Inligting

Geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse vloot - Geskiedenis


Die oorblyfsels van die Shaw
Die oomblik toe die Shaw ontplof

Navy History Matters

Op 11 Desember 1937, Panay, 'n geweerboot wat spesifiek vir diens saam met die Yangtze River Patrol gebou is, het as 'n stasieskip van Nanking, China, gewerk. Terwyl Japannese magte Nanking aangerand het, Panay het talle Amerikaanse burgers van die Amerikaanse ambassade en 'n klein groepie buitelandse burgers aan boord geneem. Panay dan gestroom stroomop. Die volgende dag, Panay was op reis in 'n konvooi met drie Amerikaanse olievaartuie-Meiping, Meian, en Meihsia-toe die Japannese vlootvliegtuie beveel het om 'alle skepe' in die Yangtze -rivier bo Nanking aan te val. Kort na 13:30 het drie Japannese vliegtuie bomme losgelaat Panay en Meiping. Panayse voorste 3-duim-geweer is vernietig. Die loodshuis het verniel, haar radiotoerusting en vuurkamer is afgeskakel en lekkasies het in die romp van die skip ontstaan. Die bevelvoerder en 'n aantal bemanningslede en ander aan boord Panay is ook beseer. Binne enkele minute na die eerste golf bomwerpers, het 'n ander Japannese eskader met enkelmotorige tweedekker 'n tweede aanval geloods en ongeveer 20 bomme laat val. Lees die opstel deur Wendy Arevalo van NHHC op die webwerf van NHHC om te leer wat daarna gebeur het.

Eerste vlootbeampte gedood tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog-160 jaar gelede

Op 27 Junie 1861, terwyl hy bevel gegee het aan die vuurbootvlot Thomas Freeborn, Kmdt. James H. Ward is dodelik gewond deur 'n muskietbal van Mathias Point, VA. Hy was die eerste slagoffer van die Amerikaanse vloot in die burgeroorlog. Ward, wat in Hartford, CT, gebore is, het in Maart 1823 'n adelboot in die Amerikaanse vloot geword en die daaropvolgende jare op skepe in die Middellandse See, buite Afrika en in Wes -Indië gedien. In 1845 word hy die uitvoerende beampte van die nuutgestigte U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD. Hy het ook gunnery en stoomingenieurswese geleer. Tydens die Meksikaans-Amerikaanse oorlog het Ward die bevel oor die fregat geneem Cumberland en later die geweerboot Vixen. Na die oorlog dien hy aan wal by die Philadelphia en die Washington Navy Yard en word hy bevorder tot die rang van bevelvoerder. By die aanvang van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog het Ward 'n ekspedisie beplan om Fort Sumter te verlig, en is toe aangestel vir 'n klein eskader wat aan die Potomacrivier werk. Met Thomas Freeborn as sy vlagskip het Ward se mag laat einde Mei en vroeg in Junie 1861 die Konfederate by Aquia Creek, VA, betrek voordat hy vermoor is. Vernietiger USS Wyk (DD 139) is ter ere van hom genoem.

Historiese afdeling, biblioteek ingelyf

Op 1 Julie 1919 is die historiese afdeling en die biblioteek opgeneem in die Office of Naval Intelligence. Die bevel van die sekretaris val saam met die goedkeuring van die eerste wetgewende bewilliging 'vir die versameling van wêreldoorlogrekords'. Die bevel was betyds, aangesien verskeie vorige voorskrifte die aktiwiteite van die historiese afdeling uitgebrei het, waar oorvleueling met Office of Naval Records en biblioteekfunksies onvermydelik gelyk het. Aangesien beide aktiwiteite destyds onder 'n enkele hoof was, is die skeiding tussen 'ou' en 'huidige' rekords erken en aanvaar as die onderskeie sfere van die oorspronklike Office of Naval Records en die nuwer historiese afdeling.

Building Corpsmen Culture: 'n kort geskiedenis van die Hospital A Corps 'A' School

'N Hospitaalkorpsman word nie volgens sy of haar koers gekwalifiseer sonder uitgebreide opleiding nie, en opleiding was nog altyd die hoeksteen van elke korpsman se loopbaan. Hierdie feit was beslis bekend toe die hospitaalkorps in die vroeë dae van beplanning was. In die loop van die geskiedenis van die korps het die vloot voortgegaan om te ontwikkel en te verseker dat die korpsman oor die nodige vaardighede beskik om aan boord van skepe en aan wal te werk. Hierdie beginsels lei tot die stigting van die eerste basiese skool in 1902, die eerste 'C' -skole, die eerste gevorderde skool tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, die koms van veldmediese opleiding tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en Korea tot die trauma -opleidingsinisiatief en die dinamiese opleidingsamewerking waarop die Hospitaalkorps vandag voortbou. Byna net so lank as wat die Hospitaalkorps bestaan, het die basiese of 'A' -skool as basis gedien vir opleiding. Op 18 Junie 1914 stig die vloot die Hospital Corps School by Naval Training Station in Newport, RI. Alhoewel dit nie die eerste aanval op opleidingskorpsman was nie, was die skool die begin van die toewyding van die vloot om korpsmanne op te lei, wat tot vandag toe voortgaan by die Joint Base San Antonio, TX. Lees die artikel vir meer. Besoek NHHC se webwerf vir meer inligting oor vlootgeneeskunde.

'Father of Naval Special Warfare' het tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog gekies vir verandering

Toe die Viëtnam -oorlog begin, weet kapt. Phil H. Bucklew dat hy nog 'n paar goeie jare oor het. Bucklew, wat in die Special Forces -gemeenskap liefdevol bekend staan ​​as die 'vader van die spesiale oorlogvoering', het tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aksie as 'n padda gesien tydens die inval in Noord -Afrika, Salerno, Sicilië, Anzio, Normandië en Suid -Frankryk. Hy het presies gesien hoe die Noord -Viëtnamese Suid -Viëtnam infiltreer, want so sou hy dit gedoen het. Die Viet Cong het mense en voorrade na die suidelike omgewing van die Viëtnamese gedemilitariseerde gebied deur Kambodja beweeg met plaaslike vissersbote wat die Mekongrivier gebruik het. Die vloot het Operation Game Warden geloods om die Mekongrivier en sy delta te patrolleer. Die vloot het ook operasies uitgevoer, soos Market Time, 'n interdikasie -operasie wat kusvaartuie deursoek het en tonne materiaal gevang het wat na kommunistiese eenhede in Suid -Viëtnam gelei is. Bucklew het egter aangevoer dat hierdie patrolliebedrywighede nie voldoende was nie, en dat meer konkrete, deeglike stappe nodig was om kommunistiese toevoerroetes te beheer. Hy het aangevoer oor dinge soos kontrolepunte, versperrings en aandklokreëls om die verkeer te beheer. Lees die artikel vir meer inligting oor Bucklew se vooruitskouing. Besoek NHHC se webwerf vir meer inligting oor spesiale oorlogvoering.

