Inligting

Klaskameraktiwiteit op die laaste dae van Hitler


Aan die begin van 1945 het die Sowjet -troepe Nazi -Duitsland binnegegaan. Op 16 Januarie verhuis Hitler na die Führerbunker in Berlyn. Eva Braun, Gretl Braun, Joseph Goebbels, Magda Goebbels, Hermann Fegelein, Rochus Misch, Martin Bormann, Arthur Bormann, Walter Hewell, Julius Schaub, Erich Kempka, Heinz Linge, Ernst-Gunther Schenck, Otto Günsche, Traudl Junge , Christa Schroeder en Johanna Wolf.

Hitler was nou byna vyf en vyftig jaar oud, maar het baie ouer gelyk. Sy hare het grys geword, sy lyf was gebuig en hy het moeilik geloop. Sy stem het swak geword en sy sig was so swak dat hy spesiale lense nodig gehad het om dokumente uit sy "Führer -tikmasjien" te lees. Hitler ontwikkel ook 'n bewing in sy linkerarm en been. Hy het oorspronklik hieraan gely tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en ook na die mislukking van die München Putsch in 1923. Dit was 'n senuweestoornis wat weer opduik wanneer Hitler voel dat hy in gevaar is.

Heinrich Himmler en Herman Goering het albei die moontlikheid oorweeg om Hitler omver te werp. Een plan was dat Himmler Hitler gearresteer en aan die Duitse volk aangekondig het dat Hitler weens swak gesondheid afgetree het. Hulle grootste bekommernis was om 'n ooreenkoms met Brittanje en die Verenigde State te sluit wat sou verhinder dat die Sowjetunie Duitsland beset. Die Duitse leiers was nie net bekommerd oor die instelling van kommunisme nie, maar was ook bang vir wat Sowjet -soldate wou wraak neem vir die oorlogsmisdade wat deur die SS teen hul mense gepleeg is. (Van die vyf miljoen Sowjet -soldate wat deur die Duitsers gevange geneem is, is na raming drie miljoen vermoor of toegelaat om van honger te sterf.)

Die situasie het so wanhopig geword dat Hitler op 22 April Christa Schroeder, Johanna Wolf, Arthur Bormann, dr. Theodor Morell, admiraal Karl-Jesco von Puttkamer en dr. Hugo Blaschke weggestuur het. Schroeder onthou later: 'Hy het ons moeg, bleek en lusteloos in sy kamer ontvang.' Die situasie het die afgelope vier dae so verander dat ek gedwing word om my personeel uiteen te sit. Aangesien u die langste bediening het, gaan u eerste. Oor 'n uur vertrek 'n motor na München. "

Op 28 April beweer Heinrich Himmler, wat betrokke was by geheime onderhandelinge met graaf Folke Bernadotte, dat Hitler van plan was om selfmoord te pleeg in die volgende paar dae: "In die situasie wat nou ontstaan ​​het, beskou ek my hande as vry. Ek erken dat Duitsland verslaan is. Om so 'n groot deel van Duitsland moontlik te red van 'n Russiese inval, is ek bereid om aan die Wesfront te kapituleer om die Westerse bondgenote in staat te stel om vinnig na die ooste te vorder, maar ek is nie bereid om aan die Oosfront te kapituleer nie . "

Bernadotte het hierdie boodskap aan Winston Churchill en Harry S. Truman oorgedra, maar hulle het die idee verwerp en aangedring op onvoorwaardelike oorgawe. Op 28 April is die onderhandelinge aan die pers uitgelek. Hanna Reitsch was saam met Hitler toe hy die nuus hoor: "Sy kleur het tot 'n verhitte rooi gestyg en sy gesig was onherkenbaar ... Na die langdurige uitbarsting sak Hitler in 'n stilte, en 'n tyd lank was die hele bunker stil." Hitler beveel Himmler se arrestasie. In 'n poging om te ontsnap neem Himmler nou die naam en dokumente van 'n dooie polisieman in die dorp.

Toe die Sowjet -troepe Berlyn die eerste keer binnekom, word voorgestel dat Hitler moet probeer ontsnap. Hitler het die idee verwerp omdat hy bang was dat hy gevang sou word. Hy het verhale gehoor van hoe die Sowjet -troepe hom in 'n hok deur die strate van Duitsland wou paradeer. Om hierdie vernedering te voorkom, besluit Hitler om selfmoord te pleeg. Einde April was soldate van die Rooi Leër slegs 300 meter van Hitler se ondergrondse bunker af. Alhoewel nederlaag onvermydelik was, dring Hitler daarop aan dat sy troepe tot die dood toe veg. Daar word voortdurend instruksies uitgestuur om bevele te gee oor die teregstelling van militêre bevelvoerders wat teruggetrek het. Hitler het 'n testament opgestel wat al sy eiendom aan die Nazi -party oorgelaat het.

Op 28 April 1945 trou Hitler met Eva Braun. Hitler het 'n sianiedpil op sy Eladse hond, Blondi, getoets. Braun het ingestem om saam met hom selfmoord te pleeg. Sy kon ryk geword het deur haar memoires te skryf, maar sy het verkies om nie sonder Hitler te lewe nie. Braun het aan Hitler se sekretaris, Traudl Junge, gesê. "Probeer asseblief om uit te kom. Jy kan nog deurkom. En gee vir Beiere my liefde." Junge sê dat sy 'glimlaggend maar met 'n snik in haar stem' sê.

(Bron 2) Joseph Goebbels, dagboekinskrywing (7 Maart 1945)

Himmler som die situasie korrek op as hy sê dat sy gedagtes vir hom sê dat ons min hoop het om die oorlog militêr te wen, maar die instink sê dat daar vroeër of later 'n politieke opening sal kom om dit in ons guns te swaai. Himmler dink dit meer waarskynlik in die Weste as in die Ooste. Hy dink dat Engeland tot haar reg kom, waaraan ek eerder twyfel. Soos sy opmerkings toon, is Himmler heeltemal Westers-georiënteerd; uit die Ooste verwag hy niks nie. Ek dink steeds dat iets meer waarskynlik in die Ooste bereik sal word, aangesien Stalin vir my meer realisties lyk as die sneller-gelukkige Anglo-Amerikaner (Roosevelt).

(Bron 4) Generaal Karl Koller, dagboekinskrywing waar hy kommentaar gelewer het oor wat generaal Alfred Jodl vir hom gesê het (23 April 1945)

Hitler verklaar dat hy besluit het om in Berlyn te bly, die verdediging daarvan te lei en homself op die laaste oomblik te skiet. Om fisiese redes kon hy nie persoonlik aan die geveg deelneem nie, en wou hy ook nie, want hy kon nie die risiko loop om in vyandelike hande te val nie. Ons het almal probeer om hom van hierdie besluit oor te haal en selfs aangebied om troepe uit die weste te skuif om in die ooste te veg. Sy antwoord was dat alles in elk geval in stukke was, en dat hy nie meer kon nie.

(Bron 5) Adolf Hitler lewer kommentaar op Hanna Reitsch wat herroep is toe sy ondervra is deur Amerikaanse intelligensiebeamptes (8 Oktober 1945)

Hanna, u behoort aan diegene wat saam met my sal sterf. Elkeen van ons het 'n fles gif soos hierdie. Ek wens nie dat een van ons lewendig in die hande van die Russe val nie, en ek wens ook nie dat ons liggame deur hulle gevind kan word nie.

(Bron 6) Graaf Folke Bernadotte het 'n boodskap aan die Winston Churchill gestuur oor wat Heinrich Himmler hom op 24 April 1945 vertel het.

In die huidige situasie beskou ek my hande as vry. Maar ek is nie bereid om aan die Oosfront te kapituleer nie.

(Bron 7) Alan Bullock, die skrywer van Hitler: 'n Studie in Tirannie (1962)

Op 27 April keer graaf Bernadotte uit die noorde terug met die nuus dat die Westerse bondgenote weier om 'n aparte vrede te oorweeg en aandring op onvoorwaardelike oorgawe ... Hitler was by homself by die nuus ... Dit het die besluit om selfmoord te pleeg gekristalliseer. Hitler het op die 22ste gedreig, maar hy het nog nie besluit om dit in werking te stel nie. Hierdie finale besluit volg die patroon van al die ander: 'n tydperk van aarseling, dan 'n skielike besluit waaruit hy nie verhuis moes word nie.

