Inligting

Romeinse glas parfuumhouers



Skoonheidsmiddels in antieke Rome

Skoonheidsmiddels, wat eers in antieke Rome vir rituele doeleindes gebruik is, [1] was deel van die daaglikse lewe. Sommige modieuse skoonheidsmiddels, soos dié wat uit Duitsland, Gallië en China ingevoer is, was so duur dat die Lex Oppia dit in 189 vC probeer beperk het. [2] Hierdie 'ontwerperhandelsmerke' het goedkoop afslag veroorsaak wat aan armer vroue verkoop is. [3] Werkersklasvroue kon die goedkoper variëteite bekostig, maar het moontlik nie die tyd (of slawe) gehad om die grimering aan te bring nie [4], aangesien die gebruik van grimering 'n tydrowende aangeleentheid was omdat skoonheidsmiddels 'n paar keer heraansoek moes word weens weerstoestande en swak samestelling. [5]

Skoonheidsmiddels is privaat toegepas, gewoonlik in 'n klein kamer waar mans nie ingekom het nie. Kosmetiek, vroulike slawe wat hul minnaresse versier het, is veral geprys vir hul vaardighede. [6] Hulle sou hulle meesteres verfraai met kultus, die Latynse woord wat make -up, parfuum en juweliersware insluit. [7]

Reuk was ook 'n belangrike faktor van skoonheid. Daar word vermoed dat vroue wat lekker ruik gesond is. As gevolg van die stank van baie van die bestanddele wat destyds in skoonheidsmiddels gebruik is, het vroue hulself gereeld deurdrenk in groot hoeveelhede parfuum. [8]

Christenvroue het geneig om skoonheidsmiddels te vermy met die oortuiging dat hulle moet prys wat God hulle gegee het. [9] Sommige mans, veral dwarsdragers, het wel skoonheidsmiddels gebruik, hoewel dit as vroulik en onbehoorlik beskou is. [10]

Alle kosmetiese bestanddele is ook gebruik as medisyne om verskillende siektes te behandel. Lood, hoewel bekend as giftig, is steeds wyd gebruik. [7]


Die antieke geskiedenis van parfuum

As u 'n liefhebber van parfuum is, ken u waarskynlik die basiese beginsels van die moderne parfuumgeskiedenis. U weet hoe Guerlain en Coty die eerste groot ondernemings was wat parfuum in massa vervaardig het, u weet dat Chanel No 5 verkooprekords verslaan en parfuumgeskiedenis gemaak het, en u verstaan ​​hoe geure wat deur beroemde vroue van Elizabeth Taylor tot Katy Perry bemark is, die parfuum gedefinieer het. mark vir dekades. Maar die gladde glasbottels en perfek geverfde celeb -veldtogte van vandag se parfuumtellers glo 'n eerlik vreemde geskiedenis wat duisende jare terug strek - en chemikalieë behels wat afkomstig is van die boude van dooie katte, die kruistogte, sweet, en geurige voete, die pes en walvis braak.

Die geskiedenis van parfuum is meer as net die geskiedenis van mense wat probeer ruik - dit is 'n geskiedenis vol twis en vernuwing. Die bestanddele wat gebruik word om geure te skep, was histories uiters belangrik vir handelsroetes, hoëgeurgeure is nog altyd gebruik as 'n manier om adel en boere te onderskei (Elizabeth I het 'n parfuum van muskus en rooswater gedra, terwyl Napoleon bestel het) 50 bottels Keulen per maand), en geur is gekoppel aan uitdrukkings van godsdienstige toewyding, gesondheidsvoorsorgmaatreëls en netheidspogings vir die grootste deel van die geskiedenis van die menslike beskawing.

Hier is 'n paar van die ou oorsprong van parfuum. Neem dit in, en kyk dan met gemak na u badkamerkas.

Antieke Egipte

Die Egiptenare was groot liefhebbers van parfuum en het dit vir seremoniële en verfraaiingsdoeleindes gebruik: die geur was die sweet van die songod Ra. Hulle het selfs 'n parfuumgod, Nefertum, gehad wat 'n hoofrok van waterlelies gedra het (een van die grootste parfuumbestanddele van die tyd). Argeoloë het ook baie Egiptiese resepte en uitgebreide voorskrifte vir die maak van parfuum ontdek. As u 'n koning of 'n ander persoon met 'n hoë status in die Egiptiese samelewing was, sou 'n soort parfuum deel uitmaak van u alledaagse lewe, besmeer in die vorm van geurige olie om u geurig te hou. (In die moderne wêreld is alkohol die basiese materiaal waarop parfuum gebou word, maar in die ou tyd is parfuum gemaak met 'n oliebasis.) Trouens, die Universiteit van Bonn probeer tans 'n farao se parfuum van 1479 vC herskep, gebaseer op sy ontblote oorblyfsels wat in 'n wa gevind word. Die kans is goed dat dit taai sal wees en baie ruik na rivierplant en wierook. (En nee, arm mense het geen parfuum gekry nie.)

Egiptenare het groot hoeveelhede parfuumbestanddele ingevoer uit Punt, 'n Afrika -streek wat gespesialiseer is in aromatiese bosse en mirre - soveel so dat parfuumhandel 'n groot deel van die internasionale betrekkinge vir beide streke was. Dit was basies die ekwivalent van die VSA en China wat 'n miljoen dollar-handelsooreenkoms vir sandelhout gesluit het.

Antieke Persië

Die antieke Persiese koninklike klas was ook ernstig belê in parfuum - soveel so dat dit algemeen was dat konings met parfuumbottels in Persiese kuns uitgebeeld word. Die legendariese heersers Darius en Xerxes word in een reliëf vertoon en sit gemaklik met hul parfuumbottels en hou parfuumblomme in hul hande. Dit was die ou ekwivalent van prins William wat 'n Burberry -geurkontrak gehad het.

Die Perse het honderde jare die parfuumhandel oorheers, en baie meen dat hulle die distillasieproses uitgevind het wat gelei het tot die ontdekking van basisalkohol. Een ding wat ons wel weet, is dat Avicenna, die Persiese dokter, chemikus en filosoof, baie met destillasie geëksperimenteer het om beter geure te probeer maak, en die eerste was om die chemie agter parfuums te ontdek wat nie op olie gebaseer was nie.

Antieke Rome

Soveel antieke Romeinse en Griekse parfuumresepte het oorleef (insluitend dié wat versigtig deur mense soos Plinius die Ouere in sy Natuurlike geskiedenis) dat ons eintlik ou parfuums in ons moderne era kan herskep. Die ou Grieke en Romeine het hul parfuummaakprosesse noukeurig gedokumenteer. Trouens, daar is selfs 'n muurskildery in 'n parfuummaker se huis in Pompeii wat die proses van die vervaardiging van Grieks-Romeinse parfuums beskryf: eerstens is olie gemaak deur olywe te pers, dan is bestanddele soos plante en bosse bygevoeg met behulp van noukeurige skaalmetings van 'n Die resep word uiteindelik oorgelaat om te "steep" - dit wil sê dat die bestanddele in die olie gelaat is sodat die olie sy geur kan aanneem - voordat dit verkoop word.

Die oudste parfuumfabriek ter wêreld is in 2007 in Ciprus opgegrawe - die mitologiese tuiste van Aphrodite, godin van liefde. Maar dit was waarskynlik nie toevallig nie. Die kultus van Aphrodite se sterk kulturele verband met parfuum het beteken dat hierdie parfuumfabriek waarskynlik geure vir die tempels en aanbidders lewer. Parfuum is dikwels in antieke samelewings gebruik om gelowiges nader aan die gode te bring. Maar reuk was nie net vir godsdienstige doeleindes nie: dit was oral. By 'n growwe raaiskoot gebruik die Romeine teen 100 nC 2800 ton wierook n jaar , en parfuum is gebruik in skoonheidsprodukte, openbare baddens en selfs op die voetsole.

Ironies genoeg was Plinius se noukeurig bewaarde resepterekords eintlik deel van 'n veroordeling van parfuum. In James I. Porter's Konstruksies van die klassieke liggaam , wys hy daarop dat oormatige gebruik van parfuum in werklikheid as on-Romeins beskou is deur sommige Plinius, wat goedkeurend vertel hoe 'n aristokraat se skuilplek deur die geur van sy parfuum ontdek is. Sommige mense het beslis gedink dat mooi geure tot die tempels beperk moet bly.

