Inligting

Slade School of Art


Die Slade School of Art is in 1871 gestig met geld wat oorgebly het deur Felix Slade, 'n welgestelde kunsversamelaar uit Yorkshire. Die eerste professor in kuns aan die Slade was Edward Poynter wat die Franse akademiese stelsel bevoordeel het. Onderrigmetodes onder Poynter was geneig om te konsentreer op teken en skilder uit die lewende model, die ontwikkeling van kritiese intelligensie en begrip van kunsgeskiedenis.

Toe Edward Poynter in 1876 deur Alphonse Legros vervang is, is studente hoofsaaklik deur demonstrasie onderrig. In 1892 volg Frederick Brown Alphonse Legros op as professor in die kunsskool Slade Art. Volgens Anne Pimlott Baker: "Met die voortsetting van die onderrig en die liberale uitkyk van Poynter en Legros, bou hy (Brown) die tekenskool op en probeer om die individualiteit van sy leerlinge te ontwikkel, terwyl hy hulle aanmoedig om vorm te bestudeer deur middel van 'n analitiese eerder as 'n nabootsende benadering tot tekenwerk, terugkeer na die metodes van meesters soos Ingres.

Frederick Brown het Henry Tonks oortuig om medisyne op te gee en een van sy onderwysers te word. Tonks se biograaf, Lynda Morris, het aangevoer: "Tonks het sy anatomiese kennis gebruik om lewensleer as 'n vinnige en intelligente aktiwiteit te leer. Hy het sy studente verwys na ou meestertekeninge by die British Museum en sy leerlinge geleer om die model in grootte te teken. dit is gesien, gemeet op armlengte (siggrootte), wat hulle in staat gestel het om die tekening voortdurend self te korrigeer teen 'n fisiese voorwerp. " Brown het ook sy vriend, Philip Wilson Steer, by die personeel gewerf.

Onder die leiding van Brown en Tonks het die Slade School of Art 'n paar van sy vooraanstaande kunstenaars opgelewer, waaronder William Rothenstein, Augustus John, Gwen John, William Orpen, Paul Nash, Wyndham Lewis, Dora Carrington, Dorothy Brett, Spencer Gore, Jacob Epstein, David Bomberg, Michel Salaman, Edna Waugh, Herbert Barnard Everett, Albert Rothenstein, Ambrose McEvoy, Ursula Tyrwhitt, Ida Nettleship en Gwen Salmond.

In die tydperk voor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het 'n klein groepie studente baie nou saamgewerk. Dit sluit in Mark Gertler, Christopher Nevinson, Stanley Spencer, John S. Currie, Maxwell Gordon Lightfoot, Edward Wadsworth, Adrian Allinson en Rudolph Ihlee. Hierdie groep het bekend geword as die Coster Gang. Volgens David Boyd Haycock, die skrywer van A Crisis of Brilliance (2009), was dit 'omdat hulle meestal swart truie, skarlaken dempers en swart pette of hoede gedra het, soos die kosboere wat vrugte en groente uit karre in die straat verkoop het'.

Nog 'n belangrike tutor by die Slade School of Art was Roger Fry. Hy het baie belang gestel in alle vorme van kuns. In Mei 1910 skryf hy 'n artikel vir Die tydskrif Burlington op tekeninge van African Bushman, waar hy hul skerpheid van persepsie en intelligensie van ontwerp prys. David Boyd Haycock het aangevoer dat "Fry sy bewustheid oopmaak vir 'n wyer gebied van artistieke uitdrukking, hoewel dit nie een sou wees wat hom baie vriende sou wen nie." Henry Tonks sê aan 'n vriend: "Dink jy nie Fry kan iets interessanter vind om oor te skryf as Boesmans nie?" Tonks was ook baie krities oor Kubisme. Tonks verklaar: "Ek kan nie leer waarin ek nie glo nie. Ek sal bedank as hierdie praatjie oor kubisme nie ophou nie; dit maak my dood." Hierdie houding vergroot die siening dat hy 'n reaksionêr geword het.

In 1910 het Fry, Clive Bell en Desmond MacCarthy na Parys gegaan en na 'n besoek aan 'Paryse handelaars en private versamelaars, 'n verskeidenheid skilderye gereël om uit te stal in die Grafton Galleries' in Mayfair. Dit bevat 'n seleksie skilderye van Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Paul Cézanne, Édouard Manet, Paul Gauguin, André Derain en Vincent Van Gogh. Soos die skrywer van Crisis of Brilliance (2009) uitgewys het: "Alhoewel sommige van hierdie skilderye al twintig of selfs dertig jaar oud was - en vier van die vyf groot kunstenaars wat verteenwoordig was, dood was - was dit nuut vir die meeste Londenaars." Hierdie uitstalling het 'n duidelike indruk op die werk van Duncan Grant, Vanessa Bell en Spencer Gore gehad.

Henry Tonks het aan sy studente gesê dat alhoewel hy hulle nie kon verhinder om die Grafton -galerye te besoek nie, maar dat hy vir hulle sou kon sê "hoeveel beter sou hy wees as ons nie besmetting waag nie, maar wegbly". Die kritikus vir Die Pall Mall Gazette beskryf die skilderye as die "uitset van 'n kranksinnige asiel". Robert Ross van Die Morning Post stem saam dat die "emosies van hierdie skilders ... nie van belang is nie, behalwe vir die patologiestudent en die spesialis in abnormaliteit". Hierdie opmerkings was veral kwetsend vir Fry, aangesien sy vrou onlangs toegewyd was aan 'n instelling wat aan skisofrenie ly.

Paul Nash onthou dat hy Claude Phillips, die kunskritikus van Die Daily Telegraphby die vertrek van die uitstalling, "gooi sy katalogus op die drumpel van die Grafton Galleries neer en druk daarop." William Rothenstein hou ook nie van Fry se post-impressionistiese uitstalling nie. Hy skryf in sy outobiografie, Mans en herinneringe (1932) dat hy vrees dat die oormatige publisiteit wat die uitstalling ontvang het, jonger kunstenaars sou verlei van 'meer persoonlike, meer nougesette werk'.

Gilbert Spencer, die broer van Stanley Spencer, was 'n ander wat aan die Slade studeer het. Hy het later geskryf hoe Henry Tonks "gepraat het van toewyding, die voorreg om 'n kunstenaar te wees, dat om 'n slegte tekening te maak, soos om met 'n leuen te leef, en hy het hierdie ideale ingeplant deur genadelose en kwynende kritiek. Ek onthou dat ek een keer by die huis gekom en Ek was lus om myself onder die trein te gooi, en Stan het vir my gesê ek moet nie omgee nie, want hy het dit aan almal gedoen. " Tonks het later toegegee: "Ek kan beslis nie teken nie, alhoewel ek 'n passie het om te teken; ek is onseker oor die rigting van lyne; ek het geen handvaardigheid nie, en om myself uit te druk, het ek die grootste probleem. Miskien is dit Omdat ek self so gebrekkig is, het ek genoeg eerlikheid om my studente aan te spoor om hulself te versterk waar ek swak is. "

Tonks het die reputasie ontwikkel dat hy baie hard was teenoor sy studente. Randolph Schwabe het aangevoer: "Eens het ek 'n vreemde toneel beleef. 'N Nuwe student het in die Antieke kamer gekom, 'n baie lang, swaar man, in die privaat lewe 'n amateur -pugilis. Hy sit soos ander op 'n lae sitplek naby die vloer, sy bes gedoen om die rolverdeling voor hom te lewer. Tonks, van sy groot hoogte af, buk oor hom en sê snydend - Ek dink jy dink jy kan teken. Die student versamel homself, styg stadig tot 'n nog groter hoogte as Tonks en kyk afwaarts en antwoord onderdrukte woede (maar volmaakte geregtigheid) - As ek gedink het ek kan teken - sou ek nie hierheen moes kom nie? Hy het die oorhand gekry. Tonks het niks te sê nie en het die kamer verlaat. "


Constance Markievicz

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Constance Markievicz, tenvolle Gravin Constance Georgine Markievicz, née Gore-Booth, Markievicz ook gespel Markiewicz, (gebore 4 Februarie 1868, Londen, Engeland-oorlede 15 Julie 1927, Dublin, Ierland), Anglo-Ierse gravin en politieke aktivis wat die eerste vrou was wat tot die Britse parlement verkies is (1918), hoewel sy geweier het om haar te neem sitplek. Sy was ook die enigste vrou wat in die eerste Dáil Éireann (Ierse Vergadering) gedien het, waarin sy as minister van arbeid opgetree het (1919–22).

