Inligting

Basil I Tydlyn



Basil & rsquos House of Healing

ONS HET GEHOOR van die vroeë kloosters: die demoongevegte woestynvader Antony van Egipte Simeon, die Styliet, sit jaarliks ​​op sy paal die briljante, hartstogtelike Augustinus en die sober, onwrikbare Jerome. Hulle lewenstyl van ernstige selfverloëning kan teenstrydig wees met die waarheid dat God ons mense gemaak het en ons “baie goed” genoem het-liggame en al.

Maar as kloosters werklik aan die liggaam as boosheid gedink het, hoe is dit dan dat sommige van die grootste vordering in die geskiedenis van gesondheidsorg binne monastiek ontstaan ​​het? Monnike versorg die siekes in Benediktynse kloosters, Franciskaanse leprosaria, die instellings van die klooster "hospitallers", die vele hospitale van die Augustiniërs, ensovoorts deur die geskiedenis van die monastiek.

Nêrens is ons mites oor liggaamshaatmonnike meer beslissend verwerp as in die vierde-eeuse verhaal van biskop Basil van Cesarea (“die Grote”) nie. Want hier was 'n volmaakte monnik wat gestig het wat baie historici as die eerste hospitaal beskou. In 379 nC lewer biskop Gregorius van Nazianz 'n begrafnisrede ter ere van sy vriend en medebiskop Basil van Cesarea. Gregory prys Basil veral omdat hy aan Cesarea 'n instelling van barmhartigheid gegee het. Gregorius noem, ter ere van sy vriend, die Basileias: 'Gaan 'n entjie buite die stad om 'n nuwe stad te sien, die skatkis van vroomheid, 'n gemeenskaplike skatkamer van diegene wat besittings waar oorbodige rykdom. . . gestoor word. . . . In hierdie instelling word siektes bestudeer, ongeluk geseën en simpatie op die proef gestel. ”

Gregory vergelyk die Basileias met die sewe wonders van die antieke wêreld. Maar hoewel die piramides van Egipte en die Kolossus van Rhodos diegene wat dit gebou het, slegs wêreldse glorie gebring het, het Basil se filantropiese fondament vrygewige Christene 'n geleentheid gebied vir geestelike seëninge.

Basil se instelling het 'n reputasie gekry as 'die eerste hospitaal', nie net omdat siektes binne sy perke bestudeer is nie, maar ook omdat dokters en verpleegsters daar siek pasiënte behandel het.


Basil I Tydlyn - Geskiedenis

Die United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in Kalifornië het begin as 'n

onafhanklike organisasie onder leiding van Cesar Chavez

In Crystal City, Texas, die Politieke Vereniging van Spaanse sprekers

Organisasies (PASO) en plaaslike Teamsters (meestal Mexikaanse Amerikaners) staan ​​saam

oor die stadsraad vir 2 jaar

La Alianza Federal de Mercedes (The Federal Land Grant Alliance) is

opgeneem deur Reies Lopez Tijerina

1965 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales word aangestel as direkteur van Denver's War on Poverty

Die National Farm Workers Association onder leiding van Cesar Chavez en Dolores

Huerta vergader in 'n kerksaal in Delano en stem om by die landbouwerkers aan te sluit

Staking van die reëlingskomitee en die staking van die druiweplukkers

1966 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Rodolfo Acuna begin klas gee in die eerste Mexikaanse Amerikaanse geskiedenisklas by

San Fernando Valley State College, Los Angeles, Kalifornië

Cesar Chavez en die National Farm Workers Association marsjeer van Delano na

Die "guarache-out" deur 50 Chicanos by die gelyke werkgeleentheid

Kommissie werkswinkel in Albuquerque, New Mexico

Die stigting van die kruistog vir geregtigheid deur Corky Gonzales, wat uit 'n

protes teen die taktiek van die administrasie van die stad Denver,

Plaaswerker -solidariteitstog van die Rio Grande na Austin, Texas

1967 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

"I am Joaquin" deur Rodolfo Gonzales word gepubliseer

MAYO (Mexican American Youth Organization) word gestig deur Jose Angel

Die Rio Arriba County Courthouse in Tierra Amarilla het toegeval deur Tijerina en

die Alianza Federal de Pueblos Libres, in Noord -New Mexico

Die Alianza Federal de Pueblos Libres nasionale byeenkoms het gehou

Albuquerque, New Mexico, georganiseer deur Tijerina. Die idee vir La Raza Unida is

La Raza Unida Party het tydens 'n konferensie in El Paso, Texas, gereël

Brown Barets gestig in Oos -Los Angeles deur David Sanchez

La Piranya koffiewinkel geopen

Meer as 100 Chicanos betoog tydens die Sheriff in Los Angeles

onderstasie teen polisie-brutaliteit

1968 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Cesar Chavez begin 'n vas van 25 dae

Convention of Congress of Mexican American Unity by Roosevelt High School,

Los Angeles – 550 afgevaardigdes

Chicano-studente op die universiteitskampusse in Kalifornië stap uit

Studente-uitstappie by Chicano, Wilson High School, Los Angeles – 300 studente

Studente-uitstappie by Chicano, Hoërskool Garfield, Los Angeles – 2000 studente

Studente-uitstappies van Chicano, Lincoln, Roosevelt en Garfield High School, Los

Studente-uitstappies van Chicano, Belmont en Garfield High School, Los Angeles

Studente-uitstappies van Chicano, Lincoln, Roosevelt en Garfield High School, Los

Angeles – Rally in Hazard Park - 2000 studente

Betoging voor die Hollenbeck -polisiekantoor, Oos -Los Angeles

Cesar Chavez breek sy vas by 'n mis in Delano, Kalifornië

Uitstappie by Chicano-studente en#8211 Denver, Colorado

700 Chicano-studente stap uit die Lanier High School in San Antonio, Texas.

600 meer uitstappies van Edgewood High School

Oos -Los Angeles 13 aangekla van sameswering om die Los Angeles te ontwrig

Oos -Los Angeles, gebore Jose Sanchez (19), is die eerste Chicano wat in die openbaar verskyn het

weerstaan ​​die militêre ontwerp

Chicano -studente aan die San Jose State College hou 'n aparte aanvang

Jesus Dominguez wreedaardig deur die Los Angeles -polisiekantoor

26 September – 2 Oktober 1968

Chicanos sit by die Los Angeles Unified School District Board van

Slagting by Plaza of the Three Cultures (Tlatelolco), Mexico City

Rosalio Munoz word tydens spesiale afloop verkies tot president van die UCLA-studenteliggaam

1969 Viëtnam -oorlog duur voort

Studente-uitstappie by Chicano – Kingsville, Texas

Eerste nasionale Chicano Youth Liberation Conference geborg deur die Kruistog

vir Justice, Denver, Colorado – 1500 jeug

Gevier "die nuwe nasie van Aztlan"

Tydren teen die verdrywing van VISTA -werkers in Del Rio

Biltmore Hotel, Nuevas Vistas -konferensie

Toespraak deur Gov. Reagan in die Biltmore Hotel lei tot 6 Chicanos

(The Biltmore 6) word beskuldig van brandstigting en sny van elektriese drade tydens die