Antieke China

Die ou Chinese verhouding met reuk het nie regtig op die liggaam gefokus nie: eerder as om parfuum te dra, het die ou Chinese kultuur geur gebruik deur wierook en geurige materiaal in spesiale ruimtes te verbrand. Geskiedenis van die gebruik van reuk in die Chinese samelewing beklemtoon dat parfuum oorspronklik nie as 'n skoonheidsmiddel beskou is nie, maar dat dit vir ontsmetting en suiwerheid gebruik is, omdat daar geglo word dat dit siektes uit die kamers kan verwyder. Alhoewel geurige blomme deel uitmaak van die tradisionele tuine, en mandaryn -lemoene vroeër deur edelvroue gebruik is om hul hande te ruik, blyk dit dat parfuum op jou liggaam eeue lank nie noodwendig die "quotin ding" in China was nie.

Maar alhoewel daar vandag 'n mite is dat daar geen parfuum op ou liggame in ou China was nie, is dit onsin. Volgens Chinese chemie -historici was die tydperk tussen die Sui- en die Song -dinastieë vol persoonlike parfuum, met edeles wat meeding om die beste geure en die invoer van bestanddele via die Silk Road. Tydens die Qing-dinastie (1644-1912) lyk dit asof die keiser die hele jaar deur 'n 'parfuumsak' gedra het, 'n aanpassing van die tradisionele sakzak wat geluk gebring het-behalwe dat syne vol geurige kruie was.

Die groot verskil tussen hierdie en ander parfuumtradisies? Baie Chinese parfuumbestanddele is ook vir baie ander doeleindes gebruik, soos kos en medisyne.

Middeleeuse Europa

As jy was enigiemand in Europa, tussen die 1200's en ongeveer die 1600's, het u 'n pomander gedra - 'n bal met geurige materiale, in 'n lieflike oop kas gehou en gebruik om infeksies af te weer en die lug rondom u skoon te hou. Aangesien die Middeleeuse Europeërs letterlik gedink het dat slegte lug jou siek kan maak (dit word die teorie van die miasma genoem, wat veronderstel het dat daar vermoed word dat siektes in slegte geurige, ongesonde lug opgeskort word), is hierdie klein kluitjies ook as lewensredders beskou as bekoorlike bykomstighede.

Dit lyk asof die hele idee van hierdie draagbare parfuum in die Middeleeue opgeduik het nadat kruisvaarders, wat teruggekeer het van heilige oorloë in Arabië, ook hul vyande se parfuumgeheimenisse teruggebring het. Alhoewel die idee van persoonlike geure op oliebasis nie opgeval het nie, het hulle ontdek dat sif, kaster, muskus, ambergras en ander produkte op diere 'n goeie basis vir geure is, en dat hulle reuk sakke of sakkies dra om hul klere te parfuum. Maar die eerste parfuum wat op alkohol gebaseer is, is ook in hierdie tydperk geskep: dit was bekend as Hongarye Water, omdat dit vermoedelik gedurende die 14de eeu vir die koningin van Hongarye geskep is, en gedistilleerde alkohol en kruie (waarskynlik roosmaryn en kruisement).

En as u wonder wat die diere-gebaseerde bestanddele is, hoop ek dat u 'n sterk maag het. Musk is 'n afskeiding van die 'muskuspeul' van die mannetjieshert, 'n orgaan wat gebruik word vir die mark van civet, is 'n vloeistof uit die anale kliere van sivetkatte, die strooi word gemaak van die reukkliere van bevers en ambergris is 'n grys olierige knop wat in die spysverteringstelsels van potvisse, waarskynlik 'n byproduk om inkvisse te probeer verteer. Jip. Glansryk.

1400-1500's Italië

'N Ernstige deurbraak in die produksie van parfuum het plaasgevind in die Middeleeuse Italië, toe hulle ontdek hoe om aqua mirabilis te skep, 'n duidelike stof gemaak van 95 persent alkohol en met 'n sterk geur. En dus is die vloeibare parfuum gebore. Na hierdie uitvinding het Italië - veral Venesië - 'n paar honderd jaar lank die middelpunt geword van die wêreld met parfuumhandel.

As daar een persoon is wat beslis Italiaanse parfuum na Frankryk en die res van die wêreld gebring het, was dit Catherine de Medici, wat as 'n Italiaanse bruid met die Franse koning getroud was, haar eie parfuum laat opmaak het deur haar Italiaanse parfuumster, Rene le Florentin (Rene the Florentine) - 'n geurige water met bergamot en lemoenbloeisel. Hy het ook muskus- en sif-handskoene vir haar geskep, wat 'n sensasie was. Aangesien Catherine daarvan beskuldig word dat sy mense vermoor het met handskoene bedek met gif, is dit eintlik redelik poëties.

Van daar af het dinge versnel: na 'n kort duik in parfuumgewildheid in onderdrukte Victoriaanse Engeland, het sintetiese verbindings aan die einde van die 1800's begin ontdek, en die moderne parfuumbedryf is gebore. Die volgende keer dat u 'n paar van u juffrou Dior aanskakel, geniet dit-en wees dankbaar dat u nie 'n bewer-kont-vloeistof ronddra nie.


Inhoud

Die term unguentarium Dit is funksioneel eerder as beskrywend, dit wil sê, dit verwys na die doel waarvoor vermoedelik hierdie relatief klein vaartuig gebruik is en is nie tipologies van vorm nie. [7] In die vroeë ontwikkeling is die vorm in miniatuur gemodelleer na groter amforas, wat die oorspronklike grootmaathouers sou gewees het vir produkte wat in die ungentaria verkoop is. [8] 'n Unguentarium word nie altyd in die wetenskaplike literatuur onderskei van 'n ampulla nie, [9] 'n term uit die oudheid wat hierna kan verwys, sowel as na ander klein vaartuie. In die geleerdheid van die moderne era word 'n unguentarium soms 'n lacrimarium ("skeurhouer") of balsamarium ("balsemhouer"). Al drie terme weerspieël die moderne gebruik op grond van aannames oor die gebruik daarvan, en daar is geen enkele woord in antieke bronne vir die vate nie. [10]

Klein vaartuie van twee vorms, gewoonlik maar nie altyd sonder handvatsels nie, word na verwys as unguentaria:

  • Fusiform - Die fusiforme vorm (voorbeeld hier [11]) is kenmerkend van Hellenistiese unguentaria: 'n swaar eiervormige liggaam wat gewoonlik op 'n klein ringvoet rus, met 'n lang buisvormige nek of silindriese stam. Die vorm is vergelykbaar met 'n spil (Latyn fusus, "spil"). [12] Hierdie eiervormige unguentaria verskyn die eerste keer in Ciprus rondom die begin van die 4de en 3de eeu vC. [13] en was moontlik van Oos -oorsprong of invloed. [14] Vroeë voorbeelde is in vorm soortgelyk aan die amphoriskos. Daar word geglo dat hulle funksioneel ontwikkel uit die lekythos, wat hulle teen die einde van die 4de eeu vC vervang het. [15] Die fusiform unguentarium was etlike eeue in gebruik en die vorm toon baie variasies, insluitend latere voorbeelde met baie skraal profiele. [16]
  • Piriform -Die unguentarium met 'n voetlose lyf wat afgerond of peervormig is (Latyn pirus, "peer") begin in die tweede helfte van die 1ste eeu vC verskyn en is kenmerkend van die Romeinse era, veral die vroeë Prinsipaat. [17] Dit word gereeld in die 1ste eeu met grafte geassosieer. [18] Die piriform unguentarium was vir 'n beperkte tydperk van ongeveer honderd jaar in gebruik en het die fusiform nie vervang nie. [19] 'n Uitsondering op hierdie chronologie is die afgeronde unguentarium met geverfde bande wat aan die noordoostelike kus van Spanje en in ander Iberiese begraafplase gevind is, wat reeds in die 5de eeu vC gedateer is. [20]

Die woord bolvormig word nogal verwarrend in die beurs gebruik om beide vorme te beskryf. 'Bulbous' verskyn as 'n sinoniem vir 'piriform', maar word beskrywend op die fusiform toegepas om sekere voorbeelde van meer slanke profiele te onderskei.

