-cabriolet op pad na 'n wedren in Salinas, 90 myl suid van San Francisco. Getuies beweer dat Dean tydens die ongeluk nie te vinnig gery het nie - in werklikheid het Turnupseed 'n draai links na regs gemaak in die Spyder se pad - maar sommige mense wys daarop dat hy seker baie vinnig gery het: hy het 'n spoedkaartjie in Bakersfield, 84 myl van die ongeluksterrein, om 15:30 en het toe by 'n ete vir 'n Coke gaan staan, wat beteken het dat hy in 'n relatief kort tydjie 'n redelike afstand afgelê het. Tog sou die skemer bymekaarkom en die skyn van die ondergaande son dit vir Turnupseed onmoontlik gemaak het om die Porsche te sien kom, hoe vinnig dit ook al gegaan het.

Gerugte lui dat Dean se motor, wat hy die Klein Bastard genoem het, vervloek is. Na die ongeluk het die motor van die agterkant van 'n vragmotor af gerol en die bene van 'n werktuigkundige wat daar naby gestamp het, platgedruk. Later, nadat 'n gebruikte-motorhandelaar sy onderdele aan kopers regoor die land verkoop het, het die vreemde voorvalle vermeerder: Die motor se enjin, ratkas en bande is almal oorgeplant in motors wat daarna in dodelike ongelukke betrokke was, en 'n vragmotor met die Spyder-onderstel na 'n veiligheidsuitstalling op die snelweg wat van die pad afgeskuif is en die bestuurder daarvan dood is. Die oorskot van die motor het van die ongelukstoneel verdwyn en is sedertdien nog nie gesien nie.

Wütherich, wie se skuldgevoelens ná die motorongeluk nooit bedaar het nie, het gedurende die sestigerjare twee keer probeer selfmoord pleeg- en in 1967 het hy sy vrou 14 keer met 'n kombuismes gesteek in 'n mislukte moord/selfmoord- en hy is dood in 'n dronk- bestuursongeluk in 1981. Turnupseed sterf in 1995 aan longkanker.

LEES MEER: 7 Onbekende feite oor James Dean


Hierdie datum in die geskiedenis: James Dean word dood in 'n motorongeluk (1955)

Op hierdie datum in 1955 is 'n filmlegende dood in 'n motorongeluk. James Dean, een van die mees ikoniese rolprentakteurs van alle tye, is dood toe die bestuurder van 'n ander motor in sy motor vasgery het. 'N 23-jarige student het vinnig in Dean & rsquos Porsche gery. Dean is dood in die ongeluk, maar sy werktuigkundige Rolf W & Atilde & frac14therich is ernstig beseer, maar het oorleef. Die bestuurder van die motor wat in Dean & rsquos Porsche vasgery het, kon met net geringe kneusplekke en snye ontsnap.

Dean was ten tyde van sy dood nog nie 'n belangrike ster nie. Slegs een van sy films is geopen, en dit was die film gebaseer op John Steinbeck & rsquos klassieke roman & acirc € ˜ East of Eden & rsquo. Kort na die dood van Dean is nog twee van sy films vrygestel en dit was groot treffers. Hulle was Rebel without a Cause en & acirc € ˜Giant & rsquo. Eersgenoemde het miskien die bekendste film van die vyftigerjare geword en dit het blykbaar die gevoelens van 'n hele generasie, wat in die na-oorlogse tydperk grootgeword het, uitgedruk. Die film word steeds beskou as die klassieke uitdrukking van angs en opstand teen tieners.

Die kruising waar Dean dood is, is nou na hom vernoem.

James Dean was mal oor vinnige motors, dit was sy passie. Hy het pas 'n splinternuwe Porsche Spyder -cabriolet van tien duisend dollar gekoop. Hy en sy passasier was op pad na 'n wedren in Salinas, Kalifornië, suid van San Francisco toe die motor sy Porsche tref.

Die motor wat in hom vasgery het, is bestuur deur 'n jong man wat vroeër 'n spoedkaartjie ontvang het. Die swak lig was egter ook 'n faktor; die silwer Porsche was baie moeilik om in die skemer te sien, aangesien paaie nie so goed belig was soos destyds nie.

Dean & rsquos se motor het die bynaam die & acirc € ˜ klein bastert & rsquo gekry en kort daarna was daar 'n gerug dat dit vervloek was. Terwyl dit agterop die vragmotor gerol word, het dit teruggerol en 'n werktuigkundige amper doodgekraak. Die motor is geskrap en vir onderdele gebruik. Ongelukkig het almal wat hierdie onderdele in hul motors gebruik het, gevolg. Die enjin, ratkas en bande van Dean & rsquos Porsche is later almal gebruik in motors wat in noodlottige ongelukke betrokke was. In 'n baie eienaardige voorval is die onderstel van die Porsche per vragmotor na 'n demonstrasie op die snelweg geneem. Die vragmotor het weens onbekende redes beheer verloor en het ook neergestort en die bestuurder is dood. Die onderstel van Dean & rsquos Porsche het uit die neergestorte vragmotor verdwyn.

Rolf W & Atilde & frac14therich wat die ongeluk oorleef het, het nooit geestelik herstel nie. Hy het skuldig gevoel dat hy oorleef het en sy vriend Dean nie. Dit het daartoe gelei dat hy baie persoonlike probleme ondervind het, en by een geleentheid het hy probeer om homself en sy destydse vrou dood te maak.

Na sy dood het die reputasie van Dean en rsquos steeds gegroei en word hy tot vandag toe nog vereer deur filmliefhebbers.


James Dean sterf in motorongeluk

Dean en sy motorwerktuigkundige, Rolf Wütherich, wat deur Porsche opgelei is, het in 'n sone van 55 km / h teen ongeveer 85 km / h gejaag toe hulle byna regstreeks reg van voor gebots het met 'n jong man wat 'n Ford Tudor-koepee bestuur het. Die ongeluk het groot skade aan Dean aangerig wat na 'n nabygeleë hospitaal geneem is en met sy aankoms dood verklaar is. Wütherich het 'n gebreekte kakebeen opgedoen asook beserings aan sy heup en femur wat onmiddellike mediese aandag vereis het. Die bestuurder van die koepee het ligte beserings opgedoen, waaronder 'n bebloede neus en kneusplekke in die gesig.

Dean se laaste woorde was: Die ou moet stop en hy sal ons sien, hoewel die verklaring grotendeels as vermoedens beskou is, aangesien Wütherich baie beperkte herinneringe het voor die ongeluk. 'N Ander legende van die ongeluk van Dean behels 'n man wat gereeld na bewering 'n afgesnyde kop van Dean is (gesien op hierdie foto op die grond tussen die motor en die man in die donker hemp). Dean is egter nie onthoofd nie. Boonop kyk die man op die foto duidelik na die ander mans en kan gesien word hoe hy sy kop op ander foto's beweeg. Die betrokke kop behoort waarskynlik aan Wütherich voordat hy na die hospitaal geneem word of iemand wat die ongeluk ondersoek.


James Dean se dood

Hoewel hy in sy twintigerjare redelik bestendig opgetree het, het James Dean nog nooit sy ander lewenslange passie, motorsport, laat vaar nie. Dieselfde jaar Oos van Eden in première, het Dean aan beide die Palms Springs Road Races en die Santa Barbara Road Races deelgeneem. Hy het ook 'n splinternuwe Porsche Spyder gekoop, wat hy die bynaam “ Little Bastard ” genoem het en beplan het om in die Salinas Road Race in Kalifornië te ry.

