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Die presidentsvrou wie se nalatenskap beter is as haar man


Hoeveel Amerikaanse eerste dames het nalatenskap geskep wat dié van hul presidensiële mans oorskadu? Dit is 'n saak wat aangevoer kan word vir Betty Ford, wat moedig taboe -onderwerpe soos borskanker, aborsie en verslawing aangeneem het - en sodoende nasionale gesprekke begin het wat ontelbare Amerikaanse lewens beïnvloed en gered het.

Op 9 Augustus 1974 word Betty Bloomer Ford op die wêreld verhoog toe haar man, vise -president Gerald R. Ford, skielik president van die Verenigde State word. Betty, 'n boorling van Grand Rapids, Michigan, wat haar pa se selfmoord en 'n kort, moeilike eerste huwelik verduur het, sou die dag onthou toe haar man die ampseed afgelê het as die hartseerste van haar lewe. Die hartseer was die gevolg van die geweldige empatie wat sy gevoel het vir haar jarelange vriend Pat Nixon, wie se man in skande uit die presidentskap bedank het, maar daar was ook 'n gevoel van oorweldigende verantwoordelikheid. As presidentsvrou - 'n posisie waarvoor daar geen posbeskrywing of gids is nie - sou Betty elke woord en elke beweging in die kollig wees. Op 56 -jarige ouderdom was die voormalige danser van Martha Graham en ma van vier nie besig om haarself te herontdek nie.

'Goed, ek gaan na die Withuis,' het sy gesê, 'doen die beste wat ek kan, en as hulle nie daarvan hou nie, kan hulle my uitskop, maar hulle kan my nie maak van iemand wat ek nie is nie . ”

Sewe weke na haar nuwe rol, staan ​​Betty Ford voor 'n nog groter uitdaging: 'n Roetine -doktersbesoek het 'n knop in haar bors ontbloot.

Sy het borskanker uit die skaduwee gebring.

In 1974 het borskankerbewustheidsmaand nog nie bestaan ​​nie. Daar was geen riglyne vir gereelde vertonings, geen fondsinsamelings, geen pasiëntondersteuningsgroepe nie. Op daardie tydstip, die woorde bors en Kanker is in stil geluide gepraat - soos iets skandeliks. Maar Betty was vasbeslote dat sy heeltemal oop moet wees vir die Amerikaanse volk. Hoeveel ander vroue in Amerika moet ook hierdeur gaan? wonder sy.

Net twee dae nadat Betty se dokter die knop ontdek het, het die presidentsvrou geopereer sonder om te weet of sy kanker het, sonder om te weet of sy met een of twee bors uit die operasie sou kom. In die destydse standaardpraktyk is Betty onder algemene narkose geplaas terwyl die dokters 'n monster van die verdagte weefsel geneem het. Die biopsie was kwaadaardig en die dokters het onmiddellik 'n radikale mastektomie uitgevoer. Binne enkele ure na die operasie het die Withuis 'n perskonferensie gehou met die besonderhede van haar operasie - insluitend die goeie nuus dat die prognose van die presidentsvrou, veral omdat die kanker vroeg opgespoor is, uitstekend was.

Wat daarna gebeur het, was merkwaardig. Vroue regoor die land het buite klinieke tougestaan ​​om borsondersoeke te doen; koerantartikels beskryf hoe om selfondersoeke uit te voer; en in die eerste week ná Betty se operasie alleen het die Withuis meer as 35 000 kaarte en briewe ontvang.

Baie vroue het die presidentsvrou advies en aanmoediging uit hul eie ervarings gebied, terwyl duisende mense geskryf het dat haar moed om uit te spreek hulle laat toets het. Sommige het met bewondering geskryf: 'Een ding wat u aan die Amerikaanse volk bewys het, is dat u nie bomenslik is nie. Jy is net 'n super dame. " Ander het uitgespreek hoe hul sentimente partygrense oorsteek: 'Dit het niks met my politieke oortuigings te doen nie, aangesien ek nooit in my hele lewe sou droom om vir 'n Republikein te stem nie, maar ek sal elke aand vir u bid en beter word! ” Betty Ford het letterlik oornag die stigma van borskanker verwyder en die gesondheidsorg van vroue vir ewig verander.

Sy het standpunt ingeneem oor vroueregte.

Die reaksie op haar openheid oor borskanker het Betty die krag van haar platform as presidentsvrou laat besef. Een kwessie waaroor sy sterk gevoel het, was die wysiging van gelyke regte - die voorgestelde wysiging van die Grondwet wat voorsiening maak vir die wettige gelykheid van geslagte en diskriminasie op grond van geslag verbied. Betty was 'n sterk voorstander van ERA, maar dit was 'n politieke warm aartappel - een wat haar man se adviseurs verkies het om te vermy.

Nie dat Betty gehoor gegee het aan hul advies nie. In 'n toespraak tydens die Internasionale Vrouejaarskonferensie van 1975 in Cleveland, verklaar sy: 'Ek glo nie dat die eerste dame my moet verhinder om my standpunte uit te spreek nie ... Waarom moet die werk van my man, of die uwe, ons verhinder om onsself te wees? Om vroulik te wees, verg geen stilte nie. ”

Terwyl die ERA uiteindelik nie by die 38 state was wat nodig was om sy bekragtiging goed te keur nie, het Betty voortgegaan om namens vroueregte uit te spreek.

Sy speel dit nie veilig met aangename onderwerpe nie.

Haar openhartigheid het nog meer kontroversie veroorsaak in 'n onderhoud van "60 minute" in Augustus 1975, waartydens verslaggewer Morley Safer haar ondersoek het na die knoppies van die tyd. Toe sy uitgevra is oor die onlangse uitspraak van die Hooggeregshof wat aborsie wettig maak, het sy gesê 'dit was die beste ding ter wêreld', want dit was na haar mening tyd om dit 'uit die agterplaas te bring en na die hospitale waar dit hoort'. Oor die kwessie van die toenemende voorkoms van dagga onder Amerikaanse tieners, het Betty gesê dat sy seker was dat haar eie kinders dit waarskynlik probeer het, en dat dit waarskynlik ook sou gebeur as sy 'n tiener was. Toe Safer vra hoe sy voel oor seks voor die huwelik-en meer spesifiek, hoe sy sou reageer as haar 17-jarige dogter Susan 'n 'verhouding' gehad het-het Betty gesê dat sy nie verbaas sou wees nie omdat Susan 'heeltemal normaal' was. mens ”en miskien kan huweliksverhoudinge met die regte persoon tot 'n laer egskeidingsyfer lei.

Die reaksie? Niks anders as skok en ontsag nie. Geen presidentsvrou het nog ooit so op die televisie verskyn nie. Terwyl baie mense haar antwoorde afskuwelik gevind het, het peilings getoon dat die meerderheid Amerikaners haar openhartigheid as verfrissend beskou. Sy het weer 'n nasionale dialoog tot stand gebring - en haar gewildheid het die hoogte ingeskiet.

In 'n onderhoud vir BETTY FORD: First Lady, Women's Advocate, Survivor, Trailblazer, Vertel Betty se oudste seun, Mike Ford, aan hierdie skrywer: 'Daar was altyd 'n deel van haar wat wou uitbreek en uit my pa se skaduwee wou kom.' As presidentsvrou kon Betty Ford uiteindelik presies dit doen. In haar memoires uit 1978, Die tye van my lewe, het sy besin dat "in die begin was dit soos om na 'n partytjie te gaan waaroor jy bang is en tot jou verbasing uit te vind dat jy lekker kuier. Jy weet nooit wat jy kan doen totdat jy dit moet doen nie. ”

Na die Withuis het die pille en alkohol posgevat.

Toe Jimmy Carter president Ford in die presidentsverkiesing van 1976 verslaan het, het Betty se tyd in die Withuis - en die kollig - skielik geëindig. Die Fords verhuis na Rancho Mirage, Kalifornië, 'n tony -gemeenskap naby Palm Springs, waar hulle jare saam met vriende vakansie gehou het, met die hoop om aftrede te geniet. Vir Betty was dit 'n moeilike oorgang. Haar man, wat 'n groot aanvraag op die spraakbaan was, het byna konstant gereis. En met al vier kinders wat groot is en onafhanklik woon, was Betty dikwels alleen - en eensaam.