Dun blaasglasbottels het na die middel van die 1ste eeu vC op Ciprus begin verskyn. [21] Die gebruik van die nuwe medium vir unguentaria het gelei tot variasies in vorm, insluitend die dun "proefbuis" tipe. Glas unguentaria gemaak in Thessalië, byvoorbeeld, het dikwels 'n kenmerkende keëlvormige liggaam, opgevlam soos 'n trompetklok, of is gehurk en afgerond met 'n baie lang nek. , of kan kleurloos wees. [22] Hierdie vorm was gewild in die 2de en 3de eeu en is ook kenmerkend van Thracië en Ciprus. [23]

Glasvoëlvormige houers vir skoonheidsmiddels wat op verskillende Romeinse plekke van Herculaneum tot Spanje gevind is, word ook unguentaria genoem. In hierdie voorbeelde, dateer uit die tydperk van die piriform -tipe, het die nek 'n tuit geword en die profiel is nie meer vertikaal nie. Soos met ander unguentaria, kan daar geen duidelike onderskeid getref word tussen die gebruik van hierdie vate vir versorging in die daaglikse lewe en die insluiting daarvan in grafte nie. [24]

In haar tipologie van die Hellenistiese vaartuie in Athene wat vroeër olie bevat en gegooi het, gee Susan I. Rotroff unguentaria met plastiek askoi, soos gebruik vir parfuumolie in bad en versorging, maar let op die uiteenlopende handwerktradisie wat daarmee gepaard gaan. [25] Die meeste unguentaria uit die Atheense agora was waarskynlik bedoel vir sekulêre gebruik, aangesien dit in huishoudelike stortings die afsettingspatroon in sommige putte aantref, maar dui op 'n offer. [26]

Daar word voorgestel dat produkte wat in groot houers gestuur word, in hierdie kleiner vaartuie verkoop word. [27] Geparfumeerde olies, salf, balsem, jasmyn, kohl, heuning, mastiek, wierook, geurpoeiers [28] en kosmetiese preparate is een van die inhoud wat deur geleerdes voorgestel word of wat deur argeologie bewys word. [29] Met die lang, slanke nekke was die vate die geskikste om vloeistowwe, olies en poeiers uit te gee. Romeinse voorbeelde van bolvormige unguentaria is gevind met spore van olyfolie. [30] Daar moet geen skerp onderskeid getref word tussen skoonheidsmiddels en medisyne nie, aangesien bestanddele vir hierdie preparate dikwels oorvleuel. [31] Chemiese ontleding van rooi en pienk stowwe in twee glas unguentaria uit die Ebro -vallei in Spanje het getoon dat dit waarskynlik skoonheidsmiddels was, maar soortgelyke bestanddele word in terapeutiese resepte aangetref. [32] Die naam "unguentarium" kan misleidend wees, aangesien soliede losmaakmiddels of salf moeilik deur die smal nek verwyder kan word. [33] Daar is min of geen bewyse van die voorkoming van mors van die inhoud nie, aangesien geen kurke, was- of klei seëls of loodproppe met unguentaria gevind is nie, net soos met ander vate. [34]

Die vervaardiging van unguentaria blyk te wees in samewerking met die bemarking van produkte. [35] Roman glass unguentaria het dikwels merke of letters, gewoonlik aan die onderkant, wat die vervaardiger van die vaartuig of die verskaffer of handelaar van die produk binne kan aandui. [36] Nabataese piriform-wielgegooide unguentaria toon kreatiewe variasies deur pottebakkers, miskien om die handelsmerkidentiteit van die produk wat hulle bevat, vas te stel. Hierdie vaartuie bevat 'n paar van die groter unguentaria en is moontlik vir die versending gebruik as deel van die Nabateërs se aktiewe parfuumhandel. [37]

Massaproduksie van Romeinse blaasglas-unguentaria word aangedui deur hul gereelde asimmetrie, wat voortspruit uit spoed en tydsberekening om die nek van die blaaspyp af te skeer. Herwinde glas, soos uit 'n groot, swaar gebreekte bottel, kon gebruik word om baie van die kleiner unguentaria te maak. [38]

Hoewel unguentaria dikwels onder grafgoed voorkom, is die doel van die insluiting daarvan nie met sekerheid bepaal nie, of kan dit van plek tot plek verskil. Unguentaria wat in begrafnisse voorkom, wissel in grootte van miniature (4-5 cm) tot groot voorbeelde van 20 tot 30 cm. hoog. [39] Die teenwoordigheid van die vaartuig in Hellenistiese grafte kan dui op 'n herlewing van 'n vroeëre gebruik, getuig in die 6de eeu deur aryballoi en in sommige 5de- en vroeë 4de-eeuse begrafnisse deur klein lekythoi, wat die neerslag van 'n klein houer behels van parfuum of olie saam met die dooies. [40] Teen die 3de eeu is die swart-figuurlike lekythos met palmette of Dionysiac-tonele heeltemal vervang as 'n standaard grafgoed deur die onversierde, 'growwer' unguentarium, wat dui op 'n verskuiwing in die begrafnispraktyk wat kenmerkend is van die tydperk. [41]

Alhoewel die unguentaria dikwels begrawe is saam met ander voorwerpe wat deur die oorledene geassosieer word of as grafgeskenke begrawe is, het hulle moontlik ook 'n stof bevat - soos olie, wyn of wierook - vir 'n grafritueel. Die ontwerp van baie unguentaria sal hulle nie toelaat om sonder ondersteuning te staan ​​nie, maar daar is geen standplase gevind nie. Laat Hellenistiese grafstene beeld unguentaria uit wat in 'n steun rus, maar dit pas ook goed in die palm van die hand, soos getoon in hierdie Egiptiese mummieportret. [42] Rituele reseptering, eerder as langtermynopberging, kan die gebrek aan duursaamheid wat nodig is vir daaglikse gebruik, sowel as die afwesigheid van staanders, stoppers of seëls, verklaar. [43]

Daar is geen standaard samestelling van grafgoed waarvoor 'n unguentarium benodig is nie. Unguentaria verskyn dikwels in artikels vir persoonlike versorging in 'n voorbeeld, met 'n klipkosmetiekpallet, strigils, pincet en 'n piks, [44] en in 'n ander, met 'n piks, spieël, brons skêr en tang. [45] Grafstene uit Anatolië beeld die oorledene uit met 'n soortgelyke groep voorwerpe, waaronder spieël, kam, bokse en cistai, wolmandjie en unguentaria. [46] Een Atheense begrafnis het vyf bolvormige unguentaria opgelewer, saam met vyf knokkelbene en 'n bronsnaald, 'n ander, van 'n vroulike kind, bevat 'n unguentarium, oorbelle, 'n blou glashanger en ses knokkelbene. [47] Goue blare en unguentaria was die grafgeskenke in 'n grafkamer by Kourion in Ciprus. [48]

By Amisos (moderne Samsun) in die Swartsee -streek van Turkye was die grafgoed in die vroeë Hellenistiese graf van 'n welgestelde gesin buitengewoon ryk en uitstaande vakmanskap, maar die unguentaria was eenvoudig en gemaak van klei. Een van die lyke is versier met goue oorbelle in die vorm van Nike, tien goue toepassings van Thetis wat op 'n hippocamp ry, slangarmbande en armbande met leeukop-terminale, en ander goue items aan die regterkant van die skedel is op 'n enkele klei geplaas unguentarium. [49]

Sommige grafte bevat veelvuldige unguentaria, in een geval 31 van die fusiform tipe, terwyl ander 'n enkele voorbeeld het. [50] Grafgeskenke bestaan ​​soms uit niks anders as unguentaria nie. [51] Nóg die piriform unguentaria of dun blaasglasvate kom voor die Augustan-periode in begrafnisse voor. [52] In Mainz is unguentaria die algemeenste grafgeskenke wat gedurende die eerste helfte van die 1ste eeu in Gallië en Brittanje van glas gemaak is; glas unguentaria verskyn as houers vir geurige olies in beide verassings en inhumasies in hierdie tydperk en bly tot in die 3de eeu, maar verdwyn teen die 4de. [53]

Gesteelde rotse by Labraunda, wat in 2005 ondersoek is, bevat unguentaria. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die grafgoed van die Joodse ossuariums in Jerigo in die tyd van die Tweede Tempel bevat dikwels unguentaria saam met bakke, lampe en verskillende vaartuie wat gewoonlik in die daaglikse lewe voorkom. [54]

Unguentaria is ook in Athene gevind in rituele brandstapels saam met die verbrande bene van diereoffers en stukkende erdewerk. [55] 'n Enkele unguentarium is begrawe met 'n hond, moontlik 'n troeteldier, in 'n industriële distrik in Athene. [56]

Die vele unguentaria in die Latynse stad Aricia weerspieël die groei van handel om rituele aktiwiteite by die beroemde heiligdom van Diana daar te ondersteun. [57]

Die meeste keramiek unguentaria het nie 'n oppervlakversiering nie, of het eenvoudige horisontale lyne om die nek of lyf, meestal uit drie smal bande wit verf. [58]