(Bron 8) Erich Kempka, I Was Hitler's Chauffeur: The Memoirs of Erich Kempka (1951)

Dit was teen die middag op 30 April 1945. Russiese beskieting het die Rykskanselier en die regeringsdistrik deurlopend getref. Die stryd om uit te hou, het harder geword. Met 'n donder en 'n kraak het hele woonhuise in duie gestort, en die strate rondom die Rykskanselary het tot woestyne van puin gelê.

Die Führer neem afskeid van sy personeel, skud die hand van elkeen en bedank hulle vir hul werk en lojaliteit aan hom. Sekretarisse Frau Junge, Frau Christian en die dieetkundige-kok Fraulein Manziarly is genooi vir middagete. Hitler het langs sy vrou gesit. Soos hy in die goeie tye gedoen het, het hy probeer om die gesprek ongedwonge te hou, met almal wat deelneem. Toe hierdie laaste maaltyd geëindig het en die drie dames onttrek het, het Hitler dit deur sy adjudant SS-Sturmbannfuhrer Otto Günsche laat herroep. In die deur na sy voorkamer neem hy en Eva Braun weer afskeid van die drie. Frau Hitler omhels die langdurige sekretaresses en skud die hand van al drie by afskeid.

Hitler het ook afskeid geneem van Bormann en sy SS -adjudant Günsche. Laasgenoemde het 'n uitdruklike bevel gekry om met my in verbinding te tree en genoeg brandstof te reël om die lyke van Hitler en sy vrou af te skud: "Ek wil nie na my dood in 'n Russiese panoptikon soos Lenin vertoon word nie."

(Bron 9) Heinz Linge, Met Hitler tot die einde (1980)

Toe ek inkom, bedank Hitler haar vir haar toewyding en diens. Hy het my gevra om die goue partytjie -kenteken uit een van sy uniforms te verwyder en dit in 'spesiale erkenning' op haar vasgemaak. Onmiddellik hierna het ek en Hitler na die gemeenskaplike kamer gegaan waar Goebbels verskyn het en Hitler kort gesmeek om die Hitler -jeug toe te laat om hom uit Berlyn te neem. Hitler het skerp geantwoord: "Dokter, u ken my besluit. Daar is geen verandering nie! U kan natuurlik Berlyn met u gesin verlaat." Goebbels staan ​​trots en antwoord dat hy dit nie sal doen nie. Soos die Führer was hy van plan om in Berlyn te bly - en daar te sterf. Daarop gee Hitler sy hand aan Goebbels en leunend op my en keer terug na sy kamer.

(Bron 11) Traudl Junge, Tot die laaste uur: Hitler se laaste sekretaris (2002)

Eers as Eva Braun na my toe kom, word die spel 'n bietjie gebreek. Sy glimlag en omhels my. En gee Bavaria my liefde, "sê sy glimlaggend maar met 'n snik in haar stem. Sy dra die Führer se gunsteling rok, die swart een met die rose by die nek, en haar hare is gewas en pragtig gedoen. So het sy volg die Führer in sy kamer - en tot haar dood.Die swaar ysterdeur sluit.

Ek word skielik aangegryp deur 'n wilde drang om so ver as moontlik van hier af weg te kom. Ek jaag amper die trappe op wat na die boonste deel van die bunker lei. Maar die Goebbels -kinders sit halfpad en lyk verlore. Hulle het gevoel dat hulle in hul kamer vergeet is. Niemand het vandag vir hulle middagete gegee nie. Nou wil hulle hul ouers en antie Eva en oom Hitler gaan soek. Ek lei hulle na die ronde tafel. "Kom saam, kinders, ek sal vir julle iets te ete kry. Die grootmense het vandag soveel om te doen dat hulle nie tyd vir julle het nie," sê ek so lig en kalm as wat ek kan. Ek kry kersies op 'n kers, smeer brood en gee die kleintjies kos. Ek praat met hulle om hulle aandag af te lei. Hulle sê iets oor veilig in die bunker, en hoe dit amper lekker is om die ontploffings te hoor as hulle weet dat die knal dit nie kan seermaak nie. Skielik is daar die geluid van 'n skoot, so hard, so naby dat ons almal stil word. Dit weerklink deur al die kamers. 'Dit was 'n direkte treffer,' roep Helmut, sonder om te weet hoe reg hy is. Die Führer is nou dood.

(Bron 13) Magna Goebbels, brief aan haar seun Helmut Quandt (28 April 1945)

My geliefde seun! Teen die tyd dat ons al ses dae in die Führerbunker was - pappa, ek en jou ses broers en susters, om ons nasionale sosialistiese lewens die enigste moontlike einde te gee ... U sal weet dat ek hier gebly het teen pa se wil, en dat die Führer my selfs op verlede Sondag wou help om uit te kom. Jy ken jou ma - ons het dieselfde bloed, vir my was daar geen twyfel nie. Ons glorieryke idee is verwoes en daarmee saam alles mooi en wonderlik wat ek in my lewe geken het. Die wêreld wat na die Führer en die nasionale sosialisme kom, is nie meer die moeite werd om in te woon nie, en daarom het ek die kinders saamgeneem, want hulle is te goed vir die daaropvolgende lewe, en 'n genadige God sal my verstaan ​​as ek hulle gee die redding ... Die kinders is wonderlik ... daar is nooit 'n woord van kla of huil nie. Die impak skud die bunker. Die ouer kinders dek die jongste, hul teenwoordigheid is 'n seën en hulle laat die Führer af en toe glimlag. Mag God help dat ek die krag het om die laaste en moeilikste te presteer. Ons het net een doel oor: lojaliteit aan die Führer, selfs in die dood. Harald, my liewe seun - ek wil vir jou gee wat ek in die lewe geleer het: wees lojaal! Lojaal aan uself, lojaal aan die mense en lojaal aan u land ... Wees trots op ons en probeer ons in ons geheue bewaar.

(Bron 15) Ralf Georg Reuth, Die lewe van Joseph Goebbels (1993)

Dit was Magda wat gesorg het vir die moord op haar eie kinders. Sy het al verskeie kere met die SS -dokters Ludwig Stumpfegger en Helmut Gustav Kunz van die Rykskanselierspersoneel beraadslaag oor hoe die kinders vinnig en pynloos vermoor kon word. Nou, die middag van 1 Mei, het sy Kunz na haar gestuur in die bunker. Die besluit is geneem, het sy aan hom gesê, en Goebbels bedank hom dat hy sy vrou gehelp het om die kinders te laat slaap. Omstreeks 20:40. Kunz het morfien inspuitings vir die kinders gegee. Hy verlaat die kamer met die drie stelle stapelbeddens en wag saam met Magda Goebbels totdat die kinders slaap. Toe vra sy hom om die gif vir hulle te gee. Kunz het egter geweier en is daarna deur Magda Goebbels gestuur om Stumpfegger te gaan haal. Toe Kunz saam met hom terugkom, was Magda reeds in die kinderkamer. Stumpfegger het haar daar aangesluit en na vier of vyf minute saam met haar teruggekom. Na alle waarskynlikheid het sy self die glas sianiedkapsules, wat sy van dr Morell ontvang het, in die mond van Helga, Hilde, Helmut, Holde, Hedda en Heide gebreek.

Gevul met vrees vir die dood was Goebbels kettingrookend, sy gesig bedek met rooi vlekke. Hy het blykbaar nog steeds op 'n wonderwerk gehoop, maar hy het steeds uitgevra oor die militêre situasie. Toe die tyd min raak, en daar kon verwag word dat die Sowjette op enige oomblik die bunker sou bestorm, het hy sy adjudant Schwagermann belowe om sy en sy vrou se liggame te veras. Daarna het hy afskeid geneem van die wat in die bunker was. Hy sukkel duidelik om sy kalmte te handhaaf, wat hy probeer demonstreer het met allerhande baddens. "Sê vir Donitz," het hy die hoofvlieënier van Hitler se eskader opdrag gegee, "dat ons nie net verstaan ​​hoe ons moet lewe en veg nie, maar ook hoe ons moet sterf."