Reies Lopez Tijerina tronk toe gestuur

Uitstappies by Chicano-studente en Ab 8211, Abilene, Texas

Rosalio Munoz het geweier om by die weermag in te skakel om die National te begin

Chicano konsepweerstandsbeweging

Beskuldig die VSA van volksmoord op Mexikaanse Amerikaners

Rosalio Munoz konsepraadverhoor en#8211 "'n onwettige verhoor"

'Chale con el Draft', 'n dokumentêr van 12 minute oor Rosalio Munoz se anti-konsep

demonstrasie deur Neil Reichline, voormalige UCLA Daily Bruin -redakteur

Rosalio Munoz begin vinnig "as 'n simbool van sy toewyding aan sy saak"

Landwye betoging teen oorlog in San Francisco

1ste Chicano Moratorium gehou in McAllen, Texas

Rosalio Munoz het in die openbaar geweier om in die militêre diens opgeneem te word

Die hele Chicano -konferensie in New Mexico, gehou in Albuquerque, NM. Rosalio

Munoz en Bob Elias praat teen die konsep en oorlog

Moratoriumdag – San Francisco

Rosalio Munoz ontmoet Mario Obledo

Werkswinkel by MAYO Conference in La Mission, Texas.

Carlos Caldera van Houston, Texas, sluit aan by die nasionale moratorium om pogings te organiseer

Demonstrasie by St. Basil ’s Katolieke Katedraal, deur Catolicos por la Raza,

Denver Anti-draft Conference with Crusade for Justice

10 Desember 1969 - 5 Januarie 1970

Studente-uitstappie by Chicano – Crystal City, Texas

1ste Oos -Los Angeles Moratorium Maart en saamtrek begin by 5 punte

Gedenkmonument vir Obregon Park met 2000 mense

Betoging deur Catolicos por la Raza by St. Basil ’s Katolieke katedraal teen

die rassistiese, reageerbare Katolieke Kerkstelsel

1970 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Las Adelitas, 'n vrouegroep in Oos -Los Angeles, gestig

La Raza Unida Party is gereël

6 "selfmoorde" by ELA -balju -stasies

10 "selfmoorde" deur die Hollenbeck -polisie die afgelope 5 jaar

Chicano Burgerregte -saamtrek by die Lincoln High School -ouditorium, Los

Chicano Moratorium March in San Bernardino, Kalifornië

"March in the Rain" Die 2de Chicano Moratorium Anti-war March and Rally

demonstrasie by Laguna Park- 6000 mense

Channel 28 (KCET), Los Angeles) wys dokumentêr van "March in the Rain"

KMEX (Spaanse TV -stasie Channel 34) nuusdirekteur, Ruben Salazar, het filmmateriaal uitgesaai van polisie wat studente slaan

Roosevelt High School, Los Angeles en Huntington Park, Kalifornië skool

Raza Freedom School het in Boyle Heights, Los Angeles, begin

Anti-oorlog konferensie in Euclid Community Center, Oos-Los Angeles

2de Nasionale Chicano Youth Liberation Conference gehou in Denver, Colorado

Chicano Moratoriums in Riverside/Austin, Texas

Chicano Moratorium in Fresno, Kalifornië

Raza Unida Party benoem konvensie

Anti-oorlog optog in San Juan, Puerto Rico

Chicano Moratorium in Sacramento, Kalifornië

Moratoriumsprekers by MECHA -gemeenskapsfeeste oral in die suide

Anti-oorlog optog aan die Universiteit van New Mexico

Oakland, Kalifornië – 1000 studente

uit die skool gestap om die oorlog te protesteer

Eerste Colorado La Raza Unida -byeenkoms. Corky Gonzales tot staat verkies

4 Moratoriums teen die oorlog en vir die stryd om sosiale geregtigheid

San Francisco/San Diego/Santa Barbara/San Antonio, Texas

Geweldige konfrontasie met Sheriff ’s Station in Oos -Los Angeles

Betogingsbyeenkoms, Oos -Los Angeles

Na die saamtrek was daar talle konfrontasies met die ELA -balju in

Sanchez -broers, Guillermo en Gilardo Beltran is deur die polisie doodgeskiet

Chicano Moratorium March in Houston, Texas - 5000 mense

Chicano Moratorium -piekniek in Lueders Park, Oos -Los Angeles

Die stadsraadslid van Los Angeles, Art Snyder, het 'n burger in hegtenis geneem op Sergio

Cabanillas, Patricia Borjon en Raul Ruiz

Chicano Moratorium marsjeer in New York/Albuquerque/El Paso/San

Diego/Washington DC/San Fernando/Pomona/Stockton/Coachella

Die nasionale Chicano Moratorium -komitee protesteer teen die oorlog in Viëtnam.

25 000 mense marsjeer van Belvedere Park na Laguna Park, Oos -Los Angeles

Ruben Salazar, Lynn Ward en Angel Diaz vermoor

Federale groot jurie dui Rosalio Munoz aan vir ontduiking

Amerikaanse prokureur Meyers dui die polisie aan vir moord op Sanchez -broers en die saak

is later laat val toe die Nixon -administrasie Meyers ’ bedank.

Word wakker vir Ruben Salazar by Bagues Mortuary, Oos -Los Angeles

Protesdemonstrasie by die St. Basil ’s Katolieke katedraal deur Cat licos por la

Parade en saamtrek met die Chicano Moratorium -komitee

Demonstrasie teen oorlog in Oxnard, Kalifornië

10 September – 5 Oktober 1970

Studente-uitstappie in Oos-Chicago, Indiana deur meer as 600 studente in Chicano

Die verhoor van Corky Gonzales het in Los Angeles begin

Die polisie val toe op die Chicano Moratorium -kantoor in Oos -Los Angeles

9 Chicanos het gearresteer dat hy weggery het van die Chicano Moratorium -kantoor in Oos -Los

Chicano Moratorium -kantoor in Oos -Los Angeles gesluit

Betoging by Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, om 'n einde te bring aan onmenslik en rassisties

1971 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Fresno Chicano Moratorium Maart – 1000 mense

Massademonstrasie en optog om die teistering van die polisie deur Hollenbeck te protesteer

Stasie na Parker Center, Los Angeles se middestad. Mense aangeval deur die polisie en

Chicano Moratorium Marcha deur Justicia en Rally van regoor die suide

Kalifornië teen polisiewreedheid na Belvedere Park, Oos -Los Angeles en#8211

Europese immigrant, Gustav Montag, deur die polisie doodgeskiet, 35 gewond

Marcha deur Justicia – Albuquerque, New Mexico – 400+ mense

1ste La Raza Unida -konferensie – Cal State, Los Angeles

Marcha de la Reconquista van Calexico na Sacramento om die polisie te betoog

Streekkonferensie in Chicana

Nasionale Chicana -konferensie, Houston, Texas. 600+ Chicanas woon dit by

1972 Viëtnam -oorlog gaan voort

Rosalio Munoz vrygespreek van konsepontduiking. Die regering skuldig aan

politieke ontkenning van behoorlike proses

Die United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) bekragtig die Verenigde

Robertson High School en Junior High in East Las Vegas walk-out – 250


Die geskiedenis van Basil

Die volgende kruie sal ons van nader bekyk Geskiedenis van speserye is Basil.