Constance Gore-Booth is gebore in die Anglo-Ierse aristokrasie en het grootgeword op die landgoed van haar gesin, Lissadell, in County Sligo, Ierland. Haar pa, sir Henry Gore-Booth, was 'n grondeienaar en filantroop, en haar suster Eva het later 'n sleutelfiguur in die stemreg vir vroue geword. Constance is in 1887 aan die hof van koningin Victoria voorgelê en ingeskryf by die Slade School of Art in Londen in 1893. Aan die einde van die 1890's reis sy na Parys, waar sy graaf Casimir Dunin-Markievicz van Pole ontmoet het wat hulle in 1900 getroud het.

In 1903 verhuis die Markieviczes na Dublin, waar Constance se belange spoedig van kuns na Ierse politiek verander het. Op 40 -jarige ouderdom, in 1908, het sy die Ierse nasionalisme aangeneem en by die revolusionêre vrouegroep Inghinidhe na hÉireann (Dogters van Ierland) en die politieke party Sinn Féin aangesluit. Die jaar daarna stig sy Na Fianna Éireann (Soldiers of Ireland), 'n republikeinse organisasie wat losweg gebaseer is op die Boy Scouts, waarin jong seuns opgelei is om nasionalistiese soldate te wees.

In 1911 is sy gearresteer omdat sy betoog het teen die besoek van koning George V aan Ierland. Dit was maar net die eerste van verskeie arrestasies en gevangenisse vir Markievicz, wie se politieke aktivisme vir die res van haar lewe af en toe tronkstraf tot gevolg gehad het. In 1913–14 het sy voedsel vir werkers en hul gesinne verskaf tydens 'n arbeidsgeskil waarin duisende mense uit hul werkplekke uitgesluit was omdat hulle geweier het om lidmaatskap van die vakbond te weier.

In April 1916 neem Markievicz deel aan die Easter Rising, 'n republikeinse opstand in Dublin teen die Britse regering in Ierland. Na die algemene oorgawe is sy gearresteer en in die tronk gesit. Alhoewel baie vroue aan die opstand deelgeneem het, was Markievicz die enigste een wat in die hof gedra is, maar sy is ter dood veroordeel, maar die vonnis is omgeskakel in 'n leeftyd van strafdiens weens haar geslag. Die volgende jaar, onder 'n algemene amnestie, is Markievicz vrygelaat, maar sy beland gou weer in die tronk weens vermeende deelname aan 'n komplot teen die Britse regering. In Desember 1918, terwyl Markievicz steeds gevangenisstraf uitoefen, is hy in die Lagerhuis verkies as die verteenwoordiger van die St. Patrick's -afdeling in Dublin. Sy weier om saam met die ander lede van Sinn Féin 'n eed van trou aan die koning af te sweer en neem dus nie haar sitplek in nie. In plaas daarvan, onder leiding van Eamon de Valera, stig die Ierse republikeine hul eie voorlopige regering, Dáil Éireann.

Na haar vrylating uit die gevangenis, dien Markievicz in die eerste Dáil Éireann as minister van arbeid, 'n pos wat sy beklee vanaf 1919 totdat sy in die 1922 -verkiesings verslaan is. Dieselfde jaar is die Ierse Vrystaat gestig, en Dáil Éireann is opgeneem as die laerhuis van die Oireachtas (Ierse parlement). Markievicz is in die algemene verkiesing van 1923 tot die Dáil verkies, maar sy weier weer saam met die ander lede van Sinn Féin om trou aan die koning te sweer en neem nie haar sitplek in nie. Sy het haar eerder toegewy aan liefdadigheidswerk. Markievicz het by die stigting in 1926 by de Valera se Fianna Fáil -party aangesluit en is weer verkies tot die Dáil in 1927. Sy sterf 'n maand later, sonder dat sy haar intrek geneem het.


Slade School of Art - Geskiedenis

Hierdie artikel kom uit 'n afskrif van die Magazine of Art Vol.VI (1883) in die internetargief, bygedra tot die argief deur die Getty Research Institute. Die oorspronklike illustrasies is op die toepaslike bladsye geplaas (wat tussen hakies in die teks verskyn), en skakels is bygevoeg na ander materiaal op ons eie webwerf. - Jacqueline Banerjee

I. Medalje van Charles Hallé (deur Elinor Hallé).

DIT is 'n onmiskenbare feit dat die artistieke produksie van 'n nasie in sy geheel die uitkoms en uitdrukking is van sy smaak en humeur. In kuns, soos met ander dinge, skep die vraag die aanbod, en hoe laer die standaard van openbare smaak, hoe laer is die kwaliteit van die kuns wat verskaf word. Hoe ver openbare smaak gekweek kan word, is 'n baie groot vraag. Kan ons ongetwyfeld die uitspraak van 'n sekere begaafde skrywer aanvaar-"Die kunste word nou toegegee aan die franks met 'n plat neus en hulle swoeg, en bestudeer en vind uit teorieë om hul eie onbevoegdheid te verantwoord," ensovoorts-min moeite sal wees gemaak tot verbetering. Maar op die vasteland word die beeldende kunste tot 'n aparte afdeling in die regeringskema gemaak, en ministers word aangestel wie se spesiale plig dit is om hul belange te bevorder en te bevorder, terwyl daar in Engeland tot 'n paar jaar gelede nog geen amptelike erkenning was nie die behoeftes en [324/325] aansprake van die Beeldende Kunste. 'N Skilder, meer onthou deur sy ongelukke en ontydige einde as deur die bereiking van sy artistieke ideaal, maar wie se eerlike entoesiasme en deeglike oordeel oor die oorsaak van kunsopvoeding hom onophoudelik veroorsaak het in die pogings om die Regering te lok om hierin te belangstel. saak, skryf: - "Professors of Art aan die universiteite is so broodnodig as die Schools of Design ' voorwerp so naby sy hart.

Die regering het die ontwerpskole in die hele koninkryk voorsien, en by die drie belangrikste Engelse universiteite word 'n leerstoel vir beeldende kunste gevestig. Laasgenoemde is egter nie te danke aan die versoeking van 'n kunsbevorderende regering of die gesamentlike oortuigings van akademiese dons nie. Die heerlikheid van 'n verligte en openbare geesdriftige individu, mnr. Felix Slade, het dit moontlik gemaak om 'n kursus lesings oor die beeldende kunste aan die Oxford- en Cambridge-universiteite in Londen te onderhou weens 'n verskil in die terme van sy erflating. , is 'n skool vir praktiese onderrig gestig, onder leiding van 'n professor wat self 'n kunstenaar is.

II. Bestudeer in rooikryt (deur Miss A P Burd).

Die Slade -skole het vanaf die eerste plek 'n onafhanklike standpunt ingeneem ten opsigte van die onderrigmetode wat gevolg word. Meneer Poynter, die eerste aangestelde Slade -professor aan die Universiteit van Londen, kom as't ware op ongerepte grond. Hy het 'n praktiese kennismaking met die kontinentale onderrigmetodes, sowel as met die van die Royal Academy en South Kensington Schools, en met 'n sterk oortuiging van die euwels wat in laasgenoemde bestaan, aan die werk gesit om die goeie van die Franse metode tot op die grondslag van die Engelse. Ek onthou dat ek in Oktober 1871 na die intreerede van meneer Poynter in die groot leefkamer van die nuwe skole geluister het waarin hy die beginsels verduidelik waarop hy voorgestel het om die werk van die studente te lei. Hier, vir die eerste keer in Engeland, inderdaad in Europa, is 'n openbare beelderskool vir presies dieselfde voorwaardes vir mans en vroue oopgemaak, en aan beide geslagte billike en gelyke geleenthede gegee. En dit is volgens die presedent wat toe vasgestel is dat dames sedert elders die nodige voordele vir studie binne hul bereik gehad het.