Glas unguentaria wissel baie in kwaliteit en vertoon 'n verskeidenheid kleure. Die Judese woestyngrotte het byvoorbeeld unguentaria van akwariumglas met groot borrels opgelewer. [59] 'n Opvallende voorbeeld van 'n glas-fusiforme unguentarium uit die 1ste-eeuse Sirië, 'n bietjie meer as 'n half sentimeter lank, het 'n wit spiraal wat om die ceruleaanse liggaam krul. Die basis kom tot 'n langwerpige, afgeronde punt, en die lip is goed gevorm en prominent. [60] Tegnieke van "marmering", wat bedoel was om modieus uitspattige vate van sardonyx tydens die regering van Augustus en Tiberius na te boots, is gebruik vir unguentaria sowel as bakke. [61]

'N Besondere uitgebreide unguentarium is gevind tydens 'n verassingsbegrafnis in Stobi in Noord -Masedonië. Die vaartuig is gemaak van melkerig glas en het 'n bolvormige lyf wat versier is met 'n eier-en-pylmotief aan die bokant en trosse en wingerdstokke rondom die bodem. Die middel het ses panele wat verskillende vate illustreer, met twee voorbeelde elk van die hidria, oenochoe en krater. [62]

Die gebruik van die term "lacrimarium" of "lacrimatorium" (ook "lacrymatory" of "lachrymatory") vir unguentaria het voortgeduur omdat daar vermoed word dat die klein vate gebruik is om die trane op te vang (lacrimae) van rouklaers om die geliefde in die graf te vergesel. Hierdie oortuiging is ondersteun deur 'n skriftuurlike verwysing (Psalm 56.8) wat in die King James -Bybel vertaal is as 'gooi my trane in u fles'. [63] Shakespeare verwys na die praktyk in Antony en Cleopatra, toe Cleopatra die Romein verag omdat hy 'n paar trane gestort het oor die dood van sy vrou: "Waar moet die heilige flessies wees wat jy moet vul / met bedroefde water?" [64]

Die minderjarige Victoriaanse digter Charles Tennyson Turner, broer van die meer bekende Tennyson, het 'n sonnet met die naam "The Lachrymatory" geskryf en die idee uitgebrei oor 'die fliek van die trane van sy verwant'. Sedert die vroeë 20ste eeu word die gebruik van 'n vaartuig om trane van hartseer te versamel, meer poëties as aanneemlik beskou. [65]

In Januarie 1896 publiseer The Atlantic Monthly 'n gedig van Frank Dempster Sherman (1860-1916) genaamd "A Tear Bottle." wat verwys na Greek Girl Tears, wat verwys na die rol wat die traanbottel tydens die Griekse tyd gespeel het [66]

Anderson-Stojanovic, Virginia R. "The Chronology and Function of Ceramic Unguentaria." Amerikaanse Tydskrif vir Argeologie 91 (1987) 105–122.

Khairy, Nabil I. "Nabataean Piriform Unguentaria." Bulletin van die American Schools of Oriental Research 240 (1980) 85–91.

Robinson, Henry S. "Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology." In Die Atheense Agora, vol. 5. American School of Classical Studies in Athene, 1959.

Pérez-Arantegui, Josefina, met Juan Ángel Paz-Peralta en Esperanza Ortiz-Palomar. "Ontleding van die produkte in twee Romeinse glas unguentaria uit die kolonie van Celsa (Spanje). " Tydskrif vir Argeologiese Wetenskap 23 (1996) 649–655.

Rotroff, Susan I. "Hellenistiese aardewerk: Atheense en ingevoerde wielgemaakte tafelgereedskap en verwante materiaal," deel 1: teks. Die Atheense Agora 29 (1997) iii – 575. 0-87661-229-X (volledige teks aanlyn).

Rotroff, Susan I. "Fusiform Unguentaria." In "Hellenistiese aardewerk: The Plain Wares." Die Atheense Agora 33 (2006), pp. 137–160. 0-87661-233-8 (volledige teks aanlyn).

Thompson, Homer A. "Twee eeue van hellenistiese erdewerk." Hesperia 4 (1934) 311–476. Geredigeer deur Susan I. Rotroff en herdruk met ander essays in Hellenistiese aardewerk en terracottas (American School of Classical Studies in Athene, 1987). 0-87661-944-8


Inhoud

Ten spyte van die groei van glas in die Hellenistiese wêreld en die groeiende plek van glas in die materiële kultuur, was daar in die Romeinse wêreld nog steeds geen Latynse woord daarvoor nie. [1] Glas word egter in die Romeinse konteks vervaardig deur hoofsaaklik Hellenistiese tegnieke en style (sien glas, geskiedenis) teen die laat Republikeinse tydperk. Die meerderheid vervaardigingstegnieke was tydrowend en die aanvanklike produk was 'n dikwandige vaartuig wat aansienlike afwerking benodig het. Dit, tesame met die koste van die invoer van natron vir die vervaardiging van rou glas, het bygedra tot die beperkte gebruik van glas en die posisie daarvan as 'n duur materiaal met 'n hoë status.

Die glasbedryf was dus 'n relatief klein vaartuig gedurende die Republikeinse tydperk, hoewel die hoeveelheid en diversiteit van beskikbare glasvate gedurende die vroeë dekades van die 1ste eeu nC dramaties toegeneem het. [1] Dit was 'n direkte gevolg van die massiewe groei van die Romeinse invloed aan die einde van die Republikeinse tydperk, die Pax Romana wat gevolg het op die dekades van burgeroorlog, [4] en die stabilisering van die staat wat onder Augustus se bewind plaasgevind het . [1] Tog was Romeinse glasware reeds besig om van Wes -Asië (dit wil sê die Partiese Ryk) na die Kushan -ryk in Afghanistan en Indië en tot by die Han -ryk van China te kom. Die eerste Romeinse glas wat in China gevind is, kom uit 'n vroeë 1ste-eeuse v.C. graf in Guangzhou, oënskynlik via die Suid-Chinese See. [5] [6]

Daarbenewens is gedurende die 1ste eeu nC 'n belangrike nuwe tegniek in glasproduksie bekendgestel. [7] Met glasblaas kon glaswerkers vate met aansienlik dunner mure vervaardig, wat die hoeveelheid glas wat vir elke vaartuig benodig word, verminder. Glasblaas was ook aansienlik vinniger as ander tegnieke, en vaartuie benodig aansienlik minder afwerking, wat 'n verdere besparing in tyd, grondstof en toerusting beteken. Alhoewel vroeëre tegnieke gedurende die vroeë Augustus- en Julio-Claudiaanse periodes oorheers het, [8] teen die middel tot laat 1ste eeu nC, is vroeër tegnieke grotendeels laat vaar ten gunste van waai. [1]

As gevolg van hierdie faktore is die produksiekoste verlaag en het glas vir 'n groter deel van die samelewing in 'n groeiende verskeidenheid vorme beskikbaar geword. Teen die middel van die 1ste eeu nC het dit beteken dat glaskanne van 'n waardevolle, hoë status na 'n algemeen beskikbare materiaal beweeg het: ''n [glas] drinkbeker kan gekoop word vir 'n kopermuntstuk' (Strabo, Geographica XVI. 2). Hierdie groei het ook gelei tot die vervaardiging van die eerste glas tesserae vir mosaïek, en die eerste vensterglas, [1] namate die oondtegnologie verbeter het sodat gesmelte glas vir die eerste keer vervaardig kon word. [9] Terselfdertyd het die uitbreiding van die ryk ook 'n toestroming van mense en 'n uitbreiding van kulturele invloede meegebring wat gelei het tot die aanvaarding van oosterse dekoratiewe style. [1] Die veranderinge wat gedurende hierdie tydperk in die Romeinse glasbedryf plaasgevind het, kan dus gesien word as gevolg van drie primêre invloede: historiese gebeure, tegniese innovasie en kontemporêre modes. [1] Dit is ook gekoppel aan die modes en tegnologieë wat in die keramiekhandel ontwikkel is, waaruit 'n aantal vorms en tegnieke ontleen is. [1]

Glasmaak het sy hoogtepunt bereik aan die begin van die 2de eeu nC, met glasvoorwerpe in huishoudelike kontekste van elke aard. [1] Die primêre produksietegnieke vir blaas, en in mindere mate giet, het die res van die Romeinse tydperk steeds in gebruik gebly, met veranderinge in vaartuie, maar min verandering in tegnologie. [1] Vanaf die 2de eeu word style toenemend gelokaliseer, [1] en getuienis dui daarop dat bottels en geslote vaartuie, soos unguentaria, as 'n neweproduk van die handel in hul inhoud beweeg het, en dit lyk asof baie ooreenstem met die Romeinse skaal van vloeistofmeting. [1] Die gebruik van gekleurde glas as 'n dekoratiewe toevoeging tot bleek en kleurlose glase het ook toegeneem, en metaalvate het die vorm van glasvate steeds beïnvloed. [1] Na die bekering van Konstantyn het glaswerke vinniger begin beweeg van die uitbeelding van heidense godsdienstige beelde na Christelike godsdienstige beelde. Die beweging van die hoofstad na Konstantinopel verjong die glasindustrie in die Ooste, en die teenwoordigheid van die Romeinse weermag in die westelike provinsies het baie daartoe bygedra om 'n afswaai daar te voorkom. [1] Teen die middel van die 4de eeu was skimmelblaas slegs sporadies in gebruik. [1]

Samestelling wysig

Die vervaardiging van Romeinse glas het berus op die aanwending van hitte om twee hoofbestanddele saam te smelt: silika en soda. [7] Tegniese studies van argeologiese glase verdeel die bestanddele van glas as vormers, vloeistowwe, stabiliseerders, asook moontlike ondeurdringende middels of kleurstowwe.