Die akteur van Bettman/Getty Images Die akteur James Dean gee 'n duimteken van sy Porsche 550 Spyder, die Little Bastard, terwyl hy in Vine Street in Hollywood geparkeer was.

Dean het aanvanklik gedink om die Porsche op 'n sleepwa na Salinas te neem, maar besluit op die laaste minuut om dit self te bestuur.

Op 30 September 1955 vertrek die Hollywood -ster na Salinas in Little Bastard, vergesel van sy werktuigkundige, Rolf Wütherich. Dean is omstreeks 15:30 vir 'n spoedkaartjie voorgekeer, om 16:45 by 'n ete geëet en toe weer die pad aangedoen. Omstreeks 17:45 het Dean 'n Ford opgemerk wat op pad was na sy motor wat besig was om op die kruising vorentoe 'n draai te maak. Nadat Dean Wütherich vermoedelik gerusgestel het, en dat die man moet stop, sien hy ons, en die twee motors het reg van voor gebots.

Wütherich is uit die motor gesteek en het verskeie bene gebreek.

Die Ford is op die snelweg omgedraai voordat dit tot stilstand gekom het en sy bestuurder, die 23-jarige Donald Turnupseed, het met geringe beserings ontsnap.

Wat die Porsche betref, het dit by die botsing in die lug gedraai voordat dit met 'n sieklike knars terug op die aarde neergestort en langs die pad gerol het, terwyl James Dean nog steeds binne was.

John Springer Collection/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images Die vernielde oorskot van James Dean en Porsche 550 Spyder op die terrein van die ongeluk.

Getuies het hom inderhaas uit die metaalkarkas bevry, maar was geskok toe hulle sien hoe deur die ongeluk hom verval het. Dit is nog onbekend waarom die ongeluk presies gebeur het, Turnupseed is nooit aangekla nie en ooggetuies beweer dat Dean nie te vinnig gery het nie, ondanks sy vorige kaartjie. Ongeag die omstandighede, is die Rebel Without A Cause dood verklaar by sy aankoms in die Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital, kort na 18:00.


13 Hy was op pad na 'n sportmotorwedren in Salinas, CA

Nadat hy sy werk aan die film voltooi het Reuse, Dean was meer as angstig om weer te begin doen waarvoor hy die liefste was. Die produksie van die film strek oor 'n paar maande, en James het geduldig gewag vir die oomblik dat hy weer op die swart vloer kan kom. Dean was gretig om te begin waar hy opgehou het, en het vroeg in Oktober aangemeld vir 'n naweek met wedrenne wat in Salinas, Kalifornië, sou plaasvind. Dit was bedoel om 'n naweek van vryheid en vrylating vir die jong filmster te wees, hoewel dit nie die geval was nie.

Ongelukkig sou James Dean nooit by Salinas uitkom vir sy rennaweek nie. Terwyl hy daarheen op pad was, sou die noodlottige ongeluk wat sy lewe geneem het, enkele ure weg van sy gewenste bestemming plaasvind. James was saam met verskeie ander mense wat ten tyde van die ongeluk met verskillende voertuie gery het. Van die vier mans wat in sy groep was, was James die enigste een wat die dag gesterf het.


62 jaar later: James Dean se dood agter die stuur van Little Bastard en 8221

Vandag, op 30 September 1955, is 62 jaar gelede die Hollywood -vuurpaard James Dean dood in 'n motorongeluk. Hy was 24 jaar oud.

Kontroversie draai sedertdien om sy dood en veral die motor self. Dean het sy nuwe Porsche 500 Spyder in 1955 bestuur. Die motor het die bynaam “ Little Bastard, ” gehad, en dit het die naam gestand gedoen, wat tot chaos en dood gelei het byna oral waar dit gegaan het.

James Dean het al 'n geruime tyd voor sy dood met motors gejaag. Hy het sy lewe lank aan verskeie wedrenne deelgeneem. Dean het verskeie vinnige voertuie voor sy Porsche Spyder gehad, maar hierdie motor was anders.

Die Porsche het 'n donkerte in Dean se lewe gebring vanaf die oomblik dat James Dean dit gekry het. Nadat hy die Porsche gekoop het, voordat Dean selfs die kans gehad het om dit te bestuur, het hy die akteur Alec Guinness raakgeloop, bekend vir sy rol as Obi-Wan Kenobi in die Star Wars-filmfranchise. Dean het sy nuwe rit begin pronk en spog met die topsnelheid van 150 km / h.

Guinness is oorweldig deur 'n darminstink, en voordat hy eers besef wat hy sê, hoor hy homself vir Dean waarsku oor sy nuwe aankoop. Klim nie, moenie in daardie motor klim nie, het hy vir Dean gesê. Guinness het verder verduidelik dat as hy dit sou doen, hy binne die week dood sou wees. Hulle gesprek het op 23 September 1955 plaasgevind, en James Dean is presies sewe dae later in die motor dood.

Dean het op 30 September 1955 nog 'n waarskuwing ontvang. Slegs twee uur voor sy noodlottige motorongeluk het Dean 'n spoedkaartjie gekry om 10 km / h oor die spoedgrens te ry.

Na die dood van Dean, het die Porsche op sy eie steeds verwoesting gesaai, dat baie bespiegel het dat die motor spook of vervloek was. Die Porsche het 'n totale ongeluk opgedoen, en 'n man met die naam George Barris het die wrak gekoop om vir onderdele te verkoop of met verlies te probeer herstel. Die motor is agter in 'n vragmotor vervoer toe dit agteruit gly en op 'n werktuigkundige se bene val.

Die voorval het George Barris aangespoor om die projek te skrap en die voertuig vir onderdele te verkoop. Dit het die probleem egter nie opgelos nie, want die waansin het eenvoudig elke deel gevolg. Barris het die enjin en dryfkrag aan twee vriende verkoop: Troy McHenry en William Eschrid.

Die twee mans het die onderdele by hul voertuie gevoeg en besluit om 'n vinnige toetsren af ​​te lê. McHenry, met die nuwe enjin, het tydens die wedloop heeltemal beheer oor sy voertuig verloor, in 'n boom vasgery en by 'n botsing omgekom. Terselfdertyd tydens die wedren het die motor van Escrid heeltemal gesluit en ook hy het sy voertuig vasgery. Gelukkig het Escrid oorleef, maar hy het wel ernstige beserings opgedoen.

Na hierdie voorval was Barris uiteraard huiwerig om meer van die voertuig se onderdele te verkoop. Na 'n bietjie oortuigend het hy ingestem om die California Highway Patrol die oorblywende wrak te laat leen vir 'n veiligheidsuitstalling op die snelweg. Tydens 'n voorlegging val die voertuig van die skerm af en beland op 'n student. Die student het aan 'n gebreekte heup gely, maar het die voorval oorleef. Daarna het Barris gesê “nie meer nie, ” en besluit om die voertuig heeltemal te skrap.

Maar die Porsche sou natuurlik nie sonder 'n geveg val nie. Die motor is van die uitstalling terug na Barris vervoer toe die vragmotorbestuurder skielik beheer verloor. Die bestuurder is uit die voertuig geslinger en op die een of ander manier val die Porsche uit die vragmotor, beland op die bestuurder en vermoor hom.