In 1880 is die noordelike vleuel van die University College vergroot om te voldoen aan die groeiende behoeftes van die studente, van wie daar nou honderd en veertig is. By meneer A. Legros is 'n bekwame en bekwame opvolger van Poynter gevind: een wat goed ingerig is om die intelligente onderrigstelsel wat reeds ingestel is, voort te sit. Maar professor Legros het meer gedoen as dit wat hy in 'n eie lyn geslaan het, en sy 'demonstrasies', as dit so mag genoem word, is een van die gewildste en nuttigste kenmerke van sy onderrig. Nie tevrede om vir sy leerlinge te sê: "Doen soos ek jou sê nie", hy neem af en toe 'n kwas of potlood uit hul hand en sê: "Doen soos [325/326] ek doen." Dit is 'n voorbeeld van die ou gesegde, ''n greintjie oefening is 'n pond voorskrif werd.' Nie net as hy van ezel na ezel gaan, om die studente se werk reg te stel nie, breek hy soms 'n studie af, voltooi die ander studente en kyk, maar by bepaalde geleenthede word 'n spesiale model bestel, en die professor staan ​​in die middel van die lewensskool, skilder 'n volledige studieleier voor studente wat voldoende gevorderd is om tot die lewensklas toegelaat te word. Sy werkwyse is eenvoudig in die uiterste; die doek is gegrond met 'n toon soortgelyk aan die muur van die kamer, sodat daar geen agtergrond hoef te word nie. Met 'n kwas met 'n effens dun, deursigtige kleur word die voorste lyne en kontoer aangeraak met dieselfde eenvoudige materiaal wat die breë massa skaduwee ingesit word, en geleidelik word die vleistone bygevoeg, die halftone en die ligte aangesit, die hoogste ligte word gereserveer vir die laaste aanraking.

In ongeveer anderhalf uur, soms in minder tyd, is die studie voltooi, en die kykers het waarskynlik meer geleer tydens die stille les as tydens drie keer die hoeveelheid mondelinge onderrig. Daar sal miskien gevra word of professor Legros wil hê dat sy studente in so kort tyd as hy self hul studies moet skilder? of hulle nie in die versoeking kom om die vinnigheid en gejaagdheid na te volg nie, eerder as deur geduldige studie om die sekere fasiliteit van die meesterhand te bekom?

III. Bestudeer in rooi kryt (deur die gravin Helena Gleichen).

Daarteen is geen veiliger beskerming as die wakende oog van die professor en sy assistente nie. Werk wat daarop gemik is om mooi eerder as korrek te wees, wat opvallend is as dit deeglik behoort te wees, wat haastig is om versigtig te wees, roep die ongekwalifiseerde skuld van die meester op en word in werklikheid tot openbare vergetelheid gedwing. Ooit gereed om talent te herken en ywerige, eerlike werk aan te moedig, selfs al is daar geen groot talent nie, voer professor Legros onophoudelike oorlog teen alle pogings tot pseudo-bemeestering in die werk van sy studente. Aan die ander kant vereis hy 'n sekere mate van vinnigheid in wat hulle doen. Die stelsel van uitgebreide "stippling" en manipulasie waarmee die student 'n geestelike "middagslapie" kan neem, terwyl sy hand besig is met brood en punt, word nie gely nie. Wat gevra word, is 'n intelligente voorstelling van die model of rolverdeling, met spesiale verwysing na aksie, lig en skaduwee, toon en algemene korrektheid van teken, en voordat die student kan terugval in bogenoemde geestelike slaperigheid, 'n nuwe model, pose, of voor hom voorgehou word, word 'n vars kombinasie van lig, skaduwee en toon aan hom voorgehou, sodat sy energie voortdurend tot aksie oorgaan en voortdurend in oefening bly. Die feit dat meer geleer word in die maak van verskeie tekeninge van verskillende figure, in verskillende posisies, as om uit een oogpunt op een tekening uit te werk, is duidelik.

Dit sal interessant wees om die daaglikse roetine van naderby te ondersoek. Hoewel 'n mededingende toets van vaardigheid nie vereis word van 'n nuwe student by die toetrede tot die skole nie, ondersoek die professor die vorige werk van die aansoeker om toelating en verwys sy of sy teken of verf uit die antieke of uit die woonstel, soos hy die beste ag vir haar. Op dieselfde manier word na elke promosie van een studie na 'n ander verwys - en beheer deur - die professor. Soms word outotipes van tekeninge deur die Ou Meesters aan die studente gegee om hierdie uitstekende praktyk te kopieer en [326/327], gekombineer met oorspronklike werk uit die lewe, die oog en hand te verfyn en op te voed, wat die grootste eenvoud in die hantering afdwing, tesame met die grootste uitdrukking van vorm. Die lewensmodel (figuur) sit daagliks van tien tot drie uur in die twee lewensskole - in die groot lewensateljee uitsluitlik vir die manlike studente, en in die lewenskamer van die dames, of die gemengde klas vir studente van beide geslagte . Laasgenoemde word in ons gravure afgebeeld. Die skets word geneem tydens die middagklas, wanneer poses van 'n halfuur gereël word om die studente te help met die komposisievakke. In 'n verskeidenheid houdings, geskik vir hul werk, word die studente om die model gegroepeer, en in die regterhoek word 'n staande figuur met gevoude arms maklik herken as meneer Slinger, die professor se waardevolle assistent. In hierdie kamer, wat goed belig en ruim is, 40 voet by 35 en 19 voet hoog, skilder die professor voor die studente die modelle gegroepeer word om te help met die samestelling van vakke, wat elke drie of vier weke deur die professor uitgegee word , en daarna deur hom gekritiseer. Hierdie modelle sit elke middag, behalwe Saterdae, van half drie tot vyfuur, en elke halfuur word 'n nuwe posisie gereël, wat deur elke student om die beurt voorgestel word, wat by sy of haar komposisie pas. Elke student kan by hierdie klas aansluit teen 'n modelfooi van 3. 6d. per kwartaal. Baie goeie, vinnige tekeninge word tydens hierdie sittings van 'n halfuur gedoen. Ons tweede, derde, vierde en sesde illustrasies - deur juffrou Burd, die gravin Gleichen en juffrou King - gee 'n voldoende voorbeeld van die tekenstyl wat hulle gekweek word: die direkte en eenvoudige metode om lig en skaduwee, krag en aksie uit te druk met die die minste moontlike tegniese meganisme. Die laaste illustreer die modelstyl wat elke dag vyf uur lank in die gemengde klas sit, sodat dames genoeg geleentheid het om groot en noukeurig afgehandel studies uit die lewende figuur te doen, 'n voordeel wat reeds is - en in die loop van 'n jaar of twee sal nog meer wees - waarneembaar in die verhoogde krag en korrektheid van die figuurskilderye deur ons dame -kunstenaars.

IV. Bestudeer in rooi kryt (deur juffrou E. S. King).

'N Belangrike kenmerk van die Slade -skole, sedert hul uitbreiding tydens professor Legros se ampstermyn [327/328], is die verblyf wat vir die etsklas voorsien word. Die borde word voorberei, geëts en ingebyt en ter plaatse gedruk, en 'n pers is hiervoor opgerig. Daar is ongeveer twintig studente in hierdie klas, en elke sessie word 'n prys toegeken vir die beste oorspronklike ets. 'N Lys met pryse is dalk nie oninteressant nie, aangesien dit sal help om die verskillende takke van onderrig te klassifiseer. Skildery uit die lewe, £ 10 Tekening uit die lewe, £ 5 Landskap, geverf tydens die vakansie, £ 5 skildery uit die antiek, £ 3 tekening uit die antieke, £ 2 samestelling, £ 10 anatomiese tekening, £ 2 ets, £ 5 anatomie, £ 3. Slegs die studente wat die skole gedurende die hele sessie bygewoon het, moet ook vooraf tekenings gemaak het van kop, hand, voet en figure uit die antieke, en, tensy dit spesiaal deur die professor vrygestel is, 'n paar osteologiese en anatomiese studies. Die mans- en vrouestudente ding onder presies dieselfde omstandighede mee en werk volgens dieselfde afdelings en modelle vir die kompetisie -vakke. Twee pryse kan nie in dieselfde klas deur die een student geneem word nie - m.a.w., kan 'n student in die lewens- of antieke klas nie 'n prys neem vir teken en skilder nie, en mag hy, nadat hy 'n prys in die hoogste klas behaal het (skildery uit die lewe), daarna in 'n laer klas meeding.