  • Voormalige: Die belangrikste komponent van die glas is silika, wat gedurende die Romeinse tyd sand (kwarts) was, wat 'n bietjie alumina (tipies 2,5%) en byna 8% kalk bevat. [4] Alumina -inhoud wissel, met 'n piek van ongeveer 3% in glase uit die westelike Ryk, en bly veral laer in glase uit die Midde -Ooste. [4]
  • Vloei: Hierdie bestanddeel is gebruik om die smeltpunt van die silika te verlaag om glas te vorm. Ontleding van Romeinse glas het getoon dat soda (natriumkarbonaat) uitsluitlik in glasproduksie gebruik is. [10] Gedurende hierdie tydperk was natron die primêre bron van koeldrank, 'n sout wat natuurlik in droë meerbeddings voorkom. Die belangrikste bron van natron gedurende die Romeinse tydperk was Wadi El Natrun, Egipte, hoewel daar moontlik 'n bron in Italië was.
  • Stabiliseerder: Bril wat gevorm word uit silika en soda is van nature oplosbaar en vereis die toevoeging van 'n stabiliseerder soos kalk of magnesia. Kalk was die primêre stabiliseerder wat gedurende die Romeinse tydperk gebruik is, deur die glas deur kalkhoudende deeltjies in die strandsand te kom, eerder as as 'n aparte komponent. [11]

Daar is ook bewys dat Romeinse glas ongeveer 1% tot 2% chloor bevat, in teenstelling met latere glase. [10] Dit word vermoedelik ontstaan ​​deur die toevoeging van sout (NaCl) om die smelttemperatuur en viskositeit van die glas te verlaag, óf as 'n kontaminant in die natron.

Glasmaak Redigeer

Archaeological evidence for glass making during the Roman period is scarce, but by drawing comparisons with the later Islamic and Byzantine periods, it is clear that glass making was a significant industry. By the end of the Roman period glass was being produced in large quantities contained in tanks situated inside highly specialised furnaces, as the 8-tonne glass slab recovered from Bet She'arim illustrates. [11] These workshops could produce many tonnes of raw glass in a single furnace firing, and although this firing might have taken weeks, a single primary workshop could potentially supply multiple secondary glass working sites. It is therefore thought that raw glass production was centred around a relatively small number of workshops, [11] where glass was produced on a large scale and then broken into chunks. [12] There is only limited evidence for local glass making, and only in context of window glass. [13] The development of this large-scale industry is not fully understood, but Pliny's Natural History (36, 194), in addition to evidence for the first use of molten glass in the mid-1st century AD, [9] indicates that furnace technologies experienced marked development during the early-to-mid-1st century AD, in tandem with the expansion of glass production.

The siting of glass-making workshops was governed by three primary factors: the availability of fuel which was needed in large quantities, sources of sand which represented the major constituent of the glass, and natron to act as a flux. Roman glass relied on natron from Wadi El Natrun, and as a result it is thought that glass-making workshops during the Roman period may have been confined to near-coastal regions of the eastern Mediterranean. [11] This facilitated the trade in the raw colourless or naturally coloured glass which they produced, which reached glass-working sites across the Roman empire. [11]

The scarcity of archaeological evidence for Roman glass-making facilities has resulted in the use of chemical compositions as evidence for production models, [14] as the division of production indicates that any variation is related to differences in raw glass making. [11] However, the Roman reliance on natron from Wadi El Natrun as a flux, [13] has resulted in a largely homogenous composition in the majority of Roman glasses. [13] [15] Despite the publication of major analyses, [16] comparisons of chemical analyses produced by different analytical methods have only recently been attempted, [14] [17] and although there is some variation in Roman glass compositions, meaningful compositional groups have been difficult to establish for this period. [11]

Recycling Edit

The Roman writers Statius and Martial both indicate that recycling broken glass was an important part of the glass industry, and this seems to be supported by the fact that only rarely are glass fragments of any size recovered from domestic sites of this period. [7] In the western empire there is evidence that recycling of broken glass was frequent and extensive, [13] [15] and that quantities of broken glassware were concentrated at local sites prior to melting back into raw glass. [13] Compositionally, repeated recycling is visible via elevated levels of those metals used as colourants. [18]

Melting does not appear to have taken place in crucibles rather, cooking pots appear to have been used for small scale operations. For larger work, large tanks or tank-like ceramic containers were utilised. In the largest cases, large furnaces were built to surround these tanks.

Glass working Edit

In comparison to glass making, there is evidence for glass working in many locations across the empire. Unlike the making process, the working of glass required significantly lower temperatures and substantially less fuel. As a result of this and the expansion of the Empire, glass working sites developed in Rome, Campania and the Po Valley [7] by the end of the 1st century BC, producing the new blown vessels alongside cast vessels. Italy is known to have been a centre for the working and export of brightly coloured vessels at this time, [19] with production peaking during the mid-1st century AD. [7]

By the early-to-mid-1st century AD, the growth of the Empire saw the establishment of glass working sites at locations along trade routes, with Cologne and other Rhineland centres becoming important glass working sites from the Imperial period, [7] and Syrian glass being exported as far as Italy. [20] During this period vessel forms varied between workshops, with areas such as the Rhineland and northern France producing distinctive forms which are not seen further south. [7] Growth in the industry continued into the 3rd century AD, when sites at the Colonia Claudia Agrippinensis appear to have experienced significant expansion, [21] and by the 3rd and early 4th centuries producers north of the Alps were exporting down to the north of Italy and the transalpine regions. [20]

Glass working sites such as those at Aquileia also had an important role in the spread of glassworking traditions [21] and the trade in materials that used hollow glasswares as containers. [20] However, by the 4th [21] and 5th centuries [20] Italian glass workshops predominate.

Styles Edit

The earliest Roman glass follows Hellenistic traditions and uses strongly coloured and 'mosaic' patterned glass. During the late Republican period new highly coloured striped wares with a fusion of dozens of monochrome and lace-work strips were introduced. [1] During this period there is some evidence that styles of glass varied geographically, with the translucent coloured fine wares of the early 1st century notably 'western' in origin, whilst the later colourless fine wares are more 'international'. [8] These objects also represent the first with a distinctly Roman style unrelated to the Hellenistic casting traditions on which they are based, and are characterised by novel rich colours. [1] 'Emerald' green, dark or cobalt blue, a deep blue-green and Persian or 'peacock' blue are most commonly associated with this period, and other colours are very rare. [8] Of these, Emerald green and peacock blue were new colours introduced by the Romano-Italian industry and almost exclusively associated with the production of fine wares. [8]

However, during the last thirty years of the 1st century AD there was a marked change in style, with strong colours disappearing rapidly, replaced by 'aqua' and true colourless glasses. [7] Colourless and 'aqua' glasses had been in use for vessels and some mosaic designs prior to this, but start to dominate the blown glass market at this time. [7] The use of strong colours in cast glass died out during this period, with colourless or 'aqua' glasses dominating the last class of cast vessels to be produced in quantity, as mould and free-blowing took over during the 1st century AD. [8]

From around 70 AD colourless glass becomes the predominant material for fine wares, and the cheaper glasses move towards pale shades of blue, green, and yellow. [8] Debate continues whether this change in fashion indicates a change in attitude that placed glass as individual material of merit no longer required to imitate precious stones, ceramics, or metal, [7] or whether the shift to colourless glass indicated an attempt to mimic highly prized rock crystal. [1] Pliny's Natuurlike geskiedenis states that "the most highly valued glass is colourless and transparent, as closely as possible resembling rock crystal" (36, 192), which is thought to support this last position, as is evidence for the persistence of casting as a production technique, which produced the thickly walled vessels necessary to take the pressure of extensive cutting and polishing associated with crystal working. [1]

Core and rod formed vessels Edit

Artisans used a mass of mud and straw fixed around a metal rod to form a core, and built up a vessel by either dipping the core in liquified glass, or by trailing liquid glass over the core. [7] The core was removed after the glass had cooled, and handles, rims and bases were then added. These vessels are characterised by relatively thick walls, bright colours and zigzagging patterns of contrasting colours, and were limited in size to small unguent or scent containers. [7] This early technique continued in popularity during the 1st century BC, [1] despite the earlier introduction of slumped and cast vessels.