Die laaste besonderhede rakende die dood van Joseph en Magda Goebbels sal waarskynlik altyd onduidelik bly. Dit is seker dat hulle hulself met sianied vergiftig het, maar dit is nie bekend of Goebbels homself ook in die kop geskiet het nie. Ons weet ook nie of hulle in die bunker gesterf het of buite by die nooduitgang, waar die Sowjets hul liggame gevind het nie.

(Bron 16) Heinz Linge, Met Hitler tot die einde (1980)

Vir dr Joseph Goebbels, die nuwe Rykskanselier, was dit eers duidelik dat hy en sy vrou Magda dieselfde dag in Berlyn selfmoord sou pleeg. Na die ervarings van die afgelope dae en weke kon byna niks ons mans meer skok nie, maar die vroue, die vroulike sekretaresse en kamermeisies was anders 'geprogrammeer'. Hulle was bang dat die ses pragtige Goebbels -kinders vooraf vermoor sou word. Die ouers het besluit op hierdie optrede. Hitler se dokter Dr Stumpfegger moes sorg. Die smekende pleidooie van die vroue en sommige van die personeel, wat aan Frau Goebbels voorgestel het dat hulle die kinders - Helga, Holde, Hilde, Heide, Hedda en Helmut - uit die bunker sou bring en vir hulle sou sorg, was ongehoord. Ek het gedink aan my eie vrou en kinders wat in relatiewe veiligheid was toe Frau Goebbels om 1800 uur kom en my met 'n droë, emosionele stem vra om saam met haar na die voormalige Führerbunker te gaan, waar 'n kamer vir haar kinders ingerig is. Daar gekom sak sy in 'n leunstoel neer. Sy het nie die kinderkamer binnegegaan nie, maar wag senuweeagtig totdat die deur oopgaan en dokter Stumpfegger uitkom. Hulle oë ontmoet, Magda Goebbels staan ​​op, stil en bewend. Toe die SS -dokter emosioneel knik sonder om te praat, stort sy in duie. Dit is gedoen. Die kinders lê dood in hul beddens, vergiftig met sianied. Twee mans van die SS -lyfwag wat naby die ingang gestaan ​​het, het Frau Goebbels na haar kamer in die Führerbunker gelei. Twee en 'n half uur later is sy en haar man dood. Die laaste daad het begin.

Vraag 1: Bestudeer bronne 1, 10 en 17. Verduidelik die boodskap wat in hierdie bronne uitgespreek word.

Vraag 2: Bestudeer bronne 2, 6 en 7. Wat het Heinrich Himmler vir Winston Churchill en Harry S. Truman aangebied? Waarom het hulle hierdie aanbod geweier?

Vraag 3: Verduidelik met behulp van al die inligting in hierdie eenheid waarom Adolf Hitler op 30 April 1945 besluit het om selfmoord te pleeg?

Vraag 4: Waarom het Joseph Goebbels en Magna Goebbels hul kinders vermoor voordat hulle selfmoord gepleeg het?

Vraag 5: Skryf 'n kort verslag oor wat met die volgende gebeur het nadat hulle Hitler se bunker verlaat het: Gretl Braun, Hermann Fegelein, Rochus Misch, Martin Bormann, Arthur Bormann, Walter Hewell, Julius Schaub, Erich Kempka, Heinz Linge, Ernst-Gunther Schenck , Otto Günsche, Traudl Junge, Christa Schroeder en Johanna Wolf.

Vraag 6: Gebruik die inligting in hierdie eenheid om te verduidelik watter bronne geskiedkundiges sou gebruik as hulle oor die laaste dae van Adolf Hitler skryf.

U kan hier kommentaar op hierdie vrae kry

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U kan die antwoorde in 'n word -dokument hier aflaai


Lewe in die Führerbunker: Hitler se laaste dae

Dit was die woorde van Armin Lehmann, 'n fanatiese, sestienjarige lid van die Hitler-jeug, wat saam met duisende tieners vroeg in April 1945 na Berlyn vervoer is om die stad te verdedig teen die vinnig opkomende Rooi Leër. Lehmann is gekies as koerier en stuur boodskappe heen en weer van die radiokamer van die Rykskanselier na en van die afnemende figuur van Adolf Hitler. Teen April het Hitler permanent teruggetrek na 'n ondergrondse bomskuiling naby die kanselaar, bekend as die Führerbunker. Lehmann sou eerstehands die laaste dae van die man sien wat Duitsland op sy knieë gebring het.

Die bunker, wat uit twee verbonde skuilings bestaan, is tussen 1936 en 1944 in fases voltooi. Hitler het op 16 Januarie 1945 in die onderste bunker gaan woon saam met sy langtermynvennoot, Eva Braun, en verskeie personeellede. Duur matte en matte bedek die vloere en kunswerke wat uit die kanseliershuis gevoer is, met die mure, insluitend Hitler se gunsteling skildery van Frederik die Grote, wat aan die muur bo sy lessenaar in sy gemaklike privaat woonplekke gehang het.

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Die lewens van Hitler en Stalin: twee kante van dieselfde munt

Hitler sou altesaam 105 dae in die bunker woon. Terwyl die net sy regime toegemaak het, het die lewe vir die personeel in die Kanselarij en die bunker in dronkenskap en dekadensie verval. Beamptes, onder wie Martin Bormann, Hitler se ongewilde brute van 'n privaat sekretaris, het gereeld vroeg in die dag in die uitgebreide wynkelder van die kanselier gelê. Bormann was 'n berugte vrouemaker en het baie mense gevind in die toenemend kavalerige atmosfeer wat posgevat het toe die Sowjets toegesluit het. '

Hitler het intussen daagliks saam met sy geliefde Duitse herdershond, Blondi, deur die elegante tuine van die kanselaar gewandel. Dit was een van sy laaste oorblywende genot. Aangesien die Rooi Leër sy laaste opmars in die hoofstad begin het en skulpe op die Kanselarium en sy tuine begin reën, is dit hom egter geweier.

Die laaste dag wat Hitler buite gewaag het, was die oggend van 20 April. Dit was sy 56ste verjaardag. Op hierdie stadium sny hy 'n heel ander figuur as die seëvierende oorwinnaar van net vyf jaar tevore. Verslaaf aan kragtige opiate wat deur sy persoonlike dokter, dr. Theodor Morell, aan hom voorgeskryf is, wat sigbaar bewe van Parkinson se siekte en baie ouer as sy ouderdom lyk, het die Führer sy weg geneem na die nou verwoeste kanseliertuin om medaljes aan kinders van die Hitler Jeug.

Toe sy voorheen lojale bevelvoerders hom begin verlaat het, besef Hitler dat die einde van sy bewind naby was

Onder die mense wat Hitler daardie dag ontmoet het, was Armin Lehmann. Hy het 'n ysterkruis van die Führer ontvang vir dapperheid tydens 'n geveg waarin hy vroeg in Januarie twee van sy kamerade gered het. Die seuntjie kon dit nie glo toe Hitler hom aan die wang gryp en sy gesig 'n speelse skud gee nie. 'Ons het almal Hitler verafgod', onthou hy later. 'Ons was daarop toegewy om sy pad foutloos te volg, alhoewel ons die geallieerde koeëls ontwyk het.'

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Hitler dood: die vele sluipmoordpogings op Adolf Hitler

Na sy kort tydjie buite, keer Hitler terug na sy bunker en kom nooit weer uit nie. Die volgende dag beveel hy wat van sy magte oor is om die opkomende Sowjets aan te val, maar sy bevele word geïgnoreer. Toe hy dit hoor, het Hitler woedend geword en vir die eerste keer erken hy dat die oorlog verlore was. Dit was nou net 'n kwessie van tyd voordat Berlyn oorval is en die Sowjets die Führerbunker bereik.