Macon In opdrag

Op 23 Junie 1933 het USS Macon, gebou deur die Goodyear -Zeppelin Corp. van Akron, OH, is in opdrag van kmdt. Alger H. Dresel in bevel. Die stewige lugskip is ongeveer dieselfde tyd gebou as 'n ander stewige lugskip, USS Akron. Hulle word beskou as 'n verbetering van die Shenandoah ontwerp, met die vermoë om ander vliegtuie te huisves en te vervoer, hoewel dit uiteindelik die eerste en laaste vlieënier was. Akron het in 1933 aan die kus van New Jersey verlore gegaan tydens 'n storm wat 73 mense doodgemaak het, en Macon was verlore by die Santa Barbara -eilande, met net 2 mense Macon die ongeluk het die vloot se program vir rigiede lugskipoperasies beëindig. Besoek NHHC se webwerf vir meer inligting oor die vloot se onderneming oor lugskepe en bestuurbare skepe.

Keel gelê vir Future Navy Ship USS Cleveland

Op 16 Junie, tydens 'n seremonie in Marinette, WI, is die kiel gelê vir die toekomstige seestrydgevegskip USS Cleveland. Cleveland sal die vierde skip wees wat na die stad in Ohio vernoem is. Die eerste Cleveland begeleide pligte uitgevoer tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, die tweede Cleveland was 'n kruiser wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan verskeie gevegte deelgeneem het, en die derde Cleveland steun verleen tydens die Viëtnam -oorlog en operasie Iraqi Freedom. Planne vra vir die nuutste Cleveland volgende jaar gedoop te word. Sy moet in 2023 afgelewer en in gebruik geneem word. 'Ons is trots daarop om nog 'n beproefde oorlogskip te bou waarmee ons vloot missies regoor die wêreld kan uitvoer. Ons almal by Lockheed Martin, insluitend ons hardwerkende span in Marinette, sien uit daarna om saam met die Amerikaanse vloot saam te werk om voort te gaan met die lewering van hoogs bekwame en aanpasbare Vryheid-variëteite gevegskepe na die vloot, 'sê Steve Allen, vise -president van Small Combatants en Ship Systems, Lockheed Martin. Sodra die skip in gebruik geneem is, word sy tuisgemaak in Mayport, FL. Lees die artikel vir meer. Besoek NHHC se webwerf vir meer inligting oor die vlootgeskiedenis van Ohio en die tradisie van bekendstelling en inbedryfstelling.

Webblad van die week

Hierdie week se webblad van die week is nuut vir NHHC se noemenswaardige skepe. Vliegtuigvliegtuig USS San Diego is op 10 Januarie 1942 aangestel, met kapt Benjamin F. Perry in bevel. Nadat dit in die Chesapeakebaai geskud is, San Diego vaar na die Amerikaanse weskus, via die Panamakanaal, en arriveer op 16 Mei 1942 in haar naamstad in die suide van Kalifornië. Op 15 Junie begin sy met die begeleiding van USS Hornet in die Suid -Stille Oseaan, en vroeg in Augustus, San Diego het deelgeneem aan die eerste Amerikaanse offensiewe poging van die oorlog-die inval van die Solomons by Guadalcanal. Die magtige keiserlike Japannese vloot het die bondgenootskap wat in die Solomons gestoot is, hewig betwis en groot skade aan Amerikaanse skepe veroorsaak. San Diego was getuie van die ondergang van die USS Wesp op 15 September en van Hornet op 26 Oktober. Boonop het die skip USS ondersteun teen lugvaart Onderneming tydens die Seestryd van Guadalcanal van 12-15 November. Na etlike maande teen die Japannese in die gevaarlike waters van die Solomons gesukkel het, San Diego gestoom na Auckland, Nieu -Seeland, vir aanvulling. Besoek hierdie bladsy vandag vir meer inligting oor die skip wat 15 gevegsterre sou verdien vir uitsonderlike diens in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Dit bevat 'n kort geskiedenis, voorgestelde lees, onderhoude met bemanningslede, geselekteerde beelde en nog baie meer.

Vandag in Naval History

Op 22 Junie 1884 het Amerikaanse vlootskepe Thetis, Waarskuwing, en Beer, onder kmdt. Winfield S. Schley, het luitenant Adolphus W. Greely en ses van sy verkenningsparty uit Cape Sabine gered, waar hulle drie jaar lank geteister is. Die doel van die Greely Expedition, wat in 1881 begin het, was om 'n meteorologiese waarnemingsstasie te vestig en om astronomiese en magnetiese data te versamel. Greely het met ongeveer 25 man die vrymoedigheid aangebied om die ekspedisie in die Arktiese gebied te lei. Daar is egter probleme met die ontvangs van voorraad, aangesien skepe nie by hul plek kon uitkom nie. Greely, wat bekend was as 'n streng leier, het die ekspedisie en moraal lewendig gehou. Eers in die laaste ses maande van hul beproewing, toe die rantsoene tot byna niks gekrimp het nie, het die orde in die kamp begin breek. Teen die tyd dat die mans gered is, het slegs 7 van die oorspronklike party van 25 oorleef. Die res van die partytjie het beswyk van honger, onderkoeling of verdrinking. Een man is geskiet omdat hy voortdurend kos gesteel het. Sekretaris van die vloot, William E. Chandler, word toegeskryf aan die beplanning van die reddingspoging en die koördinering van sy planne met Schley.

Sien meer datums in die vlootgeskiedenis, insluitend die gekose datums Jaar in 'n oogopslag by NHHC se webwerf. Kyk gereeld na hierdie bladsy, aangesien die inhoud gereeld opgedateer word.


Onmiddellik na die aanval op Pearl Harbor, het Morison, wat reeds oortuig was van die waarde van persoonlike betrokkenheid as gevolg van seilervaring tydens die skryf van sy biografie van Christopher Columbus, aan president Roosevelt voorgestel wat die voorbereiding van 'n amptelike geskiedenis van die vloot in die oorlog voorstel, en vrywillig vir die taak. Sowel president Roosevelt as die sekretaris van die vloot, Frank Knox, was dit eens, en in Mei 1942 is Morison aangestel as luitenant -bevelvoerder in die vlootreservaat van die Verenigde State, en het 'n personeel assistent toegewys, met toestemming om oral te gaan en om alle amptelike rekords te sien. Morison se reputasie as 'n kundige matroos (gebaseer op sy analise in die biografie van Christopher Columbus) het hom voorafgegaan, en hy is op 'n aantal skepe verwelkom, in totaal elf teen die einde van die oorlog. [1]

Die resultaat was 'n normale historiese werk, nie 'n voorgeskrewe amptelike geskiedenis nie. Beperkings van die Geskiedenis van Amerikaanse vlootoperasies is meestal te wyte aan die verkorte tydperk van publikasie. Sommige materiaal, veral wat verband hou met kodebreek, is nog steeds geklassifiseer, en later het diepgaande navorsing oor spesifieke gebeurtenisse in die oorlog die ligpunte duidelik gemaak. Sommige herskrywings is in die latere drukke van hierdie reeks opgeneem. Hierdie Geskiedenis van Amerikaanse vlootoperasies het ook doelbewus 'n mate van ontleding vermy, byvoorbeeld uitstel van ander werke vir die oorsake van die Japannese aanval op Pearl Harbor. Die bedoelde gehoor vir die werk, om uit die voorwoord aan te haal, was "die algemene leser eerder as die professionele matroos."