Die afgelope 23 jaar het Betty chroniese pyn opgedoen weens 'n geknypte senuwee in haar nek. Deur die jare het dokters saam met Valium steeds sterker sterkte van pynmedikasie voorgeskryf om haar aanvalle van depressie en angs te verlig. En in die Withuis het dit voortgegaan, met die dokter van die Withuis, dr. William Lukash, wat Betty 'n magdom pille voorsien het om die kwale wat sy het, te verlig. Soos miljoene ander Amerikaners, het Betty veronderstel dat dit veilig is as die dokter haar iets voorskryf. Daar was geen waarskuwing dat haar nag-vodka-en-tonikum nadelig kan wees nie-selfs gevaarlik-as dit vermeng word met die medisyne wat sy neem.

Die kombinasie van eensaamheid, depressie, chroniese pyn, alkohol en voorgeskrewe pille het Betty laat sak, tot die punt waar haar gesin haar skaars herken het. Susan, die jongste van die Ford se kinders en enigste dogter, het opgemerk dat haar ma, wat altyd met 'n danser se grasie beweeg het, lomp geword het en haar voete geskommel het toe sy geloop het. Dikwels maak sy haar toespraak onduidelik; en baie dae het sy in haar badjas gebly. Op 'n dag het Caroline Coventry, destyds die persoonlike assistent van Betty, 'n groot hoeveelheid voorskrifbottels ontdek. 'Die hoeveelheid medisyne was verbysterend,' onthou sy. Coventry het al die medikasie neergeskryf - dit het drie regsbladsye gevul - en het Betty se persoonlike dokter in Rancho Mirage gekonfronteer. Sy reaksie? Hy het gedink dat hy die voormalige presidentsvrou as pasiënt sou verloor as hy haar nie gegee het waarvoor sy gevra het nie.

Almal rondom Betty - haar man, haar kinders, haar vriende - het besef iets is verkeerd. Hulle het net nie geweet wat om te doen of hoe om dit reg te stel nie.

VIDEO: Mevrou die president: Betty Ford: Ontdek waarom historici sê Betty Ford, een van ons gewildste-en uitgesproke-eerste dames, het waarskynlik meer vir Amerikaanse vroue gedoen as enige ander presidentsvrou in die geskiedenis.

In die lente van 1978 het Susan haar bekommernisse oor Betty aan hul ginekoloog gedeel, self 'n alkoholis wat herstel het. Hy het 'n paar ander professionele persone ingebring en 'n week voor Betty se 60ste verjaardag het die gesin bymekaargekom vir 'n ingryping.

Dit was destyds 'n relatief nuwe tegniek - en die blote idee het almal bang gemaak - maar almal was dit eens dat hulle dit moes probeer. Vir Jerry Ford, wat net 15 maande tevore die magtigste man op die planeet was en dikwels besluite oor lewe of dood geneem het, het niks hom daarop voorberei nie. Een vir een het familielede vir Betty stories vertel van die tye waarin sy elkeen seergemaak het onder die invloed van dwelms en/of alkohol. Dit was ongelooflik pynlik, maar telkens het hulle vir Betty gesê hulle is te lief vir haar om haar te verloor.

In 1978 was daar min opsies vir behandeling onder die pasiënt vir alkoholisme en verslawing. Maar nadat sy tuis deur 'n aaklige detoks gegaan het, onder toesig van 'n verpleegster, is Betty opgeneem in die alkoholrehabilitasiesentrum in die Naval Regional Medical Center in Long Beach, Kalifornië.

Betty het ingestem om 'n persverklaring te publiseer waarin verklaar word dat sy behandel word vir 'n oormatige mediese probleem. Maar eers 'n paar weke na haar behandeling erken sy aan haarself - en die publiek - dat sy ook verslaaf was aan alkohol.

Soos toe sy met haar borskanker in die openbaar geraak het, het Betty se moedige toelating 'n geweldige uitbarsting van simpatie en ondersteuning geïnspireer. Duisende briewe kom van mense oor die hele wêreld wat haar toegejuig het en wat verband hou met haar lot. Die briewe bevat dikwels die vraag: "Hoe het u dit gedoen?" En "Help my asseblief."

Sy het vroue gehelp om gelyke geleenthede vir verslawing te kry.

'N Jaar na haar eie ingryping het Betty deelgeneem aan 'n buurman en 'n goeie vriend, Leonard Firestone. Toe Firestone, die afgetrede president van Firestone Tire & Rubber Company, uit die rehabilitasiebedryf kom, oortuig hy Betty dat hulle moet saamwerk om 'n losstaande pasiëntbehandelingsentrum te begin om ander te help wat met verslawing sukkel.

Betty het huiwerig ingestem om haar naam op die fasiliteit, wat op die kampus van die Eisenhower Mediese Sentrum in Rancho Mirage gehuisves is, te plaas, en in Oktober 1982 het die Betty Ford -sentrum sy deure oopgemaak vir die eerste vier pasiënte: twee mans en twee vroue. Betty, wat 'n integrale deel was van elke fase van geldinsameling, ontwerp en bou, het daarop aangedring dat daar 'n gelyke aantal beddens vir vroue as vir mans is. Want alhoewel vroue net so geneig was as mans om alkoholiste te wees, was dit baie minder geneig om behandeling te soek. En toe hulle hulp ontbied, word hulle meestal deur middel van programme vir geestesgesondheid behandel, eerder as deur spesifieke behandeling vir hul siekte.

Elke maand vir die volgende 25 jaar het Betty Ford met die pasiënte van BFC gepraat en begin praat met: "Hallo, ek is Betty en ek is 'n alkoholis." Meer as 100,000 mense is daar behandel sedert die aanvang van die sentrum, en dit is steeds die enigste behandelingsfasiliteit ter wêreld met 'n gelyke aantal beddens vir vroue as vir mans.

Dit is onmoontlik om die nalatenskap van Betty Ford te kwantifiseer of te oordryf. Miskien was die beste huldeblyk van haar man, die 38 president van die Verenigde State: "As die finale telling gemaak word, sal haar bydrae groter wees as myne."

Lisa McCubbin is die skrywer van BETTY FORD: First Lady, Women's Advocate, Survivor, Trailblazer en drie New York Times topverkopers met die geheime diensagent Clint Hill. Volg haar op Twitter @Lisa_McCubbin.

History Reads bevat die werk van prominente skrywers en historici.


Pat Nixon is al te dikwels verkeerd geïnterpreteer deur historici, sowel as verslaggewers toe sy die eerste vrou was. Sy het self gevoel asof die publiek nie regtig verstaan ​​wie sy was of haar persoonlikheid nie. Sy het geglo dat haar man die aandag van die publiek verdien, en toe sy 'n reis onderneem het, hetsy as 'n welwillendheidsambassadeur of vir een van haar huishoudelike redes, het sy so klein as moontlik 'n gevolg gehad. Die feit dat Pat Nixon ongeveer 600 historiese verkrygings na die Withuis gebring het, of dat sy tot dusver die mees gereisde en mees versierde presidentsvrou was, het nie genoeg aandag van historici gekry nie.

Ons wonder net wat nog hierdie presidentsvrou kon vermag het as sy die land deur sy twee -en -twintigste jaar kon sien. Pat Nixon was nietemin 'n bekwame presidentsvrou wat baie bewonder is deur Amerikaners en mense regoor die wêreld. As u vandag die Withuis besoek, kan die werk van mev. Nixon en haar kuratoriale span nog steeds in baie van die kamers op die staatsvloer gesien word. Sy was 'n presidentsvrou wat min aandag gesoek het, en almal wat haar ontmoet het nooit vergeet van die moed en genade wat sy dra nie, maar bowenal was sy 'n onvermoeide verteenwoordiger vir haar man en land.

Kom ons kyk na enkele van haar merkwaardige prestasies as presidentsvrou.


Wat sal die nalatenskap van Melania Trump wees?

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

Om hierdie artikel weer te gee, besoek My profiel en bekyk dan gestoorde verhale.

Op hierdie, die vreemdste van inhuldigingsdae in Amerika, is 'n groot lang vraag: hoeveel Donald Trump sal na sy presidentskap in ons lewens bly bydra. Maar troos u ten minste hierin: Melania Trump, geklee in 'n begrafnis swart en 'n sonbril om die helikopter uit die stad te haal, groet dit alles.