Die kompetisie vir die Slade -beurse (ses in getal, £ 50 per jaar, drie jaar duur, waarvan twee jaarliks ​​toegeken word) word op soortgelyke beginsels uitgevoer. Die deelnemers kan ten tyde van die toekenning nie meer as negentien wees nie; hulle moet 'n voorlopige eksamen in antieke en moderne geskiedenis, aardrykskunde en wiskunde, of een moderne vreemde taal en Engels, geslaag het. Slade se doel met die vasstelling van die ouderdom op negentien was om studente aan te moedig om vroeër as gewoonlik met hul kunsstudies te begin, aangesien die voorondersoek as 'n noodsaaklike beskerming teen die verwaarlosing van die algemene opleiding beskou word. Dit is die gebruik van professor Legros om te oordeel en te besluit uit die werk van die student tydens die sessie, sowel as uit die meer formele kompetisie wat hierdie laaste bestaan ​​uit 'n tekening van 'n kop en 'n figuur uit die lewe, 'n skildery uit die antiek, en 'n komposisie uit 'n gegewe onderwerp. Die Slade-geleerdes moet gedurende die ampstermyn van hul studiebeurse in die klasse van die skole werk, hulp verleen by die onderrig en lesings bywoon wat die professor aanstuur en 'n halfjaarlikse [328/329] ] verslag oor hul vordering en optrede aan die Raad van die Kollege.

VI. Bestudeer in rooi kryt deur juffrou E. S. King.

Binne die afgelope jaar het professor Legros - maklike princeps onder moderne medaljes en onder moderne eters - het 'n klas vir die vervaardiging van medaljes gestig. Baie van die Slade -meisies gee 'n aansienlike smaak vir die werk, en 'n onlangse kompetisie het daartoe gelei dat die prys toegeken word aan juffrou Elinor Hallé, dogter van die vername musikant. In haar voorkant het sy, soos ons illustrasie sal toon, 'n goeie beeld van haar vader, wat ook 'n fyn getekende, sterk gemodelleerde kop is.

Aan die begin van hierdie vraestel is gewys op die uitsonderlike voordele wat damesstudente in die Slade Schools gebied het. Gedurende die eerste jare van sy bestaan ​​was daar meer vroue as mans. Nou is die getalle redelik ewe verdeel, waarskynlik omdat vroue nou elders, maar in mindere mate, voordeel kan trek uit voordele wat op 'n tyd slegs by die Slade Schools verkry kon word. 'N Ontleding van die kompetiselyste sedert die stigting toon dat vyf Slade-beurse en twee-en-twintig pryse deur vrouestudente uitgevoer is. As ons in gedagte hou dat die skole nou hul elfde sessie is, en dat baie van die pryse, soos dié vir landskap, ets, anatomie en anatomiese tekening, van 'n meer onlangse instelling is, is die persentasie pryse wat dames behaal nie onbeduidend j en uit die geledere van voormalige Slade -studente het baie 'n posisie gekry onder die kunstenaars van die huidige tyd: juffrou E. Pickering, juffrou Kate Greenaway, juffrou Hilda Montalba, mev John Collier (née Huxley), juffrou Jessie Macgregor , Juffrou Edith Martineau en juffrou Stuart-Wortley, terwyl hulle almal, vir 'n langer of korter tydperk, by die mure van die Universiteitskollege gesoek het na die hulpmiddels wat ons elders geweier het.


Philip Guston (1913-1980): Geskiedenis en die skilderkuns

Professor Karen Lang het onderwys gegee aan die California Institute of Technology, die Universiteit van Suid -Kalifornië en die Universiteit van Warwick. Die redakteur van Die kunsbulletin Gedurende die eeufees van die tydskrif was sy 'n navorsingsgenoot in Leverhulme, 'n Paul Mellon -genoot by die Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts in die National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, 'n Getty -geleerde, Rudolph Arnheim besoekende professor aan die Humboldt Universiteit Berlyn, en Leverhulme besoekende professor aan die Universiteit van Warwick. Professor Lang is ondervoorsitter van die adviesraad vir die navorsingsgroep Bilderfahrzeuge: Warburg's Legacy and the Future of Iconology, wat die Warburg Institute, Londen en Institutes of Art History in Duitsland, Italië en Frankryk betrek. Sy is ook een van die stigterredakteurs van die open access journal 21: Navrae oor kuns, geskiedenis en die visuele/Beiträge zur Kunstgeschichte und visuellen Kultur. Professor Kang het uitgebrei gepubliseer oor moderne en kontemporêre kuns, oor filosofiese estetika en oor die intellektuele geskiedenis van die kunsgeskiedenis. Die geredigeerde volume Veldnotas oor die visuele kunste: vyf-en-sewentig kort opstelle en 'Die kans van kans ', 'n genooide opstel vir die Critics Page van Die Brooklyn Rail, het onlangs verskyn. Philip Guston: Die opsporing van die beeld, 'n uitstalling van die kunstenaars se werke op papier word in November 2019 in die Ashmolean Museum geopen. Besonderhede kan hier gevind word.

Die reeks van agt lesings vind plaas om 17:00, weke 1-6 in Hilary-kwartaal 2020. Die lesings word gelewer deur professor Karen Lang, Slade-professor in beeldende kuns 2019-20.

22 Jan: Geskiedenis en die skilderkuns

12 Februarie: Die opsporing van die prent

19 Februarie: The Little Theatre van Philip Guston

26 Feb: Dwaal in die nag

Almal welkom om dit by te woon. Bespreking nie nodig nie.

Let wel: geen fotografie of opname word tydens hierdie lesings toegelaat nie.

Die plakkaat van die Slade Lectures 2020 is 'n wenkompetisie -ontwerp wat geskep is deur Ena Naito, 'n 3de jaar Beeldende Kunste -student aan The Ruskin School of Art.


Wil u u lewe probeer teken?

Kom luister na ons regstreekse klas waarby u tuis kan aansluit.

Gryp jou potlode en papier en sluit aan by #LifeDrawingLive, ons aanlyn lewenstekeningklas onder leiding van die bekende portretkunstenaar Jonathan Yeo.

Dit was 'n logiese stap vir kunstenaars om anatomie te bestudeer en uit naakmodelle te put, ondanks morele kwellinge oor albei. Teoretiese regverdiging is verskaf deur die Italiaanse argitek Leon Battista Alberti in sy verhandeling Op skildery (1435). Hy het die volgende proses by die voorbereiding van 'n figuurlike skildery aanbeveel: & ldquoVoordat ons 'n man aantrek, teken ons hom eers naak, dan vou ons hom in gordyne toe. By die skildery van die naak plaas ons eers sy bene en spiere wat ons dan met vlees bedek, sodat dit nie moeilik is om te verstaan ​​waar elke spier onder is nie. & Rdquo

Soos Alberti suggereer, word lewenstekening nie as 'n doel op sigself beskou nie, ten minste nie vir studente nie. Dit was die uiteindelike stadium om te leer teken, en moes eers benader word na 'n voorgeskrewe kursus voorafstudies, waaronder afdrukke en tekeninge kopieer, uit antieke standbeelde (of gips daarvan) teken en anatomie en die teorie van perspektief. Hierdie gevestigde vordering word gesintetiseer in 'n illustrasie in die agttiende eeu van Diderot en d'Alembert Ensiklopedie. Studente se vertroudheid met die goedgekeurde liggaamstipes, posisies en uitdrukkings van antieke beeldhouwerk, so het die teorie aangeneem, sou hulle help om die eienaardighede en eiesoortighede van regte menslike liggame te 'regstel'-soos 'n paar rooskleurige, klassisiserende brille. 'N Beroemde klassieke model vir die verhouding tussen die werklike en die ideale verskyn in 'n teks van Cicero, die Romeinse redenaar en skrywer, wat beskryf dat die Griekse skilder Zeuxis studies doen van vyf van die mooiste vroue in sy stad om 'n ideale vrou te skep om Helen voor te stel van Troy. Soos Cicero vertel: & ldquohe [Zeuxis] het geweet dat hy geen enkele vorm kon vind met al die eienskappe van volmaakte skoonheid nie, wat die onpartydige natuur onder haar kinders versprei, en elke sjarme met 'n gebrek vergesel. & Rdquo

Benoit Louis Prevost, Ecole de Dessin, c.1751–77.

'N Illustrasie vir Diderot en d'Alembert se ensiklopedie, na 'n tekening deur Charles Nicolas-Cochin.

Ets. Bibliotheque Nationale, Parys.