Algemene naam: Basiliekruid
Wetenskaplike naam: Ocimum basilicum
Ander name: Thaise basiliekruid, soet basiliekruid

Beskrywing
Basiliekruid is 'n kruie wat die meeste in die Italiaanse kombuis gebruik word. Dit is ook 'n gewilde kruie in Asiatiese geregte. Basiliekruid is deel van die kruisementfamilie. Die plant het klein, blink groen blare en 'n baie duidelike geur. Basil se geur is soet en skerp.

Daar is twee hoofvariëteite basiliekruid: soet basiliekruid en Thaise basiliekruid. Soet basiliekruid word meestal in die Italiaanse kombuis gebruik en Thaise basiliekruid in die Asiatiese kombuis.

Hierdie kruid is inheems aan Indië en vandag is daar meer as 150 soorte basiliekruid.

Geskiedenis
Basil bestaan ​​al meer as 4000 jaar. Gedurende die geskiedenis word geglo dat basiliekruid byna magiese kragte het. Dit word gebruik as 'n teenmiddel vir slangbyte, en word geglo dat dit krag gee tydens godsdienstige vas.

Dit is in mummies in Egipte gevind omdat die ou Egiptenare hierdie kruie vir balseming gebruik het. In Griekeland was basiliekruid 'n simbool van rou. Die kruie is na verwys as basileus phuton, wat wonderlike, koninklike of koninklike kruie beteken.

Vandag word daar gereeld na basiliekruid verwys as die ‘King of Herbs ’. Dit was ook eens bekend as die 'kruie van armoede' omdat dit vermoedelik armes beskerm het.

In Indië word hierdie kruid as 'n kragtige beskermer beskou. Hulle het dit om hul slape geplant en by die dooies geplaas om hulle in die hiernamaals te beskerm.

Op Kreta word basiliekruid as 'n embleem van die duiwel beskou. Hulle het hierdie kruie op hul vensterrande geplaas om hierdie euwel te help afweer.

Daar word ook geglo dat Basil kuisheid identifiseer. As die kruie in die hande van 'n vrou verdor het, word sy as onrein beskou.

In die Middeleeue het baie dokters gedink basiliekruid is giftig. In dieselfde tyd het ander geglo dat basiliekruid goed is om 'die gees te juig' en 'die brein skoon te maak'.

Basil is eers in die 16de eeu in Brittanje bekendgestel en hulle het later hierdie kruid na Noord -Amerika gebring. Vandag word dit oral in die Middellandse See -gebied en in Kalifornië verbou.

Kulinêre gebruike
In die Italiaanse kombuis voeg basiliekruid wonderlike geur by tamatiesous, pesto en asyn. Dit kan ook oor slaaie en gesnyde tamaties gesprinkel word. In Asiatiese kookkuns is hierdie kruie uitstekend in slaaie en op baie soorte vleis- en groentegeregte. Dit is ook lekker in pesto.

Geneeskundige gebruike
Basiliekruid word al duisende jare gebruik as 'n middel vir algemene gesondheidsprobleme. Daar word geglo dat hierdie kruie help met:


Basileus ' Interferensie Tydlyn

Britse eilande:
Na die moord op High King Muirchertach O'Lochlainn, die geallieerde magte van Dublin en Rory O'Connorse Connacht verower Leinster Rory word die nuwe hoë koning. Die afgesette Diarmait macMurchada/Dermot macMurrough vlug na Wallis.

Britse eilande, Wes -Europa:
Die Groter Normandiese keiser, Hendrik II die Hoflik, hef 'n algemene belasting op beide lê- en kerklike eiendomme, oënskynlik om die kruistogpoging in die Levant te finansier. Hy ontmoet vyandigheid van die kerk, en veral van sy kamerheer, aartsbiskop Thomas Becket van Canterbury, wat hy gevolglik ontslaan.

Suid -Italië:
Willem I van Klein-Normandië sterf nadat hy 'n baroniese opstand geteister het, en laat die Italo-Normandiese koninkryk aan sy seun oor, Roger III die Jong, onder leiding van die bekwame predikant, Maione van Bari.
Alexander II (*OTL Alexander III), die wettige pous, bepaal uit sy ballingskap in Ravenna die oprigting van die Venetiese Patriargaat, verhuis na Venesië, die patriarg van Grado en gee hom godsdienstige gesag oor die hele vasteland van Veneto, westelike Histria, Dalmatië en die Katolieke van Albanië.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Turkmeense plunderaars word verslaan op die Sangarios -rivier deur die Bisantynse leër onder leiding van basileus Andronicus I.
Die Venesiërs plunder Smirna, maar word later deur die see by Astypalaea verslaan

Kaukasus:
Danishmendid Ahlat/Armenië annekteer Siuna (Oos-Armenië), die laaste semi-onafhanklike Armeense koninkryk in die gebied.

Westelike Europa:
Koning Diogo ek van Portugal word deur sy skoonpa gevange geneem, Johannes II Ramiro van Gallastria (*OTL Galicië en Asturië), terwyl hy op Gallastrian Leòn inval. Die Portugese heerser moes al sy verowerings in die betwiste gebiede terugtrek.

Indië:
Die konserwatiewe brahmane verdryf Basava en sy Lingayat -volgelinge uit guns by die Chalukya -hof in Karnataka.

Noord -Europa:
Biskop Absalon versterk Kopenhagen teen die Wendiese seerowers wat steeds die Deense seë besmet.
Charles VII Sverkersson, koning van Swede, word vermoor en vervang met Canute ek van die mededinger Jedvardsson familie, wat uiteindelik 'n mate van stabiliteit in die land bring.

Suid -Europa:
Nadat Genua se oorgawe aan koning Arrigo I onderhandel het, vorm die meeste Lombard Comuni die Lombard League in Cremona as 'n onderlinge verdedigingsverdrag teen koninklike en feodale aantasting. Die nuus word by die hof geïnterpreteer as hoogverraad en 'n oorlogsverklaring.
Die markgraaf van Bernmark/Veneto en die Palts, Welf VI van Memmingen, en sy bondgenoot Folco II van Este, fakkel Vicenza en verslaan die Veronese milisie in San Bonifacio. Maar die Venetic League val die besittings van Este aan, val Folco uit die oorlog, en beleër en vang Welf by Soave. Met die Handves van Verona die oorwonne feodatorium word gedwing om die vrystede Verona, Vicenza, Padova, Treviso en Feltre te erken met volle regte oor hul huidige besittings, wat die optoggesag ernstig beperk.