Sy beplan die uitgang al weke, selfs al het haar man voorgestel dat hy kan bly. Terwyl Trump nie die uitslag van die verkiesing aanvaar het nie -aanvaar nie, in hierdie geval, beteken dat hy sy vurige volgelinge aktief aanmoedig om oproer te maak teen die uitslag van die verkiesing in die Capitol - Melania pak rustig op. CNN het berig dat sy 'vir weke' bietjie-vir-bietjie toesig gehou het oor die verhuising 'en dat die versending van haar items na Mar-a-Lago of berging 'n' semi-klandestiene operasie 'was.

Melania is vasbeslote om onmiddellik te vertrek, en laat dinge soos tradisie of goeie maniere nie haar moeite onderdruk nie. Na verneem word, het sy die 80 dankie-aantekeninge uitgekontrakteer aan personeel wat na die gesin in die koshuis gesorg het, hoewel hulle onderteken was "Melania." 'N Bron van CNN het ook gesê dat sy vanaf 'n week voor haar oorgang na privaat burgerskap geen entiteit gestig het om haar Be Best -platform lewendig te hou nie, en sy het ook nie by die inkomende presidentsvrou uitgekom nie, Jill Biden, soos die meeste eerste dames vir hul opvolgers het.

Vier jaar gelede het Melania met Ralph Lauren by die Withuis aangekom en 'n geskenk gebring, 'n 'pragtige raam' van Tiffany & amp, volgens haar voorganger Michelle Obama, wat gemaak is om te probeer om die oortreding in die protokol uit te vind. Dit was Melania se poging om iets gaaf en beleefd te doen vir die gesin, wie se nasionaliteit sy bevraagteken het as deel van 'n rassistiese samesweringsteorie. Fast-forward, en albei Trumps wou nie albei Bidens na drie jaar na hul huis nooi nie, maar in Melania se geval, wie weet of dit is omdat sy nie geweet het dat sy moet nie, het hulle nie die personeel om op te stel nie dit, of heel waarskynlik nie wou nie. (Jill Biden was al tweede vrou, so miskien het sy gedink dat haar opvolger dit nie sou doen nie nodig het net so 'n inleiding.) Sy verlaat nou haar pos as die presidentsvrou met die laagste goedkeuring van alle tye.

Trump se hakke het 'n geringe skandaal veroorsaak toe hy op pad was na orkaanhulp in Texas.

Melania het egter 'n paar woorde gegee oor haar tyd in 'n video wat Maandag vrygestel is en die gewone tarief bevat. 'Ek is geïnspireer deur ongelooflike Amerikaners regoor ons land wat ons gemeenskappe verhoog deur hul vriendelikheid en moed, goedheid en genade,' het sy gesê. “Die afgelope vier jaar was onvergeetlik. Terwyl ek en Donald ons tyd in die Withuis afsluit, dink ek aan al die mense wat ek in my hart huis toe geneem het en aan hul ongelooflike verhale van liefde, patriotisme en vasberadenheid. ”

Dit was die enigste vermelding van haar man, die voormalige president, en sy het geweld aan die kaak gestel terwyl sy haar kinderwelstandplatform, Be Best, verbind het. 'Wees passievol in alles wat u doen,' het sy gesê. 'Maar onthou altyd dat geweld nooit die antwoord is nie en nooit geregverdig sal word nie.'

En: 'In alle omstandighede vra ek elke Amerikaner om 'n ambassadeur van Be Best te wees. Om te fokus op wat ons verenig, om [sic] bo wat ons skei, om altyd liefde bo haat, vrede bo geweld en ander voor jouself te kies. ”

Be Best, die hoofprojek van Melania as presidentsvrou, het deur die jare baie hitte gekos. Dit het groot en omvangryk begin en anderhalf jaar laat, en het nooit regtig vorm daarvandaan gekry nie. Selfs die naam se ongrammatiese flair het soos 'n lokval gevoel. As Be Best deels 'n anti-afknouery-program is, hoe kan u die beste daarop wys dat die titel skeef was sonder dat dit klink asof iemand spot met diegene vir wie Engels 'n tweede taal is?

Die program het 'n onaangename uitgangspunt geword vir alles wat die presidentsvrou gedoen het, of sy 'n besoek aan verslawingsbehandelingsfasiliteite was of vir kinders gelees het of met onderwysers oor aanlynveiligheid gepraat het. Daar is geleenthede vir regte werk misgeloop: sy het selde 'n lobby vir die kongres gedoen namens die vele pogings van Be Best. Op een onvergeetlike oomblik kon sy die koronavirus glad nie in 'n kamer vol opvoeders noem tydens die jaarlikse National Parent Teacher Association -konferensie in Virginia nie. Dit was 10 Maart 2020.

Alhoewel sy deur die jare die tempo van haar optredes aangeneem het, hetsy gestop vir Be Best, saam met haar man geveg, of saam met hom in die buiteland gereis of solo, het sy, indien enigsins, dikwels in voorbereide opmerkings gepraat. Hulle was gewoonlik vol gesindhede soos dié in haar afskeidstoespraak, en nuttig om enige waarneembare persoonlikheid uit die weg te ruim. Dit maak dit nog meer skokkend om te hoor hoe sy buite die manchet praat, met haar ontstelde stem in 'n telefoonoproep met haar voormalige vriend en hulp, Stephanie Winston Wolkoff, wat dit uitgelek het om die afgelope herfs te druk.

By gebrek aan woorde, was haar klere en uitdrukkings dikwels oor om vir haar te spreek. Dit is moontlik dat haar grootste sukses gedurende haar tyd in die East Wing die publiek en die gek gemaak het met gebare - 'n klap in die hand van die president, 'n glimlag wat so vinnig verdwyn as wat dit gekom het - en met klerekeuses wat in teorie, kon was 'n verklaring: poesboog, pithelm, die wit broekpak.

Dink aan die inhuldiging vier jaar gelede. Dit het gelyk of sy hierdie first lady -ding regtig sou probeer maak. Sy het 'n Ralph Lauren -pak (Amerikaanse ontwerper! Besigheid!) In poeierblou aangehad. Dit het 'n middel -eeuse vorm en dit herinner aan Jackie O (geliefde, wêreldse presidentsvrou!). Haar hare is teruggevee in 'n verstandige lae chignon (besigheid weer!). Sy speel die rol.

Maar akteurs kom en gaan van 'n verhoog af, en dit is wat Melania gedoen het. Enige idee dat sy Amerikaanse mode -handelsmerke sou ondersteun, het weggeval, aangesien sy dit nooit regtig konsekwent gedoen het nie. (Obama het op die gebied eksplisiete pogings aangewend en J.Crew genoem Jimmy Fallon, byvoorbeeld, en dra nuwe ontwerpers soos Jason Wu na die eerste inhuldigingsbal. Miskien is dit nog 'n gruwelike vergelyking.)

Soos Winston Wolkoff vir my en enigiemand anders gevra het, was Melania gefrustreerd deur pogings om 'betekenis' in haar klere te interpreteer, soveel dat sy 'n boodskap op haar rug gedra het by die grens in Junie 2018: 'n Zara -baadjie wat sê: ' Ek gee regtig nie om nie. Doen jy? ” Alhoewel haar amptelike spreekbuis Stephanie Grisham gesê dat dit absoluut niks beteken nie, net 'n ander geval van mense wat te veel lees oor dinge wat die presidentsvrou gedra het, het Melania uiteindelik in 'n seldsame onderhoud gesê dat dit oor die pers gaan, en dat dit haar nie omgee wat hulle van haar sê nie, terwyl sy ook beweer dat sy die 'mees geboelieerde persoon ter wêreld' is. Dit weerspieël haar man se neiging tot hiperbool en selfbejammering.

Andersins dra sy wat sy vir elke geleentheid gepas voel, gewoonlik 'n Amerikaanse of meer waarskynlik Europese luukse etiket wat tuis sou wees in haar voormalige Upper East Side -omgewing. Sonder 'n werklike persoonlike styl van haar eie bo luukse, het sy gewoonlik gelyk asof sy baie duur kostuums op 'n filmstel dra. As ek terugkyk, kom die eerste Ralph Lauren net voor.