Ses dae nadat hy besef het dat die oorlog verlore was, het Hitler die nuus ontvang dat Heinrich Himmler met die Amerikaners probeer onderhandel het oor die oorgawe van Duitsland. Apoplekties van woede oor hierdie verraad, verklaar Hitler Himmler as 'n verraaier en laat sy SS -verteenwoordiger, die afskuwelike Hermann Fegelein, uitneem en skiet. Dat Fegelein toevallig Eva Braun se swaer was, het vir die woedende diktator geen verskil gemaak nie.

Toe sy voorheen lojale bevelvoerders hom begin verlaat het, besef Hitler dat die einde van sy bewind naby was. Nuus het hom bereik dat Benito Mussolini gevange geneem, tereggestel is en sy lyk onderstebo gehang het van 'n lamppaal in Milaan. Vasberade om nie dieselfde vernedering te deel nie, besluit Hitler om sy lewe te beëindig. Eva Braun het aan Hitler gesê dat sy saam met hom sou sterf. Vir haar onfeilbare lojaliteit het Hitler uiteindelik besluit om met haar te trou.

Die egpaar is net na middernag op 29 April getroud tydens 'n burgerlike seremonie waarin beide partye sweer dat hulle van suiwer Ariese bloed was. Na die seremonie is 'n taamlik gedempte huweliksontvangs gehou terwyl Hitler met sy sekretaris, Traudl Junge, na sy studeerkamer teruggetrek het om sy laaste testament en testament te dikteer. Daarin het hy die Jode weer die skuld gegee vir sy en Duitsland se kwale.

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Hitler se Dark Vision vir die Verenigde Koninkryk

Die volgende dag kry Hitler die boodskap dat die troepe wat Berlyn verdedig vinnig opraak, en dat dit net 'n kwessie van tyd was voordat die omringende Sowjet -magte die bunker oorval. Hitler het besef sy tyd is op.

'Hy was soos 'n spook - dit lyk asof hy my of niemand gesien het nie,' onthou Lehmann later. 'Hy kyk net vooruit, verdwaal in gedagte. Op daardie oomblik is die bunker deur 'n sterk bewing as 'n bom getref. Vuil en mortel het op ons neergedaal, maar hy het geen poging aangewend om dit af te vee nie. Hy het soveel ongesonder gelyk as tien dae vroeër tydens sy verjaardagontvangs toe ek hom die eerste keer ontmoet het. Dit het gelyk of hy aan geelsug ly. Sy gesig was vaal. '

Nadat hy sy dokter opdrag gegee het om sy hond Blondi te vergiftig om die doeltreffendheid van die sianiedkapsules te toets wat hy en Eva van plan was om te neem, het Hitler en sy nuwe bruid afskeid geneem van die bunkerpersoneel en teruggetrek na hul privaatkwartier. Daar het Braun haarself met sianied doodgemaak en Hitler het homself geskiet. Volgens sy instruksies is die liggame van Hitler en Braun in die kanseliertuin geneem en verbrand. Omdat die gronde van die Kanselarium in hierdie stadium byna konstant beskadig is, het die wag wat van die haastige verassing aangekla is, na die ingang van die bunker gestorm en 'n aansteker na die met petrol deurdrenkte liggame gegooi. As gevolg hiervan is die egpaar net na middernag op 29 April getroud tydens 'n burgerlike seremonie waarin beide partye sweer dat hulle van suiwer Ariese bloed was. Na die seremonie is 'n taamlik gedempte huweliksontvangs gehou terwyl Hitler met sy sekretaris, Traudl Junge, na sy studeerkamer teruggetrek het om sy laaste testament en testament te dikteer. Daarin het hy die Jode weer die skuld vir sy en Duitsland se siekes gegee.

Lees meer oor: Gevegte

Die man wat nie Hitler geskiet het nie

Die volgende dag kry Hitler die boodskap dat die troepe wat Berlyn verdedig vinnig opraak, en dat dit net 'n kwessie van tyd was voordat die omringende Sowjet -magte die bunker oorval. Hitler het besef sy tyd is op.

'Hy was soos 'n spook - dit lyk asof hy my of niemand gesien het nie,' onthou Lehmann later. 'Hy kyk net vooruit, verdwaal in gedagte. Op daardie oomblik is die bunker deur 'n sterk bewing as 'n bom getref. Vuil en mortel het op ons neergedaal, maar hy het geen poging aangewend om dit af te vee nie. Hy het soveel ongesonder gelyk as tien dae vroeër tydens sy verjaardagontvangs toe ek hom die eerste keer ontmoet het. Dit het gelyk of hy aan geelsug ly. Sy gesig was vaal. ’

Nadat hy sy dokter opdrag gegee het om sy hond Blondi te vergiftig om die doeltreffendheid van die sianiedkapsules wat hy en Eva van plan was om te neem, te toets, het Hitler en sy nuwe bruid afskeid geneem van die bunkerpersoneel en teruggetrek na hul privaatkwartier. Daar het Braun haarself met sianied doodgemaak en Hitler het homself geskiet. Volgens sy instruksies is die liggame van Hitler en Braun in die kanseliertuin geneem en verbrand. Omdat die gronde van die kanselary byna konstant deur hierdie stadium beskut is, het die wag wat met die haastige verassing aangekla is, na die ingang van die bunker gestorm en 'n aansteker na die met petrol deurdrenkte liggame gegooi. As gevolg hiervan het 'n ander wag wat nie hierdie stormloop na die deur gesien het nie, gedink die liggame het spontaan gebrand.

Lees meer oor: Gevegte

Geskiedenis van die Berlynse muur

Die volgende dag het Magda Goebbels - wat saam met haar man Joseph en haar ses kinders die 22 April in die bunker ingetrek het - haar kinders vermoor met die hulp van 'n SS -tandarts. Goebbels en sy vrou het toe opgevaar in die tuine waar hulle doodgeskiet is of selfmoord gepleeg het (berigte wissel) en hul liggame is verbrand. Hulle liggame is nie begrawe nie, maar is op die kratergrond gelaat om twee dae later deur Sowjet-troepe ontdek te word.

Die oorblywende personeel het óf selfmoord gepleeg óf verskeie bloedige pogings aangewend om uit die bunker en deur die Sowjetlyne te breek. Sommige het dit reggekry, baie ander nie. Armin Lehmann het daarin geslaag om gevangenskap deur die Rooi Leër te vermy. Hy is tydens sy ontsnapping geskiet en later gevang deur Amerikaanse troepe wat sy wonde behandel het. Martin Bormann was nie so gelukkig nie. Hy het daarin geslaag om die Spree -rivier oor te steek, maar sy lyk is later deur die Hitler -jeugleier, Artur Axmann, op die grond gesien lê terwyl hy ook ontsnap het.

Die bunker is uiteindelik op 2 Mei deur Sowjet -magte gevange geneem. Binne het hulle die ses lyke van Magda Goebbels se vermoorde kinders gevind. Die lyke van Hitler en Braun is opgegrawe en Hitler is later geïdentifiseer deur sy tandheelkundige rekords. Die lyke van Hitler, Braun, Hitler se honde en die Goebbels -gesin is verskeie kere begrawe en opgegrawe voordat dit uiteindelik in stof vergruis is en in 1970 in die rivier die Elbe gegooi is. sy skedel.

Lees meer oor: Hitler

Adolf Hitler: Lewe en tye -kennisvasvra

Die bunker is dinamies gemaak as deel van die sloping van die Rykskanselier tussen 1945 en 1949. Die dinamiet het 'n paar skade aangerig, maar die grootste deel van die struktuur het ongeskonde gebly. Dele van die bunker is gesloop toe die gebied in die negentigerjare ontwikkel is, maar daar bly heelwat oor en daar is nou 'n debat in Duitsland oor die vraag of dit vir toeriste oopgemaak moet word. Intussen dui alles wat nou daarop dui dat dit eens die laaste boutgat van 'n groteske tiran was, 'n klein inligtingsbordjie langs 'n kaal stuk grond.