Cold-cut vessels Edit

This technique is related to the origin of glass as a substitute for gemstones. By borrowing techniques for stone and carved gems, artisans were able to produce a variety of small containers from blocks of raw glass or thick moulded blanks, [7] including cameo glass in two or more colours, and cage cups (still thought by most scholars to have been decorated by cutting, despite some debate).

Glass blowing: free and mould blown vessels Edit

These techniques, which were to dominate the Roman glass working industry after the late 1st century AD, are discussed in detail on the glass blowing page. Mould-blown glass appears in the second quarter of the 1st century AD. [19]

Other production techniques Edit

A number of other techniques were in use during the Roman period:

Cast glass patterns Edit

The glass sheets used for slumping could be produced of plain or multicoloured glass, or even formed of 'mosaic' pieces. The production of these objects later developed into the modern caneworking and millefiori techniques, but is noticeably different. Six primary patterns of 'mosaic' glass have been identified: [7]

  • Floral (millefiori) and spiral patterns: This was produced by binding rods of coloured glass together and heating and fusing them into a single piece. These were then cut in cross-section, and the resulting discs could be fused together to create complex patterns. Alternately, two strips of contrasting-coloured glass could be fused together, and then wound round a glass rod whilst still hot to produce a spiral pattern. [7] Cross-sections of this were also cut, and could be fused together to form a plate or fused to plain glass.
  • Marbled and dappled patterns: Some of these patterns are clearly formed through the distortion of the original pattern during the slumping of the glass plate during melting. [7] However, by using spiral and circular patterns of alternating colours producers were also able to deliberately imitate the appearance of natural stones such as sardonyx. [1] This occurs most often on pillar-moulded bowls, which are one of the commonest glass finds on 1st century sites. [7]
  • Lace patterns: Strips of coloured glass were twisted with a contrasting coloured thread of glass before being fused together. This was a popular method in the early period, but appears to have gone out of fashion by the mid-1st century AD. [7]
  • Striped patterns: Lengths of monochrome and lacework glass were fused together to create vivid striped designs, a technique that developed from the lace pattern technique during the last decades of the 1st century AD. [1]

The production of multicoloured vessels declined after the mid-1st century, but remained in use for some time after. [7]

Gold glass Edit

Gold sandwich glass or gold glass was a technique for fixing a layer of gold leaf with a design between two fused layers of glass, developed in Hellenistic glass and revived in the 3rd century. There are a very fewer larger designs, but the great majority of the around 500 survivals are roundels that are the cut-off bottoms of wine cups or glasses used to mark and decorate graves in the Catacombs of Rome by pressing them into the mortar. The great majority are 4th century, extending into the 5th century. Most are Christian, but many pagan and a few Jewish their iconography has been much studied, although artistically they are relatively unsophisticated. In contrast, a much smaller group of 3rd century portrait levels are superbly executed, with pigment painted on top of the gold. The same technique began to be used for gold tesserae for mosaics in the mid-1st century in Rome, and by the 5th century these had become the standard background for religious mosaics. [23]

Other decorative techniques Edit

A number of other techniques were in use during the Roman period, including enamelled glass and engraved glass.

Shards of broken glass or glass rods were being used in mosaics from the Augustan period onwards, but by the beginning of the 1st century small glass tiles, known as tesserae, were being produced specifically for use in mosaics. [1] These were usually in shades of yellow, blue or green, and were predominantly used in mosaics laid under fountains or as highlights.

Around the same time the first window panes are thought to have been produced. [1] The earliest panes were rough cast into a wooden frame on top of a layer of sand or stone, [1] but from the late 3rd century onwards window glass was made by the muff process, where a blown cylinder was cut laterally and flattened out to produce a sheet. [24]

Colourant Inhoud Kommentaar Furnace Conditions
'Aqua' Iron(II) oxide
(FeO)
'Aqua', a pale blue-green colour, is the common natural colour of untreated glass. Many early Roman vessels are this colour. [7]
Colourless Iron(III) oxide
(Fe2O3)
Colourless glass was produced in the Roman period by adding either antimony or manganese oxide. [1] This oxidised the iron (II) oxide to iron (III) oxide, which although yellow, is a much weaker colourant, allowing the glass to appear colourless. The use of manganese as a decolourant was a Roman invention first noted in the Imperial period prior to this, antimony-rich minerals were used. [1] However, antimony acts as a stronger decolourant than manganese, producing a more truly colourless glass in Italy and northern Europe antimony or a mixture of antimony and manganese continued to be used well into the 3rd century. [25]
Amber Iron-sulfur compounds 0.2%-1.4% S [1]
0.3% Fe
Sulfur is likely to have entered the glass as a contaminant of natron, producing a green tinge. Formation of iron-sulfur compounds produces an amber colour. Reducing
Pers Manganese
(such as pyrolusite)
Around 3% [1] Oxidising [1]
Blue and green Copper 2%–13% [1] The natural 'aqua' shade can be intensified with the addition of copper. During the Roman period this was derived from the recovery of oxide scale from scrap copper when heated, to avoid the contaminants present in copper minerals. [1] Copper produced a translucent blue moving towards a darker and denser green. Oxidising [1]
Donkergroen Lead By adding lead, the green colour produced by copper could be darkened. [1]
Royal blue to navy Cobalt 0.1% [1] Intense colouration
Powder blue Egyptian blue [1]
Opaque red to brown (Pliny's Haematinum) Copper
lei
>10% Cu
1% – 20% Pb [1]
Under strongly reducing conditions, copper present in the glass will precipitate inside the matrix as cuprous oxide, making the glass appear brown to blood red. Lead encourages precipitation and brilliance. The red is a rare find, but is known to have been in production during the 4th, 5th and later centuries on the continent. [26] Strongly reducing
Wit Antimony
(such as stibnite)
1–10% [1] Antimony reacts with the lime in the glass matrix to precipitate calcium antimonite crystals creating a white with high opacity. [1] Oxidising
Geel Antimony and lead
(such as bindheimite). [1]
Precipitation of lead pyroantimonate creates an opaque yellow. Yellow rarely appears alone in Roman glass, but was used for the mosaic and polychrome pieces. [1]

These colours formed the basis of all Roman glass, and although some of them required high technical ability and knowledge, a degree of uniformity was achieved. [1]


Roman Glass

The Romans all but ignored glass as a material until the 1st century BC when blown glass was invented. There was not even a Latin word for it until about 65 BC. Yet scarcely a century later glass vessels could be found in virtually every Roman house. The glassworking craft had been transformed into an industry, with perhaps as many as 100 million vessels being made every year--everything from delicate perfume bottles to heavy storage jars, and all kinds of tableware.

The first glass workers in Italy were slaves, Syrian and Judaean craftsmen shipped over as spoils of war around 10 BC. They brought with them the crafts of mold-casting and free-blowing that were essential for the glassworking industry's success. Their descendants, as freedmen, most likely ran the workshops that sprang up close to every provincial city and military camp throughout the empire. By the early 1st century AD, all of the aesthetic techniques of our modern glass industry--among them mold-blowing, lathe-cutting, and faceting--were standard in the Roman glassworking repertoire.

Mold-blown glass made sturdy vessels suitable for short- and medium-range shipments of marketplace goods. Wine and olive oil, preserved fruits and cooking sauces, dried herbs and medicines were common contents. Compared with massive pottery amphoras, glass bottles figured little in long-range trade. Nevertheless, they often traveled far from where they were made. Filled and refilled, bottles were carted from town to town until they rested finally as storage vessels in some distant provincial kitchen. Glassware could travel long distances swiftly, however, if it was part of a military legion's transfer to a new trouble spot.

The invention of glassblowing, around 70 BC and its industrial-scale use around the time of Christ made glassware affordable for all Romans. The wealthy stored their cosmetics and medicinal lotions in silver and bronze. Poorer folk could now use both pottery and glass. Bottles called unguentaria were used to store oils or lotions. At first small and crudely finished, their shapes became greatly refined over the centuries. Various other kinds of glass juglets and jars stored herbal ingredients and oils so that lotions could be prepared fresh each morning.