As ek aan haar nalatenskap dink, kom ek altyd terug na die presidentsvrou se eie woorde, geskryf in 'n tweet wat nog in 2012 verskyn het: "Wat dink sy?" Wonder Melania. Die raaisel, die geïmpliseerde intrige, die uitnodiging om te raai oor iets wat jy nooit kan weet nie.

Met die vraag het sy 'n foto van 'n beluga -walvis gepaar, en dit lyk asof hy vir ons lag, voordat hy weer onder die oppervlak wegglip, onsigbaar.


Lady Bird Johnson: haar nalatenskap en haar seëls

Na te dink oor haar jare in die Withuis, skryf Claudia “Lady Bird” Johnson, die vrou van president Lyndon Johnson, in haar dagboek: “... om te adverteer, om burgers bymekaar te bring tot aksie om ons omgewing te verbeter, gee my vreugde. ” Hierdie verklaring kenmerk haar styl en politieke vasberadenheid wat sy oor dekades saam met haar man gekweek het terwyl hy in die Amerikaanse kongres gedien het, as vise -president en as president.

Alhoewel Lady Bird die Withuis 49 jaar gelede verlaat het, floreer haar nalatenskap deur haar veelvoudige verfraaiingsinisiatiewe wat openbare ruimtes langs ons snelweë en openbare parke op federale, staats- en plaaslike vlak betref. Haar hartstogtelike begeerte na natuurlike saligheid deur die gebruik van inheemse bome en blomplante was lewenslank. Vroeg in haar pos as First Lady was sy betrokke by politieke aktiwiteite wat haar inisiatiewe sou bevorder. Sy het byvoorbeeld die komitee vir 'n mooier hoofstad gestig en daaroor toesig gehou, wat welgestelde filantrope, plaaslike burgerlike leiers en sekretaris van binnelandse sake, Stewart Udall (wie se departement toesig gehou het oor die National Park Service) byeengebring het. Sy het deelgeneem aan wetgewingsessies in die Withuis en vergader met kongreslede om haar doelwitte vir verfraaiing en wildbewaring te bespreek. Haar eerste en belangrikste prestasie het gelei tot die aanvaarding van die Highway Beautification Act van 1965, wat deur die teenstanders van die wet spottend as "Lady Bird's Act" genoem is.

1965 kombinasie gedenkblad. Bron: Privaat versameling.

Hierdie kombinasie -omslag toon die posstempel van die inwydingsdag vir Lyndon Johnson en die digitale kleurstempel wat uitgereik is vir mev. Johnson se honderdjarige verjaardagstempel. Haar voorspraak as omgewingsbewaarder, natuurbewaarder en argitek van 'n nasionale verfraaiingsprogram was 'n integrale deel van haar man se Great Society -huishoudelike program en presidensiële inisiatiewe.

Die uitreiking van vyf seëls wat haar wonderlike werk as omgewingsbewaarder en natuurbewaarder vereer, het ook bygedra tot haar standhoudende nalatenskap. Die sukses van haar beleid is ondersteun deur twee posmeesters -generaals, wat goeie vriende was van die Johnson -gesin toe die seëls vir 'verfraaiing' in 1966 en 1969 uitgereik is. Larry O'Brian, wat voorheen as Johnson se presidensiële veldtogbestuurder in 1964 gedien het, is in 1965 aangestel as die 57ste posmeester van die Amerikaanse pos. Tydens 'n interne posvergadering oor voorgestelde 1966 nuwe kwessies wat op 4 November 1965 gehou is, bespreek die deelnemers die moontlikheid van 'n seël om landskapstuin te vier. O'Brian pleit eerder vir 'n stempel om mev Johnson se verfraaiingsinisiatiewe te bevorder en die verloop van die snelwegwet van 1965 te vier, wat beperkings op reklameborde plaas en die aanplant van inheemse blomme en plante langs snelweë aanmoedig. Haar noue verhouding met O'Brian het mevrou Johnson ook die geleentheid gebied om die voorlopige seëlontwerpe te hersien, kommentaar daarop te lewer en goed te keur. Die seël het vinnig baie gewild geraak by die algemene publiek, veral by tuinmaak- en flora -belangegroepe. Die aanvanklike druk van 120 miljoen seëls voldoen nie aan die vraag na die seël nie, en daaropvolgende drukwerk was nodig.

Die eerste seël "Beautification of America", wat op 5 Oktober 1966 uitgereik is, is ontwerp deur Gyo Fujikawa en word beskou as een van die mooiste seëls wat in 1966 uitgereik is. 'n verwysing na openbare deelname aan mev. Johnson se veldtog "Natural Beauty". Die seël deel ooreenkomste met die reeks "Gifts of Friendship" wat in 2015 uitgereik is.

Na die gewildheid van die 1966 -uitgawe, is die kleurvolle stel "Beautification of America" ​​van vier seëls op 16 Januarie 1969 vrygestel. Hierdie seëls vereer die prestasies van mevrou Johnson se inisiatiewe, wat die betrokkenheid van die regering en plaaslike gemeenskapsorganisasies aangemoedig het. Hierdie stempel is deur die ontwerpproses voorgestel en deur die ontwerpproses deur William Marvin Watson, wat O'Brian opgevolg het as die posmeester -generaal, opgevolg. Voor die aanstelling was hy die stafhoof van Lyndon Johnson, sowel as die sekretaris van die aanstelling in die Withuis. Watson het die stempelkwessie eers afgehandel nadat mev. Johnson die ontwerpontwerpe die eerste keer gesien en goedgekeur het. Na haar hersiening was mev. Johnson se laaste versoek aan die poskantoor om die seëls gereed te hê voordat sy die Withuis verlaat. Die seëls was ook gewild onder die algemene publiek en die aanvanklike druk van 120 miljoen seëls moes tot 170 miljoen verhoog word. Die ontwikkelende kunswerke wat gebruik is vir die ontwerp van die seëls van 1968 en 1969 word tans in die Smithsonian's National Postal Museum vertoon in 'n uitstalling met die titel Pragtige blomme: 'n portret van blomplante op seëls. Die stukke word geleen uit die posmeester -generaal se kunsversameling.

Die stel van vier seëls is ontwerp deur Walter Richards. Die seël links bo bied die aanmoediging om 'te plant vir mooier parke' en 'n veld narcissen langs die Potomacrivier met die Washington -monument op die agtergrond. Die stempel regs bo "Plant vir meer pragtige stede", toon pienk en rooi azaleas en wit tulpe met die Amerikaanse hoofstad in die verte. Die seël links onder lees "Plant vir mooier strate" en is vol rye bloeiende krapappelbome langs 'n verharde voorstedelike pad. Die seël regs onder is 'n toneel van geel en blou veldblomme langs 'n snelweg met die opskrif "Plant vir mooier snelweë."

Op 30 November 2012 het USPS 'n pragtige aandenkingsblad uitgereik ter ere van Lady Bird Johnson se eeufeesverjaarsdag en bevat 'n herhaling van die vyf gegraveerde seëls wat in 1966 en 1969 uitgereik is. van 'n verfraaiingsprogram wat ná haar jare as First Lady voortduur.

Hierdie honderdjarige verjaarsdagblad verteenwoordig die eerste keer dat 'n aandenkingsblad vir 'n presidentsvrou uitgereik word en is goedgekeur deur Patrick R. Donahoe, die posmeester -generaal wat deur president Barack Obama aangestel is. Die blad eer Lady Bird Johnson se voortgesette prestasies nadat hy die Withuis verlaat het. Byvoorbeeld, op haar 70ste verjaardag stig sy die National Wildflower Research Center (herdoop tot die Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center). Die enkele stempel regs op die blad bevat Lady Bird Johnson se amptelike portret van die Withuis, 'n olieverfskildery deur Elizabeth Shoumatoff. Die eerste dag van uitreiking is gehou in die Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, wat steeds baie aktief is in ekologiese navorsing, tuinbou en inheemse plantbewaring.


Martha Washington: America's First, First Lady

Wat kan gesê word oor Martha Washington wat nie in die leksikon van Amerikaanse kennis gegooi is wat ons nie reeds van hierdie Amerikaanse ikoon weet nie? Miskien is ons eerste en enigste neiging om haar te woon, met portrette van haar in haar ouer jare, wat net soos iemand se ouma lyk. Of het u miskien gehoor van en selfs 'n vars gebakte tert geproe wat na haar vernoem is? Sy was getroud met George Washington, die eerste president van ons land, wat moes beteken dat sy die eerste, presidentsvrou, was?