Die lewensklas het ontwikkel in die ateljees van kunstenaars en vakmanne wat leerlinge aangeneem het, maar dit het 'n meer formele status verkry in die eerste kunsakademie, wat deur die skilder en kunshistorikus Giorgio Vasari in Florence in 1563 opgerig is. Die Accademia e Compagnia delle Arti del Disegno (Akademie en Kompanjie van Tekenkuns) het ook as 'n kunstenaarsvereniging gedien en, as beskermde van die invloedryke Medici -familie, 'n gesogte plek van intellektuele debat. Dit was nietemin baie invloedryk in die kodifikasie van die hiërargiese stelsel van tekentekens wat daarna aangeneem is in ander akademies wat in Italië en uiteindelik in Europa en die Amerikas ontstaan ​​het.

Die belangrikste nasionale akademie wat ná die Renaissance geopen is, was die Académie royale de peinture et sculpture in Parys (later die Ecole des Beaux-Arts), gestig in 1648 deur koning Lodewyk XIV. Aanvanklik was die enigste praktiese onderrig wat by die Académie royale aangebied is, in teken, wat die lewensklas die toppunt van die hele kursus maak. Hierdie klem op tekening spruit voort uit die humanistiese oortuiging dat die dissipline die grondslag van al die visuele kunste was. As Michelangelo put it: &ldquoDesign, which by another name is called drawing &hellip is the fount and body of painting and sculpture and architecture and of every other kind of painting and the root of all sciences.&rdquo Drawing – or &ldquodisegno&rdquo – also carried intellectual weight as the medium in which an artist’s creative power is first expressed and through which his or her thought processes are developed.

Charles-Joseph Natoire, Life Class at the Academie royale Paris, with Natoire as an Instructor, 1746.

Watercolour and chalk on paper. 45.3 x 32.3 cm. The Courtauld Gallery, London.

The Académie royale was granted a monopoly on the practice of life drawing, which greatly increased the method’s prestige and sense of exclusivity. A drawing by Charles-Joseph Natoire offers a behind-the-scenes glimpse of its famous life class in action, although it is thought to be more of an &lsquoidea&rsquo of a class than an attempt to record accurately the appearance of the room. Natoire, who later became Director of the Académie de France in Rome, included himself on the left (in the red cloak) as the tutor correcting students’ work. He would also have been responsible for setting the pose of the two male models apparently wrestling, perhaps in loose imitation of the famous antique statue The Wrestlers (Galleria degli Uffzi, Florence). The continuing importance of classical sculpture is also emphasised by the presence of casts after the Farnese Hercules, the Venus de’ Medici and other canonical works.

An anonymous &ldquoyoung painter at Paris&rdquo in May 1764 described the Académie royale life class: &ldquothere were at least 200 students, in a large hall &hellip all busy copying from a living man, who was placed naked in a reclining posture &hellip There are two rows of benches round the room the highest for the statuaries [sculptors], the other for painters every one has his own light placed at his right hand &hellip There are students here from all parts of the world.&rdquo This British student had seen nothing quite like it at home. That is because a century of debate over the advantages and disadvantages of academic art education in Britain preceded the foundation of the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1768. Several less formal art schools and associations, some providing life drawing, existed in various parts of Britain before this date, but the Royal Academy was the first state-sanctioned art school in the country to be set up along the lines of continental academies. As such, it aimed to raise the status of British artists and equip a new generation of art students with the necessary skills to produce paintings, sculpture and architecture that would be on a par with the achievements of the Old Masters and their classical precursors.

Life drawing was crucial to this mission. When Johan Zoffany celebrated the foundation of the institution with his group portrait of the Academicians (1771–72), it is revealing that he chose to depict his fellow members gathered together in their Life Room. George Michael Moser, the first ‘Keeper’ (or head) of the RA Schools, is busy setting the pose of the model. Intriguingly though, closer inspection reveals that none of the artists looks as if he intends to do any drawing. It has been suggested that Zoffany was playfully echoing Raphael’s Vatican School of Athens and tapping into the idea of an academy as a place of debate. Even though they are not actually drawing, there is a sense of the artists’ shared pride at having finally secured a national academy in Britain to promote the practice.

The two curious oval portraits of women on the right of Zoffany’s painting are also significant. They depict the Royal Academy’s two female Foundation Members, Angelica Kauffman and Mary Moser. Unlike their male colleagues, they could not be shown attending the life class on the grounds of moral propriety, but Zoffany managed to shoehorn them in at one remove. The Academy’s attitude to women artists was only to become more problematic as time went on. Despite numerous women exhibitors at the annual exhibitions, no more female Academicians were admitted until the 20th century. Likewise, no female students were enrolled in the Schools until 1860, when Laura Herford applied, giving only her first initial and surname. It was assumed that L. Herford was male and &ldquohe&rdquo was offered a place. To their surprise, the Academicians found no written rule excluding women and Miss Herford was admitted. Others followed, but the women were initially confined to drawing casts and it was not until 1893 that they were allowed to draw from the male model – and then only if he was wearing a voluminous length of fabric thoroughly wrapped around his bathing trunks.

Johann Zoffany RA, The Royal Academy of Arts, Published 2 August 1773.

There was one role in which a woman was welcome in the early days of the Royal Academy: as a model. This was a significant departure from continental academic tradition, which focused exclusively on the male figure, following the Renaissance theory that upheld the male body as the &ldquoperfect&rdquo measure of all things (epitomised by Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man). The Royal Academy preferred to follow the tradition of its less formal predecessors in London, including the private drawing school run by William Hogarth, which had always featured models of both genders.


Slade School of Art - History

Has art forgotten how to frighten us? In times past, artists understood fear and exploited it as among the most potent emotional levers that a painting or sculpture could pull. Medieval and Renaissance religious artists were especially tuned in to its appalling power. Terrifying visions of what eternal discomforts await in the afterlife should parishioners fail to live piously in this world (typically positioned near the exit to a church in order to leave an indelible impression), served a clear, if ghastly, purpose: to scare the congregation straight.

The last thing worshippers witness on exiting the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, Italy, for example, is a ghoulish glimpse into a sump of damned souls as they are sucked into the fiery maw of hell as imagined by the late-13th Century Florentine master, Giotto di Bondone. Giotto’s deeply disquieting Day of Judgement (which broadcasts above the rear door of the chapel on a split-screen fresco that simultaneously portrays the matriculation into heaven of the righteous and redeemed) may not be subtle, but it is effective. “The blessed arrange themselves in neat rows on the right hand of Christ,” as one scholar describes the scene, “while the damned stream in twisted shapes, bodies elongated, flowing downward… attacked by demons who stab, burn, and pull them apart”.

Giotto’s fresco cycle at the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua includes a terrifying Day of Judgement, placed above the exit (Credit: Creative Commons)

However fear-inducing the imaginations of Giotto, say, or Hieronymus Bosch, the faces depicted in their paintings rarely resonate convincingly with an inner turmoil of anguish. Adding to the eeriness of the gruesome gymnastics Bosch choreographs in the Hell panel of his Garden of Earthly Delights is the incongruous placidity of those being pecked or flayed. It would fall to ensuing generations of artists to tackle the challenge of actually chiselling a compelling semblance of foreboding into the physiognomies of their subjects.

Michelangelo’s Last Judgement fresco covers the entire altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Vatican City on the right, the souls of the damned descend to hell

From the damned soul who slowly sinks alone to eternal torture in Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel fresco of The Last Judgement (his physique tugged and wrenched by an entwined trio of devilish tormentors) to the aghast visage of Francisco Goya’s The Bewitched Man (1798) from Swiss artist Henri Fuseli’s bloodless likeness of a petrified Lady Macbeth to Edvard Munch’s iconic personification of existential dread, The Scream, the history of art has ceaselessly auditioned archetypes of enduring angst.

The Bewitched Man by Goya depicts a scene from a play in which the protagonist, Don Claudio, believes he is bewitched and that his life depends on keeping a lamp alight

Two lesser-known works created exactly a century ago show how the quest to find the true face of fear continued into the 20th Century. Still a student at the Slade School of Fine Art in London (having taken a hiatus from her studies in 1917 after being traumatised by the sight of an explosion at a munitions factory in Essex during the first World War), the British artist Winifred Knights was awarded a prestigious Rome Scholarship for her dramatic take on a scene inspired by the biblical flood. Amid a frenzy of scampering figures desperate to reach higher ground as Noah’s ark slips by unnoticed in the distance, it is a self-portrait of the artist herself – just off-centre in the foreground of the work, her limbs and psyche ripped in two directions – that crystallises persuasively the ferocity of fear as it continued to trouble the consciousness of Europe, still recovering from the horrors of war.