En wat van Armin Lehmann, die fanaties lojale tiener wat een van die laaste mense was wat Hitler lewend gesien het? Hy was gedwing om self die monsteragtige van die regime te sien wat hy ondersteun het toe die Amerikaners hom geneem het om die gruwels van 'n Nazi -doodskamp te sien. Hy het dieselfde dag afstand gedoen van sy Nazi -geloof en besluit om 'n vredesaktivis te word. Hy het die res van sy lewe deur die wêreld gereis om vrede, verdraagsaamheid en geweldloosheid te bevorder tydens geleenthede in meer as 150 lande. Hy is op 10 Oktober 2008 in Coosbaai, Oregon, dood.


'N Siek man

Teen April 1945 het Hitler se gesondheid vinnig agteruitgegaan. Sy linkerarm het dikwels geskud, sy vel was bleek en sy gesig was pap. 'N Moordepoging in 1944 het sy oordromme beskadig. Getuies het berig dat sy oë gereeld verfilm is. Hy het op 'n krisistyd aan ernstige maagkrampe gely. Hy neem oogdruppels van Benzedrine en kokaïen om hom deur die dag te kry en barbiturate om hom te help slaap in die nag. Sy dieet kon nie sy situasie gehelp het nie. Hy was 'n toegewyde vegetariër en paranoïes oor vergiftiging, maar hy eet eers aan die einde kapokaartappels en dun sop.


Ohio, 2011: 'n Onderwyser het 'n tienjarige swart student opgedra om 'n slaaf te speel in 'n slawe-veilingsimulasie. Georgië, 2017: 'n Skool het vyfde-graaders gevra om as 'karakters' uit die burgeroorlog aan te trek vir 'n 'Burgeroorlog-ervaringsdag'. 'N Swart ouer, Corrie Davis, het berig dat haar tienjarige se wit klasmaat as 'n plantasie-eienaar aangetrek het en vir haar kind gesê het:' Jy is my slaaf. ' New York, 2018: Amptenare het 'n blanke onderwyser afgedank wat na bewering swart studente op die vloer laat lê het en dan op hul rug getrap het om vir hulle te wys hoe slawerny is. En net verlede week het 'n pa uit Tennessee getwiet oor 'n 'Living History'-oefening by die skool van sy dogter, waar 'n vyfde graadstudent hom as Hitler aangetrek het en die Nazi-salueer. Kort daarna het studente vir mekaar Nazi -salue begin gee “in die gange en in die reses”.

Hoe kon enige onderwyser dink dat hierdie historiese speletjies goeie idees is? Die kort antwoord: Onderwysers wat geen perspektief gehad het nie, het probeer om die geskiedenis persoonlik te maak en het uiteindelik die blanke oppergesag versterk in die naam van 'leer'. (Alhoewel dit nie altyd duidelik is watter ras die instrukteurs in hierdie verhale is nie: In 2015-16 was 80 persent van die onderwysers in Amerikaanse openbare skole wit, wat 'n studentepopulasie bedien wat 51 persent minder was.) Die langer antwoord: Hierdie klaskamervoorvalle wys hoe pedagogiese idees oor die waarde van ervaring in die leer van geskiedenis, goeie bedoelings om 'harde geskiedenis' te onderrig en vae liberale doelwitte van multikulturele begrip alles vreeslik verkeerd kan loop.

Die idee dat die "deurleef" van die geskiedenis, op 'n beheerde manier, opvoedkundige waarde het, kom uit die vroeë 20ste -eeuse Progressiewe onderwysbeweging. Navorsers Hilary Dack, Stephanie van Hover en David Hicks het die idee agter wat hulle 'ervaringsleer' noem, teruggevoer na die teoretikus en opvoeder John Dewey, wat geglo het dat jy dinge dieper leer as jy dit ervaar, eerder as wanneer iemand sit aan die voorkant van die klas en vertel jou daarvan.

In 'n databasis-soektog het ek gevind dat tydskrifte vir geskiedenisonderwysers in die laat 1970's en vroeë 1980's artikels oor rolspel in die klaskamer begin bevat het. Dit is waarskynlik te wyte aan die invloed van 'n paar prominente rolspelprojekte. Hierdie pedagogiese oefeninge was uiters anti-rassisties in hul bedoeling, en dit het dramatiese uitkomste gehad wat aan hulle aandag gebring het. In 1967 het Kalifornië se geskiedenisonderwyser en aktivis-lid van Students for a Democratic Society 'n projek met die naam The Third Wave uitgevoer, wat studente in 'n kwasi-fascistiese fiktiewe sosiale beweging aangewys het om te illustreer hoe mense Nazi's tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog kon ondersteun . Die studente was baie meer entoesiasties oor die beweging as wat Jones verwag het - 'n uitkoms wat hom ontstel het.

In 1968, Jane Elliott, a white teacher in Iowa moved by the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., devised an exercise called “Blue Eyes, Brown Eyes.” She divided her third-grade students by eye color and gave brown-eyed children favorable treatment. The blue-eyed children faded into the background and the brown-eyed children began to bully them, while excelling at the classroom tasks Elliot set for them. In 1970, Elliott’s simulation became the subject of an ABC documentary called The Eye of the Storm in 1981, Jones’ experiment became a TV movie called Die golf.

The well-intentioned idea that teachers in a classroom can increase engagement by setting up a simulation seems to have trickled into history and social studies classrooms in all kinds of janky ways in the decades since then. Cory Wright-Maley, a professor of education at St. Mary’s University in Canada who studies simulations in social studies, writes that teachers and teacher educators don’t really have a collective language to identify what experiential learning is, or what it’s supposed to do. One result is the kinds of horror stories I listed above another less-painful outcome is failed lessons that go nowhere.

In 2015, researchers Dack, van Hover, and Hicks analyzed 14 videotaped lessons, pulled from a larger corpus of videotapes made in third- through 12 th - grade social studies classrooms, that involved experiential instructional techniques. The team found that 12 of the 14 had significant problems in execution. These problems weren’t always related to the infliction of emotional trauma—often, a game or simulation just didn’t werk, such as in a sixth-grade lesson on 19 th -century immigration that included an element where students pretended to be on a boat, bouncing and bobbing, before returning to their seats. Some of these lessons also transmitted factual inaccuracies—a problem, the trio of researchers observed, in all social studies instruction, but it seemed to get worse in experiential lessons, when teachers went “off-script.”

“I believe teachers need a higher level of content and pedagogical knowledge” to teach role-playing games in class, LaGarrett King, a professor of social studies education at the University of Missouri, said. “We’re talking about social studies teachers who are not trained in direction, or writing for dramas, or anything like that. … What I’ve found from college students who are training to be teachers is that they lack the content knowledge sufficient enough to even talk about race, or about tough historical issues, in the classroom.” I spoke to King on a day when he taught his last class of the semester, and by way of context for our conversation, he told me that in two sections of future teachers, 40 students total, he had one male student and one woman of color the rest were white women.

A teacher may wish to teach students about the history of American slavery and may think that “feeling” their way through that history is the best way to do it. But historical empathy is much more complex than this idea assumes. In a critique of the common idea that students’ historical empathy might prompt them to adopt democratic habits and acquire an affinity for social justice, professor of education Megan Boler writes, “Passive empathy is not a sufficient educational practice. At stake is not only the ability to empathize with the very distant other, but to recognize oneself as implicated in the social forces that create the climate of obstacles the other must confront.”

This recognition of personal implication is an extremely significant intellectual and emotional leap, and one that many white adults—including teachers—have not, themselves, made. King pointed out that the teacher’s position in relationship to this history was important. Someone teaching a lesson about the Confederacy, for example, might have family members still sympathetic to the Confederacy—or she herself might be. Before teaching these lessons, he said, “Teachers need to really get in there, to understand themselves as a racialized human being.”