In alle opsigte was Martha Dandridge 'n pragtige jong vrou. Sy is gebore in die welgestelde planter Dandridge -familie en was een van die agt wettige kinders van John Dandridge en Frances Jones. Sy trou op die ouderdom van agtien in 1750 met die veel ouer Daniel Parke Custis. Parke Custis was 'n welgestelde planter met aansienlike grondbesit. Martha het verskeie kere in haar lewe persoonlike tragedies beleef. Sy het vier kinders met Daniel gehad voor sy dood in 1757, maar slegs twee het ouer as drie jaar geleef. Hiervan was haar dogter Martha "Patsy" in alle opsigte 'n pragtige meisie. Ongelukkig het sy aan epilepsie gesterf en is sy op Mount Vernon oorlede tydens 'n beslaglegging in 1773 op die ouderdom van 16. Haar ander oorlewende kind, John "Jackie", trou in 1774 met Eleanor Calvert, en die twee gee Martha vier oorlewende kleinkinders voor die einde van die oorlog .

Martha Washington

In 1758 word Martha voorgehou deur kolonel George Washington, self 'n welgestelde planter in die getywaterland van Virginia. Die twee is op 6 Januarie 1759 getroud en vestig hulle op Mount Vernon, met Martha wat meer as net haar twee kinders bring. Sy het meer as sewentienduisend hektaar grond en honderde slawerny besit, wat almal die persoonlike besittings van Washington verdwerg het. Sy was diep toegewyd aan Washington en het hom ten volle ondersteun toe die Amerikaanse Revolusie in 1775 uitbreek.

Daar is 'n geskil tussen historici oor watter kampe Martha gedurende die oorlog besoek het. Oorlewende dokumente en briewe van persoonlike vriende toon wel haar teenwoordigheid by die beroemde kamping van Valley Forge gedurende die winter van 1777-78. Daar het sy gehelp om die vertroue in haar man te herstel en het sy saam met die vrouens van ander offisiere die ete gehou. Sy was ook in 1783 in New Jersey teenwoordig toe haar man die ontbinding van die weermag navolg.

Na die oorlog het Martha en George hervestig by Mount Vernon, die plantasie bestuur en die draaideur verwelkom van gaste wat die afgetrede oorlogsheld kom roep het. They also became steadfast guardians and surrogate parents to Jackie’s two youngest children, Eleanor “Nelly” and George “Wash” Parke Custis. Their father, Jackie, had died of camp fever following the Siege of Yorktown in 1781. Martha, now having lost her last child, took on the role to raise her grandchildren. Jackie’s eldest two daughters, Elizabeth “Eliza” and Martha “Patsy,” remained with their mother, Eleanor Calvert Parke Custis, who would remarry in 1783 and bear sixteen more children in her lifetime.

Martha and George Washington

When the Philadelphia Convention in the summer of 1787 called her husband away, and then seemingly placed him in a position to become the new nation’s first president, Martha was supportive but wary of leaving Mount Vernon. However, once relocated to New York City and eventually Philadelphia, she soon took on the role that would become First Lady by organizing weekly dinner parties and social gatherings that became the talk of the town. During the Washington’s tenure in Philadelphia, they brought enslaved people from Mount Vernon to perform the duties as servants in the president’s house. Among these were a young girl named Ona Judge. Judge had grown up as a playmate to Eleanor and became the personal body servant (someone who dresses and attends to personal matters) to Martha when she reached her teen years. When Martha’s eldest daughter Elizabeth was to marry in 1796, the First Lady planned to gift her daughter the young girl as a wedding present. Though it appears she was treated well (by her own accounts), Judge nevertheless was terrified that she would never gain freedom if she returned to Virginia. At the time, Pennsylvania law stipulated that any out of state enslaved person who remained present for more than six months would be legally recognized as free. To prevent them from losing their servants, the Washingtons developed a scheme to rotate their slaves in and out of Philadelphia every six months. Judge, being allowed to run errands in Philadelphia, probably gained this information from the city’s numerous free African American communities. With their help, Judge escaped one evening during dinner. She wound up in New Hampshire, where she successfully resisted pleas from the Washingtons to return. Though free, under Virginia law, she technically remained a runaway fugitive for the rest of her life. Years later, while speaking to a local newspaper, Ona Judge recalled that her desire to be a free person was stronger than serve a lifetime in slavery.

Following Washington’s retirement from the presidency in 1796, they returned to Mount Vernon where they continued to raise Martha’s grandchildren and run the plantation. Though it seems Martha did cherish her grandson Wash, the General was frank that the boy showed no focus or skill in education or an apprenticeship. Nelly married in February 1799, much to the joy of both of her guardians. In December, Washington fell ill after a horseback ride during a cold rainstorm. Upon his death, Washington directed that all his slaves be freed upon Martha’s death. It would appear Martha became quite alarmed of her situation. Fearing for her life, she decided to manumit the people in Washington’s will on January 1, 1801. Her health continued to fail her in the following year, and she died on May 22, 1802, at the age of 70.

Virginia’s slave laws stipulated that dower slaves, or those who were passed onto heirs after the death of the patriarch, could only be held in trust by Martha. After her first husband died, Martha inherited over three hundred enslaved persons. Legally, she had no control over them, i.e. she did not technically own the property. Her children and their heirs did. Washington himself was the legal guardian of the estate and holdings, but even he could not do much but hold the contract in trust until the grandchildren came of age. Most of the enslaved peoples at Mount Vernon were the dower slaves of Martha and her grandchildren.

Historians have debated how committed Washington was to emancipation. As he grew older, its clear the Founding Father first grew wary of the profession for economic reasons. As the principles of the American Revolution spread throughout the population, Washington seems to have changed his mind sometime in the early 1780s and began saying he wanted to rid himself of “this business” of owning people in bondage. Several of his closest military officers, particularly the Marquis de Lafayette and John Laurens, were emerging as dedicated abolitionists. In several letters, it appears Washington sympathized with abolition and agreed that slavery was wrong. However, he also strategically avoided making any public speeches or announcements regarding these views, most likely because he was more concerned about keeping the Union together and because it likely would have put him in a complicated domestic situation at home. Some historians have hinted at evidence that suggests Washington wanted to do more regarding slavery but was pulled back by his commitment to Martha and the Custis estate. It does not appear Martha shared his views on slavery. We may never know her true feelings because she burned most of her correspondence after Washington’s death in 1799. At this time, we simply do not know how she particularly felt regarding abolition, but we know Martha came from the wealthy Virginia planter society of the eighteenth-century, and she benefited and enjoyed the lifestyle that came with running a plantation worked by enslaved people.

Marquis de Lafayette

When we view her legacy in American history, we can see how Martha Washington defined many of her time’s greatest qualities and strengths. In many ways, she showed the resiliency and fortitude women of the time did in fact possess. Upon the death of her first husband, she wielded immense monetary power and held thousands of acres of land on her own. This likely taught her how to manage and run a business, talents she employed later in life managing the household at Mount Vernon. On a domestic note, her recipes and cooking methods have produced countless successful cookbooks in American history. For those enthusiasts, her apple pies became a staple in American culture. Her presence alongside her husband during the American Revolution established a pillar of stability, whose physical and moral strength Washington relied on, and whose imagery was embraced by other wives and women of the age. In the 1780s, as the concept of republican motherhood blossomed, it was Martha Washington, whose fundraising during the darkest days of the war helped feed and clothe the army, inspired American women to become more involved in public and private life. Indeed, where Martha herself may have disagreed with some of the early suffragist’s grander plans, she nevertheless was an early influence on the expanding idea of what being an American citizen was supposed to mean. And we must recognize her contributions to this image, all the while as she continued to live a life of affluence, as someone who owned people. These contradictions must be understood, correctly. And we must recall that the Enlightenment provided many avenues of improvement, but society’s structures also remained frustratingly slow to adapt to these new principles.