Klein Bastard is nooit van die ongelukstoneel herstel nie. Teen die tyd dat die polisie op die toneel aankom, was dit nêrens te vinde nie. Niemand het sedertdien James Dean en Porsche Spyder gesien nie. Baie teorieë omring sy plek, maar niemand weet met sekerheid nie.

Sedert sy verdwyning het Little Bastard een van die bekendste motors in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis geword.

Nuusbronne: Geskiedenis (hier en hier) en Jalopnik

The News Wheel is 'n digitale motortydskrif wat lesers 'n vars perspektief bied op die nuutste motornuus. Ons is in die hartjie van Amerika (Dayton, Ohio) geleë, en ons doel is om 'n vermaaklike en insiggewende perspektief te gee oor wat in die motorwêreld neig. Sien meer artikels uit The News Wheel.


James Dean sterf in motorongeluk

Op 30 September 1955 was Dean en sy fabrieksopgeleide werktuigkundige, Rolf Wütherich, by Competition Motors in Hollywood besig om Dean se nuwe Porsche 550 Spyder voor te berei vir die naweek se sportmotorrenne in Salinas, Kalifornië.

Dean was oorspronklik van plan om die Porsche na Salinas te sleep, agter sy 1955 Ford Country Squire -stasiewa, bestuur deur 'n vriend en filmstuntman, Bill Hickman, en vergesel deur die professionele fotograaf Sanford H. Roth wat 'n fotoverhaal van Dean beplan het tydens die wedrenne vir Colliers Tydskrif. Omdat die Porsche voor die ren nie genoeg inbreekmyl gehad het nie, het Wütherich aanbeveel dat Dean met die Spyder na Salinas ry om meer 'sit tyd' agter die stuur te kry. Die groep het koffie en donuts by die Hollywood Ranch Market in Vine Street oorkant Competition Motors (nie die legendariese Farmer's Market by W 3rd St & amp; S Fairfax Ave soos voorheen berig nie) gedrink voordat hulle omstreeks 13:15 vertrek het. PST. Hulle stop by die Mobil -stasie vir petrol op Ventura Blvd. by Beverly Glen Blvd. in Sherman Oaks omstreeks 14:00. Die groep is daarna noordwaarts op CA Route 99 en dan oor die 'Grapevine' na Bakersfield.

Om 15:30 is Dean gestop deur California Highway Patrolman O.V. Jagter by die Mettler -stasie op Wheeler Ridge, net suid van Bakersfield, om 105 km/h in 'n sone van 55 km/h te ry. Hickman, agter die Spyder in die Ford met die sleepwa, het ook 'n kaartjie gekry om 32 km/h oor die perk te ry, aangesien die spoedgrens vir alle voertuie wat 'n sleepwa sleep, 72 km/h was. Nadat hulle die spoedaanhalings ontvang het, het Dean en Hickman links gedraai op Route 166/33 om te verhoed dat hulle deur Bakersfield se stadige stadskern van 25 km/h gaan. Roete 166/33 was 'n bekende kortpad vir al die sportmotorbestuurders wat na Salinas gaan, genaamd 'die racer's road', wat hulle direk na Blackwells Corner by CA Route 466 (later SR 46) geneem het. Op Blackwells Corner stop Dean net kort vir verversings en ontmoet sy mede-jaers Lance Reventlow en Bruce Kessler, wat ook op pad was na die Salinas-padrenne in Reventlow se Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupe. Terwyl Reventlow en Kessler vertrek, het hulle almal ooreengekom om in Paso Robles te kom eet.

Omstreeks 17:15 verlaat Dean en Hickman Blackwells Corner weswaarts op roete 466 in die rigting van Paso Robles, ongeveer sestig myl daarvandaan. Dean versnel in die Porsche en laat die Ford -stasiewa ver agter. Verder op Roete 466 het die Porsche die Poloniopas gekruis en met die lang Antelope-graad afgery, motors langs die pad na die aansluitingsvloer by Roete 466 en 41. Dean sien 'n swart-en-wit Ford Custom-koepee uit 1950, wat by 'n hoë spoed op pad oos op Rt. 466 na die aansluiting. Die tyd was ongeveer 17:45, PST. Die bestuurder, die 23-jarige Cal Poly-student Donald Turnupseed, draai skielik voor die Porsche om die linkervurk op die roete 41 te neem. Dean het 'n dreigende ongeluk gesien en het blykbaar probeer om die Spyder te 'stuur' in 'n 'systap'-wedrenne, maar daar was nie genoeg tyd of ruimte nie, aangesien die twee motors byna reg van voor neergestort het. Die Spyder val in die lug en beland terug op sy wiele in 'n kloof, noordwes van die aansluiting. Die enorme snelheid van die botsing het die veel swaarder Ford met 'n breë gly van nege-en-dertig voet in die westelike baan gestuur.

Volgens 'n verhaal in die uitgawe van die Los Angeles Times op 1 Oktober 2005, het die kaptein van die snelwegpatrollie, Ernest Tripke, in Kalifornië, en sy vennoot, korporaal Ronald Nelson, 'n koffiepause in Paso Robles afgehandel toe hulle na die toneel geroep is ongeluk by die roete 466/41 aansluiting. Voordat beamptes Tripke en Nelson opdaag, is James Dean uit die gekapte kajuit van die Spyder gehaal, sy linkervoet is tussen die koppelaar en die rempedaal vasgedruk. Dean is ernstig beseer toe hy die grootste deel van die ongeluk met 'n gebreekte nek en verskeie interne en eksterne beserings opgedoen het. Nelson was getuie van 'n bewustelose en sterwende Dean wat in 'n ambulans geplaas is en 'n skaars bewuste Wütherich, wat uit die Spyder geslinger is, op die skouer van die pad langs die vernielde Porsche gelê het. Dean en Wütherich is in dieselfde ambulans na die Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital, 45 km daarvandaan, geneem. Dean is by aankoms om 18:20 dood verklaar. PST deur die behandelende noodgeneeskundige, Robert Bossert.

Kruising van snelweë 46 (voorheen 466) en 41 soos dit in 2007 gelyk het

Wütherich het oorleef met 'n gebreekte kakebeen en ernstige heup- en femurbeserings wat onmiddellike chirurgie vereis het. Turnupseed is slegs lig beseer met kneusplekke in die gesig en 'n bebloede neus. Na 'n onderhoud met die CHP, stap Turnupseed in die donker na sy huis in Tulare. Hickman en Roth het ongeveer tien minute na die ongeluk op die ongelukstoneel aangekom. Hickman het gehelp om Dean uit die wrak te verwyder. Roth het foto's geneem van die ongelukstoneel, wat nou in besit is van Seita Ohnishi, 'n afgetrede sakeman van Kobe, Japan. Ohnishi het in 1977 'n gedenkteken van vlekvrye staal ontwerp en opgerig ter ere van James Dean in Cholame, net 'n kilometer wes van die ongeluksterrein.