Middel ooste:
Nur ad-Din verwoes die Libanese vesting Castel Nou van die Tripoline Crusaders

Britse eilande:
Owain II van Wallis gryp Deheubarth na Cadwaladr se dood. Keiser Hendrik II die Hoflik van Groot -Normandië probeer om dit met geweld te bestry, maar 'n baroniale opstand ontplof in Engeland, ondersteun deur Thomas Becket, die aartsbiskop van Canterbury en voormalige minister vir die soewerein. Die Normandiese magte word verslaan op Rhuddlan deur die Wallieser en Henry moet sy "Kruisvaardersbelasting" opskort om die Kerk te paai en sy gesag te herstel.

SE Asië:
Khrit vervang Parin kortliks as hoofstad van Arakan, dan word die hof weer in Pingtsa gevestig.

Noord -Europa:
Die Danes van koning Valdemar I die Grote verpletter die laaste heidense Slawiese owerheid by Arkona in Rügen, 'n eeu oue seerowernes waar die Wends 'n heiligdom aan hul god Svantevit opgedra het. Slawiese seerowery in die Oossee word uitgeskakel nadat dit Denemarke dekades lank verwoes het.
Koning Frederik II (*OTL Barbarossa) van Duitsland stroop Welf VI van Memmingen van die Palts, gee hierdie belangrike optog toe Hermann, tweede seun van sy swaer en sleutel bondgenoot, die voormalige koning van Duitsland Ludwig hertog van Thüringen.

Suid -Europa:
Die Lombard League stig die stadsvesting van Alessandria (ter ere van pous Alexander, wat die saak liggies ondersteun) as 'n strategiese buffer tussen die besittings van die markgrawe van Montferrat en die koninklike domeine. Die nuwe stad weerstaan ​​die beleg van margrave William V., maar koning Arrigo maak Piacenza vernietig en dwing Cremona op die swaardpunt toe. As selfs sy hoofstad, Pavia, in opstand kom, neem Arrigo toevlug by die kasteel van Lomello.
Grand Župan Stefan Nemanja van Raška/Kosovo en sy broer Stracimir -bondgenoot met die basileus -Serwiërs en Bisantyne maak die Hongaarse vesting Zemun oop en herbou Belgrado en gee dit 'n Bisantynse katepano (bevelvoerder) toe. Naissos/Niš word ook herbou as 'n Bisantynse grensvesting.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Venesië is nie in staat om die sterk vasberadenheid van Andronicus I te buig nie, maar word gedwing om met Bisantium te kom. Die Venesiërs kan nie meer handel dryf in Konstantinopel self of verder as die Dardanelle nie, maar behou die besit van verskeie hawens in Albanië en Morea/Peloponnesus, plus die hele eilande van Kreta en Rhodes en hul voormalige besit van Korfu, Chios en Samos, wat slegs verminderde belasting betaal in die Middellandse See -hawens van die ryk. Morea word bevestig onder Leo Diogenes, maar nou as 'n Bisantynse oorerflike hertogdom.
Die Deense leërmag vang die belangrikste Bisantynse vesting van Angora dan begin Danishmendids en Ortoqids om mag in Anatolië veg en om die guns van Batiturk -stamme en -stamme te verkry.

Noord-Afrika:
Uit vrees vir die verowering van die kruisvaarders, steek die swak Fatimid-kalief van Egipte al-Adid sy hoofstad al-Fustat aan, wat 54 dae lank brand. Ter plaatse, terwyl die kruisvaarders hulle onttrek, Salah ad-Din, neef van die nuwe Vizier Shirkuh, het 'n nuwe sterk kasteel gebou, met die naam al-Qahira (Kaïro), die oorwinnaars.

Central Hesperia (*OTL America):
Tula, die hoofstad van die Tolteek, word vernietig deur Chichimec -indringers uit die noorde Huemac, die laaste keiser, sal in ballingskap in die nabygeleë Chapultepec sterf. Die Tepanec -koninkryk van Azcapotzalco verkry heerskappy in die sentrale hoogland van Mexiko.

Indië:
Na BijjalaNa die moord verloor die Kalachuri -usurpers in Kalyani krag en word hulle uiteindelik oorwin deur die laaste deel van die plaaslike Chalukya -dinastie, Someshwara IV

Britse Eilande:
'N Walliese leër verower Wexford en Waterford vir die ballinge Diarmat/Dermot macMurrough van Leinster, wat hulp in Wallis gesoek het. Richard FitzGilbert de Clare met die bynaam Strongbow, die onteiende Normandiese graaf van Penfro (*OTL Pembroke) in Deheubarth, sluit aan by die ekspedisie en word skoonseun van Dermot deur met een van sy dogters te trou. 'N Paar weke nadat die Wallies-Ierse leër wat deur Dermot en Richard opgewek is, verslaan is Tara, die historiese seremoniële hoofstad van Ierland, deur die magte van High King Rory O'Connor.

Noord -Europa:
Hertog Henry die leeu van Beiere word gedwing om sy neef Frederick von Hohenstaufen (*OTL Barbarossa) as die wettige Duitse koning te erken na 'n inval in sy lande. In die Kompromie van Augsburg daar word egter byeengeroep dat die kiesers verplig is om Henry of een van sy seun as Frederick se opvolgers te ondersteun, en Henry - of sy seuns - moet Frederick se seun of sy erfgenaam as sy eie opvolger aanbeveel om 'n gereelde Welf -Hohenstaufen te vestig opvolging.

Sentraal-Oos-Europa:
Kiev word afgedank aan die hand van Andrew I die Vroom, seun van Jurij Dolgorukij 'en grootprins van Vladimir, Rostov en Suzdal', en verloor die rol van die hoofstad van Rusland, wat nou verskuif na Vladimir.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Die Deense Turke en hul bondgenote in Azerbeidjan verower Sebastea/Sivas uit die Bisantyne.

Noord-Afrika:
Shirkuh slaag daarin om 'n stewige greep op die Egiptiese Vizierate te kry deur sy mededinger Shawar uit te skakel. Shirkuh se neef, Salah ad-Din, herwin die vesting van Bilbeis van die kruisvaarders

Indië:
'N Burgeroorlog in die antieke Pandya -koninkryk in die suide van Deccan word afgekap deur die tussenkoms van die Chola -heersers.

Noord -Europa:
Albert die Beer, markgraaf van Brandenburg, sterf en verdeel sy boedels tussen sy seuns - sommige van hulle het godsdienstige bevele aangeneem - met die oudste, Otto, wat bevestig word as grafgraaf onder 'n toenemend swakker Boheemse heerskappy.

Britse eilande:
Owain II Mawr sterf, nadat hy gesê het dat die Walliese kroon deur primogemeenskap geërf moet word, op Norman -voorbeeld. Sy eerste seun, Dafydd I, neem die jag van sommige van sy rebelbroers en stiefbroers oor. Een van hulle, Madoc, sluit hom aan by die Wallies-Ierse magte van Leinster in Ierland en word as graaf van Dublin aangeneem wanneer die stad ingeneem word, en vestig daar die Maddox -stam.