One danger of poorly executed simulations of the darkest parts of our history is that white or otherwise privileged students may revel in what they see as the dramatic aspects of these situations—they may actually geniet hulself. Sociologist Sadhana Bery, whose children attended a school where the students were planning to put on a play about slavery, wrote a 2014 article for an education journal that described that situation in detail. According to Bery’s account, the leadership at the school emphasized the fact that the few black students in the school had not been pressured to act in the play at all all students had been told they could take whichever parts in the play they liked. But the result was that the black parents and students boycotted the play altogether, and the white students all chose to “play” enslaved people, declining all of the roles of slave traders and slaveholders. Bery writes that “the white teachers had to persuade the Asian and Latino/a students to play the roles of perpetrators of slavery.”

She attended the play’s performance in order to see the results. The white students playing the role of enslaved people enthusiastically cried and yelled when they were “sold away” from their families. Although she didn’t use this language to describe it, it’s clear that she found this performance utterly grotesque. For Bery, the “replacement of critical thought with emotion” in the course of reenactment obliterated any historical lesson that might be learned about slavery. Instead, white students were learning to “consume” historical black trauma, and reveling in the catharsis it could bring.

King, too, wondered what pedagogical benefit could come from reenacting the misery of slavery. “With the kind of anti-blackness we have in this country,” King asked me, “why do we have to show black vulnerability in the classroom? Why is that so important for us to do? Why is it so important for us to show black pain, and black suffering? I believe it does stem from this notion, that what we know about black history is about black pain and suffering.

“History is about emotion,” King added, “but there are other ways of getting at that emotion.”

When students are invited to playact oppressors, as is sometimes the case in these stories that go viral, existing power dynamics in the classroom and school get exacerbated—to the detriment of all. In April of this year, an Arizona parent wrote on Facebook that her 9-year-old son was made to walk across the classroom as two teachers and his third-grade peers yelled at him, in order to simulate the gantlet of hateful white people that the Little Rock Nine walked through when they integrated Central High School in September 1957. For Cory Wright-Maley, this kind of situation traumatizes the child who’s playing the “victim,” but also does a disservice to the ones whose teacher asked them to do the yelling. “You can’t pit kids against kids,” Wright-Maley said in an interview. “The realization that ‘I’ have the innate capacity to harm others is deeply scarring and psychologically harmful,” he wrote about role-plays that enlist students as oppressors, suggesting that teachers give students “the permission to act in response to evil, rather than being forced to embody it.”

One solution can be for the teacher to assume the role of oppressor. In a 2003 article interrogating the claim, made by historian Samuel Totten and others, that the Holocaust should never be simulated, professor of education Simone Schweber described an extensive and well-planned Holocaust role-play carried out over seven weeks in the context of a class on World War II. In this simulation, the teacher set herself up as “the Gestapo,” while every student in the class played a Jew at risk of being killed by Nazis.

While Schweber was inherently skeptical of the idea behind this exercise, when she surveyed the students in the class before and after the class, she did find that they “improved greatly” in their knowledge of the information and concepts surrounding the Holocaust. Schweber thought that the four students she interviewed in depth had, besides knowing much more about the Holocaust than they had, become truly emotionally engaged with the simulation: “All four interviewed students had come to recognize the arbitrariness of who survived and who didn’t, and all had gained a sense of the magnitude of that tragedy in the fabric of individual lives.”

Some educators, like Schweber, still see value in simulations in the K–12 classroom—if done with a very high level of investment and care. Adam Sanchez, a social studies teacher at a public high school in New York City, told me that both Rethinking Schools and Zinn Education Project—organizations he’s been involved with as an editor and writer—do produce curricula that include role-play and simulations. As an example, Sanchez pointed me to a piece describing a role-play on Reconstruction that he taught to a 12 th -grade government class in Queens. The class, mostly students of color, role-played as freedpeople living on the Sea Islands of Georgia during and immediately after the Civil War, with the game tracing the course of the actual community’s history. The students experienced emancipation, the brief hope for the future made possible by freedpeople’s land ownership right after the war, and the thwarting of that hope when Andrew Johnson became president, pardoned the slaveholders, and restored their land. “Obviously students aren’t going to be able to feel the feeling” that formerly enslaved landowners felt when the government decided to take their acres back, Sanchez said. But through the role-play, they put time into decisions that affected the community—“Are we going to spend money to build a school or are we going to create a militia?”—and so, when the news of Johnson’s decision hit them in the game, they had some investment in the situation.

In an article for the Southern Poverty Law Center’s magazine Teaching Tolerance, Ingrid Drake collected a list of recommendations for how to run an educational simulation or role-play: “Avoid simulations that can trigger emotional traumas” “Don’t group students according to characteristics that represent real-life oppression” “Build in ample time for debriefing” “Remind students to disengage from the role-play at the activity’s conclusion.” Sanchez’s Reconstruction simulation illustrates some of these practices. Sanchez said that he made sure to talk about the emotions that students experienced and to draw connections between those feelings and what the freedpeople might have gone through. It helped, too, to have a metaconversation with students about the pedagogical value of the simulation. “I always try to have time when debriefing the role-play when you acknowledge with students some of the limitations in role-play and simulation,” Sanchez said. “Any activity like that is going to necessarily simplify certain things, and I don’t think that’s necessarily a bad thing. Most histories, if you read them out of a textbook, simplify the true version of what actually happened—and that’s how most schools teach things.”

The viral role-play horror stories illustrate how far we have to go when it comes to teaching the history of slavery and the Holocaust. But LaGarrett King hopes teachers don’t get the wrong message. “What I fear is that with all the attention that these particular simulations and problematic caricatures are getting in the classroom, is that you’re going to have teachers say, ‘Well, forget it. I’m not going to teach any kind of hard history then,’ ” King said. “I like to think of it as a problem of professional development—like, ‘Hey, this is problematic! How can we fix it?’ ”

Rebecca Onion is a Slate staff writer and the author of Innocent Experiments.


Inhoud

The Last Days was first released in 1998. It was produced by June Beallor, Kenneth Lipper, Steven Spielberg, and the Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation. The film included archival footage, photographs, and documents, as well as interviews with survivors of the Shoah. The Last Days was remastered and released worldwide on Netflix on May 19, 2021.

Holocaust survivors Bill Basch, Irene Zisblatt, Renée Firestone, Alice Lok Cahana, Tom Lantos, Dario Gabbai, and Randolph Braham are featured in the film. [1] Former U.S. Representative from California Lantos was the only Holocaust survivor ever elected to the United States Congress. [4] [5] He was saved by Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg who hid Lantos in Budapest. [4] The film also included interviews with U.S. army veterans Paul Parks and Katsugo Miho, G.I.'s that liberated Dachau concentration camp. Former SS doctor Hans Münch, acquitted of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials, was interviewed about his experiences at Auschwitz concentration camp. [2] [4]

‘’The Last Days’’ received positive reviews from film critics. It holds a 92% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, based on 24 reviews. [6] On Metacritic, the film holds a 85% approval, based on 25 critics. [7]

According to Radheyan Simonpillai for Die voog, "The film’s thesis is that the Nazis were so fueled by hatred that they would sacrifice their position in the war in order to carry out the genocide, deporting 438,000 Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz within a six-week period." [1] Roger Ebert wrote for the Chicago Sun-Times that the film "focuses on the last year of the war, when Adolf Hitler, already defeated and with his resources running out, revealed the depth of his racial hatred by diverting men and supplies to the task of exterminating Hungary's Jews." [8] John Leonard wrote for New York Tydskrif, "It is a story told by five survivors of that fast-forward genocide, all of them naturalized American citizens, who return to the cities and villages from which they were seized, and to the camps to which they were committed." [4] Barbara Shulgasser-Parker, former film critic for the San Francisco Eksaminator, wrote for Common Sense Media, "The horrors described by survivors of the death camps, the soldiers who liberated them, and historians, as well as photographs and archival footage, make this important and educational but best suited to teens and older." [9] Marc Savlov for The Austin Chronicle wrote, "Moll's film is a far cry from the elegiac poetry of, say, Night and Fog it's a document more than an examination, and its power of record is inarguable and incorruptible." [2]


PRENTE UIT GESKIEDENIS: Seldsame beelde van oorlog, geskiedenis, Tweede Wêreldoorlog, Nazi -Duitsland

This SS officer will fight no more

Review of "The Fall of Berlin, 1945" by Anthony Beevor ( Salon.com )

If anything, German resistance was surprisingly feeble, or as a German prisoner quoted by Beevor phrased it, "Morale is being completely destroyed by warfare on German territory . we are told to fight to the death, but it is a complete blind alley." There are no real surprises here -- if you didn't know anything about World War II, you could guess from the first couple of chapters that Germany is doomed. And yet, Beevor has wrenched a better book from the fall of Berlin than he was able to from the siege of Stalingrad.