  1. Die Slag van die Atlantiese Oseaan: September 1939 - Mei 1943.
  2. Operasies in Noord -Afrikaanse waters: Oktober 1942 - Junie 1943 . 1947. OCLC1035606545. OL2917797W.
  3. Die opkomende son in die Stille Oseaan: 1931 - April 1942.
  4. Coral Sea, Midway en Submarine Actions: Mei 1942 - Augustus 1942.
  5. Die stryd om Guadalcanal: Augustus 1942 - Februarie 1943. ISBN978-0-252-06996-3.
  6. Die Bismarcks -versperring breek: 22 Julie 1942 - 1 Mei 1944. ISBN978-0-252-06997-0.
  7. Aleoetiërs, Gilberts en Marshalls: Junie 1942 - April 1944.
  8. Nieu -Guinee en die Marianas: Maart 1944 - Augustus 1944. ISBN978-0-252-07038-9.
  9. Sicilië - Salerno - Anzio: Januarie 1943 - Junie 1944 . 1954. OCLC1035618324. OL6510710M.
  10. Die Atlantiese Slag gewen: Mei 1943 - Mei 1945. ISBN978-0-252-07061-7.
  11. Die inval van Frankryk en Duitsland: 1944-1945.
  12. Leyte: Junie 1944 - Januarie 1945 . 1958. OCLC1035611842. OL24388559M.
  13. Die bevryding van die Filippyne: Luzon, Mindanao, die Visayas: 1944–1945 . 1959. OCLC1149421696. OL6510710M.
  14. Oorwinning in die Stille Oseaan: 1945 . 1960. OCLC1036894412. OL24590968M.
  15. Aanvulling en algemene indeks . 1962. OCLC1036864613. OL24366206M.

'N Verkorting van die werk van vyftien volumes is deur Morison geskryf en in 1963 gepubliseer:


Geskiedenis

Kommer oor "Our Vanishing History and Traditions" het Commodore Dudley W. Knox gemotiveer om 'n artikel met die titel in die Naval Institute in Januarie 1926 te skryf. Verrigtinge. Knox was van mening dat die buitengewone ontoeganklikheid van outentieke bronne uit die vlootgeskiedenis dokumentasie baie moeiliker maak en lei tot 'opvallende tekortkominge' in die aangetekende geskiedenis van die vloot. Knox het 'n beroep gedoen op groter ywer om dokumente rakende die geskiedenis en tradisies van die vloot te versamel en te bewaar.

Knox se artikel dien as 'n katalisator vir 'n toenemende kommer in die vloot en ondersteunende organisasies. Dit is voorafgegaan deur 'n oproep deur die Raad van Beheer van die Naval Institute om 'n plan van aksie aan te neem. Met die afsterwe van die Naval Historical Society was daar geen private organisasie van nasionale omvang en belang wat toegewy was aan die versameling en bewaring van historiese vlootmateriaal nie. Sekretaris van die vloot Curtis Wilbur het ingestem om sy steun te verleen aan die oprigting van so 'n organisasie en die Naval Historical Foundation is gebore.

Oprigting van die Naval Historical Foundation, 1926

Op 13 Maart 1926 is die Naval Historical Foundation ingelyf as 'n organisasie sonder winsoogmerk onder die wette van die District of Columbia. Die doelstellings van die stigting is as opvoedkundig en literêr gelys deur die "versameling, verkryging en bewaring ... van manuskripte, oorblyfsels, boeke, foto's en alle ander dinge en inligting rakende die geskiedenis en tradisies van die Amerikaanse vloot en Merchant Marine "Plus" die verspreiding van kennis wat sulke geskiedenis en tradisies respekteer, hetsy deur publikasie of andersins. "

Die eerste organisatoriese byeenkoms is op 23 Maart gehou en 'n week later word die nuutgestigte kuratorium verkies as president, agterhoof Austin M. Knight, voormalige opperbevelhebber van die Asiatiese Vloot, voormalige president van die Naval War College, en skrywer van Knight's Modern Seamanship. Binne 'n maand na inlywing is 'n trustfonds gestig, aanvanklik ondersteun met 'n donasie van $ 1 000 van die U.S. Naval Institute.

Die eerste paar jaar van die bestaan ​​het die Naval Historical Foundation die groeipyne ondervind wat by baie nuwe nie-winsgewende organisasies voorkom. In 1927 aanvaar admiraal William L. Rodgers die leiersrol. Terwyl die organisasie finansieel sukkel, kon hy verskeie versamelings bekom en red.

Tog was die visie van die Stigting grandioos. Met 'n nuut ontwerpte logo met 'n vroeë 19de -eeuse fregat en 'n moderne slagskip, publiseer die Stigting sy eerste monografie in 1932 - die vroeë geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse Revenue Cutter Marine Service (1789-1849)- en het bloudrukke opgestel vir 'n vlootmuseum wat in die National Mall geleë sou wees. Omdat die depressie die hoeveelheid openbare en private bronne vir 'n nuwe museumfasiliteit beperk, het die Stigting in 1936 bewus geword van die moontlike beskikbaarheid van Decatur House. Onderhandelinge met die eienaar mev Truxtun Beale om die huis te bekom en met die kongres om finansiering te verskaf, het min vordering gemaak tydens die oorblywende ampstermyn van adm. Rodgers en sy opvolger, adm. Joseph Strauss wat van 1943 tot 1946 as president gedien het.

Vloot-admiraal Ernest J. King, USN, portretfoto geneem in 1945. (National Archives 80-G-416885)

Met die instroming van die hoogste vlootleierskap onder leiding van Fleet Adm. Ernest J. King na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, kon die Stigting egter op 27 Mei 1948 'n reëling sluit om die koetshuis te omskep. Rear Adm. J. A. Furer het toesig gehou oor die projek van $ 50,000+ en op 18 Mei 1950 het die nuwe Truxtun-Decatur Naval Museum sy deure geopen met sy eerste uitstalling getiteld: "Commodore Thomas Truxtun and Stephen Decatur and the Navy of their Times."

Vloot -admiraal William D. Leahy verlig King in 1949 en sou die komende tien jaar as president van die organisasie dien. Benewens die bekendstelling van die nuwe museum, het Leahy 'n ooreenkoms met die Library of Congress gesluit om die groeiende manuskripversameling van die Stigting te versorg en te versorg en hierdie dokumente beskikbaar te stel aan navorsers deur middel van die leeskamer van die manuskripafdeling. In 1950 het Leahy 'n lesingsreeks ingewy oor onderwerpe van mariene historiese belang vir lede en gaste in die Washington-gebied. Die reeks is later mede-geborg deur die Smithsonian Institute, en duur voort tot 1967.