Suid -Europa:
Arrigo I die City-Razer, koning van Lombardy en Sardinië, word gedwing om 'n kompromisvrede met die Comuni te aanvaar, insluitend sy eie hoofstad, Pavia, waar stadsamptenare nou deur die stedelinge verkies sal word, en nie meer eenvoudig deur die heerser aangestel sal word nie.

Basileus

Britse eilande:
Richard de Clare "Strongbow" neem die troon van Leinster toe by die dood van sy skoonpa Diarmait/Dermot macMurrough. Hy is die eerste nie-Ierse heerser in die geskiedenis van Ierland. Later het hy en Madoc van Dublin verslaan die hoë koning Rory O'Connor onder die mure van Dublin, wat hul onafhanklikheid verseker.

Britse eilande, Wes -Europa:
Thomas Becket, Aartsbiskop van Canterbury, word in sy katedraal vermoor deur 'n paar ridders, ondersteuners van keiser Henry II, wie se krag geskud word deur die blote erns van die daad. Die sluipmoordenaars word grusaam doodgemaak.

Suid -Europa:
Die markgraad van Histria gaan as 'n erfenis oor van die plaaslike heersers van Sponheim-Ortenburg na die Beierse Andechs gesin. Die Andechs kry ook die hertogdom Meran (Suid -Tirol).
Die pous-koning wat deur Norman geborg is Augustinus III sterf. Koning Roger III van Klein -Normandië (Suid -Italië), na 'n vergadering in Orvieto, laat die ballinge toe Alexander II (*OTL Alexander III) om in Rome te regeer en die Normandiese garnisoen uit die Urbs te verwyder in ruil vir die kansellasie van die pouslike interdik teen sy koninkryk en 'n belofte om soldate na die Heilige Land en Mauretanië (*OTL Marokko) te stuur om ongelowiges te beveg en ketters.

Sentraal -Oos -Europa:
Kiev word verower van die Vladimiriane deur die White Ruthenians van prins Vseslav van Polotsk/Palteskei, wat die grondslag lê van die gemengde Balto-Slawiese Pólacak -rykneem sy krag af van die kwaai en nog heidense Litause krygers.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Basileus Andronicus I Comnenus het die hertog van Morea/Peloponnesus, Leo Diogenes, vermoor deur verraad in Konstantinopel, en vervang hom deur sy eie jonger seun, John. 'N Eerste veldtog onder leiding van die basileus in Anatolië blyk onbeslis te wees, sonder dat groot gevegte Iconium kortliks herstel en dan weer verlore gaan.

Noord-Afrika:
Salah ad-Din skaf die verswakte Fatimid -kalifaat af en verklaar homself regent van Egipte in die naam van Nur ad-Din van Sirië: daar is vir die eerste keer geen groot aanspraakmakers op die kalifaat in die Moslemwêreld nie. Die Egiptenare self bly sterk kalipisties in hul godsdienstige sienings, maar Salah ad-Din, ondanks die feit dat hy 'n Walis is (lojaal aan die Mekkaanse aanspraakmaker op die Waliate [die Sunni "Papacy"]), toon hy groot verdraagsaamheid, met uitsluiting van Kalifiste uit die weermag.
Die eerste openbare klok word geïnstalleer in die St. Cyprianus -katedraal in Bardapolis (*OTL Tunis).

Noordelike Hesperia (*OTL Amerika):
Die Wallieser Riryd, verban deur sy broer graaf Madoc van Dublin, vaar noordwes met honderd Walliese en Ierse volgelinge, raak Ysland en Groenland aan en eindig sy reis in Vinlandria (*OTL Newfoudland), 'n land waarvan hy gehoor het deur die dowwe wenke van Yslandse handelaars in Ierland. Daar ontmoet hy die Hesperian (*OTL American) Norsemen en lei hy hul eerste verkenning van Bakkland (*Québec en Ontario) en die Groot Mere. Terwyl die meeste Noormanne op die lang en gevaarlike roete terugdraai, gaan Riryd met sy volgelinge te kano en te voet, en verken die lande suid van die Groot Mere, waar 'n inheemse koninkryk bestaan, gesentreer in OTL Cahokia. Riryd en sy manne, wat aanvanklik as demi-gode verwelkom is, word spoedig uitgejaag terwyl hewige epidemies die land verwoes en hulle skuil verder suid onder 'n Hesperiese nasie, die Rwadhas (*OTL Mandans), meng daarmee. Hulle avontuur sal behoue ​​bly deur mondelinge oorlewering, en eers later sal hulle lot bekend wees deur die noordoostelike Hesperiese mense, wat nou 'n greep kry op rune-snywerk van die Noormanne.

1171-1178
Noord -Europa:
Die Dene, op impuls van biskop Absalon en koning Valdemar I die Grote, verower en kerstaan ​​die eilande Saaremaa/Ösel en Hiiumaa/Dagö langs die kus van Estland, en maak die Finse inboorlinge verslaaf

Britse eilande, Wes -Europa:
Keiser Hendrik II die Hoflikondanks die feit dat hy pouslike vergifnis gekry het vir die moord op Thomas Becket, wil hy as 'n Cisterciënzer monnik uittree, maar word opgevolg deur sy eerste seun, die hertog van Normandië Willem IV die Stewige.

Britse eilande:
Die 2de sinode van Cashel los die laaste kwessies tussen die Keltiese en Romeinse takke van die Katolisisme op. Richard de Clare "Strongbow" Iers-Walliese magte verower die koninkryk Ossory, sy hoofstad, Kilkenny, word een van Richard se belangrikste vestings.

Suid -Europa:
Arrigo ek van Lombardy en Sardinië, berouvol oor sy vorige optrede, buig voor Pous Alexander II (*OTL Alexander III) by die sinode van Pavia. Die Lombardse heerser laat toe dat Milaan herbou kan word, maar slegs onder die streng gesag van die Milanese aartsbiskop, as kerklike vorstedom moet die stadsmure eers na Arrigo se dood herbou word. Die koning erken ook die gratis Comune van Alessandria. Die aartsbiskop van Pavia kry godsdienstige gesag oor die hele Piemonte. Onder ander noemenswaardige besluite wat op die sinode geneem is, is daar 'n sterk veroordeling van Arnaldisme (sien 1144-1146) as ketter.
Die Venesiërs verower Ragusa/Dubrovnik en neem ryk huldeblyke van die mededingers af.

Sentraal-Oos-Europa:
Dinastiese kwessies na die dood van koning Vladislav II verswak Bohemen. Die nuwe heerser, Bedřich, maak 'n ooreenkoms met Frederik II van Duitsland (*OTL Barbarossa), wat volle onafhanklikheid toegee aan beide Oostenryk (wat nou in sy eie tot hertogdom verhef word) en Brandenburg, wat soewereine state word.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Batiturk -oproeriges fakkel Sardis (Klein -Asië), die Deense mendiede word verslaan deur Bisantyne en Iberiërs/Georgiërs in hul poging om Trabzon te verower.