Sommige bronne gee Dean se laaste bekende woorde - uitgespreek net voor die impak toe Wütherich vir Dean gesê het om te vertraag toe hulle albei sien hoe die Ford Custom -coupe in hul baan sou trek - as "Die man moet stop. Hy sien ons." Die historikus van James Dean, Lee Raskin, meen dat dit 'n blote vermoede is dat Wütherich iets aan Dean gesê het, of dat Dean iets voor Wütherich gesê het voor die ongeluk. Volgens die lykskouing wat Wütherich in die hospitaal geneem het, en later in 'n onderhoud van 1960 aan 'n amptelike Porsche -tydskrif, Christophorus, kon hy nie die presiese oomblikke onthou voor en na die ongeluk nie.

By die amptelike geregtelike doodsondersoek wat op 11 Oktober 1955 in die San Luis Obispo-hof gehou is, het Turnupseed aan die jurie gesê dat hy die lae-profiel Porsche eers gesien het nadat hy links op Route 41 gedraai het. Na ander getuienis deur die WKK en getuies van die ongeluk, het die jurie se jurie teruggetree om te beraadslaag. Dit kom terug met 'n uitspraak van 'toevallige dood sonder kriminele opset' waarin Donald Turnupseed onskuldig was aan enige oortreding in die dood van James Dean. Die oorlede Dekaan is ook onskuldig bevind aan enige kriminele opset of bydraende wangedrag vir die ongeluk.

Hoewel Turnupseed nie aangekla word van (wat moontlik sou gewees het nie), het Turnupseed 'n verwoestende slag gekry wat hom die res van sy lewe sou teister. "Hy was nie net betrokke by 'n ongeluk wat die dood van een man tot gevolg gehad het nie, maar dit was 'n dood wat nooit vergeet sal word nie, 'n dood waarvan die nagalm steeds oor die hele wêreld voel."

Turnupseed het onmiddellik na die ongeluk slegs een onderhoud aan die Tulare Advance-Register toegestaan, maar daarna het hy geweier om in die openbaar oor die ongeluk te praat. Turnupseed het 'n baie suksesvolle familie -elektriese kontrakteursbedryf in Tulare besit en bedryf. Hy sterf in die ouderdom van 63 jaar aan longkanker in 1995. Wütherich, nadat hy verskeie ingewikkelde operasies aan sy heup en femur gehad het, is in 1957 terug na Wes -Duitsland met sielkundige en regsprobleme. Hy werk in die 1960's saam met die toetsafdeling van die Porsche Factory en internasionale tydren- en resiespanne. Wütherich was een van die eerste werknemers van Porsche en het agtien jaar by die fabriek gewerk voordat hy beëindig is. Hy is in Julie 1981 in 'n ander motorongeluk in Kupferzell, Wes -Duitsland, dood toe hy beheer oor sy motor verloor en in 'n woning vasgery het. Soos James Dean in die vorige ongeluk, moes Rolf Wütherich uit die wrak geruk word en is op die ongelukstoneel dood. Hy was 53 jaar oud.

Daar is 'n ironiese epiloog oor James Dean se noodlottige ongeluk in 1955: tydens die opnames van Giant het Dean ook 'n kort staatsaankondiging (PSA) saam met die akteur Gig Young vir die National Safety Council verfilm. Dit het James Dean, geklee as die jong Jett Rink, vertel van hoe vinnig ry op die snelweg gevaarliker kan wees as om op die baan te jaag. Dit eindig met Dean, in plaas daarvan om die gewilde frase "Die lewe wat jy red, dalk jou eie is" te sê, het hy humoristies gesê: "Die lewe wat jy kan red, kan myne wees." Hierdie legendariese swart en wit PSA, wat na Dean se dood vrygestel is, kan nou op YouTube besigtig word.


Op hierdie dag: James Dean sterf in motorongeluk

Te gou geneem - James Dean was slegs 24 jaar oud toe hy in 'n motorongeluk in Kalifornië dood is, net toe sy rolprentloopbaan besig was om te begin.

Dit was op 30 September 1955, toe Dean, met sy splinternuwe Porsche Spyder-cabriolet van $ 7000, 'n ander motor raakloop by 'n kruising in Cholame, Kalifornië. Dean, bekend vir sy liefde vir renmotors, is dood in die ongeluk. Sy passasier is ernstig beseer, maar het oorleef.

Slegs een van Dean se flieks was ten tyde van sy dood vrygestel. Sy voortydige dood versterk sy legendariese status, en hy word die eerste akteur wat postuum genomineer is vir 'n Oscar vir beste akteur.

Daar word gerugte dat Dean's Porsche, met die bynaam "Little Bastard", vervloek is. Die akteur Alec Guinness voorspel Dean se dood net 'n week voor die noodlottige ongeluk. Na die ongeluk was dele uit die motor betrokke by 'n reeks ongelukke wat 'n wye verskeidenheid beserings en selfs meer sterftes tot gevolg gehad het.

IN MEMORIAM: Bekendes en opvallende figure wat onlangs oorlede is


Inhoud

James Byron Dean is gebore op 8 Februarie 1931 in die Seven Gables -woonstel op die hoek van 4th Street en McClure Street in Marion, Indiana, [4] die enigste kind van Mildred Marie (Wilson) en Winton Dean. Hy het ook beweer dat sy ma gedeeltelik inheems was en dat sy vader aan 'n "reeks oorspronklike setlaars behoort, wat teruggevoer kan word na die Mayflower". [5] Ses jaar nadat sy pa die boerdery verlaat het om 'n tandheelkundige tegnikus te word, het Dean saam met sy gesin na Santa Monica, Kalifornië, verhuis. daarna na die McKinley Elementary School. [6] Die gesin het etlike jare daar deurgebring, en Dean was in alle opsigte baie na aan sy ma. Volgens Michael DeAngelis was sy "die enigste persoon wat hom kon verstaan". [7] In 1938 word sy skielik met akute maagpyn getref en begin vinnig gewig verloor. Sy sterf aan baarmoederkanker toe Dean nege jaar oud was. [6] Dean se pa kon hom nie by sy tante versorg nie en het by sy tante oom, Ortense en Marcus Winslow, op hul plaas in Fairmount, Indiana, [8] waar hy in hul Quaker -huishouding grootgemaak is. [9] Dean se pa het in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gedien en later weer getroud.

In sy tienerjare het Dean die raad en vriendskap van die plaaslike metodiste -pastoor, ds James DeWeerd, gesoek, wat blykbaar 'n formatiewe invloed op Dean gehad het, veral op sy toekomstige belange in stiergeveg, motorwedrenne en teater. [10] Volgens Billy J. Harbin het Dean ''n intieme verhouding met sy predikant gehad, wat in sy hoërskool op die hoërskool begin het en baie jare geduur het'. [11] [12] Hulle beweerde seksuele verhouding is voorgestel in Paul Alexander se boek uit 1994 Boulevard of Broken Dreams: The Life, Times, and Legend of James Dean. [13] In 2011 is berig dat Dean een keer aan Elizabeth Taylor vertrou het dat hy ongeveer twee jaar na sy ma se dood seksueel misbruik is deur 'n minister. [14] Ander berigte oor Dean se lewe dui ook daarop dat hy óf as kind seksueel mishandel is deur DeWeerd óf as 'n laat tiener 'n seksuele verhouding met hom gehad het. [12] [13]