Commodore Dudley W. Knox was president van 1959 tot 1961. Een van sy belangrikste prestasies was die aanvang van 'n filmreeks wat ontwerp is om Amerika se jeug op te voed oor vlootgeskiedenis en die verhouding van seemag in verband met die nasionale welsyn. Met die hulp en samewerking van die Bureau of Naval Personnel kon die Stigting in 1960 sewe films by die American Film Service plaas vir verspreiding. Oor die vroeë geskiedenis van die vloot, het hulle die reg gehad: Die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog, 1775-1783 Vlootoorlog met Frankryk en Tripoli Die oorlog van 1812, Wêreldwye operasies in vrede en oorlog (1815-1869) Burgeroorlog, dele I & ampII en vlootafname, die nuwe vloot en oorlog met Spanje (1863- 1898.) Nog twee films is bygevoeg tot die program wat tot in die 1980's geduur het. Deur die American Film Service is die films wyd bekyk. Byvoorbeeld, in 1977 het ongeveer 45 000 studente in 24 state ten minste een van die films gesien.

Teen die einde van Knox se ampstermyn het die lede van die organisasie nuwe verordeninge goedgekeur en goedgekeur wat voorsiening maak vir 'n direksie en 'n voorsitter. Adm. Robert B. Carney is verkies om as die eerste voorsitter te dien, 'n pos wat hy twee dekades lank sou beklee. Viseadministrateur John F. Shafroth onthef Knox as president en dien tot 1967 in die pos.

Truxtun-Decatur-museum, omstreeks 1960

Gedurende die ampstermyn van Shafroth het die Stigting gefokus op die opknapping en uitbreiding van sy museum. Die Stigting het 400 vierkante meter uitstalruimte bygevoeg, die beligting en dekbedekkings gemoderniseer en 'n nuwe ingang van die straat by 'n voorportaal bygevoeg. Die opknappings is betyds voltooi voordat 'n veertigjarige uitstalling in 1966 geopen kan word. Die Truxtun-Decatur-museum het 'n reputasie as 'n "klein maar 'n juweel in sy soort" gekry en het ongeveer twee keer per jaar uitstallings verander. Met sy ruimtebeperkings kon dit nooit hoop om as 'n fasiliteit te dien wat die besoeker 'n uitgebreide oorsig van die Amerikaanse vlootgeskiedenis bied nie. Die fasiliteit sou in 1963 kom toe die vloot 'n 'Memorial Museum' by die Washington Navy Yard geopen het. Mettertyd sou die Stigting nou verbonde wees aan die nuwe instelling.

Shafroth het ook die stigting se publikasieprogramme versterk. Hy het 'n lente- en herfsverslag aan die lidmaatskap begin. In 1963 is 'n artikel oor vlootgeskiedenis in hierdie nuusbrief ingevoeg. In die herfs van 1979 het die nuusbrief in omvang en omvang uitgebrei en is dit hernoem Trek saam. Benewens die nuusbrief, het die Stigting begin 1964 'n pamfletreeks begin publiseer. Voorheen het die Stigting historiese werwingsplakkate en ander nautiese afdrukke herdruk en af ​​en toe 'n vasgebinde monografie. Die pamflette is ontwerp om onderwerpe te dek wat te groot was vir behandeling in die nuusbrief. Byna drie dosyn monografieë sou oor die volgende drie dekades gepubliseer word met vroeë titels soos Ek was 'n Yeoman F. (1967) Die ongelooflike Alaska Overland Rescue (1968) en Die inskrywing, opleiding en organisasie van bemannings vir ons vlootskepe (1972).

Onder -adm. Walter S. Delany word president in 1967 en lei die Stigting tot sy dood in 1980. Tydens sy ampstermyn het die vloot baie van sy historiese entiteite gekonsolideer en het die Naval Historical Center (nou die Naval History and Heritage Command) 'n amptenaar geword entiteit begin in 1975. Die Navy Department Library was een van die entiteite wat deel sou word van die Naval Historical Center. Delany se passie vir die biblioteek was van so 'n aard dat die huidige leeskamer ter ere van hom gewy is.

Admiraal James L. Holloway, III (uit Naval History and Heritage Command L-File)

Net voordat hy in 1980 oorlede is, het Delany ingestem om 'n uitvoerende direkteur aan te stel om die daaglikse operasionele funksies vir die organisasie te verrig. Kapt. David A. Long het tot 1988 in hierdie posisie gedien. Met die verlies van DeLany en die uittrede van Carney 'n jaar later, wend die stigting hom tot twee voormalige hoofde van vlootoperasies vir leiding. Adm. James L. Holloway, III, sou die langste dienende president van die Stigting word, met 'n ampstermyn van 18 jaar in 1980. Adm. Arleigh A. Burke sou vanaf 1981 'n termyn van vier jaar as voorsitter wees.

Onder leiding van die twee admirale het die Stigting die status van die Truxtun-Decatur Museum hersien en vasgestel dat dit die Stigting in die komende jare 'n toenemende finansiële las sal inhou en dat die Navy Museum by die Washington Navy Yard beter geleë is om die vloot se verhaal aan die Amerikaanse publiek te bevorder. Gevolglik het die Stigting in 1982 die eiendom aan die National Trust for Historic Preservation oorgegee, wat die eiendom omskep het as 'n historiese huis. Met die plasing van baie van sy kosbare artefakte in die nuut opgeknapte vlootmuseum by die Washington Navy Yard, verseker die stigting eintlik meer kykers na sy gewaardeerde besittings as gevolg van die veel groter besoek wat die Navy Yard -fasiliteit geniet.

Die sluiting van die Truxtun-Decatur Naval Museum het die Stigting ook in staat gestel om 'n direkte ondersteuningsrol vir die vlootgeskiedenismuseum van die vloot te aanvaar. In 1983 het die Stigting-bestuurde Pilot House Gift Shop geopen, met 'n deel van die wins wat vir die museum opsy gesit is. In die eerste jaar het die winkel eintlik 'n netto verlies van $ 5,300 behaal, maar met 'n verbeterde voorraad en die aankoms van die uitstalskip Barry as 'n toeriste -aantreklikheid het die winkel wins begin maak.

Twee interessante projekte het plaasgevind tydens die Burke-Holloway-bestuur van die Stigting. Met die oordrag van die amptelike woning van die CNO na Tingey House op die terrein van die Navy Yard, het adm. Holloway 'n komitee begin wat die doel gehad het om geld in te samel om meubels van museumkwaliteit vir die huis te bekom. Nadat die komitee 'n memorandum van verstandhouding met die CNO onderteken het, het die komitee in die eerste jaar meer as $ 34 000 ingesamel en bestee vir verkrygings. In die kwarteeu sedert die stigting van die "Tingey House" -fonds, het die Stigting bykans $ 200 000 bygedra vir die aankoop en herstel van meubels. Boonop, in 1985, begin adm. Jerauld Wright, lid van die Direksie van die Stigting, 'n veldtog om die geboorteplek van John Paul Jones in Kirkbean, Skotland, te herstel. Uiteindelik sou die stigting se "Friends of John Paul Jones" -groep $ 50 000 vir die projek insamel. Vandag kan toeriste die geboorteplek met sy onlangs voltooide besoekersentrum in die suidwestelike Skotse Hoogland besoek.