Noord-Afrika:
Salah ad-Din neem Damietta en Alexandria terug van die kruisvaarders, wat byna heeltemal uit Egipte verdryf word. Hy toon sy adel aan deur die Latynse patriarg van Alexandrië, die Siciliaanse Giacobbe da Lentini, te red van 'n Moslem -skare wat hom wou lynch en hom skuiling en vryheid bied om sy amp in Kaïro te beklee.

Arabië:
Abdullah bin Yusuf an-Nafudi lei sy bedoeïene weermag om die Ismaili Shi'a-emiraat van al-Hasa te vermorsel, waarvan slegs 'n vesting in Bahrein oor is.

Britse eilande:
Thomas Becket word heilig verklaar as 'n heilige en martelaar en word 'n kragtige nasionale simbool vir Engeland.
Madoc van Dublin en Richard Strongbow de Clare omverwerp die Ierse koninkryk Meath/Mide (Sentraal-Oos-Ierland), dan val hul alliansie uitmekaar oor die kwessie van die buit, terwyl die plaaslike heersers probeer terugveg.

Westelike Europa:
Peter Waldo gevind in Lyon die Waldense Christelike denominasie - 'n pauperistiese beweging.

Suid -Europa:
Die Venesiërs probeer ook Ancona te onderwerp, maar hul beleg eindig in 'n mislukking.

Middel ooste:
Salah ad-Din vang die vesting Eilat aan die Rooi See van die kruisvaarders af, maar slaag nie daarin om die beleg van die kruisvaardersvesting Kerak (SW Jordan) te beleër nie.

Arabië:
Salah ad-Din van Egipte stap vinnig voort MekkaNadat hy sy leër oor Hijaz en die Heilige Stede van Islam verower het, gaan hy na Jemen en verower 'n aansienlike deel van die land van die plaaslike Zaydi -stamme, wat hulle weerstand bied teen hul bergvaste tye.

Sentraal -Asië:
Tabaristan (SE van die Kaspiese See) breek los van sowel die laaste Seljuks as die Khorezmians onder Ardashir I van die ou Bavandid -stam, meestal omgeskakel in Twelver (hoofstroom) sjiïsme.

Britse eilande:
Deur voordeel te trek uit die burgerlike toestand na die dood van koning Wulfstan I, Godred I van Alba en Skotland inval Northumbria, probeer om Cumbria/Cumberland terug te keer. Nadat hy die land verwoes het en Yorwich (*OTL York) self kortliks beleër het, word sy leër verslaan.

Bisantynse Ryk:
Basileus Andronicus I neem Angora terug van die Turke, word dan verslaan langs die Halys -rivier en begin 'n reeks wrede, paranoïese suiwering van die weermag, wat sommige van sy beste generaals martel en vermoor op die vermoede van moontlike staatsgrepe.

Middel ooste:
Nur ad-Din van Sirië sterf, tot groot vreugde van die beleërde kruisvaarders wat hy gereeld en gewillig op baie slagvelde getref het. Hy word opgevolg deur sy jong seun As-Salih Ismail al-Malik onder die regentskap van die magtige eunug Gumushtugin soos die generaals om krag, maar binnekort Salah ad-Din, wat kruisvaardergebiede omseil met 'n lang woestynreis, slaag daarin om Damaskus te beset.

Noord -Afrika, Oos -Afrika:
Salah ad-Din se leërs vassaliseer die Banu Suleiman-hoofde van Cyrenaica en die Christelike koninkryk Mukurra (Nubië).

Arabië:
As a civil war wracks Hijaz between different Hashemite claimants to the governorship of Hijaz, Emir Abdullah bin Yusuf an-Nafudi allies with the winner, Mukaththir, conquers Mecca and assumes the titles of Prince of the Faithful, First Follower of the Prophet, Fighter for the True Faith, Sword of Islam, First Brother of the Protectors of the Holy Cities, Warden of the Wardens (*The Walis, the Sunni “Popes” in Mecca) and Sultan of the Arabs , leaving his Hashemite ally in charge in Hijaz and massacring mercilessly his opponents.

Central-Eastern Europe:
Grand Prince Vseslav the Great of Polotsk/Palteskei enforces vassallage upon the principalities of Galicia and Volhynia, making them tributary of the rapidly growing Pólacak Empire.

British isles:
A Norman-Northumbrian counterinvasion of Scotland captures Edinburgh, then is halted in the bloody battle of Airdrie deur Godred I, who however accepts to pay tribute to the Normans and cede some border counties to Northumbria, where Austin I the Pious is installed as king.

Southern Europe:
Manfredi II, a scion of the Montferrat clan and grandson of Bonifacio del Vasto, is acknowledged as marquis of Saluzzo (Piedmont) by king Arrigo I, whom he served loyally in many occasions.

Middle East:
Die Ortoqid Turks reject Zengid suzerainty and gobble up Edessa (*OTL Urfa) and Harran/Carrhae. Raynald the Wolf of Châtillon is released from prisony by atabeg Gumushtugin of Aleppo, in gratitude for the help given by Antiochene and Templar forces against Salah ad-Din.

Arabia:
The Egyptian ruler Salah ad-Din is narrowly beaten by sultan Abdullah in die battle of Jebel Shaar, and has to renounce his claims over the Holy Cities. Abdullah has the Wali of Mecca, Ibrahim II, declaring him the sole legitimate ruler of all good Muslim and all other Muslim rulers subjects to Abdullah as a consequence the Waliist confession, already divided in its loyalty between the three rival Walis in Mecca, Merv and Multan, is further divided. In Yemen Egyptian forces led by al-Mu'azzam Shams-ud-Din Turan Shah conquer Aden

Central Asia, Caucasus:
Sultan Ala ud-Din of Khorezm newly defeats the Karakhitais and subdues the Kipchak tribes dwelling north of the Aral Sea part of these nomads emigrate southwest to Daghestan, where they become known as the Kumyks.


Advertensie

Dec. 30, 2013 – Borutski is arrested and charged after burning Kuzyk’s childhood heirlooms, including an old rocking horse, while beating and choking her in a rage. Kuzyk would later tell the investigating officer, “I honestly thought he was going to kill me. I could see the switch go off in his eyes.” He was later convicted of overcoming resistance by attempting to choke, suffocate or strangle, assault and mischief under $5,000.

Dec. 27, 2014 – Borutski is released after serving 575 days in jail, again bound by a two-year probation order with a 10-year weapons ban extended to a lifetime ban. He refuses to sign a court order barring him from contacting his victim, Kuzyk, and fails to attend a single session of court-ordered counselling for partner abuse and domestic violence.


Innovative St. Basil

Suppose a newly elected President asked you to serve in his cabinet, and threatened to fine you if you refused, would you turn him down? St. Basil, who died on this day, January 1, 379 (probable date), is said to have done just that. When Roman Emperor Julian asked Basil to join his court, he refused because Julian had turned his back on Christianity. Emperor Julian was so angry, he fined Basil l,000 pounds of gold--equivalent to nearly $6 million dollars. Basil laughed off the fine as ridiculous, and reminded Julian that the two had studied scriptures together as schoolboys.