A Tiger Panzer lies desolate near the Potsdam station


During the withdrawal into the centre of Berlin, the SS execution squads went about their hangman's work with an increased urgency and cold fanaticism. Around the Kurfürstendamm, SS squads entered houses where white flags had appeared and shot down any men they found. Goebbels, terrified of the momentum of collapse, described these signs of surrender as a 'plague bacillus'. Yet General Mummert, the commander of the Muncheberg Panzer Division, ordered the SS and Feldgendarmerie squads out of his sector round the Anhalter Bahnhof and Potsdamerplatz. He threatened to shoot executioners on the spot.
Van Berlin Downfall 1945 by ANTONY BEEVOR

One of the last photos of Hitler. On his left is the head of Hitler Youth, Arthur Aksmann

The last days of Nazi rule in Berlin is a grim saga of hopelessness and desperation.

The forces available for the city's defense included several severely depleted Army and Waffen-SS divisions, supplemented by the police force, boys in the compulsory Hitler Youth, and the Volkssturm which consisted of elderly men, many of whom had been in the army as young men and some were veterans of World War I.

To the west the XX Infantry Division, to the north the IX Parachute Division, to the north-east Panzer Division Müncheberg, XI SS Panzergrenadier Division Nordland were to the south-east, (east of Tempelhof Airport) and XVIII Panzergrenadier Division, the reserve, were in the central district.
Berlin's fate was sealed, but the resistance continued. The Soviet advance to the city centre was along these main axes: from the south-east, along the Frankfurter Allee (ending and stopped at the Alexanderplatz) from the south along Sonnen Allee ending north of the Belle Alliance Platz, from the south ending near the Potsdamer Platz and from the north ending near the Reichstag. The Reichstag, the Moltke bridge, Alexanderplatz, and the Havel bridges at Spandau were the places where the fighting was heaviest, with house-to-house and hand-to-hand combat. The foreign contingents of the SS fought particularly hard, because they were ideologically motivated and they believed that they would not live if captured.

On April 28 Heinrici rejected Hitler's command to hold Berlin at all costs, so he was relieved of his command and replaced by General Kurt Student the next day. On April 30, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself. General Weidling, defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviets on May 2.


A German soldier on the steps of Rayhskantselyarii. In its basement was a hospital with some 500 seriously wounded SS soldiers, as well as civilian women and children, who harassed the Red Army which demolished the building

This was not lucky enough to be alive

"White flags were hanging out of windows. "

In the closing days of the war, Charles Lindbergh was dispatched to Germany to gather information on the new aircraft the German Luftwaffe had developed such as the jet fighter and the rocket plane. He arrived in Germany just days after its surrender and roamed the countryside looking for information. He kept a journal of of his experience that provides us a glimpse of a nation that had aspired to conquer the world but was pulverized into defeat.

White flags were hanging out of windows in villages we passed on the way, just as they had been hanging out of many of the windows in Munich. At one point we stopped to ask directions from a group of young German soldiers - in uniform but disarmed and apparently plodding along on their way home - a half-dozen young men, courteous, giving us directions as best they could, -showing no trace of hatred or resentment, or of being whipped in battle. They looked like farmers' sons.

We were on the wrong road. We turned around, and I dropped a package of cigarettes as we passed them by. Regulations forbid our giving rides to Germans. There is to be 'no fraternization.' One is not supposed even to shake hands with them or give a bit of food or candy to the children.

The winding, stone-paved road up the mountain­side to Hitler's headquarters was filled with American military vehicles - jeeps and trucks filled with soldiers, WACS, and Army nurses, apparently bent on seeing where der Fuhrer had lived and operated.

. Hitler's quarters and the surrounding buildings had been heavily bombed - gutted, roofs fallen, in ruins. Craters from misses dotted the nearby hillsides. The pine forest around the buildings was stripped of limbs-trunks broken off, split, shattered.

We parked our jeep at the side of the building and climbed up over rubble to a gaping doorway. A few yards up the road I watched a German officer (in charge of the soldiers cleaning up) salute an American officer who passed nearby, bowing his head slightly as he did so. The American officer sauntered by, obviously taking no notice whatever, although the German held the salute until he had passed. I shall never forget the expressions of those two men.

Most of the walls of the building, being thickly built of stone, were standing firmly. Inside, rubble covered the floors, and part of the wooden furnishings had burned. We made our way over the debris on the floor of the room said to be Hitler's office to the great oblong gap which was once filled with a plate-glass window. It framed almost perfectly a high Alpine range - sharp crags, white fields of snow, saw-tooth peaks against a blue sky, sunlight on the boulders, a storm forming up the valley. It was one of the most beautiful mountain locations I have ever seen.

. We made our way back into the rear chamber. There was the stench of the dead-bodies somewhere only partly buried. We climbed up the mortar-strewn stairs, the end open to the sky where the roof had been blown off. Down again and to the kitchen, edging past a line of doughboys coming in, rifles over shoulders. The floor was covered with twisted utensils and broken dishes the stoves, with rubble thrown up by the bombs and fallen down from the ceiling."

"There was no hostility in her eyes. "

"As we approached Zell-am-See we entered territory still ruled by the German Army. Officers and soldiers were still armed and still directing what little traffic passed over the roads. Groups of soldiers stared at us as we passed but made no gesture. I could detect neither friendship nor hostility. In every instance where we asked directions, they responded with courtesy. The two of us in an American jeep drove through divisions of the Germany Army as though there had been no war.

On arriving at Zell-am-See in the late afternoon, we stopped at the newly installed local American Army headquarters to arrange for billets for the night. We were assigned a room in a nearby house which had been occupied by a German doctor. The family had been given notice to evacuate only a few hours before. (When our Army moves into an occupied village, the most desirable houses are selected and the occupants ordered out. They are permitted to take their clothing and certain household utensils and furniture - not essential furniture or beds. Where they go for food or shelter is considered none of the conquering army's concern. One of our officers told me that the G.I.'s in his organization simply threw out of the windows any articles they didn't want to keep in the rooms they were occupying.)

As I carried my barracks bag in through the door I met a young German woman carrying her belongings out. There was no hostility in her eyes as they met mine, simply sadness and acceptance. Behind her were three children, two little girls and a little boy, all less than ten years old. They stole glances at me, angry and a little frightened, like children who had been unfairly punished. Their arms were full of childhood belongings or light articles they were carrying out to help their mother."

Verwysings:
This eyewitness account appears in: Lindbergh, Charles, A., The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh (1970) Ziemke, Earl F., The U.S. Army in the Occupation of Germany 1944-1946 (1975).

LOSING GERMANY. DESPERATE HITLER

In the spring of 1944, a Soviet invasion of Germany became a real possibility, as Soviet troops pursued the retreating German army. Hitler ordered the citizens of Germany to destroy anything that the enemy could put to good use. Embittered by defeats, he later turned against the Germans themselves. 'If the German people lose the war, then they will have proved themselves unworthy of me.'
Hitler suffered his greatest military setback of the war in the summer of 1944. More destructive by far than the D-Day landings, Stalin's Operation Bagration in Belorussia eliminated three times more German army divisions than the Allies did in Normandy. Hitler retaliated by demanding specific divisions of the German army stand fast to the last man - the very tactic that Stalin had deployed so disastrously in the early days of the war. Defeat for Germany was only months away.
Source: BBC


The commandant of Berlin Defense, Lieutenant General Helmut Reiman (in trench)


In the centre of Berlin that night the flames in bombarded buildings cast strange shadow sand a red glow on the otherwise dark streets. The soot and dust in the air made it almost unbreathable. From time to time there was the thunder of masonry collapsing. And to add to the terrifying effect, searchlight beams moved around above, searching a night sky in which the Luftwaffe had ceased to exist.