The Deluge (1920) by Winifred Knights depicts an apocalyptic flood in which figures flee to higher ground while Noah’s ark glides away in the distance

At almost the same moment that a panel of judges (including John Singer Sargent) was praising Knights’ work, the Spanish Expressionist José Gutiérrez Solana found himself at work on a rather quieter, though no less psychologically complex, double portrait that explores the same emotion if from a somewhat subtler angle. Though there is no furious scurrying for diluvial survival in Solana’s portrayal of a pair of off-duty jesters in The Clowns, a soulful foreboding haunts the carnivalesque complexion of the mime on the right.

Solana’s 1920 painting, The Clowns, conveys a sense of dread through nuanced facial expressions (Credit: Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía)

Research has shown that fear is tough to fake, involving as it does more muscles in the top of the face than other emotions, and one connects instinctively with the authenticity of anguish that rumples the brow of the horn-holding clown who looks blankly askance in abject dread of some undisclosed figure or force beyond the frame to our right. Though his depiction doubtless owes something to the serial Pierrot portraits for which his fellow Spaniard, Picasso, was well-known, Solana conjures a genuine fearfulness that is impossible to counterfeit.

Hirst’s For the Love of God, a skull made of diamonds, was displayed in Doha, Qatar, in 2013 (Credit: Niccolo Guasti/Getty Images)

But what about today? Is there a discernible legacy in contemporary art of such incitement to fear as one finds in Giotto or Bosch, or of the perennial ambition – from Michelangelo to Munch – to forge the quintessential face of fear? Damien Hirst’s notorious diamond-encrusted skull, For the Love of God (2007), springs to mind as a notable modern reinvention of the memento mori tradition in art history, which customarily features skulls and skeletons not so much intended to make you merely ‘remember you must die’ (the meaning of the Latin phrase) but scare you witless by death’s imminence. Hirst’s grimacing curio, comprised of more than 8,600 flawless diamonds, does not so much excite fear, however, as bemusement and exasperation at the outlandish cost of constructing such a gaudy gewgaw, let alone purchasing it. The asking price was £50 million. For the love of God, indeed.

So concerned with ceaselessly skirmishing over whether what they do is or isn’t art, many recent artists, one begins to sense, have simply lost touch with the full palette of emotions with which art is capable of being inflected, with the pigment of fear having arguably dried up the most. While it’s true that Hirst’s peers, the British brothers Jake and Dinos Chapman, routinely flirt with fear as a potential aesthetic element in a body of work that embraces creepy haunted-house mannequins to childish defacements of appropriated images from Francisco Goya’s chilling The Disasters of War series, their meta mockeries of the macabre are, perhaps unintentionally, less scary than silly.

Their work Hell is not about the Holocaust, say the Chapman brothers: “It’s the absolute inverse of that, it’s the Nazis who are being subjected to industrial genocide”

In the Chapmans’ own portrayal of Hell (for a controversial installation by that title unveiled in 2000), tens of thousands of toy soldiers were recast as a barbaric battalion of demonic Nazis and their victims – an outrageous orgy of violence that occupied nine large vitrines arranged into a huge swastika. A labour of loathing, the work took the siblings 24 months to construct. But to what end? The Chapmans’ playdate with Hitler landed more as a fatuous joke than a fearful jolt – even, it would seem, to the brothers themselves. “When it caught fire,” Jake confessed, after learning that the sprawling work had been destroyed in a devastating storage warehouse blaze in 2004, “we just laughed. Two years to make, two minutes to burn.”

Rego’s painting The Policeman’s Daughter (1987) shows a woman angrily polishing a boot it was part of a series exploring dysfunctional family relationships

So where has fear gone in visual culture? The celebrated Portuguese painter Paula Rego is often cited in the context of terror and fright. A recent academic article by the art historian Leonor de Oliveira entitled To Give Fear a Face: Memory and Fear in Paula Rego’s Work eloquently argues that Rego’s recurring motifs are indebted to the British art critic Herbert Read’s famous concept of “the geometry of fear”, coined by Read to describe the work of post-war sculptors whom, he clarified, had forged an “iconography of despair”. But to my eye, the formidable figures we encounter in Rego’s work – from The Policeman’s Daughter (1987) who portentously polishes a jackboot to her portrait of Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre in the menacing red room – invariably defy fear rather than embody it.

The word ‘fear’ is frequently invoked to characterise too what’s elicited by the recent work of Swedish video artist and sculptor Nathalie Djurberg, whose uncanny and carnivalesque installations (often conceived in collaboration with the sound artist Hans Berg) invite visitors into a repressed realm of engrossing grotesqueries. But the lasting impression of displays such as One Last Trip to the Underworld (2019), comprised of darkly comic sculptures of fantastical flora and fauna that flicker freakishly into life by the light of looping films, is one of quizzicality and wonder more than tension and terror.

Perhaps contemporary art, like contemporary poetry, has contented itself in deferring roles it once performed to other shapes of culture that seem better suited to the task. Just as we rarely turn now to poets to tell us epics – a job more alluringly tackled by novelists and filmmakers – we’ve ceased looking, too, to artists to frighten us into a new consciousness. This year alone is due to witness the reboot of a string of seemingly inexhaustible horror film franchises, from Saw to Friday the 13th to Halloween. It’s well established that coming face to face with fear triggers a feel-good dopamine rush, and there’s even evidence that it can boost one’s immune system. If contemporary art sometimes struggles to connect with wider audiences, perhaps the addictive drug of fear is among the cures. Perhaps it’s time that artists rediscover the fear.

As u kommentaar wil lewer op hierdie verhaal of enigiets anders wat u op BBC Culture gesien het, gaan na ons Facebook bladsy of stuur 'n boodskap aan ons Twitter.


Printmaker Stanley Jones: Archived oral history

By Slade Archive Project, on 25 November 2014

To celebrate the 2014 Slade Print Fair, we’ve published excerpts from another archived oral history interview – this time with Slade alumnus and former tutor in printmaking, Stanley Jones. Jones is a much-admired master printmaker with a particular passion for lithography. He was a student at the Slade from 1954 to 1956, and later tutor in printmaking from 1958 to 1998. (This means he is likely to be found in some of the Slade’s annual class photos – can you help us spot him?)

In the late 1950s, not long after graduating from the Slade, he set up the Curwen Studio with Robert Erskine. He continues to generously share his enthusiasm for printmaking, as demonstrated with his vision for the Curwen Print Study Centre which he co-founded with Sue Jones in 2000.

The interview excerpts published on SoundCloud were taken from a recording conducted in 1992 by Stephen Chaplin (then archivist at the Slade), and digitized in 2013 as part of the Slade Oral History Project. In his interview Jones reflects on the changing practices and personalities of printmaking at the Slade and beyond.


Slade School of Art - History

It may seem that things have been quiet with the Slade Archive Project – even more so now, given the current Covid-19 crisis – but we have been busy working on a number of exciting developments and will continue to do so working remotely in the coming weeks.

Last year we embarked on a new phase of the project which looks towards the school’s 150th anniversary in 2021. After reflecting on the various activities undertaken in Phase I, we have developed a number of aims for Phase II. We are approaching this milestone as a chance not only to celebrate the Slade and its alumni, but also to:

  • enhance and challenge known histories of the school and its legacies, through both internal and external research, and with a particular focus on transnational scholarship and international knowledge exchange
  • continue to develop, showcase and improve access to Slade archive collections, in part through digital technologies
  • promote cross-disciplinary engagement with the Slade’s archive collections, including, but not limited to, those emerging through fine art practice
  • use the Slade’s 150th anniversary as a springboard to explore different approaches to engaging with institutional histories
  • continue to pilot different ways to use, enhance, create and disseminate archival resources
  • foster collaboration across different disciplinary boundaries and through internal and external partnerships
  • integrate teaching and learning opportunities, public programming and outreach activities with research activities
  • and disseminate our findings through open access platforms.