Although today less than 1 percent of the people in Turkey are Christian, in the early days of the church, Turkey, then called Asia Minor, was a center for Christianity. Basil was born into an upper-class Christian family in Cappadocia. His mother and grandmother took special care to bring him up as a Christian. Basil's family produced other famous Christians. His brother is known as St. Gregory of Nyssa, a remarkable theologian and writer his sister was St. Macrina, who founded a Christian community on the family property and who convinced Basil to leave the law for the church.

After Basil gave himself to the service of the church, he became a hermit and founded one of the earliest communities of monks in the Mideast. Leaving his reclusive life, he joined Gregory of Nazianzus in preaching. When famine overtook Cappadocia in 368, Basil sold inherited property to help the suffering and to feed the hungry. In 370, he became Bishop of Caesarea. Here he founded hospitals, hostels, and schools, largely financed from his own funds. Children were cared for, slaves protected, and the homeless given shelter.

Even before he became the bishop of Ceasarea, Basil was an activist on important issues of the day. He staunchly defended the deity of the Holy Spirit and the doctrine of the Trinity (that God is three persons in one being).

On this day, January 1 , we remember St Basil for his sound Christian theology, compassion for the poor, sick, and homeless, and as a man who was willing to stand up for his faith--even against the mighty Roman emperor.


Perronet's "National Anthem of Christendom"

Some years ago, missionary E. P. Scott went to India. He set out to visit a remote mountain tribe which had never heard the name of Christ. As he neared their land, he was suddenly surrounded by a savage band of warriors, all pointing their spears straight at his heart. Expecting a quick death, the missionary pulled out his violin and began playing and singing in their native language the hymn "All hail the power of Jesus' name." He reached the stanza that reads:

Let every tribe and every tongue
On this terrestrial ball
To him all majesty ascribe
And crown him Lord of all.

The natives lowered their weapons and some were in tears. E. P. Scott spent the rest of his life ministering to these primitive people.

The hymn which so effectively moved this Indian tribe is often referred to as the "National Anthem of Christendom" and has been translated into almost every language where there are Christians. The author of the hymn, Edward Perronet was the descendent of a French Huguenot family which fled first to Switzerland and then to England to escape religious persecution. Perronet was a pastor who worked closely with John and Charles Wesley for many years in England's eighteenth- century revival.

At that time, Methodists were savagely persecuted. According to John Wesley's diary, Edward did not escape his share of abuse either. "Edward Perronet was thrown down and rolled in mud and mire" at Bolton, he wrote.

Edward was uneasy about preaching in front of John Wesley. Wesley urged him to do so several times. Finally, Wesley forced the issue. He announced that Brother Perronet would speak the following week. A week later, witty Edward mounted the pulpit and declared he would deliver the greatest sermon ever preached. He then read Christ's "Sermon on the Mount" and sat down!

During his life, Edward published three volumes of Christian poems, including a poetic rendering of the Scriptures. Shortly before he died on this day, January 2, l792 , his last words were,

"Glory to God in the height of His divinity! Glory to God in the depth of his humanity! Glory to God in His all suffering! Into His hands I commend my spirit."


Basil I Timeline - History

GOLCONDA, Ill. — Nearly 9,000 Cherokees passed through Southern Illinois between November, 1838, and January, 1839, on their fateful Trail of Tears as the government forced them to abandoned their homes in the Great Smokies to go west to Oklahoma.
Very little of the history of the Cherokee's time in Southern Illinois remains. The one set of notes compiled by researchers in the 1930s known to have existed disappeared from the Marion Carnegie Library years ago when the basement flooded and materials were quickly being moved from the water.
The Illinois chapter of the Trail of Tears Association wants to change that as it organizes here in Southern Illinois. Debra Charles of Jonesboro has been the state contact person for the group. She encourages anybody with any information about the Cherokees or the trail to come to their next semi-annual meeting at 5 p.m. Nov. 25, at the Trail of Tears Sportsman Lodge south of Jonesboro.
"Anybody that has anything, please bring this stuff to the meeting, or have it photocopied and sent to us," Charles said.
The Cherokees crossed the Ohio River into Illinois at Golconda. Their trek took them westward on the 19th Century version of what's now Route 146. They went through Vienna and Jonesboro and crossed the Mississippi at two different ferries. One was immediately west of Jonesboro at Willard Landing and the other was to the southwest opposite Bainbridge, Mo.
Today the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail auto route enters Southern Illinois on the ferry at Cave-in-Rock, turns west onto Route 146 north of the city and continues westward until it crosses the Mississippi at Cape Girardeau.
There is generally two types of sources for information about the trail. One came from contemporary sources when the trail occurred. Probably the best source for information about Southern Illinois was the diary of Rev. John S. Butrick, a missionary who traveled with the Cherokees. The other general source is local family histories. From these we get the story of the Buel House in Golconda and the pumpkin pies, the Cherokees at Bridges Tavern and Wayside Store in Pleasant Grove and the story of Priscilla and the hollyhocks.
The notes missing from the Marion Carnegie Library were not the only copies of the notes that were originally made. They were just the only copy where anybody knew what happened to them. The notes were made by a husband and wife team with the last name Mulcaster. In the early 1930s they traveled along the Trail of Tears and interviewed survivors and people along the trail who might remember stories about the Cherokees passing through.
Historians know the Mulcasters picked up stories in Southern Illinois, because correspondence between them and Southern Illinois Normal University Professor George W. Smith can still be found in special collections at Morris Library. The only problem is that the postcards that refer to Bridges Tavern and the local traditions recorded there, don't include the typed notes the Mulcasters promised to send to Smith.
In the case of Bridges Tavern which was located along Route 146 in Pleasant Grove between West Vienna and Mount Pleasant, at least one of the stories was printed in the Vienna Times later in 1933 or early 1934.
The Cherokees' trek across Southern Illinois was not a pleasant one. They were treated badly and they were stuck here waiting for the ice flows to stop down the Mississippi. The Cherokees traveled in 13 contingents to Oklahoma. One went by river, three took a southern route and nine traveled across Illinois. Each contingents was set up to take 1,000 people, all except the 13th, which was smaller.
Butrick crossed the Ohio on Dec. 15, 1838, he didn't see the Mississippi River until Jan. 25. Even then, it took three more weeks to get all the people in his contingent crossed. From the time the first contingent crossed the Ohio in November to the last part of Butrick's group in February, The Cherokees spent three months in Southern Illinois.
According to Butrick's diary, by Dec. 29, 1838, the detachments were spread out across the region.
"One detachment stopped at the Ohio River, two at the Mississippi, one four miles this side, one 16 miles this side, one 18 miles, and one 13 miles behind us. In all these detachments, comprising about 8,000 souls, there is now a vast amount of sickness, and many deaths," wrote Butrick who himself was suffering from fever and a cough.