Dean se algehele prestasie op skool was besonders en hy was 'n gewilde student. Hy het op die bofbal- en varsity -basketbalspanne gespeel, drama bestudeer en in die openbaar gepraat deur die Indiana High School Forensic Association. Nadat hy in Mei 1949 aan die Fairmount High School gestudeer het [15], verhuis hy saam met sy hond, Max, na Kalifornië om by sy pa en stiefma te woon. Hy het ingeskryf by die Santa Monica College (SMC) en het 'n hoofvak in die voorregte gehad. Hy het vir een semester [16] na UCLA oorgegaan en sy hoofvak in drama verander [17], wat gelei het tot vervreemding van sy vader. Hy het die Sigma Nu -broederskap belowe, maar is nooit begin nie. [18] Terwyl hy aan UCLA was, is Dean uit 'n groep van 350 akteurs gekies om Malcolm in te vertolk Macbeth. [19] Destyds het hy ook begin optree in die werkswinkel van James Whitmore. In Januarie 1951 staak hy by UCLA om 'n voltydse loopbaan as akteur te volg. [20] [21]

Vroee loopbaan

Dean se eerste televisie -verskyning was in 'n Pepsi Cola -advertensie. [22] [23] [24] Hy het opgehou om voltyds op te tree en is in sy eerste spreekbeurt gespeel, soos Johannes die geliefde dissipel in Heuwel nommer een, 'n spesiale Paasfees -televisie wat die opstanding van Jesus dramatiseer. Dean het tydens die produksie van die program by die wydverfilmde Iverson Movie Ranch in die Chatsworth -omgewing van Los Angeles gewerk, waarvoor 'n replika van die graf van Jesus op die plaas op die plaas gebou is. Daarna het Dean drie rolprente in rolprente gekry: as soldaat in Vaste bajonette! (1951), 'n bokshoekman in Matroos Pasop (1952), [25] en 'n jeug in Het iemand my ma gesien? (1952). [26]

Terwyl hy sukkel om rolle in Hollywood te kry, werk Dean ook as parkeerterrein by CBS Studios, waartydens hy Rogers Brackett ontmoet, [27] 'n radiodirekteur vir 'n advertensie -agentskap, wat hom professionele hulp en leiding bied in sy gekose loopbaan , asook 'n blyplek. [28] [29] Brackett het deure vir Dean oopgemaak en hom gehelp om sy eerste hoofrol op Broadway te kry Sien die Jaguar. [30]

In Julie 1951 verskyn Dean op Alias ​​Jane Doe, wat deur Brackett vervaardig is. [31] [29] In Oktober 1951, na die aanmoediging van die akteur James Whitmore en die advies van sy mentor Rogers Brackett, verhuis Dean na New York. Daar het hy as 'n stunt -toetser vir die speletjie gewerk Klop die klok, maar is daarna ontslaan omdat hy na bewering die take te vinnig verrig het. [32] Hy verskyn ook in episodes van verskeie CBS -televisiereekse Die web, Studio One, en Lux Videoteater, voordat hy toelating tot die Actors Studio verkry het om metodes waar te neem onder Lee Strasberg. [33] In 1952 het hy 'n nie -sprekende rol as persman in die film gehad Sperdatum - V.S.A., met Humphrey Bogart in die hoofrol. [34] [35]

Trots op hierdie prestasies het Dean in 'n brief aan sy familie in 1952 na die Actors Studio verwys as "die grootste teaterskool. Dit huisves wonderlike mense soos Marlon Brando, Julie Harris, Arthur Kennedy, Mildred Dunnock, Eli Wallach. Baie min kry Dit is die beste ding wat met 'n akteur kan gebeur. Ek is een van die jongstes wat behoort. " [28] Daar was hy klasmaats en goeie vriende met Carroll Baker, saam met wie hy uiteindelik sou speel Reuse (1956).

Dean se loopbaan het toegeneem en hy het in verdere episodes van sulke vroeë 1950's televisieprogramme opgetree as Kraft Television Theatre, Robert Montgomery bied aan, Die Amerikaanse staaluur, Gevaar, en Algemene elektriese teater. Een vroeë rol vir die CBS -reeks Omnibus in die episode "Glory in the Flower", sien Dean die tipe ontevrede jeug waarin hy later sou uitbeeld Rebelleer sonder oorsaak (1955). Hierdie program in die somer van 1953 bevat die liedjie "Crazy Man, Crazy", een van die eerste dramatiese TV -programme met rock en roll. Positiewe resensies oor Dean se teaterrol uit 1954 as Bachir, 'n deurdringende Noord -Afrikaanse huisseun, in 'n verwerking van André Gide se boek Die immoralis (1902), het gelei tot oproepe uit Hollywood. [36]

Oos van Eden

In 1953 was die regisseur Elia Kazan op soek na 'n substantiewe akteur om die emosioneel komplekse rol van 'Cal Trask' te speel, vir die draaiboekskrywer Paul Osborn se verwerking van John Steinbeck se roman uit 1952 Oos van Eden. Hierdie boek handel oor die verhaal van die Trask- en Hamilton-gesinne in die loop van drie generasies, en fokus veral op die lewens van die laaste twee geslagte in Salinas Valley, Kalifornië, vanaf die middel van die 19de eeu tot die 1910's.

In teenstelling met die boek, fokus die filmskrif op die laaste gedeelte van die verhaal, hoofsaaklik met die karakter van Cal. Alhoewel hy aanvanklik meer afsydig en emosioneel ontsteld lyk as sy tweelingbroer Aron, word Cal binnekort meer wêrelds, ondernemend en selfs sagter as hul vrome en voortdurend afkeurende vader (gespeel deur Raymond Massey), wat 'n groentekoeling wil uitvind proses. Cal word gepla deur die raaisel van hul sogenaamde dooie ma en ontdek dat sy nog lewe en 'n mevrou wat 'n bordel hou, die rol word gespeel deur die aktrise Jo Van Fleet. [37]

Voordat hy Cal vertolk het, het Elia Kazan gesê dat hy ''n Brando' 'vir die rol wil hê en Osborn stel Dean voor, 'n relatief onbekende jong akteur. Dean met with Steinbeck, who did not like the moody, complex young man personally, but thought him to be perfect for the part. Dean was cast in the role and on April 8, 1954, left New York City and headed for Los Angeles to begin shooting. [38] [39] [40]

Much of Dean's performance in the film was unscripted, [41] including his dance in the bean field and his fetal-like posturing while riding on top of a train boxcar (after searching out his mother in nearby Monterey). The best known improvised sequence of the film occurs when Cal's father rejects his gift of $5,000, money Cal earned by speculating in beans before the US became involved in World War I. Instead of running away from his father as the script called for, Dean instinctively turned to Massey and in a gesture of extreme emotion, lunged forward and grabbed him in a full embrace, crying. Kazan kept this and Massey's shocked reaction in the film.

Dean's performance in the film foreshadowed his role as Jim Stark in Rebel Without A Cause. Both characters are angst-ridden protagonists and misunderstood outcasts, desperately craving approval from their fathers. [42]

In recognition of his performance in East of Eden, Dean was nominated posthumously for the 1956 Academy Awards as Best Actor in a Leading Role of 1955, the first official posthumous acting nomination in Academy Awards history. [43] (Jeanne Eagels was nominated for Best Actress in 1929, [44] when the rules for selection of the winner were different.) East of Eden was the only film starring Dean that he would see released in his lifetime. [45] [46]

Rebel Without a Cause, Giant and planned roles

Dean quickly followed up his role in Eden with a starring role as Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause (1955), a film that would prove to be hugely popular among teenagers. The film has been cited as an accurate representation of teenage angst. [47] [48] Following East of Eden en Rebel Without a Cause, Dean wanted to avoid being typecast as a rebellious teenager like Cal Trask or Jim Stark, and hence took on the role of Jett Rink, a Texan ranch hand who strikes oil and becomes wealthy, in Giant, a posthumously released 1956 film. The movie portrays a number of decades in the lives of Bick Benedict, a Texas rancher, played by Rock Hudson his wife, Leslie, played by Elizabeth Taylor and Rink. [49] To portray an older version of his character in the film's later scenes, Dean dyed his hair gray and shaved some of it off to give himself a receding hairline.