Today, Martha rests next to the General in the tomb at Mount Vernon. Not far is a placard at the site of the unmarked graves of the plantation’s many enslaved peoples. In death, as in life, the contradiction is closely knitted to the American story, and it thankfully has been preserved for future generations. We must learn that many of our greatest citizens also were inconveniently human who left legacies that reflect simultaneously through lenses of admiration and frustration. Indeed, the great balance in our history has always been trying to convey which emotion serves our interests more. It does us and them no good to close one eye in order to focus solely with the other. Having learned this, we should walk away knowing that maintaining the balance is our most important commitment as educated American citizens.


WATCH: Where do retired aircraft end up?

Posted On January 15, 2021 16:20:00

Ever wonder where planes go to die? After their last mission, Air Force aircraft doesn’t just disappear. They retire to Arizona. And, if they’re salvageable, the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) makes sure they get recycled. If you were to fly over the Davis Monthan AFB in Arizona, know what you’d see? The resting place of thousands of retired aircraft. Davis is nicknamed “The Boneyard” for good reason – the base houses nearly 2,600 acres of aircraft, many of them retired and disassembled.


Inhoud

Edith Bolling was born October 15, 1872, in Wytheville, Virginia, to circuit court judge William Holcombe Bolling and his wife Sarah "Sallie" Spears (née White). [3] Her birthplace, the Bolling Home, is now a museum located in Wytheville's Historic District. [4]

Bolling was a descendant of the first settlers to arrive at the Virginia Colony. Through her father, she was also a direct descendant of Mataoka, better known as Pocahontas, [5] [6] [7] [8] the daughter of Wahunsenacawh, the paramount weroance of the Powhatan Confederacy. [9] On April 5, 1614, Mataoka (then renamed as "Rebecca" following her conversion to Christianity the previous year) married John Rolfe, the first English settler in Virginia to cultivate tobacco as an export commodity. [10] Their granddaughter, Jane Rolfe, married Robert Bolling, [11] a wealthy slave-owning planter and merchant. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] John Bolling, the son of Jane Rolfe and Robert Bolling, [17] had six surviving children with his wife, Mary Kennon each of those children married and had surviving children. [18] Edith's great-great-grandmother was Mary (Jefferson) Bolling, sister to U.S. President Thomas Jefferson.

Edith was the seventh of eleven children, two of whom died in infancy. [19] The Bollings were some of the oldest members of Virginia's slave-owning, planter elite prior to the American Civil War. After the war ended and slavery abolished, Edith's father turned to the practice of law to support his family. [20] Unable to pay taxes on his extensive properties, and forced to give up the family's plantation seat, William Holcombe Bolling moved to Wytheville, where most of his children were born. [21]

The Bolling household was a large one, and Edith grew up within the confines of a sprawling, extended family. In addition to eight surviving siblings, Edith's grandmothers, aunts and cousins also lived in the Bolling household. Many of the women in Edith's family lost husbands during the war. [22] The Bollings had been staunch supporters of the Confederate States of America, were proud of their Southern planter heritage, and in early childhood, taught Edith in the post-Civil War South's narrative of the Lost Cause. As was often the case among the planter elite, the Bollings justified slave ownership, saying that the persons that they owned had been content with their lives as chattel and had little desire for freedom. [23]

Edith had little formal education. While her sisters were enrolled in local schools, Edith was taught how to read and write at home. Her paternal grandmother, Anne Wiggington Bolling, played a large role in her education. Crippled by a spinal cord injury, Grandmother Bolling was confined to bed. Edith had the responsibility to wash her clothing, turn her in bed at night, and look after her 26 canaries. In turn, Grandmother Bolling oversaw Edith's education, teaching her how to read, write, speak a hybrid language of French and English, make dresses, and instilled in her a tendency to make quick judgments and hold strong opinions, personality traits Edith would exhibit her entire life. [24] William Bolling read classic English literature aloud to his family at night, hired a tutor to teach Edith, and sometimes took her on his travels. The Bolling family attended church regularly, and Edith became a lifelong, practicing Episcopalian. [25]

When Edith was 15, her father enrolled her at Martha Washington College (a precursor of Emory and Henry College), a finishing school for girls in Abingdon, Virginia. [25] William Holcombe Bolling chose it for its excellent music program. [26] Edith proved to be an undisciplined, ill-prepared student. She was miserable there, complaining of the school's austerity: the food was poorly prepared, the rooms too cold, and the daily curriculum excessively rigorous, intimidating, and too strictly regimented. [27] Edith left after only one semester. [28] Two years later, Edith's father enrolled her in Powell's School for Girls in Richmond, Virginia. Years later, Edith noted that her time at Powell's was the happiest time of her life. [24] Unfortunately for Edith, the school closed at the end of the year after the headmaster suffered an accident that cost him his leg. Concerned about the cost of Edith's education, William Bolling refused to pay for any additional schooling, choosing instead to focus on educating her three brothers. [29]

While visiting her married sister in Washington, D.C., Edith met Norman Galt (1864–1908), a prominent jeweler of Galt & Bro. The couple married on April 30, 1896 and lived in the capital for the next 12 years. In 1903, she bore a son who lived only for a few days. The difficult birth left her unable to have more children. [30] In January 1908, Norman Galt died unexpectedly at the age of 43. Edith hired a manager to oversee his business, paid off his debts, and with the income left to her by her late husband, toured Europe. [31]

Re-marriage and early First Ladyship Edit

In March 1915, the widow Galt was introduced to recently widowed U.S. President Woodrow Wilson at the White House by Helen Woodrow Bones (1874–1951). Bones was the president's first cousin and served as the official White House hostess after the death of Wilson's wife, Ellen Wilson. Wilson took an instant liking to Galt and proposed soon after meeting her. However, rumors that Wilson had cheated on his wife with Galt threatened the burgeoning relationship. [32] Unsubstantiated gossip that Wilson and Galt had murdered the First Lady further troubled the couple. Distressed at the effect such wild speculation could have on the authenticity of the presidency and respectability of his personal reputation, Wilson proposed that Edith Bolling Galt back out of their engagement. Instead, Edith insisted on postponing the wedding until the end of the official year of mourning for Ellen Axson Wilson. [33] Wilson married Galt on December 18, 1915, at her home in Washington, D.C. Attended by 40 guests, the groom's pastor, Reverend Dr. James H. Taylor of Central Presbyterian Church, and the bride's, Reverend Dr. Herbert Scott Smith of St. Margaret's Episcopal Church, Washington, D.C., performed the wedding jointly.

Hostessing and the First World War Edit

As First Lady during World War I, Edith Bolling Wilson observed gasless Sundays, meatless Mondays, and wheatless Wednesdays to set an example for the federal rationing effort. Similarly, she set sheep to graze on the White House lawn rather than use manpower to mow it, and had their wool auctioned off for the benefit of the American Red Cross. [34] Additionally, Edith Wilson became the first First Lady to travel to Europe during her term. She visited Europe with her husband on two separate occasions, in 1918 and 1919, to visit troops and to sign the Treaty of Versailles. During this time, her presence amongst the female royalty of Europe helped to cement America's status as a world power and propelled the position of First Lady to an equivalent standing in international politics. [35]

Though the new First Lady had sound qualifications for the role of hostess, the social aspect of the administration was overshadowed by war in Europe and abandoned after the United States formally entered the conflict in 1917. Edith Wilson submerged her own life in her husband's, trying to keep him fit under tremendous strain, and accompanied him to Europe when the Allies conferred on terms of peace.

Increased role after husband's stroke Edit

Following his attendance at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, Woodrow Wilson returned to the United States to campaign for Senate approval of the peace treaty and the League of Nations Covenant. However, he suffered a stroke in October 1919 which left him bedridden and partially paralyzed. [36] The United States never did ratify the Treaty of Versailles nor join the League of Nations, which had initially been Wilson's concept. At the time, non-interventionist sentiment was strong.