Golconda legends
Two stories about the Cherokees in Golconda have filtered down to the present. An unfavorable view of Golconda comes from Butrick. A nicer story is told through family tradition.
The Buel Family told the story of their ancestor Sarah (Jones) Buel who moved to Golconda on Sept. 2, 1836. Two years later the Cherokees passed through Golconda.
"My great-great-grandmother was acookin' pumpkin an' keepin' an eye on her baby when she heard a strange noise outside. Before she knew it, the front door popped open and there stood two Cherokee Indian braves just alookin' at her. Those poor Indians couldn't tell her that they were hungry because they didn't speak English," recalled In Buel Richards in the 1980s.
"They had smelled the pumpkin cookin' as they passed by, but my grandmother had no way of knowin' that. Finally, she understood what they wanted, and those Indians were mighty thankful when she gave them some of the cooked pumpkin. I 'spect she was just as thankful when they left," she added.
Butrick's account was more negative. He started his account with the crossing of the Ohio River at about 10 a.m. under pleasant weather and still winds.
"As we were now passing out of a slave state into a free, we reflected on the pleasure of landing where all were in a measure equal and free. But we had scarcely landed when we were met with volleys of oaths from every quarter," Butrick wrote.
"On going up from the boats into the village, called Golconda, it seemed to be made up chiefly of groceries, and little boys in the streets had already learned to lisp the infernal language. I almost longed to be back in the still, quiet towns of Kentucky," he added.
Prior to the Great Awakening of religious revivals in the 1840s, Southern Illinois was like most areas on the frontier with groceries (what taverns today were called) far outnumbering churches.
Although no major calamity affected Butrick's detachment, he mentioned in his diary problems other detachments had including two murders of Cherokees by local residents and extortion attempts.
While his entries were mostly negative, either because of local reactions to the Cherokees or his own failing health, Butrick did have a few good things to write about.
The day after arriving in Illinois, he wrote that he had the opportunity to explain the Cherokee's plight to a group of Golconda residents who had come out to the camps. A few weeks later he asked God's blessing for a kind wagon maker and his family.


Johnson-Union county line
With the exception of taking three weeks to cross the Mississippi, Butrick's group's longest stay was in an area about 25 miles east of the Mississippi which would put it in the Pleasant Grove to Mount Pleasant area.
At Pleasant Grove was John Bridges' Tavern and Wayside Store. The tavern was a large two-story dog-trot log cabin which stood until the 1940s when it burned. The store was a separate log cabin located behind the tavern or inn. The store had a thick door with a number of nails driven into to prevent Indians, or local thieves, from breaking in and stealing the whiskey. The door still survives to this day in a private collection.
According to the grand-nephew of John Bridges, Lewis Stanley Beggs, who died in 1934, his mother who lived with Bridges recalled the hundreds of Indians walk past the house and how eager they were to buy "fire water" at the tavern.
Other stories that the Mulcasters collected implied that the Cherokees are also bought and traded for foodstuffs at the tavern and store. In the Vienna Times article that quoted Beggs, it also told one way young Cherokees would earn money along the trail.
"A favorite scheme to raise money. was in his craftiness in the use of the bow and arrow. He would approach the white emigrants and place a coin in the split end of a pole, step back so many paces and offer the coin if he did not hit it in the first show, otherwise he was to receive a coin from the emigrant," read the article.
If Golconda was a disappointment for Butrick, he had better things to write about Jonesboro. He was still disappointed to see so many groceries (modern taverns), but he was impressed by the neatness of the village.


Aanhalings

On Almsgiving and Serving the Poor

“It befits those who possess sound judgment to recognize that they have received wealth as a stewardship, and not for their own enjoyment thus, when they are parted from it, they rejoice as those who relinquish what is not really theirs, instead of becoming downcast like those who are stripped of their own.” (To the Rich)

“What then will you answer the Judge? You gorgeously array your walls, but do not clothe your fellow human being you adorn horses, but turn away from the shameful plight of your brother or sister you allow grain to rot in your barns, but do not feed those who are starving you hide gold in the earth, but ignore the oppressed!” (To the Rich)

“Consider yourself, who you are, what resources have been entrusted to you, from whom you have received them, and why you have received more than others. You have been made a minister of God’s goodness, a steward of your fellow servants…Resolve to treat the things in your possession as though belonging to others.” (To the Rich)

“[T]hrow open all the gates of your treasury, supplying generous outlets for your wealth. Like a mighty river that is divided into many streams in order to irrigate the fertile soil, so also are those who give their wealth to be divided up and distributed in the houses of the poverty-stricken…[W]ealth left idle is of no use to anyone, but put to use and exchanged it becomes fruitful and beneficial for the public.” (I Will Tear Down My Barns)

“ ‘But whom do I treat unjustly,’ you say, ‘by keeping what is my own?’ Tell me, what is your own? What did you bring into this life? From where did you receive it? It is as if someone were to take the first seat in the theater, then bar everyone else from attending, so that one person alone enjoys what is offered for the benefit of all in common – this is what the rich do. They seize common goods before others have the opportunity, then claim them as their own by right of preemption. For if we all took only what was necessary to satisfy our own needs, giving the rest to those who lack, no one would be rich, no one would be poor, and no one would be in need. Did you not come forth naked from the womb, and will you not return naked to the earth? Where then did you obtain your belongings? If you say that you acquired them by chance, then you deny God, since you neither recognize your Creator, nor are you grateful to the One who gave these things to you. But if you acknowledge that they were given to you by God, then tell me, for what purpose did you receive them? Is God unjust, when He distributes to us unequally the things that are necessary for life? Why then are you wealthy while another is poor? Why else, but so that you might receive the reward of benevolence and faithful stewardship, while the poor are honored for patient endurance in their struggles?” (I Will Tear Down My Barns)

“At this very moment, what prevents you from giving? Are not the needy near at hand? Are not your barns already full? Is not your heavenly reward waiting? Is not the commandment crystal clear? The hungry are perishing, the naked are freezing to death, the debtors cannot breathe, and will you put off showing mercy until tomorrow? … Make your brothers and sisters sharers of your [wealth] give to the needy today what rots away tomorrow.” (I Will Tear Down My Barns)

“The bread you are holding back is for the hungry, the clothes you keep put away are for the naked, the shoes that are rotting away with disuse are for those who have none, the money in your vaults is for the needy. All of these you might help and do not—to all these you are doing wrong.” (I Will Tear Down My Barns)

“Are you poor? You know someone even poorer. You have provisions for only ten days, but someone else has enough only for one day. As a good and generous person, redistribute your surplus to the needy. Do not shrink from giving the little that you have do not prefer your own benefit to remedying the common distress. And if you have only one remaining loaf of bread, and someone comes knocking at your door, bring forth the one loaf from your store, hold it heavenward, and say this prayer, which is not only generous on your part, but also calls forth the Lord’s pity: ‘Lord, you see this one loaf, and you know the threat of starvation is imminent, but I place your commandment before my own well-being, and from the little I have I give to this famished brother. Give, then, in return to me your servant, since I am also in danger of starvation. I know your goodness and am emboldened by your power. You do not delay your grace indefinitely, but distribute your gifts when you will.’ And when you have thus spoken and acted, the bread you have given from your straitened circumstances will become seed for sowing that bears a rich harvest, a promise of food, an envoy of mercy.” (In Time of Famine and Drought)


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