Rear Adm. Elliott Strauss het die derde voorsitter van die Stigting geword en sou tot 1998 die voorsitter van die Raad wees. Kapt. Kenneth Coskey onthef Long as uitvoerende direkteur in 1988.

Gedurende die 1990's het die Stigting verskeie inisiatiewe geneem wat sou lei tot 'n uitbreiding van die personeel. Om die talle navrae vir fotografiese beelde wat na die Naval Historical Center gestuur is, te vergemaklik, het die Stigting 'n afdeling vir historiese dienste gestig om fotografiese reproduksies te hanteer. Met verloop van tyd sou hierdie afdeling ook kruisboeke en kopiëringsdienste verrig, sowel as historiese navorsing vir betalende kliënte en inkomste vir die organisasie genereer. Boonop het die Stigting, met 'n toelae van $ 20 000 wat deur ambassadeur William H.G. Fitzgerald verskaf is, 'n gegradueerde, David Winkler, aangestel om mondelinge geskiedeniswerk te verrig. Uiteindelik het Winkler as 'n voltydse werknemer by die personeel aangesluit as direkteur van programme en ontwikkeling.

NHF -manuskripversameling by die Library of Congress, James Madison -gebou

Sedert 1949 het die versameling van die Naval Historical Foundation by die Library of Congress steeds gegroei. 'N Katalogus wat in 1974 gepubliseer is, bevat 337 000 items uit 254 versamelings, wat dit "die grootste hoeveelheid persoonlike referate in 'n enkele bewaarplek met betrekking tot die Amerikaanse vlootgeskiedenis" maak. In die belang van langtermyn-bewaring, het die Stigting in 1998 die versameling van die Library of Congress aan hom gegee. Namate nuwe materiaal by die Stigting kom, bepaal die kurator 'n geskikte bewaarplek. Gevolglik groei die vloothistoriese versameling by die Library of Congress steeds verder. Hierdie dokument vir die vind van inligting bevat baie van die meer as 300 afsonderlike groepe papiere wat die volledige omvang van die Amerikaanse vlootgeskiedenis wat in die Library of Congress gestoor is, beskryf.

1998-1999 was die mees onlangse verskuiwing in die leierskap van die stigting, met Adm. Holloway wat vlug tot die posisie van die voorsitter en vise-adm. Robert F. Dunn verkies om Holloway as president te vervang. Kapt Charles T. Creekman verlig kapt Coskey as uitvoerende direkteur.

Onder die nuwe leierskapspan het die organisasie voortgegaan om sy missie om ons vlooterfenis te bewaar en te bevorder, te vervul. 'N Nasionale maritieme toelae van $ 25 000 in 1999 het daartoe gelei dat 'n professionele kurator aangestel is om die oordrag van materiaal na permanente bewaarplekke by die Library of Congress, Naval Historical Center of elders te hanteer. Die program vir mondelinge geskiedenis is uitgebrei deur die gebruik van vrywilligers en 'n Naval Heritage Speakers -program het versoeke vir vlootgeskiedeniskundiges hanteer om gehore regoor die land toe te spreek. Verder werk die Stigting saam met ander organisasies soos die Naval History and Heritage Command, US Naval Institute, Naval Submarine League, Surface Navy Association, US Navy Memorial, Naval Order of the United States en die Navy League of the United States om te borg talle simposieë en konferensies oor aktuele historiese onderwerpe.

'N Ander uitreikinisiatief was die maritieme erfenisvideo -reeks wat byna twee dosyn kort geskiedenisvignette vervaardig het, die Amerikaanse Navy Heritage Mini-reeks, wat opgeneem is in die vloot se algemene militêre opleiding. In 2002 het die Stigting die bou van 'n historiese museumkamer in USS vergemaklik Onderneming.

Die publikasie van twee koffietafelboeke het 'n aansienlike inkomste tot die stigting se kis bygedra. Die vloot is die eerste keer in 2000 gepubliseer en het verskeie herdrukke ondergaan. Hierdie narratiewe behandeling van die Amerikaanse vlootgeskiedenis het meer as 300 000 eksemplare verkoop en is steeds in groot aanvraag. Amerikaanse vloot, 'n volledige geskiedenis wat in 2003 gepubliseer is, het die publiek 'n chronologie gegee van die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse vloot tot en met die oorlog in Irak en ook goed verkoop. Benewens die koffietafelboeke, het die Stigting sy aanbod uitgebrei met Navy Art Kalenders en ander items in 'n groter Navy Museum Store. Die werking van die Stigting van die Navy Museum Store simboliseer 'n langtermyn verbintenis tot die museumkomponent van die Naval History and Heritage Command.

Uitstalling van geheime duikbootoperasies by die Cold War Gallery

In die afgelope jaar is hierdie verbintenis aansienlik uitgebrei tot borgskap van 'n kapitaalveldtog vir die bou van die Navy Museum ’s Cold War Gallery, in die historiese gebou 70 by die Washington Navy Yard. In 2009 is die Central Hall en Ready Room Theatre of the Gallery aan die vloot oorgedra. In 2011 is die uitstalling Covert Submarine Operations voltooi.

In 2008 verlig adm. Bruce DeMars Adm. Holloway as voorsitter. Na 18 jaar van passievolle leierskap van die organisasie, beklee adm. Holloway tans die pos van emeritusvoorsitter van die Naval Historical Foundation.

Behalwe dat dit broodnodige ondersteuning bied aan die historiese programme van die vloot en sy vlagskip National Museum of the United States Navy in Washington, DC, versamel die Stigting ook mondelinge geskiedenis van vlootveterane uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog deur die Koue Oorlog en publiseer dit artikels en borg simposiums oor belangrike vlootgeskiedenisonderwerpe. Om die publiek meer toegang te bied tot die historiese versamelings van kuns, artefakte, dokumente en foto's van die vloot, bied die Stigting historiese navorsing en dokument- en beeldreproduksie deur sy afdeling vir historiese dienste.

Die Stigting bied geskenke van hoë gehalte by die Navy Museum Store om beide jong toeriste tevrede te stel wat op soek is na gedenkwaardighede van hul besoek in Washington, sowel as vlootopdragte wat spesiale aanbiedingsgeskenke soek, soos die stigting se handtekening Truxtun Bowl -replika. Om die toeganklikheid van die Vlootmuseum te verbeter, het die Stigting 'n eksklusiewe lisensie by die Vloot om die museum te huur vir aand- en naweekgeleenthede, wat 'n unieke plek bied vir korporatiewe, vloot- en persoonlike etes en onthale.

In 2011 het die Stigting 'n nuwe STEM Teacher Fellowship -program ingewy. STEM staan ​​vir Wetenskap, Tegnologie, Ingenieurswese en Wiskunde, en dit word 'n belangrike fokuspunt vir die toekoms van die vloot en ons land. Agt onderwysers van regoor die Verenigde State is gekies uit 'n mededingende groep aansoekers vir 'n program van twee weke by die Cold War Gallery. Hulle het inligtingsessies ontvang van aktiewe diensmeesters en veterane van die Koue Oorlog, oor die tegnologie en werking van kernduikbote. Die uiteinde van hul twee weke se harde werk was STEM-gefokusde opvoedkundige lesplanne wat deur opvoeders regoor die land gebruik sou word. Die lesplanne is aanlyn beskikbaar om te sien.