Giant would prove to be Dean's last film. At the end of the film, Dean was supposed to make a drunken speech at a banquet this is nicknamed the 'Last Supper' because it was the last scene before his sudden death. Due to his desire to make the scene more realistic by actually being inebriated for the take, Dean mumbled so much that director George Stevens decided the scene had to be overdubbed by Nick Adams, who had a small role in the film, because Dean had died before the film was edited.

Dean received his second posthumous Best Actor Academy Award nomination for his role in Giant at the 29th Academy Awards in 1957 for films released in 1956. [2]

Having finished Giant, Dean was set to star as Rocky Graziano in a drama film, Somebody Up There Likes Me (1956), and, according to Nicholas Ray himself, he was going to do a story called Heroic Love with the director. [50] Dean's death terminated any involvement in the projects but Somebody Up There Likes Me still went on to earn both commercial and critical success, winning two Oscars and grossing $3,360,000, with Paul Newman playing the role of Graziano.

Relationships

Screenwriter William Bast was one of Dean's closest friends, a fact acknowledged by Dean's family. [51] According to Bast, he was Dean's roommate at UCLA and later in New York, and knew Dean throughout the last five years of his life. [52] Bast, who was also Dean's first biographer, [53] [54] once said he and Dean "experimented" sexually, but without explaining further. [52] [55] [56] In a later book, Surviving James Dean, Bast described the difficult circumstances of their involvement. [57] While at UCLA, Dean also dated Beverly Wills, an actress with CBS, and Jeanette Lewis, a classmate. Bast and Dean often double-dated with them. Wills began dating Dean alone, later telling Bast, "Bill, there's something we have to tell you. It's Jimmy and me. I mean, we're in love." [58] : 71 They broke up after Dean "exploded" when another man asked her to dance while they were at a function. [58] : 74

While living in New York, Dean was introduced to actress Barbara Glenn by Martin Landau. [59] They dated steadily for two years until Dean left for Hollywood in 1954. [59] In 2011 their love letters were sold at auction for $36,000. [60]

Early in Dean's career, after Dean signed his contract with Warner Brothers, the studio's public relations department began generating stories about Dean's liaisons with a variety of young actresses who were mostly drawn from the clientele of Dean's Hollywood agent, Dick Clayton. Studio press releases also grouped Dean together with two other actors, Rock Hudson and Tab Hunter, identifying each of the men as an 'eligible bachelor' who had not yet found the time to commit to a single woman: "They say their film rehearsals are in conflict with their marriage rehearsals." [61]

Dean's best-remembered relationship was with young Italian actress Pier Angeli. He met Angeli while she was shooting The Silver Chalice (1954) [62] on an adjoining Warner lot, and with whom he exchanged items of jewelry as love tokens. [63] Angeli, during an interview fourteen years after their relationship ended, described their times together:

We used to go together to the California coast and stay there secretly in a cottage on a beach far away from prying eyes. We'd spend much of our time on the beach, sitting there or fooling around, just like college kids. We would talk about ourselves and our problems, about the movies and acting, about life and life after death. We had a complete understanding of each other. We were like Romeo and Juliet, together and inseparable. Sometimes on the beach we loved each other so much we just wanted to walk together into the sea holding hands because we knew then that we would always be together. [58] : 196

Dean was quoted saying about Angeli, “Everything about Pier is beautiful, especially her soul. She doesn't have to be all gussied up. She doesn't have to do or say anything. She's just wonderful as she is. She has a rare insight into life." [64]

Those who believed Dean and Angeli were deeply in love claimed that a number of forces led them apart. Angeli's mother disapproved of Dean's casual dress and what were, for her at least, unacceptable behavior traits: his T-shirt attire, late dates, fast cars, drinking, and the fact that he was not a Catholic. Her mother said that such behavior was not acceptable in Italy. In addition, Warner Bros., where he worked, tried to talk him out of marrying and he himself told Angeli that he did not want to get married. [58] : 197 Richard Davalos, Dean's East of Eden co-star, claimed that Dean in fact wanted to marry Angeli and was willing to allow their children to be brought up Catholic. [65]

Some commentators, such as William Bast and Paul Alexander, believe the relationship was a mere publicity stunt. [66] [67] In his autobiography, Elia Kazan, the director of East of Eden, dismissed the notion that Dean could possibly have had any success with women, although he remembered hearing Dean and Angeli loudly making love in Dean's dressing room. [68] Kazan was quoted by author Paul Donnelley as saying about Dean, "He always had uncertain relations with girlfriends." [69] Pier Angeli talked only once about the relationship in her later life in an interview, giving vivid descriptions of romantic meetings at the beach. Dean biographer John Howlett said these read like wishful fantasies, [70] as Bast claims them to be. [28]

After finishing his role for East of Eden, Dean took a brief trip to New York in October 1954. [58] : 197 While he was away, Angeli unexpectedly announced her engagement to Italian-American singer Vic Damone. The press was shocked and Dean expressed his irritation. [71] Angeli married Damone the following month. Gossip columnists reported that Dean watched the wedding from across the road on his motorcycle, even gunning the engine during the ceremony, although Dean later denied doing anything so "dumb". [58] Joe Hyams, in his 1992 biography of Dean, James Dean: Little Boy Lost, claims that he visited Dean just as Angeli, then married to Damone, was leaving his home. Dean was crying and allegedly told Hyams she was pregnant, with Hyams concluding that Dean believed the child might be his. Angeli, who divorced Damone and then her second husband, the Italian film composer Armando Trovajoli, was said by friends in the last years of her life to claim that Dean was the love of her life. She died from an overdose of barbiturates in 1971, at the age of 39. [72]

In 1996, actress Liz Sheridan detailed her relationship with Dean in New York in 1952, saying it was "just kind of magical. [73] It was the first love for both of us." [74] Sheridan published her memoir, Dizzy & Jimmy: My Life with James Dean A Love Story, in 2000.

Dean also dated Swiss actress Ursula Andress. [75] "She was seen riding around Hollywood on the back of James's motorcycle," writes biographer Darwin Porter. She was also seen with Dean in his sports cars, and was with him on the day he bought the car that he died in. [76] At the time, Andress was also dating Marlon Brando.