Edith Wilson and others in the President's inner circle hid the true extent of the President's illness and disability from the American public. [36] [37] [38] Edith also took over a number of routine duties and details of the Executive branch of the government from the onset of Wilson's illness until he left office almost a year and a half later. From October 1919 to the end of Wilson's term on March 4, 1921, Edith, acting in the role of First Lady and shadow steward, decided who and which communications and matters of state were important enough to bring to the bedridden president. [39] Edith Wilson later wrote: "I studied every paper sent from the different Secretaries or Senators and tried to digest and present in tabloid form the things that, despite my vigilance, had to go to the President. I, myself, never made a single decision regarding the disposition of public affairs. The only decision that was mine was what was important and what was not, and the very important decision of when to present matters to my husband." Edith became the sole communication link between the President and his Cabinet. She required they send her all pressing matters, memos, correspondence, questions, and requests. [35]

Edith took her role very seriously, even successfully pushing for the removal of Secretary of State Robert Lansing after he conducted a series of Cabinet meetings without the President (or Edith herself) present. [40] [41] She also refused to allow the British ambassador, Edward Grey, an opportunity to present his credentials to the president unless Grey dismissed an aide who was known to have made demeaning comments about her. [35] [42] She assisted President Wilson in filling out paperwork, and would often add new notes or suggestions. She was made privy to classified information, and was entrusted with the responsibility of encoding and decoding encrypted messages. [43]

Controversy Edit

In My Memoir, published in 1939, Edith Wilson justified her self-proclaimed role of presidential "steward," arguing that her actions on behalf of Woodrow Wilson's presidency were sanctioned by Wilson's doctors that they told her to do so for her husband's mental health. [44] Edith Wilson maintained that she was simply a vessel of information for President Wilson however, others in the White House did not trust her. Some believed that the marriage between Edith and Woodrow was hasty and controversial. Others did not approve the marriage because they believed that Woodrow and Edith had begun communicating with each other while Woodrow was still married to Ellen Wilson. [43]

In 1921, Joe Tumulty (Wilson's chief of staff) wrote: "No public man ever had a more devoted helpmate, and no wife a husband more dependent upon her sympathetic understanding of his problems . Mrs. Wilson's strong physical constitution, combined with strength of character and purpose, has sustained her under a strain which must have wrecked most women". [45] In subsequent decades, however, scholars were far more critical in their assessment of Edith Wilson's tenure as First Lady. Phyllis Lee Levin concluded that the effectiveness of Woodrow Wilson's policies were unnecessarily hampered by his wife, "a woman of narrow views and formidable determination". [46] Judith Weaver opined that Edith Wilson underestimated her own role in Wilson's presidency. While she may not have made critical decisions, she did influence both domestic and international policy given her role as presidential gatekeeper. [47] Dr. Howard Markel, a medical historian, has taken issue with Edith Wilson's claim of a benign "stewardship". Markel has opined that Edith Wilson "was, essentially, the nation's chief executive until her husband's second term concluded in March of 1921". [48] While a widow of moderate education for her time, she nevertheless attempted to protect her husband and his legacy, if not the presidency, even if it meant exceeding her role as First Lady. [49]

In 1921, Edith Wilson retired with the former president to their home on S Street NW in Washington, D.C., nursing him until his death three years later. In subsequent years, she headed the Woman's National Democratic Club's board of governors when the club opened formally in 1924 and published her memoir in 1939. [50]

On December 8, 1941, one day after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war, taking pains to draw a link with Wilson's April 1917 declaration of war. Edith Bolling Wilson was present during Roosevelt's address to Congress. [51] Twenty years later, in 1961, Mrs. Wilson attended the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy. [52]

Wilson died of congestive heart failure at age 89, on December 28, 1961. She was to have been the guest of honor that day at the dedication ceremony for the Woodrow Wilson Bridge across the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia, on what would have been her husband's 105th birthday. [53] She was buried next to the president at the Washington National Cathedral. [54]

Edith Wilson left her home to the National Trust for Historic Preservation, with a condition that it be made into a museum honoring her husband. The Woodrow Wilson House opened as a museum in 1964. To the Library of Congress, Mrs. Wilson donated first President Wilson's presidential papers in 1939, then his personal library in 1946. [55]

The Edith Bolling Wilson Birthplace Foundation & Museum in Wytheville, Virginia was established in 2008. The foundation has stabilized the First Lady's birthplace and childhood home it had been identified in May 2013 by Preservation Virginia as an Endangered Historic Site. The foundation's programs and exhibits aspire to build public awareness "honoring Mrs. Wilson's name, the contributions she made to this country, the institution of the presidency, and for the example she sets for women." The Foundation shares First Lady Mrs. Wilson's journey "From Wytheville to The White House". [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 2015, a former historic bank building in Wytheville, located on Main Street, was dedicated to the First Lady and bears her name. Adapted as the Bolling Wilson Hotel, it serves Wytheville residents and travelers alike. [56]


Melania Trump's comparisons to other well-dressed first ladies ring hollow considering her legacy — or lack thereof

Ahead of her speech, Peter Navarro, a trade adviser for the White House, called Melania the "Jackie Kennedy of her time," saying she has the "beauty, the elegance, the soft-spokenness" of JFK's first lady.

Vogue's Edward Barsamian has also made this comparison, saying that on Trump's Inauguration day, Melania "laid the foundation" in her quest to help redefine the politics of fashion by wearing a blue Ralph Lauren dress that was "Camelot-inspired."

Barsamian was ostensibly referencing the early-1960s era when "Camelot" was the hottest show on Broadway and America had a youthful King Arthur and Guinevere of its own in the White House.

But Melania's comparisons to Jackie Kennedy pretty much end at the hem.

Unlike Melania, Jackie O was known for standing solidly behind something — she was a patron of the arts, known not just for her renovations of the White House, but also, during the presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson, for contributing support to both the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities (both long targeted by Republican politicians, including Trump).

Melania, on the other hand, oscillates — mostly silently — between being annoyed at and vaguely supportive of her husband.

She regularly smacks Trump's hand away from her in public and has launched an anti-cyberbullying campaign called "Be Best," even though her husband has made cyberbullying into a fact of public life.

But when the president was criticized for interning children at the border, she wore a jacket that read "I really don't care, do U?" while visiting those same kids. And after her husband was heard on tape making crude remarks about the female anatomy, she wore a pink blouse with a bow named after that same body part.

Melania has long used fashion as both a cloak of invisibility and her weapon of choice. Her expressions are often as carefully composed and indecipherable as her perfectly tailored gowns, polished hair, and manicured hands, wrapped along the handles of an endless variety of Hermes Birkin bags.

By and large, Melania's poised style hasn't been matched by her prose, except when she spoke movingly at the RNC four years ago — although that speech turned out to be strikingly similar to one given by yet another former first lady, Michelle Obama.

From a style lens, the public perception of the current first lady and her predecessor couldn't be more different.

Michelle was often criticized, not celebrated, for wearing expensive clothes — whereas Melania often wins praise for her fashion choices. Michelle was noted for her love of more affordable brands, such as J Crew, and was most likely to don a pair of Converse sneakers on a day's outing.

Of course, affordable isn't Melania's schtick — it's Manolo Blahnik or bust. And the people seem to have no problem with that.

But perhaps what Michelle lacked in an endless supply of Dolce & Gabbana gowns, she made up for in charismatic social efforts that have helped define her public persona — and current career as a professional speaker — today.


Melania’s Ex-BFF: There’s Blood on Her Hands

The First Lady is complicit in the destruction of America.

Stephanie Winston Wolkoff

Photo Illustration by Lyne Lucien/ The Daily Beast/Getty

What we have all witnessed since the day Donald J. Trump was sworn in as the 45th President of the United States is criminal, and what I have personally experienced since the day he was elected on Nov. 8, 2016, is shocking, awful, disheartening and shameful. Every single MAGA mob rioter who stormed the U.S. Capitol did so “at the direction of, and in coordination with” President Trump, and it was an assault on human life and our great democracy. Unfortunately, our president and first lady have little, if any, regard for either.

Everyone around them has stoked and massaged their egos and wittingly agreed to the falsehoods and poisonous lies, veiled as truths, that built this house of mirrors. I take responsibility for being Melania’s enabler, and her using me became the basis of our friendship. I can’t believe how blind I was to the depth of her deception and lack of common decency.

I wish I could say I was shocked by President Trump's actions, but sadly I can not, or say I don’t comprehend Melania’s silence and inactions, but pathetically, they are both expected. Melania knows how to “Be Best” at standing up and reading from a teleprompter and not from the heart. She and her husband lack character, and have no moral compass. Although my intentions to support the first lady in the rollout of her initiatives were always pure, I’m disheartened and ashamed to have worked with Melania.