Current areas of activity are:

  • Transnational Slade (Phase II), in collaboration with the ‘Slade, London, Asia’ Research Group, part of ‘London, Asia’ research project led by the Paul Mellon Centre, which includes a current pilot activity with ResearchSpace, British Museum
  • Slade Film Department (1960-1984), ‘Materiality, Archives and the Slade at the Nexus of Art School Filmmaking’ (working title) research project led by Brighid Lowe and Henry Miller
  • The curation and cataloguing of Slade archive collections, in collaboration with UCL Library Special Collections and UCL Department of Information Studies
  • William Townsend Journals digital project (with UCL Library Special Collections)
  • Slade Photo collection cataloguing project (with UCL Library Special Collections)
  • Tracing artistic heritages through the architectural fabric of the Slade

Vital cataloguing and conservation activities underpin these activities and research aims. The wonderful team at UCL Library Special Collections have been hard at work reappraising and upgrading the catalogue records for the Slade archive collection. This is an ongoing, collaborative effort to make what is an eclectic and disparate collection of records more accessible for researchers. We are grateful for the work of the UCL Library Special Collections team – Sarah Aitchison, Katy Makin, Kathryn Meldrum, Colin Penman, Rebecca Sims, Robert Winckworth, Angela Warren-Thomas and Steve Wright – who have together undertaken this mammoth task. UCL Library Digital Collections now has a dedicated area for digitised Slade Archive materials. We hope to add more records in the months to come.

From 2015-2018, the UCL Art Museum’s ‘Spotlight on the Slade’ Project also made great headways in cataloguing Slade collections. This research project was supported by the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, and sought to increase access to UCL Art Museum’s Slade Collections through research, cataloguing, digitisation, collaboration and public engagement. As part of this research, colleagues at the Museum discovered that approximately 45% of works in UCL Art Museum’s collection are by women artists. This is an astonishing statistic: typically, permanent collections in Europe and the US contain between 3-5% of works by women.

We have also updated guidelines for researching the Slade archive collections, and welcome additions to our growing bibliography on the topic of the Slade and its many histories.

In 2018, we marked the 150th anniversary of the death of the school’s namesake and founding father, Felix Slade (1788-1868). Slade, a lawyer and notable collector of glass, engravings, books and bindings, bequeathed endowments for the founding of three Slade Professorships of Fine Arts: at Oxford, Cambridge and University College London. Funds for a studentship were also bequeathed for UCL, and which formed the foundation to establish a new School of Fine Art for the teaching of professional artists, which opened three years later, in 1871. To coincide with this commemoration, UCL Library Special Collections digitised the Slade foundational papers which are now available online as part of UCL Library Digital Collections. As the papers reveal, a central idea behind the Slade school was its location within the university, and for much of its existence, the Slade shared its site with other UCL departments, including chemistry and physiology. Edwin Field (1804-1871), a lawyer, translated the terms of the bequest, and promoted the idea of establishing ‘a school of art in connection with a university, with a view to the collateral advantages that such an alliance could afford’.

A drinks reception was also held in Felix Slade’s honour, harking back to an earlier tradition of the annual Slade strawberry tea, with Slade staff, students, alumni and supporters congregating for berries and bubby in the UCL portico. We were lucky enough to have three descendants of Felix Slade join us, who generously shared their family stories and documentation with those wanting to know more. A small exhibition was also set up in the adjacent UCL Library Flaxman Gallery, showcasing some gems from the Slade archives.

The centre item featured here is by Elinor Bellingham-Smith (1906-1988), a preparatory sketch for an uncompleted painting depicting the Strawberry Tea on the lawn outside of the school on 26 June 1930.

This day marked the retirement of Professor Henry Tonks. An account of the event was recorded in the journal of the Bellingham-Smith’s friend and fellow Slade student, the painter William Townsend (1909-1973). His journals are in the care of UCL Special Collections.

The last official appearance of Tonks was an impressive and tragically simple piece of staging. At the end of his remarks he stood up and saying “I do not like saying goodbye, so there will be no official leave taking”, walked quietly with his jerky [?] walk to the door, leaving the long line of the staff, still in their places, whilst we clapped frenziedly, and for once, with real feeling and appreciation. Strawberry tea on the lawn. Tonks and Steer and Daniels from the National Gallery sit on chairs, at the edge of the crowd […] other visitors smiling and joking and drinking tea, and eating strawberries and cream. Tonks in his grey suit, looking a grey and tired, but not unhappy, old man.

Journal of William Townsend, 26 June, 1930. UCL Special Collections

William Townsend was also a Slade alumnus, who later joined the staff at the Slade, becoming Professor of Fine Art in 1968. This sketch was donated to the school by Townsend’s daughter, Charlotte Townsend-Gault, in 2017.

The Slade Session, and Beyond

Guest post by Dr Amara Thornton, British Academy Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Institute of Archaeology, UCL

The Slade School of Fine Art has a world famous reputation as a venerable art training institution. I’m currently investigating two early Slade artists who made a lasting contribution to archaeology: Jessie Mothersole en Freda Hansard. I’ve been reading Transnational Slade articles and realised that the experiences of these two women feed into this theme, providing an early example of the School’s international impact, links between different fields of study, and the role of UCL (and the Slade in particular) in providing opportunities for women.

As part of my research I’ve examined UCL’s Session Fees books, a rich resource for disciplinary and institutional history at UCL. These books record payments of students’ fees over the course of an academic year (session), extending from October to June, and provide an intriguing snapshot of the student body in each UCL Department at a particular moment in time. UCL admitted both male and female students from the 1870s onwards. Jessie Mothersole (1874-1958) was a 17-year-old from Colchester when she entered the Slade for the 1891-1892 session, remaining until 1896.

She joined a significant number of women students taking classes at the Slade at that time. A quick gender analysis of the Slade students listed in the 1892-1893 session looks like this:

Fig. 1 Proportion of men and women students at the Slade School during the 1892-1893 session.

Jessie Mothersole’s artistic skill did not go unnoticed she was awarded prizes (2nd class) in drawing from life and drawing from the antique in 1892. In 1893 she was awarded certificates in advanced antique drawing and figure drawing. These awards foreshadowed her career in illustration and writing.

Winifred “Freda” Hansard (1872-1937) studied at the Royal Academy Schools before she entered the Slade for the 1895-1896 session, remaining until 1897. Her work was later included in the Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition. In 1899 she exhibited Isola dei Pescatori in Lago Maggiore en Medusa Turning a Shepherd into Stone, which was described in Hearth and Home as “a vigorous, dramatic picture…”. Her painting Priscilla was displayed at the Royal Academy in 1900 and Rival Charms in 1901.

In 1902 Freda re-entered UCL as a student in Egyptology under the leadership of Professor Flinders Petrie. As in the Slade a decade earlier, in the 1902-1903 session, the number of women Egyptology students surpassed that of men.

Fig. 2 Proportion of men and women students of Egyptology at UCL during the 1902-1903 session.

At this point Petrie was making annual journeys to Egypt to excavate ancient sites. Egyptology students were offered the opportunity to take part in Petrie’s excavations, and in 1902 Freda Hansard joined eight other team members at Abydos, a town and pilgrimage site north of Luxor. There her artistic skills were harnessed to record the inscriptions and scenes on the walls of the Osirieon, a special building for the worship of the Egyptian god Osiris, ruler of the Underworld.

The drawings she made with Egyptologist and UCL lecturer Margaret Murray, who directed the Osereion excavations with Petrie’s wife Hilda, were put on display at UCL alongside antiquities from Abydos in July 1903. Hansard returned to Egypt for the 1903/1904 season, joining Jessie Mothersole and Margaret Murray at the cemetery site of Saqqara – an hour’s train and then another hour’s donkey ride away from Cairo.

Jessie Mothersole used her camera to capture the setting of this transnational phase in her artistic life. Her photographs show the Saqqara landscape, ancient remains, excavation scenes and the Egyptian team working with them. These images were later published in an article entitled “Tomb Copying in Egypt” for the popular magazine Sunday at Home. The publication included two uncredited line drawings, probably done by Jessie herself, depicting the hut in which she, Freda and Margaret Murray lived on site and the Egyptian boy who brought them water every day.

The Petrie Museum has one photograph in their archive credited to Jessie Mothersole, taken in Luxor rather than Saqqara (fig 3). But the hand-written caption underneath hints at her eye for minute detail that permeates her article.

Fig. 3 This photograph is dated March, 1904. Its handwritten caption reads: “Unfortunately the three leather lashes of the whip do not show, but they were there.” Miss J. Mothersole, Oak Tree House, Hampstead. Courtesy of the Petrie Museum of Egyptology.

Jessie remained largely based in the UK thereafter, moving into book illustration and writing on British archaeology. Freda returned to Egypt for further work at Saqqara, and married former solicitor turned Egyptologist Cecil Firth in 1906. The Firths were mainly based in Egypt, barring the period of the First World War, and Freda Firth continued to contribute to archaeological illustration after her marriage. Excerpts published from her daughter Diana Firth Woolner’s 1926 diary reveal something of the Firths’ life in Egypt and the Anglo-American-Egyptian network at work. One particularly interesting entry describes Freda and Diana’s visit with artist/archaeologist (and former UCL Egyptology student) Annie Pirie Quibell to see Egyptian bread being made.