Spanish actress Sara Montiel wrote about being the last woman to be photographed and romantically involved with Dean days before his death in her autobiography Memorias: Vivir es un placer. [77]

Auto racing hobby

In 1954, Dean became interested in developing a career in motorsport. He purchased various vehicles after filming for East of Eden had concluded, including a Triumph Tiger T110 and a Porsche 356. [78] [79] Just before filming began on Rebel Without a Cause, he competed in his first professional event at the Palm Springs Road Races, which was held in Palm Springs, California on March 26–27, 1955. Dean achieved first place in the novice class, and second place at the main event. His racing continued in Bakersfield a month later, where he finished first in his class and third overall. [80] Dean hoped to compete in the Indianapolis 500, but his busy schedule made it impossible. [81]

Dean's final race occurred in Santa Barbara on Memorial Day, May 30, 1955. He was unable to finish the competition due to a blown piston. [80] [82] His brief career was put on hold when Warner Brothers barred him from all racing during the production of Giant. [83] Dean had finished shooting his scenes and the movie was in post-production when he decided to race again.

Accident and aftermath

Longing to return to the "liberating prospects" of motor racing, Dean traded in his Speedster for a new, more powerful and faster 1955 Porsche 550 Spyder and entered the upcoming Salinas Road Race event scheduled for October 1–2, 1955. [84] Accompanying the actor on his way to the track on September 30 was stunt coordinator Bill Hickman, Collier's photographer Sanford Roth, and Rolf Wütherich, the German mechanic from the Porsche factory who maintained Dean's Spyder, "Little Bastard" car. [85] [86] Wütherich, who had encouraged Dean to drive the car from Los Angeles to Salinas to break it in, accompanied Dean in the Porsche. At 3:30 p.m., Dean was ticketed for speeding, as was Hickman who was following behind in another car. [87]

As the group was driving westbound on U.S. Route 466 (currently SR 46) near Cholame, California, at approximately 5:45 p.m., [88] a 1950 Ford Tudor, driven by 23-year-old Cal Poly student Donald Turnupseed, was travelling east. Turnupseed made a left turn onto Highway 41 headed north, toward Fresno [89] ahead of the oncoming Porsche. [85] [90] [91]

Dean, unable to stop in time, slammed into the passenger side of the Ford, resulting in Dean's car bouncing across the pavement onto the side of the highway. Dean's passenger, Wütherich, was thrown from the Porsche, while Dean was trapped in the car and sustained numerous fatal injuries, including a broken neck. [92] Turnupseed exited his damaged vehicle with minor injuries.

The accident was witnessed by a number of passersby who stopped to help. A woman with nursing experience attended to Dean and detected a weak pulse, but "death appeared to have been instantaneous". [92] Dean was pronounced dead on arrival shortly after he arrived by ambulance at the Paso Robles War Memorial Hospital at 6:20 p.m. [93]

Though initially slow to reach newspapers in the Eastern United States, details of Dean's death rapidly spread via radio and television. By October 2, his death had received significant coverage from domestic and foreign media outlets. [94] [95] Dean's funeral was held on October 8, 1955, at the Fairmount Friends Church in Fairmount, Indiana. The coffin remained closed to conceal his severe injuries. An estimated 600 mourners were in attendance, while another 2,400 fans gathered outside of the building during the procession. [94] He is buried at Park Cemetery in Fairmount, second road to the right from the main entrance, and up the hill on the right, facing the drive. [96]

An inquest into Dean's death occurred three days later at the council chambers in San Luis Obispo, [97] where the sheriff-coroner's jury delivered a verdict that he was entirely at fault due to speeding, and that Turnupseed was innocent of any criminal act. [98] [99] However, according to an article in the Los Angeles Times of October 1, 2005, a former California Highway Patrol officer who had been called to the scene, Ron Nelson, [100] contradicted reports that Dean had been traveling at 90 mph, stating "the wreckage and the position of Dean's body indicated his speed at the time of the accident was more like 55 mph". [101] A "James Dean Monument" has been placed at Shandon next to Highway 46, and stands to this day.

Cinema and television

American teenagers of the mid-1950s, when Dean's major films were first released, identified with Dean and the roles he played, especially that of Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause. The film depicts the dilemma of a typical teenager of the time, who feels that no one, not even his peers, can understand him. Humphrey Bogart commented after Dean's death about his public image and legacy: "Dean died at just the right time. He left behind a legend. If he had lived, he'd never have been able to live up to his publicity." [102]

Joe Hyams says that Dean was "one of the rare stars, like Rock Hudson and Montgomery Clift, whom both men and women find sexy". [103] According to Marjorie Garber, this quality is "the undefinable extra something that makes a star". [104] Dean's iconic appeal has been attributed to the public's need for someone to stand up for the disenfranchised young of the era, [105] and to the air of androgyny that he projected onscreen. [106]

Dean has been a touchstone of many television shows, films, books and plays. The film September 30, 1955 (1977) depicts the ways various characters in a small Southern town in the US react to Dean's death. [107] The play Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean, Jimmy Dean, written by Ed Graczyk, depicts a reunion of Dean fans on the 20th anniversary of his death. It was staged by the director Robert Altman in 1982, but was poorly received and closed after only 52 performances. While the play was still running on Broadway, Altman shot a film adaptation that was released by Cinecom Pictures in November 1982. [108]

On April 20, 2010, a long "lost" live episode of the General Electric Theater called "The Dark, Dark Hours" featuring Dean in a performance with Ronald Reagan was uncovered by NBC writer Wayne Federman while working on a Ronald Reagan television retrospective. [109] The episode, originally broadcast December 12, 1954, [110] drew international attention and highlights were featured on numerous national media outlets including: CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, en Good Morning America. It was later revealed that some footage from the episode was first featured in the 2005 documentary, James Dean: Forever Young. [111]

James Dean's estate still earns about $5,000,000 per year, according to Forbes magazine. [112] On November 6, 2019, it was announced that Dean's likeness will be used, via CGI, for a Vietnam War film called Finding Jack, based on the Gareth Crocker novel. The movie will be directed by Anton Ernst and Tati Golykh and another actor will voice Dean's part. [113] Although the directors obtained the rights to use Dean's image from his family, the announcement was met with derision by people in the industry. [113] [114]

Martin Sheen has been vocal throughout his career about being influenced by James Dean. [115] Speaking of the impact Dean had on him, Sheen stated, “All of his movies had a profound effect on my life, in my work and all of my generation. He transcended cinema acting. It was no longer acting, it was human behavior.” [116] For Terrence Malick’s debut film Badlands, Sheen based his characterization of Kit Carruthers, a spree killer loosely inspired by Charles Starkweather, on Dean. [117]

Johnny Depp credited Dean as the catalyst that made him want to become an actor. [118] Nicolas Cage also claimed he wanted to go into acting because of Dean. [119] “I started acting because I wanted to be James Dean. I saw him in Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden. Nothing affected me - no rock song, no classical music - the way Dean affected me in Eden. It blew my mind. I was like, “That's what I want to do,” Cage said. [120]

Robert De Niro cited Dean as one of his acting inspirations in an interview. [121] Leonardo DiCaprio also cited Dean as one of his favorite and most influential actors. [122] When asked about which performances stayed with him the most in an interview, DiCaprio responded, “I remember being incredibly moved by Jimmy Dean, in East of Eden. There was something so raw and powerful about that performance. His vulnerability…his confusion about his entire history, his identity, his desperation to be loved. That performance just broke my heart.“ [123]

Youth culture and music

Numerous commentators have asserted that Dean had a singular influence on the development of rock and roll music. According to David R. Shumway, a researcher in American culture and cultural theory at Carnegie Mellon University, Dean was the first iconic figure of youthful rebellion and "a harbinger of youth-identity politics". The persona Dean projected in his movies, especially Rebel Without a Cause, influenced Elvis Presley [124] and many other musicians who followed, [125] including the American rockers Eddie Cochran and Gene Vincent.