In die afgelope jaar het die Stigting sy pogings tot elektroniese uitreik verhoog. Benewens ons tuisblad op www.navyhistory.org en die meegaande NHF -blog, het ons in 2011 www.usnavymuseum.org gelanseer ter ondersteuning van die Navy Museum ’s Cold War Gallery. Ons publiseer twee elektroniese nuusbriewe aan ons lede, WE-Pull Together en Naval History Book Reviews. Ons handhaaf ook 'n sterk teenwoordigheid op sosiale media met behulp van instrumente soos Facebook en Twitter. Ons hoop dat ons lede en vriende ons by hierdie aanlyn -dialoog sal aansluit en ons sal help om ons missie van behoud, opvoeding en herdenking van die vlootgeskiedenis suksesvol te maak.

Die Naval Historical Foundation het 'n welverdiende reputasie binne en buite die vloot en bly die dekaan van dienshistoriese ondersteuningsorganisasies. Dat hierdie reputasie verkry is, kan deels toegeskryf word aan die persoonlike en finansiële bydraes van ons lidmaatskap. This we will always remain cognitive and appreciative of.


History of US Navy Uniforms

The birth of the U.S. Navy didn't take place until a few months after the start of the Revolutionary War, and it was disbanded shortly after. It wasn't brought back into existence for nearly 20 years, and it wasn't until 1817 that the first official uniforms were created. The War Department officially declared that enlisted sailors wear "blue jackets and trousers, red vest with yellow buttons and a black hat." But at that time, funding was short so uniform regulations were not heavily enforced. Certain aspects of the uniform evolved over time to signify ranks such as master-at-arms, yeoman, and to distinguish officers.

Due to the size and complexity of warships in the 1800s, the rank of chief petty officer was established to help organize and manage day-to-day operations. Those who achieved this rank tended to have spent more time serving in the military and welcomed the addition of service stripes to reflect their length of service.

While the original uniforms used string to holds pants at the waist, buttons soon took over. In 1864, a flap at the front of the trousers was implemented that required seven buttons to hold up. In 1894, the flap was lengthened, and six more buttons were added. Eventually, string reappeared at the back of the waist to help sailors whose pants needed an extra cinch when the buttons failed.

Bell-bottoms, another iconic aspect of classic Navy uniforms, supposedly were implemented in the 1800s to distinguish sailors from civilian fashion. Perhaps unintentionally, bell-bottoms proved extremely useful. They were rolled easily above the knee to keep legs dry and allowed sailors to remove them quickly while still wearing their shoes in case they were tossed overboard.

Neckerchiefs were common at the time among men working on ships since they were convenient sweat rags. They were useful enough that the Navy codified a standard-issue neckerchief with a square knot in 1817. It was common to use a coin to keep the neckerchief's shape while rolling it. There are many claims that this is a nod to the Greek myth of deceased individuals needing a coin for the ferryman on the river Styx to take them to the underworld. However, there is no evidence to suggest that this is the origin of the practice.

The early 1900s saw two major changes to Navy uniforms: denim for jumpers and trousers, and uniforms for newly enlisted women. Female uniforms tended to reflect civilian fashion rather than maritime traditions, and it wasn't until World War II that the Navy updated this trend.

Among a few traditional aspects of the uniform to change in the 1940s was the removal of the hat-band ribbon in 1941. These ribbons used to feature a sailor's unit name on the flat of the hat, but these distinctions eventually were shifted to the shoulder for security reasons.

Major changes to the uniform took place in 1973. Many sailors in leadership roles, including many senior petty officers, wanted their uniforms to appear more distinguished. Traditional uniforms were replaced with suits and ties that were more in line with CPO and officer regulations. The idea was to present the modern Navy as a unified force, but these changes weren't taken well and largely were reversed by 1980. At that point, women received uniforms that were more practical, functional and indicative of American naval traditions.

Current Navy uniforms maintain a number of traditions stemming from its formation, including jumpers and neckerchiefs.


Naval Uniform Questions and Answers

Artists rendition of a bluejacket at the ship's helm and a lieutenant. These are dress uniforms for formal occasions that date to the early 1800's. The uniform of the day for bluejackets at sea would be "slops," the course clothing of the day, in a mix that seldom matched that of their shipmates.

The lieutenants full dress uniform is according to Uniform Regulations of 1802,

"COAT of blue cloth, with long lappels, and lining of the same, with nine buttons on each lappel a standing collar, and three buttons on the cuffs and on the pockets, the button-holes laced with such lace as is directed for the captain's one apaulet on the left shoulder, except when acting as commanding officer, and then to be changed to the right shoulder. VEST AND BREECHES--The same as the captain's, except three buttons and button-holes on the pockets of the vest."

Q. What is the history of the petty officer rating badge?

A. In 1833, insignia called distinguishing marks, were first prescribed as part of the official uniform. The first distinguishing mark was an eagle and anchor. In 1886 rating badges were established and some 15 specialty marks were provided to cover the various ratings. It wasn't until April 1, 1893 that the rating of chief petty officer was established.

Until 1949 rating badges were worn on either the left or right sleeve. From 1833 to 1885 Petty Officers of the Line (Seaman Branch) wore the Petty Officer Device on the right sleeve, and all others on the left sleeve except officers' stewards. Petty Officers of the Line (Seaman Branch) included deck ratings of boatswains mate, signalman and quartermaster, and ordnance ratings of turret captain, gunners mate, fire controlman, mineman and torpedoman.
From 1885 to 1913 the rating badge was worn according to the watch. The port section wore their badges on the left arm. From 1913 to 1949 the rating badge was again worn on the right by the Seaman Branch and the left for all others.

The eagle on the petty officer rating badge is derived from the Napoleonic eagle. This eagle was usually embroidered facing left. Why the Napoleonic eagle faces left is unknown. In 1941, the Navy changed the eagle's facing direction to follow the heraldic rules which face right toward the wearer's sword arm. This rule continues to apply and the eagle now faces to the front or the wearer's right. Bluejacket slang for the eagle is "crow."

A. Early pilots generally wore civilian clothes as they were more practical around the grease and dirt of flying machines. In those days the standard workday uniform for officers was either service dress blues or service dress whites. As early as the winter of 1912-1913, naval aviators adopted the khaki uniform of the Marine flyers, wearing Marine Corps breeches, leather puttees and dying their service whites and white hat covers to match. This uniform was worn during the Veracruz excursion of 1914 and is the beginnings of the Navy khaki uniform.

In 1917, this unofficial uniform became official and as with the Marine custom, brown shoes were worn. Thus aviators became "Brown Shoes" and everybody else in the Navy is a lowly "Black Shoe." It quickly was recognized the khaki uniform was best for summer, and inappropriate for winter wear. Thus the "Aviation Greens" came into existence. The color was defined as Marine Corps Forest Green and the design the same as the Navy blue uniform.