(From "Guide to the Etruscan and Roman Worlds at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology" 2002)


Roman Glass Perfume Containers - History

'N Publikasie van die Archaeological Institute of America

A mid-first century A.D. wall painting from Oplontis,
near Pompeii, depicts a glass bowl filled with fruit.
(Courtesy of the Superintendent for Archaeology, Naples)

The peoples of the Roman Empire used more glass than any other ancient civilization. Thanks to the discovery of glassblowing in the Syro-Palestinian region during the first century B.C., glass vessels became commonplace throughout the empire by the first century A.D. and from time to time were exported to places as far afield as Scandinavia and the Far East. An exhibition at the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in Philadelphia presents more than 200 glass vessels from the museum's collection that were made between the first century B.C. and the seventh century A.D. Unlike most presentations of ancient glass, which focus on the finest or rarest objects and treat them as works of art, this exhibition is as much about people as it is about things. "We should never lose sight of the fact that each of these objects was once handled by someone like you or me," says Stuart Fleming, the show's curator.

Getiteld Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change, the exhibition has two principal themes: the development of the Roman glass industry and the many uses of glass in daily life. The development of the industry, the show suggests, was influenced by technical innovations, historical events, and changes in taste. The most far-reaching technical innovation was the discovery of glassblowing--arguably the most important discovery in the entire preindustrial history of glassmaking after that of glass itself. Before this discovery, glass vessels were made by labor-intensive techniques such as the creation of shapes by casting or slumping in molds and the finishing of surfaces by grinding and polishing, or by the formation of shapes around a removable core of lightly baked clay. The processes of casting and polishing were relatively slow, restricting the scale of production. Coreforming limited the size and shape of what could be made. Glassblowing provided a solution to all of these problems. Shaping a mass of molten glass by attaching it to a blow pipe and inflating it was faster than casting, and glassblowers soon learned that the biggest limitation on the size of an object was the strength of their arms.

Opalescence on this four-sided juglet (left) [LARGER IMAGE] was caused by centuries of exposure to moisture. Produced in the eastern provinces, this pitcher (right) [LARGER IMAGE] was modeled on Roman silverware. (University of Pennsylvania Museum)

The exhibition suggests that the historical events that gave glassworkers the opportunity to exploit the new technology were the victory of the future emperor, Augustus, at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C., and its aftermath. The battle effectively ended a civil war, after which Rome became the capital of an empire that included most of the eastern Mediterranean. Augustan Rome was a rich city with a population that probably approached one million. Italy had other large cities, too, and the demand for manufactured items, including glass, was enormous. Glassmaking quickly became established, and blowing came into its own as the only technique that made large-scale glass production practicable.

At the same time, glass became fashionable. Although lacking the intrinsic value of rock crystal and precious metal, it is attractive and, while some looked down on glass because it was cheap, others admired it. Thus, one emperor, Gallienus (reigned A.D. 260-268), refused to drink from a glass "because nothing was more common," but another, Tacitus (reigned A.D. 275-276), "took great pleasure in the diversity and elaborate workmanship of glass." The Romans' ambivalence about glass is neatly summed up in Petronius' Satyricon, where Trimalchio, the quintessential parvenu, remarks to his guests at dinner, "You will excuse me for what I am about to say: I prefer glass vessels. Certainly, they don't smell and, if they weren't so fragile, I would prefer them to gold. These days, however, they are cheap." Glass had several practical advantages over other materials. As Trimalchio observed, glass vessels do not impart a taste or smell to substances they contain, and for this reason they were frequently used for food, perfumes, and medicines indeed, the physician Scribonius Largus (active about A.D. 50) insisted that certain medical preparations should only be kept in glass containers.

Glass was used at all stages in the preparation and consumption of food. Although the very rich would eat from gold and silver plates, many more used glass vessels for serving food, for drinking, and for washing hands between courses. Indeed, Propertius (died ca. 2 B.C.) reported that glass services were used instead of metal ones for drinking or dining in summer, and Seneca (died ca. A.D. 65) maintained that fruit appears more beautiful when it is in a glass vessel. At his absurdly lavish dinner party, Trimalchio served rare, vintage wines in glass amphorae. Meanwhile, in the kitchen, various foods and condiments, such as garum, a popular fish sauce, were stored in glass bottles and jars. In his treatise on agriculture (written ca. A.D. 60-65), Columella recommended using glass jars for preserving pickles. The jars should have vertical sides, he wrote, so that the contents can be compressed. Glass containers not only preserved the flavor, but also had the advantage (in a society with a high level of illiteracy) of allowing one to see the contents without removing the cover.

The use of glass extended from daily life to the grave. In times and places where cremation was customary, mourners would pour libations and sprinkle perfumes on the pyre. Excavators of Roman cemeteries occasionally find the distorted, fire-damaged remains of glass bottles used in the these rituals. Sometimes the ashes of the deceased were collected in glass urns. These might be special cinerary urns, occasionally with a perforated, funnel-shaped lid that allowed one to pour libations over the ashes but often a large storage jar was used for the purpose. Many people in the Roman world believed in a conscious existence after death and useful objects, including glass vessels and their contents, frequently accompanied the deceased to their tombs. In fact, tombs are the source of the great majority of the Roman glass objects that have survived intact.

This glass bottle, left, would have been used for perishables such as olive oil and the popular fish sauce garum. [LARGER IMAGE] Jars, such as the one to the right, were used for storing salt and favored spices--pepper, rue, and cumin. [LARGER IMAGE]
(University of Pennsylvania Museum)

The wide availability of glass and its association with so many different activities suggest an impressive level of production and distribution. In some (perhaps many) parts of the Roman world, a clear distinction existed between the glassmaker, who melted the raw materials, and the glassworker, who acquired chunks of glass in much the same way that a coppersmith might acquire ingots of copper, remelt it, and fashion it into objects. In the Syro-Palestinian region, excavations have shown that late Roman glassmakers were able to produce several tons of glass (sufficient to make tens of thousands of small to medium-size vessels!) in a single operation, and archaeologists have begun to question how widely the raw glass was marketed. Most glassworkers, on the other hand, probably made their vessels in small workshops that supplied local consumers, who included both the general public and vendors of merchandise that was traded in small quantities. At this local level, recycling may have provided glassworkers with a useful supplement to the unworked material acquired from glassmakers. Both Statius (died ca. A.D. 96) and Martial (died ca. A.D. 104) described street traders bartering sulfur for broken glass, and the most likely explanation for the demand for broken glass is that glassworkers recycled it, just as coppersmiths recycled scrap metal.

Clearly, glass was an integral part of the economic, social, and cultural life of the Roman world, and this exhibition, open through November 1998, provides us with fascinating glimpses of how, when, and why it was used so widely.


Ancient Roman Glass Rare Mold-blown techinque perfume flask. Decoration in relief. Important glass. 9,2 cm H.

PROVENANCE: Collection B.G., Paris. Acquired in the parisian art market 1980's.

CONDITION: Intact, no repairs or fissures, nice iridescence.

DOCUMENTS: Provided of export license issued by the Ministy of Culture.

This is a rare glass perfume bottle done with the mold-blowing technique with small net pattern decoration.

The technique of mold-blowing is a very old method used to make glass containers and objects. A molten glass parison (bubble) on the end of a blow pipe is blown into a mold to give shape and decoration to the vessel. It may be further inflated and worked after removal from the mold.

Glass articles were highly in favor with the Romans who acquired them through trade with Egyptians and Phoenicians. But already from the beginning of the Roman Empire they produced their own glassware in the metropolis and outside it, using glass vessels in the same manner as did the Egyptians and Phoenicians while refining their forms to produce objects of great variety and elegance.

Just about all Roman burials contain clear or greenish glass vessels covered with an iridescent patina due to the action of humidity and air. These flasks, when made in narrow forms, are often called unguentaria or lacrimaria by collectors, but were only used to contain oils and perfumes in the tombs, not to be containers for tears.

The Romans also perfected the art of working figures in relief on the glass vessels with the addition of another layer of glass of a different color, or one of enamel, along with molding, cutting and engraving of the glass, with the result that the surfaces of the containers looked like worked cameos.

- ARVEILLER-DULONG, Véronique. NENNA, Marie-Dominique. Les verres antiques au museé du Louvre. Tomo II. Museé du Louvre. 2006.
- FLEMING, Stuart J. Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 1999.