In their book, Live Fast, Die Young: The Wild Ride of Making Rebel Without a Cause, Lawrence Frascella and Al Weisel wrote, "Ironically, though Rebel had no rock music on its soundtrack, the film's sensibility—and especially the defiant attitude and effortless cool of James Dean—would have a great impact on rock. The music media would often see Dean and rock as inextricably linked [. ] The industry trade magazine Music Connection even went so far as to call Dean 'the first rock star'." [126]

As rock and roll became a revolutionary force that affected the culture of countries around the world, [127] Dean acquired a mythic status that cemented his place as a rock and roll icon. [128] Dean himself listened to music ranging from African tribal music [129] to the modern classical music of Stravinsky [130] and Bartók, [131] as well as to contemporary singers such as Frank Sinatra. [130] While the magnetism and charisma manifested by Dean onscreen appealed to people of all ages and sexuality, [132] his persona of youthful rebellion provided a template for succeeding generations of youth to model themselves on. [133] [134]

In his book, The Origins of Cool in Postwar America, Joel Dinerstein describes how Dean and Marlon Brando eroticized the rebel archetype in film, [135] and how Elvis Presley, following their lead, did the same in music. Dinerstein details the dynamics of this eroticization and its effect on teenage girls with few sexual outlets. [136] Presley said in a 1956 interview with Lloyd Shearer for Parade magazine, "I've made a study of Marlon Brando. And I've made a study of poor Jimmy Dean. I've made a study of myself, and I know why girls, at least the young 'uns, go for us. We're sullen, we're broodin', we're something of a menace. I don't understand it exactly, but that's what the girls like in men. I don't know anything about Hollywood, but I know you can't be sexy if you smile. You can't be a rebel if you grin." [137]

Dean and Presley have often been represented in academic literature and journalism as embodying the frustration felt by young white Americans with the values of their parents, [138] [139] and depicted as avatars of the youthful unrest endemic to rock and roll style and attitude. The rock historian Greil Marcus characterized them as symbols of tribal teenage identity which provided an image that young people in the 1950s could relate to and imitate. [140] [141] In the book Lonely Places, Dangerous Ground: Nicholas Ray in American Cinema, Paul Anthony Johnson wrote that Dean's acting in Rebel Without a Cause provided a "performance model for Presley, Buddy Holly, and Bob Dylan, all of whom borrowed elements of Dean's performance in their own carefully constructed star personas". [142] Frascella and Weisel wrote, "As rock music became the defining expression of youth in the 1960s, the influence of Rebel was conveyed to a new generation." [126]

Rock musicians as diverse as Buddy Holly, [143] Bob Dylan, and David Bowie regarded Dean as a formative influence. [144] The playwright and actor Sam Shepard interviewed Dylan in 1986 and wrote a play based on their conversation, in which Dylan discusses the early influence of Dean on him personally. [145] A young Bob Dylan, still in his folk music period, consciously evoked Dean visually on the cover of his album, The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan (1963), [146] and later on Highway 61 Revisited (1965), [147] cultivating an image that his biographer Bob Spitz called "James Dean with a guitar". [148] Dean has long been invoked in the lyrics of rock songs, famously in songs such as "A Young Man Is Gone" by the Beach Boys (1963), [149] [150] "James Dean" by the Eagles (1974), [151] [152] and "James Dean" by the Goo Goo Dolls (1989). [153] [154] Musician Taylor Swift referenced him in "Style" (2014). [155]

Sexuality

Today, Dean is often considered an icon because of his perceived experimental take on life, which included his ambivalent sexuality. [156] The Gay Times Readers' Awards cited him as the greatest male gay icon of all time. [156] When questioned about his sexual orientation, Dean is reported to have said, "No, I am not a homosexual. But I'm also not going to go through life with one hand tied behind my back." [157]

Journalist Joe Hyams suggests that any gay activity Dean might have been involved in appears to have been strictly "for trade", as a means of advancing his career. Some point to Dean’s involvement with Rogers Brackett as evidence of this. William Bast referred to Dean as Brackett’s “kept boy” and once found a grotesque depiction of a lizard with the head of Brackett in a sketchbook belonging to Dean. [158] Brackett was quoted saying about their relationship, “I loved him and Jimmy loved me. If it was a father-son relationship, it was also somewhat incestuous.” [30] James Bellah, the son of James Warner Bellah who was a friend of Dean's at UCLA, stated, "Dean was a user. I don't think he was homosexual. But if he could get something by performing an act. Once. at an agent's office, Dean told me that he had spent the summer as a 'professional house guest' on Fire Island." [159] Mark Rydell also stated, "I don't think he was essentially homosexual. I think that he had very big appetites, and I think he exercised them." [160]

However, the "trade only" notion is contradicted by several Dean biographers. [161] Aside from Bast's account of his own relationship with Dean, Dean's fellow motorcyclist and "Night Watch" member, John Gilmore, claimed that he and Dean "experimented" with gay sex on multiple occasions in New York, describing their sexual encounters as "Bad boys playing bad boys while opening up the bisexual sides of ourselves." [162] Gilmore later stated that he believed Dean was more so gay than bisexual. [163]

On the subject of Dean’s sexuality, Rebel director Nicholas Ray is on record saying, “James Dean was not straight, he was not gay, he was bisexual. That seems to confuse people, or they just ignore the facts. Some—most—will say he was heterosexual, and there's some proof for that, apart from the usual dating of actresses his age. Others will say no, he was gay, and there's some proof for that too, keeping in mind that it's always tougher to get that kind of proof. But Jimmy himself said more than once that he swung both ways, so why all the mystery or confusion?" [164] [165] Martin Landau, a good friend of Dean’s whom he met at the Actors Studio, stated, "A lot of people say Jimmy was hell-bent on killing himself. Not true. A lot of gay guys make him out to be gay. Not true. When Jimmy and I were together we'd talk about girls. Actors and girls. We were kids in our early 20s. That was what we aspired to." [166] Elizabeth Taylor, with whom Dean had become friends with while working together on Giant, referred to Dean as gay during a speech at the GLAAD Media Awards in 2001. [167] When questioned about Dean’s sexuality by Kevin Sessums for POZ Magazine, Taylor responded, “He hadn't made up his mind. He was only 24 when he died. But he was certainly fascinated by women. He flirted around. He and I … twinkled.” [168]


Dean&aposs legacy has grown in the decades since his death

An inquest into the crash in the days following found Dean at fault due to speeding, though a 2005 article in the Los Angeles Times cited an attending Highway Patrol Officer who recalled the wreckage and position of Dean’s body indicated a speed around 55 mph, not the 90 mph that had been widely reported.

Following the tragic collision, rumors spread over the years and decades that Dean had not really died but was living a secret, hidden life that he was a closeted homosexual that the Porsche in which he was driving on that fateful day was cursed. Alongside such rumors, the myth of Dean — the man and the actor — only grew as the years passed. 𠇊n actor must interpret life,” Dean once said. On screens and in photographs he remains forever on the cusp of adulthood, a representation of anti-establishment teenage disillusionment and social estrangement, an enduring representation generations have looked to as an interpretation and projection of their own inner lives.


Kyk die video: James Deen greets fans arriving to The Canyons premiere in West Hollywood (Januarie 2022).