Freda Firth took advantage of the opportunities at UCL for intellectual expansion as a woman student and built a life for herself in Egypt. Her experiences there coloured the rest of her life as an artist, and give her a lasting transnational legacy. She and Jessie Mothersole were two of many women whose time at UCL affected the rest of their lives. I was happy to discover recently that this history is currently being explored through a new arts project – Kristina Clackson Bonnington’s The Girl at the Door. I think Jessie and Freda would approve.

References/Further Reading
Bierbrier, M. 2012. FIRTH, Winifred (Freda) Nest (nee Hansard) (1872-1937). Who Was Who in Egyptology 4th Revised Edition. pp. 191. London: Egypt Exploration Society.

Graves, A. 1905. The Royal Academy of Arts: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors and their work from its foundation in 1769 to 1904. Vol III. Eadie to Harraden. London: Henry Graves and Co. Ltd/George Bell & Sons.

Harte, N. & North, J. 2004. The World of UCL 1828-2004. London: UCL Press.

James, T. G. H. 1994. The Other Side of Archaeology: Saqqara in 1926. Egyptian Archaeology 5: 36-37.

James, T. G. H. 1995. The Other Side of Archaeology: Saqqara in 1926 (II). Egyptian Archaeology 7: 35-37.

Mothersole, J. 1908. Tomb Copying in Egypt. Sunday at Home. February. (pp. 345-351)

Murray, M. 1903. The Osireion at Abydos. London: Bernard Quaritch.

Murray, M. 1963. My First Hundred Years. London: William Kimber.

Thornton, A. 2015. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology 25 (2): 1-18 Appendices 1 (pp. 1-5) and 2 (pp. 1-44). DOI: 10.5334/bha.252.


1960's

In the early 1960s computers were still in their infancy, and access to them was very limited. Computing technology was heavy and cumbersome, as well as extremely expensive. Only research laboratories, universities and large corporations could afford such equipment. As a result, some of the first people to use computers creatively were computer scientists or mathematicians.

Many of the earliest practitioners programmed the computer themselves. At this time, there was no 'user interface', such as icons or a mouse, and little pre-existing software. By writing their own programs, artists and computer scientists were able to experiment more freely with the creative potential of the computer.

Early output devices were also limited. One of the main sources of output in the 1960s was the plotter, a mechanical device that holds a pen or brush and is linked to a computer that controls its movements. The computer would guide the pen or brush across the drawing surface, or, alternatively, could move the paper underneath the pen, according to instructions given by the computer program.

Another early output device was the impact printer, where ink was applied by force onto the paper, much like a typewriter.

John Lansdown using a Teletype (an electro-mechanical typewriter), about 1969-1970. Courtesy the estate of John Lansdown

Much of the early work focused on geometric forms and on structure, as opposed to content. This was, in part, due to the restrictive nature of the available output devices, for example, pen plotter drawings tended to be linear, with shading only possible through cross hatching. Some early practitioners deliberately avoided recognisable content in order to concentrate on pure visual form. They considered the computer an autonomous machine that would enable them to carry out visual experiments in an objective manner.

Both plotter drawings and early print-outs were mostly black and white, although some artists, such as computer pioneer Frieder Nake, did produce plotter drawings in colour. Early computer artists experimented with the possibilities of arranging both form and, occasionally, colour in a logical fashion.

'Hommage à Paul Klee 13/9/65 Nr.2', a screenprint of a plotter drawing created by Frieder Nake in 1965, was one of the most complex algorithmic works of its day. An algorithmic work is one that is generated through a set of instructions written by the artist. Nake took his inspiration from an oil- painting by Paul Klee, entitled 'Highroads and Byroads' (1929), now in the collection of the Ludwig Museum, Cologne.

Frieder Nake, 'Hommage à Paul Klee 13/9/65 Nr.2', 1965. Museum no. E.951-2008. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince

Nake had trained originally in mathematics and was interested in the relationship between the vertical and the horizontal elements of Klee's painting. When writing the computer program to create his own drawing 'Hommage à Klee', Nake defined the parameters for the computer and the pen plotter to draw, such as the overall square form of the drawing. He then deliberately wrote random variables into the program which allowed the computer to make choices of its own, based on probability theory. In this way, Nake was able to explore how logic could be used to create visually exciting structures and to explore the relationship between forms. The artist could not have predicted the exact appearance of the drawing until the plotter had finished.

Bell Laboratories

Bell Labs, now based in New Jersey, was hugely influential in initiating and supporting the early American computer-art scene and produced perhaps the greatest number of key early pioneers. Artists and computer scientists who worked there include Claude Shannon, Ken Knowlton, Leon Harmon, Lillian Schwartz, Charles Csuri, A. Michael Noll, Edward Zajec, and Billy Klüver, an engineer who also collaborated with Robert Rauschenberg to form Experiments in Art and Technology (EAT). The Laboratory began life as Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in 1925 and went on to become the leading authority in the field of new technologies.

Bell Labs was heavily involved in the emerging art and technology scene, in particular it contributed to a series of performances entitled '9 Evenings: Theatre and Engineering' organised by EAT in 1966. The performances saw 10 contemporary artists join forces with 30 engineers and scientists from Bell Labs to host a series of performances using new technologies. Events such as these represent important early recognition by the mainstream art world of the burgeoning relationship between art and technology. The executive director of Bell Labs was employed as an 'agent' for EAT, his task to spread the word about the organisation in the right circles, namely industry. As a result, many artists and musicians used the equipment at Bell Labs out of hours.


Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton, 'Studies in Perception', 1997 (original image 1967). Museum no. E.963-2008. Given by the American Friends of the V&A through the generosity of Patric Prince

Amongst many things, Bell Labs was particularly influential in the development of early computer-generated animation. In the 1960s, the laboratories housed an early microfilm printer that was able to expose letters and shapes onto 35mm film. Artists such as Edward Zajec began to use the equipment to make moving films. Whilst working at Bell Labs, computer scientist and artist Ken Knowlton developed the programming language BEFLIX- the name stands for Bell Flicks - that could be used for bitmap film making.

One of the most famous works to come out of Bell Labs was Leon Harmon and Ken Knowlton's Studies in Perception, 1967, also known as Nude.

Harmon and Knowlton decided to cover the entire wall of a senior colleague's office with a large print, the image of which was made up of small electronic symbols that replaced the grey scale in a scanned photograph. Only by stepping back from the image (which was 12 feet wide), did the symbols merge to form the figure of a reclining nude. Although the image was hastily removed after their colleague returned, and even more hastily dismissed by the institution's PR department, it was leaked into the public realm, first by appearing at a press conference in the loft of Robert Rauschenberg, and later emblazoned across the New York Times. What had started life as a work-place prank became an overnight sensation.

The Slade Computer System, about 1977. Courtesy of Paul Brown


Art School Drawings from the 19th Century

Art education in 19th-century Britain was shaped by four London-based organisations: the Royal Academy Schools, the Government Schools of Design, the Department of Science and Art (based in this museum) and the Slade School of Art. Each was driven by powerful ideologies which dictated students' training.

These drawings, by students and teachers, reflect the different principles and practices of each school. They also reveal more general changes in emphasis over the 19th century. As subject matter, antique sculpture was gradually replaced by depictions of un-idealised human figures. Stylistically, the earlier insistence on a high level of technical finish gave way to a more spontaneous, sketchy kind of drawing.

Maria Brooks - Study of a plaster cast of The Borghese Gladiator

Maria Brooks (active 1868-90) Student at the Department of Science and Art Schools Study of a plaster cast of The Borghese Gladiator 1872 Black chalk Museum no. D.150-1885 The schools run by the Department of Science and Art became notorious for their insistence on a laborious drawing technique. Painstaking cross-hatching and minute stippling meant that a drawing like this could take months to complete. Although women were excluded from the Royal Academy, they were permitted to study at the government-run schools.

International Training Course

The Victoria and Albert Museum welcomes applications for ‘Creating Innovative Learning Programmes’, its new one week intensive course. This is a unique training opportunity for museum professionals from overseas who are interested in attracting and programming for a range of museum audiences.


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