Notas:
Die verkoper waarborg dat hy hierdie stuk verkry het volgens alle nasionale en internasionale wette wat verband hou met die besit van kulturele eiendom. Provenance statement seen by Catawiki.
Die stuk bevat 'n egtheidssertifikaat.
The piece includes Spanish Export License (Passport for European Union) - If the piece is destined outside the European Union a substitution of the export permit should be requested. This process could take between 1 and 2 months.


Debunking the Myth of 19th-Century ‘Tear Catchers’

“Tear catchers” on display alongside other Victorian-era ephemera. Katie Kierstead/Roses & Rue Antiques

The Victorians were experts in the art of mourning: They wore black for extended periods, wove human hair into elaborate wreaths, and wept, it is said, into delicate glass bottles called “tear catchers.” Victorian ephemera is hot these days, as is death, oddly enough—see the rise of the #deathpositive movement—so mourning artifacts are in high demand. Vintage tear catchers, also called “lachrymatory bottles,” can be found in online auctions and marketplaces, as well as through estate sales and antique stores. During the 19th century, and especially in America during and after the Civil War, supposedly, tear catchers were used as a measure of grieving time. Once the tears cried into them had evaporated, the mourning period was over. It’s a good story—too good. In truth, both science and history agree, there’s really no such thing as a tear catcher. Caveat emptor.

“People ask to buy them all of the time. At least a few people a week,” says Christian Harding, owner of The Belfry, an oddities and collectibles store in Seattle. Harding then must explain that the bottles most are looking for—blown, usually clear, glass decorated with patterns, gilding, and colorful enamel—are throwaway perfume bottles. But the “tear catcher” term has stuck, through a combination of historical accident and deceptive, yet effective, marketing.

An illustration from Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 1850, of a woman crying. Internet Archive/Public Domain

The myth likely began with archaeologists and an oddly chosen term. Small glass bottles were often found in Greek and Roman tombs, and “early scholars romantically dubbed [them] lachrymatories or tear bottles,” writes Grace Elizabeth Arnone Hummel, who runs the perfume website Cleopatra’s Boudoir. Those glass bottles held perfume and unguents, not tears, Hummel explains. “Scientists have performed chemical tests on these flasks and they disproved the romantic theory.” But stories sometimes acquire their own momentum.

Nathan Graves, owner of Cemetery Gates in Portland, Oregon, first stumbled across tear catchers while researching mourning jewelry. He was suspicious immediately, because the bottles look identical to ones he’d seen in antique shops, flea markets, and yard sales for as long as he could remember. “Always thought of them as grandma’s perfume sample collection,” he says. “The idea that people were collecting tears in them seemed like folklore.” The terms “Victorian” and “mourning” in general, Graves continues, have become catchalls for anything old, sentimental, or made of black materials. “I think some people have the tendency to romanticize objects and their history.”

“It’s a beautiful idea but no one really [cried into the bottles],” Harding agrees. “Through the years, after reading many different articles and speaking with other collectors, I realized that the stories were, in fact, just myth.” When asked about tear catchers by collectors eager to add Victorian curiosities to their wunderkammers, Harding explains the true uses of the decorative bottles, but many customers don’t want to believe it—and some just don’t care.

A glass tear catcher, also known as a perfume bottle. Katie Kierstead/Roses & Rue Antiques

“I have probably sold dozens at this point,” says Katie Kierstead, owner of an online Victorian antique shop. She “fell in love with the poetical conceit as much as anyone else,” she says. She did her research and regularly stocks them—in the perfume section. “They are worth the same amount to a perfume bottle collector as to someone interested in mourning,” she says.

Not every seller is so transparent, which helps the tear catcher tale persist. Much of the online information that still links the bottles to the mourning story can be traced back to Tear Catcher Gifts, a company that sells modern tear bottles intended to be given as gifts at special occasions. The startlingly uncritical “tear catcher” article on Wikipedia, at the time this story appears, lists only two sources: the website of Tear Catcher Gifts, and another registered to a Tear Catcher email address.

Victoria mourning fashion from Harper’s Bazaar, 1891. Lisby/CC BY 2.0

According to a 2004 article in Belgrade News, the owners of the largest wholesale distributor of Tear Catcher Gifts’ modern bottles, Timeless Traditions, were inspired by the 1996 bestselling novel Divine Secrets of the Ya-Ya Sisterhood, in which a character gives her mother a lachrymatory. “I looked everywhere [for them],” coowner Jacqueline Bean told Belgrade News. “[I] found no bottles but I did find all these women who had read the book and were looking for them too. … Our goal was to saturate the market as quickly as we could to keep competition at bay.” The bottles are available at dozens of stores, both online and off, and several “informative” sites appear to exist entirely to drive customers to purchase them.

“That’s why I think it’s important for academics to engage in public discourse,” says Nuri McBride, a perfume collector and researcher who writes about the intersections of fragrance and death rituals at Death/Scent. “The Internet is, in a lot of ways, its own folklore-creating machine,” she says. “If a unit of data gets shared enough times it is considered true.

Various designs of tear catchers. Katie Kierstead/Roses & Rue Antiques

“A cosmetic historian or a Victorian glass expert could have told a customer in 30 seconds [that] those bottles are not lachrymatories and the colorful eBay descriptions of Civil War brides were spurious at best,” she continues. “But we need to be in a position to interact with each other for that to happen.”

Harding, owner of the Seattle oddities store, hopes that such interactions will happen more often as more people become interested in collecting Victoriana. “Over the five years [my store] has been open, it seems like the situation gets worse,” he says. He continues educating customers, as do Graves and Kierstead. One of the Tear Catcher Gifts sites takes a more untroubled approach to facts: It states that the scientific truth will be uncovered eventually (it already has), “but until then, each of us can choose our own belief.”


Ancient Roman Glass

As they cooked a pot of soup over some natron bricks, they noticed the sand and the natron melting and fusing into a liquid beneath the fire. Although the story is likely a mythical legend, it may bear a grain of truth, since sand from the coast in the area of the Belus river was considered ideal for making glass.

The invention of glass occurred as early as the late 16 th century BC in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Sand, soda, and lime heated together in a furnace produce a thick fluid which hardens when cooled. Originally glass was used to form solid beads and pendants, but eventually, glassmakers realized that they could wrap molten glass around a vessel-shaped core, which they removed once the glass hardened. Later, glassmakers poured molten glass into molds to form vessels.

During the first century BC, the technique of Roman glass blowing emerged. The Roman glassmaker would dip the end of a hollow metal pipe into molten glass, gathering a gob of the material on the end of the pipe. He then would blow air through the pipe to create a bubble. Tongs were used to pinch and form the vessel as well as to add handles and decorations. A heavy metal rod, known as a pontil, was used to separate the vessel from the blowpipe.

Two of the earliest known workshops that employed the technique were located in Jerusalem and in the region of Galilee. Glassblowing enabled glassmakers to produce large quantities of glass vessels quickly. It also facilitated the production of a wider variety of vessels. With the invention of glassblowing, Roman glass vessels became widely popular. Vessel types from the end of the first century BC and the first century AD include bowls, beakers, jugs, bottles, and perfume flasks.

Roman glass vessels were produced in a variety of colors based on the local materials available. Most vessels produced in the Holy Land are pale blue or green, although purple and clear vessels also exist. Early sources suggest that clear glass was considered to be more valuable than tinted glass. Occasionally cobalt blue vessels come to light in archaeological excavations, but these are almost certainly imported vessels and not locally made.

In addition to the color of the glass, Vessels typically feature an iridescent coating, which reflects a variety of colors. This coating, known as a patina, is the result of mineral buildup that occurred over the centuries.

Tear bottles are a unique vessel type with a corresponding tradition. It is said that every time a young woman cried, she would collect her tears in a bottle. Over time, the tears would accumulate in the bottle. As part of her wedding ceremony, the young woman would present her bottle of tears to her new husband, entrusting him with the safekeeping of her emotions. The tradition of collecting tears goes back to first temple times. The psalmist, David, wrote,

You keep track of all my sorrows.
You have collected all my tears in your bottle.
You have recorded each one in your book.

Glass in the Roman period had many uses in the first century that we can also read about in the New Testament. Here in Gethsemane, Jesus asks God the Father "Would you take this cup away from me".

Jars, vases, flasks, anointment bottles and other home-wares had multiple uses by the rich in the Roman period.

Items such as tear bottles that were used to collect tears for memories, was tradition among the Patricians of the Roman empire.

Roman glass for sale to a collectible that is increasing in value as time passes and makes a wonderful heirloom. This beautiful glass was made 2000 years ago and comes with a certificate of authenticity from the Israel Antiquities Authority.


Kyk die video: JODEN BESCHERMD DOOR MOSLIMS: 1 OP 1 MET IBRAHIM SBAA (Januarie 2022).