The Navy’s Anti-Piracy Efforts

One of the earliest uses for the U.S. Navy was to fight against the Barbary pirates that were taking over the country’s merchant ships, helping themselves to the items on board, and taking the men on the ship hostage. Thomas Jefferson sent the naval fleet of the day to the Barbary Coast in response. Two wars ensued before the pirates backed off. In recent years though, the navy has seen history repeat itself as Somali pirates attack U.S. ships . As they did in the past (although with better technology this time around), the navy has risen to the challenge.


History of US Navy - History

US Navy History: Origins

In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, the establishment of an official navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, and make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, then the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking.

Commander in Chief George Washington commissioned seven ocean-going cruisers to interdict British supply ships, and reported the captures to the Congress. This effectively ended the debate in Congress as to whether or not to "provoke" the British by establishing a Navy as Washington's ships had already captured British ships, somewhat a provocation.

While Congress deliberated, then it received word that two unarmed British supply ships from England were heading towards Quebec without escort. A plan was drawn up to intercept the ships—however, the armed vessels to be used were owned not by Congress, but by individual colonies. Of greater significance, then, was an additional plan to equip two ships that would operate under the direct authority of Congress to capture British supply ships. This was not carried out until 13 October 1775, when George Washington announced that he had taken command of three armed schooners under Continental authority to intercept any British supply ships near Massachusetts. With the revelation that vessels were already sailing under Continental control, the decision to add two more was made easier the resolution was adopted and 13 October would later become known as the U.S. Navy's official birthday.

The Continental Navy achieved mixed results it was successful in a number of engagements and raided many British merchant vessels, but it lost 24 of its vessels and at one point was reduced to two in active service. As Congress turned its attention after the conflict towards securing the western border of the new United States, a standing navy was considered to be dispensable because of its high operating costs and its limited number of roles.

US Navy History: From reestablishment to the Civil War

The United States would be without a navy for nearly a decade—a state of affairs that exposed its merchant ships to a series of attacks by Barbary pirates . The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U.S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U.S. Revenue Cutter Service (USRCS), the primary "ancestor" of the U.S. Coast Guard . Although USRCS Cutters conducted operations against these pirates, the depredations far outstripped the abilities of the USRCS and Congress ordered the construction and manning of six frigates on 27 March 1794 three years later the first three were welcomed into service: the USS Verenigde State, USS Konstellasie en USS Grondwet.

Following an undeclared Quasi-War with France, the U.S. Navy saw substantial action in the War of 1812, where it was victorious in numerous single-ship duels with the Royal Navy. The Navy drove all significant British forces off of Lake Erie and Lake Champlain and prevented them from becoming British controlled zones of conflict. Despite this, the U.S. Navy was unable to prevent the British from blockading American ports and landing troops on American soil. After the war, the U.S. Navy again focused its attention on protecting American shipping assets, sending squadrons to the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, South America, Africa, and the Pacific.

During the Mexican-American War the U.S. Navy contributed by instituting blockades of Mexican ports, capturing or burning the Mexican fleet in the Gulf of California and capturing all major cities in Baja California peninsula—later returned. In 1846-1848 the navy successfully used the Pacific Squadron under Commodore (Rear Admiral) Robert Stockton and its marines and blue-jackets to facilitate the capture of California with large scale land operations coordinated with the local militia organized in the California Battalion. The navy conducted the U.S. military's first large-scale amphibious joint operation by successfully landing 12,000 army troops with their equipment in one day at Veracruz, Mexico. When larger guns were needed to bombard Veracruz Navy volunteers landed large navy guns and manned them in the successful bombardment of the city and its surrender. This successful landing and capture of Veracruz eventually opening the way for the capture of Mexico City and the end of the war. The United States Navy established itself as a player in American foreign policy through the actions of Commodore Matthew Perry in Japan, which resulted in the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Naval power would play a significant role during the American Civil War, where the Union had a distinct advantage over the Confederacy on the seas. A Union blockade on shipping handicapped the Southern effort throughout the conflict. The two American navies would help usher in a new era in world naval history by putting ironclad warships into combat for the first time. The Battle of Hampton Roads in 1862, which pitted USS Monitor against CSS Virginia, became the first engagement between two steam-powered ironclads. Soon after the war, however, the U.S. Navy's fleet slipped into obsolescence because of neglect.

US Navy History : 20th century

The Navy saw little action during World War I, but nevertheless the strength of the American Navy grew under an ambitious ship building program associated with the Naval Act of 1916. Naval construction, especially of battleships was later limited by the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-22, however, construction of aircraft carriers continued, accelerating after the New Deal which provided funding for the construction of the USS Yorktown (CV-5) and USS Onderneming (CV-6). By 1936, with the completion of the USS Wesp (CV-7), the U.S. Navy possessed a carrier fleet of 165,000 tonnes displacement, although this figure was nominally recorded as 135,000 tonnes to comply with treaty limitations.

The U.S. Navy grew into a formidable force in the years prior to World War II, with battleship production being restarted in 1937, commencing with the USS Noord-Carolina (BB-55). Though ultimately unsuccessful, Japan attempted to allay this strategic threat with the 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor. Following American entry into the war, the U.S. Navy grew tremendously as the United States was faced with a two-front war on the seas. It achieved notable acclaim in the Pacific Theater, where it was instrumental to the Allies' successful "island hopping" campaign. The U.S. Navy participated in many significant battles, including the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. By 1943, the Navy's size was larger than the combined fleets of all the other combatant nations in World War II. By war's end in 1945, the United States Navy had added hundreds of new ships, including 18 aircraft carriers and 8 battleships, and had over 70% of the world's total numbers and total tonnage of naval vessels of 1,000 tons or greater. At its peak, the U.S. Navy was operating 6,768 ships on V-J Day in August 1945.

American Navy doctrine had significantly shifted by the end of the war. The United States Navy had followed in the footsteps of the navies of Great Britain and Germany which favored concentrated groups of battleships as their main offensive naval weapons. The development of the aircraft carrier and its devastating utilization by the Japanese against the Americans at Pearl Harbor however shifted Americans thinking. The Pearl Harbor attack destroyed or took out of action a significant number of American battleships. This placed much of the burden of retaliating against the Japanese on the small number of aircraft carriers.

The potential for armed conflict with the Soviet Union during the Cold War pushed the U.S. Navy to continue its technological advancement by developing new weapons systems, ships, and aircraft. United States naval strategy changed to that of forward deployment in support of U.S. allies with an emphasis on carrier battle groups.

The Navy was a major participant in the Vietnam War, blockaded Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, and, through the use of ballistic missile submarines , became an important aspect of the United States' nuclear strategic deterrence policy. The United States Navy conducted various combat operations in the Persian Gulf against Iran in 1987 and 1988, most notably Operation Praying Mantis. The Navy was extensively involved in Operation Urgent Fury , Operation Desert Shield , Operation Desert Storm , Operation Deliberate Force , Operation Allied Force , Operation Desert Fox and Operation Southern Watch.

The U.S. Navy has also been involved in Search and Rescue/Search and Salvage operations, some times in conjunction with vessels of other countries as well as with U.S. Coast Guard ships. Two examples are the 1966 Palomares B-52 crash incident and search for the nuclear bombs, and the Task Force 71 of the Seventh Fleet operation in search for Korean Air Lines Flight 007 shot down by the Soviets on Sept. 1, 1983.