It is our moral imperative to instill in our children the skill set needed to embrace values of empathy and communication that are at the core of kindness, mindfulness, integrity, and leadership, all of which instill positive feelings of mutual respect. We all know that our children learn by example, and it goes without saying, it begins at home. Melania told me boldly, “Look, I know what the truth is, and it doesn’t need to be explained. Some things don’t need to be dignified with an answer.” As I said in my book, Melania and Me: The Rise and Fall of My Friendship with the First Lady, “A Trump is a Trump is a Trump.”

Throughout the years, Melania controlled her image, created her fairytale narrative, and remained an enigma, which enabled her to play make believe. I felt it my civic duty to stop protecting her and to unearth the “most mysterious First Lady,” the world has ever known. By sharing my history with her, I unmasked her true identity and revealed an unvarnished portrait of a woman whose veneer I’ve stripped off, leaving nothing but an “unapologetically, skin-deep” woman. Only they could flick aside having their lives ripped open and all their regretful, hateful, humiliating moments splayed out for the world to see and judge. Melania and Donald are a perfect match.

Melania held one of the most honorary positions in the world, one that so many brave Americans have fought and died for. Michelle Obama, and so many first ladies before her, accomplished so many things. Michelle was beautiful, brilliant and wise on the inside and out, and in spite of being criticized constantly, actually enacted programs to help children and military families instead of just talking about it. Since Melania wasn’t going to be “given credit by the media” and had little support, she resigned herself to just go through the motions. She left behind no legacy or profile to be proud of as First Lady of the United States. I made a life-changing mistake and continued working for Melania, even though I knew the environment was toxic after the planning of the inauguration, because I believed I could make a difference. What a fool I was, thinking I could make a difference in the middle of this den of thieves.

Melania is no better than Donald is in terms of needing attention. She wasted a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to create a platform to make a difference in the lives of so many children and didn’t provide any of that. She was just there as an extension of Donald, used to “soften” his image, highlight his showmanship, and smile for the cameras. In her free time she took up “albuming” and made scrapbooks filled with photographs of herself. Melania is simply an extension of her husband, just as hypocritical, speaking out of both sides of her mouth, when it suits her best. The tapes push beyond the, “he said/she said,” and despite attempts at a public image of concern and care what was on the back of Melania’s jacket wasn’t just by design, it's her mantra. It extends to responsibilities as first lady, which was, “I DON’T CARE.”

Melania herself is a double-edged sword. As an immigrant, she represents the American dream come true. On the flip side, Melania symbolizes what is wrong in America. Millions idolized her and believed in her, but why? Name one thing that she actually accomplished. Try. People warned me not to work for them. And now, I can tell you, having seen it firsthand, that no one will escape the destruction created by these people.

Melania represents what is wrong in America. She got a pass in life because in America, white, “beautiful” women who are silent always have gotten a pass. Melania has made “beautifully” designed parties, events, rooms, and comes across to children as “sweet and caring.” All these ideas go back to the ’50s where women were silent and pretty, racism was rampant, immigrants did the dirty work, and men made fortunes in dirty ways. Many wives of malignant American men have done the same. At their core they are Machiavellian. Win at all costs. And make it look pretty. Melania knows exactly what is going on. Melania has always had her own agenda, BE BEST says it all. Be Best no matter what the cost.

It now makes sense to me why Melania kept her chief of staff, Stephanie Grisham, around—because she spent her time in office combatively speaking to the press and spreading falsehoods about others. It came as no surprise to learn, with less than two weeks to go, Grisham jumped ship during Trump’s self-imposed reprehensible implosion. Grisham was probably fired and used this opportunity to pretend she had a moral line in the sand.

Also, at this moment, when children are asking their parents why people destroyed our Capitol, what will be her answer? Will she continue the lies that it was antifa? Or will she tell the truth, which is, Trump lit the match that sparked the rioting and decimation. He, his children, and personal lawyer incited violence and told people to riot.

What does a mother do when a father is an abuser? Many still believe that Melania is powerless, but don’t be fooled she is an abuser too, of the worst kind. The kind that speaks kindly to children. The sickness is under the skin. Melania knows and supports Donald and his viewpoints. If you hit him, he’ll hit you back harder. He’s the brass knuckles, aggressive guy, and she elects to grin and bear it. She turns a blind eye. The truth is she’s actually encouraging him to go for it. Be aggressive. She’s his biggest cheerleader. Well, he should pay a price. No one is above the law.

The fleecing of America will be the legacy the Trump family name will be synonymous with, their time in the White House will always be aligned and maligned with scandal, and they will always be remembered as the most careless president, first lady and first family our country has ever known.

As people are dying in America from COVID because of his ineptness, if Melania had an ounce of Eleanor Roosevelt in her, she would be out there getting the vaccine to people, supporting our nurses and doctors, and helping at food banks. They will depart the White House, with no regrets, leaving dead bodies behind, and driving off to Mar-a-Lago without looking back.


Movie review: &aposJackie&apos examines JFK&aposs legacy and the first lady who shaped it

This is an archived article that was published on sltrib.com in 2016, and information in the article may be outdated. It is provided only for personal research purposes and may not be reprinted.

Few moments in history have been dissected as thoroughly as that day in Dallas, Nov. 22, 1963, when John F. Kennedy was shot and killed.

But while movies have looked at the killing itself (the Zapruder film), the people who worked around the president that day ("Parkland") or the many conspiracies that swirled around his death ("JFK"), one person&aposs story has remained largely untold. That&aposs the story of the woman who sat next to JFK in his final moments: his wife, Jacqueline Kennedy.

Director Pablo Larrain and screenwriter Noah Oppenheim — aided by a breathtaking central performance by Natalie Portman — blend historical events and educated speculation with delicate care and emotional impact in "Jackie." The result is a moody and heartfelt examination of JFK&aposs death and its aftermath, through the eyes of the first lady who ensured her husband&aposs legacy would be lasting.

The movie starts with the public Jackie, the patrician with the whisper-soft voice whom most Americans met when she led a televised tour of the White House. Portman impersonates that Jackie in every technical detail, but she also gives us something more: a sense of intelligence that shines in spite of the restrictions placed on her in the sexist 1960s.

Larrain and Oppenheim go deeper to bring forward the private Jackie, the one who fought expectations — and members of the stubborn Johnson administration quickly taking over the White House she renovated — to preserve JFK&aposs place in history.

That story is told through a framing device, as a nameless journalist (played by Billy Crudup) meets Jackie at Hyannis a week after JFK&aposs death. Jackie lays down the law that she will tell the reporter which quotes are approved and which are not, and then proceeds to compare the Kennedy White House to King Arthur&aposs court — as emulated by what she says was Jack&aposs favorite musical, "Camelot."

The scene shifts to Dallas and the chaos after the assassination. Then things move quickly back to Washington, as Jackie takes charge to plan a funeral procession for her husband, modeled after the honors given to Abraham Lincoln. As she does, she must comfort her young children, Caroline and John Jr., and confront the reality that she must move out of the White House to make room for the Johnsons.

Oppenheim&aposs script carefully crosses the divide between documented events and those moments when Jackie was alone or with people — like a sage priest, played by John Hurt — who kept their counsel private. The result is less of a historical document and, thanks to some educated guesswork and dramatic license, more of an emotional chronicle.

Larrain, a Chilean director whose campaign drama "No" was a masterpiece of political optimism, here creates a poetic diary of shifting moods, as Jackie moves from grief to despair to maternal protectiveness to a steely resolve to represent Jack&aposs memory. With cinematographer Stéphane Fontaine&aposs command of spaces and Mica Levi&aposs haunting score, Larrain turns the White House into a gilt-edge prison from which Jackie must ultimately escape to save herself and her family.

It&aposs a space where many talented actors have subsumed their wilder impulses to Larrain&aposs controlled approach. The standouts in the supporting cast include Peter Sarsgaard as a haunted Robert Kennedy, and Greta Gerwig as Nancy Tuckerman, Jackie&aposs social secretary and seemingly the only friend she has in the White House.

"Jackie," though, belongs wholly to the actor in the title role. Portman&aposs performance reaches past mere impersonation — though she delivers the details of Jackie&aposs mannerisms with precision — to capture her sense of dignity that allowed her, in the face of her husband&aposs horrific death, to complete the task of establishing his place in history. It was Jackie&aposs, and the country&aposs, most terrible hour, but thanks to the woman "Jackie" depicts so beautifully, it was also our most defining hour.