US Navy History: 21st century

The United States Navy continues to be a major support to American interests in the 21st century. Since the end of the Cold War, it has shifted its focus from preparations for large-scale war with the Soviet Union to special operations and strike missions in regional conflicts. The Navy participated in Operation Enduring Freedom , Operation Iraqi Freedom , and is a major participant in the ongoing War on Terror, largely in this capacity. Development continues on new ships and weapons, including the Gerald R. Ford class aircraft carrier and the Littoral combat ship. Because of its size, weapons technology, and ability to project force far from American shores, the current U.S. Navy remains a potent asset for the United States Commander-in-Chief (the President of the United States).

In 2007, the U.S. Navy joined with the U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. The strategy was presented by the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps and Commandant of the Coast Guard at the International Seapower Symposium in Newport, R.I. on 17 October 2007. The strategy recognized the economic links of the global system and how any disruption due to regional crises — man made or natural—can adversely impact the U.S. economy and quality of life. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent these crises from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to prevent negative impacts on the United States.

In 2010, Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Gary Roughead noted that demands on the Navy have grown as the fleet has shrunk and that in the face of declining budgets in the future the US Navy must rely even more on international partnerships.


The definitive work on naval operations in WW2. Even with recent revelations after Morison&aposs death, and occasional errata, it&aposs a superb work. Deftly written, a wealth of both scholarship and his own experience during the war combine to make this a "must read" for any serious student of America&aposs naval operations in WW2. The shorter version, "The Two-Ocean War," gives but an incomplete taste of Morison&aposs skill as a writer as well as the technical and factual detail that make the 15-volume set wo The definitive work on naval operations in WW2. Even with recent revelations after Morison's death, and occasional errata, it's a superb work. Deftly written, a wealth of both scholarship and his own experience during the war combine to make this a "must read" for any serious student of America's naval operations in WW2. The shorter version, "The Two-Ocean War," gives but an incomplete taste of Morison's skill as a writer as well as the technical and factual detail that make the 15-volume set worth acquiring.

My Dad was a Navy fighter pilot in the Pacific during the war (June-December, 1944), and this series became a way for me to connect with him after he was killed in 1951. I started reading this (Volume 10) when I was 10 years old in 1954, and got one volume a year at Christmas every year for several years, each one devoured in a day or two immediately after Christmas. Once I graduated from college, I completed the set buy getting the final few volumes all at once.

I've gone back to read each volume multiple times over the years, and this set might be my most prized printed possession. . meer

Although it has occasionally been proven wrong about its facts, Morison&aposs 15-volume History of US Naval Operations in WWII is still considered the definitive work on the whole subject certainly no one else has attempted to replicate both the depth and the breadth of this work.

Largely compiled from official reports during and directly following the war, it suffers from the limitations of those sources and that timeline. Many of the reasons why things happened were still classified when Morison Although it has occasionally been proven wrong about its facts, Morison's 15-volume History of US Naval Operations in WWII is still considered the definitive work on the whole subject certainly no one else has attempted to replicate both the depth and the breadth of this work.

Largely compiled from official reports during and directly following the war, it suffers from the limitations of those sources and that timeline. Many of the reasons why things happened were still classified when Morison wrote (such as the intercepts which led to the Americans knowing about the Japanese attack on Midway in advance) and some judgments were made without the benefit of perspective (Morison later regretted his harsh treatment of Short and Kimmel for Pearl Harbor and concluded that they had received a raw deal).

Despite its flaws, this remains one of the standard works on the subject, and can be found in the bibliography of nearly every following book dealing with the US Navy in WWII. . meer


History of USNA

When the founders of the United States Naval Academy were looking for a suitable location, it was reported that then Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft decided to move the naval school to "the healthy and secluded" location of Annapolis in order to rescue midshipmen from "the temptations and distractions that necessarily connect with a large and populous city." The Philadelphia Naval Asylum School was its predecessor. Four of the original seven faculty members came from Philadelphia. Other small naval schools in New York City, Norfolk, Va., and Boston, Mass. also existed in the early days of the United States.

The United States Navy was born during the American Revolution when the need for a naval force to match the Royal Navy became clear. But during the period immediately following the Revolution, the Continental Navy was demobilized in 1785 by an economy-minded Congress.

The dormancy of American seapower lasted barely a decade when, in 1794, President George Washington persuaded the Congress to authorize a new naval force to combat the growing menace of piracy on the high seas.

The first vessels of the new U.S. Navy were launched in 1797 among them were the United States, the Constellation, and the Constitution. In 1825, President John Quincy Adams urged Congress to establish a Naval Academy "for the formation of scientific and accomplished officers." His proposal, however, was not acted upon until 20 years later.

On September 13, 1842, the American Brig Somers set sail from the Brooklyn Navy Yard on one of the most significant cruises in American naval history. It was a school ship for the training of teenage naval apprentice volunteers who would hopefully be inspired to make the Navy a career.

However, discipline deteriorated on the Somers and it was determined by a court of inquiry aboard ship that Midshipman Philip Spencer and his two chief confederates, Boatswains Mate Samuel Cromwell and Seaman Elisha Small, were guilty of a "determined attempt to commit a mutiny."

The three were hanged at the yardarm and the incident cast doubt over the wisdom of sending midshipmen directly aboard ship to learn by doing. News of the Somers mutiny shocked the country.

Through the efforts of the Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, the Naval School was established without Congressional funding, at a 10-acre Army post named Fort Severn in Annapolis, Maryland, on October 10, 1845, with a class of 50 midshipmen and seven professors. The curriculum included mathematics and navigation, gunnery and steam, chemistry, English, natural philosophy, and French.

In 1850 the Naval School became the United States Naval Academy. A new curriculum went into effect requiring midshipmen to study at the Academy for four years and to train aboard ships each summer. That format is the basis of a far more advanced and sophisticated curriculum at the Naval Academy today. As the U.S. Navy grew over the years, the Academy expanded. The campus of 10 acres increased to 338. The original student body of 50 midshipmen grew to a brigade size of 4,000. Modern granite buildings replaced the old wooden structures of Fort Severn.

Congress authorized the Naval Academy to begin awarding bachelor of science degrees in 1933. The Academy later replaced a fixed curriculum taken by all midshipmen with the present core curriculum plus 18 major fields of study, a wide variety of elective courses and advanced study and research opportunities.

Since then, the development of the United States Naval Academy has reflected the history of the country. As America has changed culturally and technologically so has the Naval Academy. In just a few decades, the Navy moved from a fleet of sail and steam-powered ships to a high-tech fleet with nuclear-powered submarines and surface ships and supersonic aircraft. The academy has changed, too, giving midshipmen state-of- the-art academic and professional training they need to be effective naval officers in their future careers.

The Naval Academy first accepted women as midshipmen in 1976, when Congress authorized the admission of women to all of the service academies. Women comprise over 20 percent of entering plebes --or freshmen-- and they pursue the same academic and professional training as do their male classmates


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