An exhausted group of foreign Waffen SS soldiers sought shelter in the cellars of the Hotel Continental. The place was already full of women and children who eyed the battle-worn soldiers uneasily. The manager approached them and asked if they would go instead to the air-raid shelter in the Jakobstrasse. The SS volunteers felt a bitter resentment that they who had been sacrificing their lives were now cold-shouldered.They turned and left. Fighting soldiers found themselves treated as pariahs. They were no longer brave defenders, but a danger. In hospitals, including one of the military Lazarette,nurses immediately confiscated weapons so that when the Russians arrived, they had no excuse to shoot the wounded.
A anti-aircraft gun lies near the Reichstag



'It's all over with the children,' she told him. 'Now we have to think about ourselves.''Let's be quick,' said Goebbels. 'We're short of time.'

Magda Goebbels took both the gold party badge which Hitler had given her on 27 Aprilin token of his admiration and also her gold cigarette case inscribed 'Adolf Hitler, 29 May1934'. Goebbels and his wife then went upstairs to the garden, accompanied by his adjutant, Günther Schwaegermann. They took two Walther pistols. Joseph and Magda Goebbels stood next to each other, a few metres from where the bodies of Hitler and his wife had been burned and then buried in a shell crater. They crunched on glass cyanide ampoules and either they shot themselves with the pistols at the same moment, or else Schwaegermann shot both of them immediately afterwards as a precautionary coup de grace

The two pistols were left with the bodies, which Schwaegermann doused in petrol from jerry cans, as he had promised. He then ignited the last funeral pyre of the Third Reich.


Double-click the "Windows Logs" option in the window's left pane.

Select a Windows log -- such as "System" -- to view its list of events in the top middle pane. Scroll down the list to the date that you suspect that someone was using your computer, and then click an event on that date to view its details in the bottom middle pane.

Warnings

  • You cannot see the browser history if the browser's private browsing feature is enabled, such as Google Chrome's Incognito Mode.
  • Information in this article applies to Windows 8.1, Mozilla Firefox 27, Internet Explorer 11 and Google Chrome 2.0.1700.107. Instructions may vary slightly or significantly with other versions.

References

Oor die skrywer

An avid technology enthusiast, Steve Gregory has been writing professionally since 2002. With more than 10 years of experience as a network administrator, Gregory holds an Information Management certificate from the University of Maryland and is pursuing MCSE certification. His work has appeared in numerous online publications, including Chron and GlobalPost.


Classroom Games and Activities for General Music

Are you looking for Musical Games and Activities for your classroom? U het op die regte plek gekom! NAfME members shared some fantastic exercises they use in their classrooms – and now you can too! Check out some of their great recommendations below, and be sure to share yours on Amplify!

Bucket Band is an easy and inexpensive way to help teach rhythm – great activity for middle school kids!

Spin and notate activity!

Musical chairs writing! When the music stops pick up writing where the last person left off – writing can include note values, rhythm exercises, song lyrics to help the memorize a piece – you choose!


Scavenger hunt for an ice breaker!

Building chords with legos!

Get to know your students ice breaker – and helps students get to know one another!

What note am I? An Ice Breaker Music Game!

Incentive Program

All the students in Grades 6-8 are split up into one of three houses (sort of like in Harry Potter – which the kids love to reference). It builds community as students from other grades and classes work together to earn points and rewards.

Split students up into Music Teams.

Create six Music Teams named for the periods of music history: Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, 20th Century, and Post Modern.

Each team has a Team Leader. The leader gets to sit in a special chair and is the person I can call on to pass out their team’s notebooks, rhythm instruments, or to get their materials basket. The Team Leader chair rotates every two weeks. Make it random so that the students won’t be able to predict who the Team Leader will be.

Boomwhacker Station

At this station students work together to read simple melodies on the treble clef staff and play them together using Boomwhackers.

Coloring Station

Even the big kids like to color! At this station they are using a color by note worksheet. You can find free printable versions of the worksheets here

iPad Station-Flashnote Derby

At this station, students used the Flashnote Derby app to test their knowledge of the treble clef lines and spaces. This fast paced review really helps see who knows their notes!

Gone Fishin’

At this station students sit on a large tablecloth and match fish to fishbowls. Each fishbowl has a treble clef staff with 3-8 notes on it. By identifying th e letter names of each, students discover that it spells a word. Then they find the matching fish which had a word on it.

Spell a Story

At this station, students work on a pitch identification worksheet. As they identify the pitch names of the notes they complete a story.


Treble Twist Up

Everyone likes Twister, right? This game is a great deal like Twister. You can create a staff with a plain shower curtain and electrical tape, or with masking tape on carpet too. Students use a spinner and follow the directions “Right Hand E!” “Left foot B!” for a fun and physical way to review pitch names.

Teachers: You can download the template to make your own Treble Twist Up spinner here.


Ideas for the Last Day of Class

For some of us, the end of the school year coincides with Memorial Day. Folks are already making plans for those last few weeks of school, including ideas for the last day of class. The following recommendations were shared in social media when an NCTE member asked for suggestions for an end-of-school-year activity:

  • Give students a freewrite prompt—an inspirational quote about the future, a reflection on what they are proud of achieving in the course, words of advice to future students, etc. The student has five minutes to write and then discussion can follow.
  • Invite students to complete a survey about the class or the semester and provide feedback. This can be done on paper or via Google Forms or other online platform.
  • Play a game! Collect concluding paragraphs from novels that were read during the year. Ask students to reread each paragraph and see if they can recall which novel and author the paragraph was from, and then see if they can make some overall assertions about what great writers attempt to leave us with.
  • Spend 30 minutes leading them through a close reading of Elizabeth Bishop’s villanelle “One Art”—a perfect farewell poem that encapsulates all the paradoxes of memory and forgetting!
  • Share Faulkner’s Nobel Prize acceptance speech—a good way to end the course and reflect on the meaning of literature as they leave the classroom.
  • Take time for a discussion on the topic, “How is what you have learned in this class affecting your life outside this classroom?” Students seem to genuinely enjoy presenting examples of direct effects of the class on their day-to-day existence, and the critical thinking necessary to make the connections between “real” life and education supports mastery and retention of the material.
  • Encourage students to make a video, providing suggestions for the next students of the class or course.
  • Engage students in a study of humor! Invite students to research and share what made people laugh and why. Conclude with students describing their own favorite humor

What ideas could you add to this list?

Lisa Fink

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This indicates resources located on The Teacher's Corner.


    A fun and educational game to end the school year with.
    Submitted by: Terry Grillo - West Brook High School
    A teacher-created poem inspired by Shel Silverstein.
    Submitted by: Daphne Rice - Portland Oregon
  • Positive Words
    I have my students fill out a Positive words sheet on everyone in the class. They only have to fill in a couple of words for each student but they really seem to enjoy giving each other a lift. I have them fill-in the blanks, then I take the papers and create one paper for each student with the words that were said. When I had them out the smiles are great to see. It can be adjusted to any grade. Another thing that I have done is have them fill out a sheet on me to help me learn from them how to be the best teacher. I just make up a quick sheet with questions like What was your favorite part of this year, What did you like least, etc. It is really interesting what some of my prior students have told me and I have made some changes. .DOC Downloads: Positive Words Directions - Positive Words Paper
    Submitted by: Sharon Staudt - Westside Elementary
  • Advice from Grads
    At the end of the school year I always have my fifth graders write a paragraph offering advice to incoming fifth graders for the next year. When the new school year starts, I read their advice to the new students.
    Submitted by: Sylvia Portnoy
  • Memory Book
    An easy way to capture memories from the year. Have the students create a memory book from 3-ring binders and clear sheet protectors, using artifacts from the past year. On the front include a class photo.
    Submitted by: J. Rader
  • Vacation Calendar
    Put together fun, easy, and educational activities for students. Give each student a calendar for the months they will be on vacation with simple activities to do each day. For example: Count the stars that are in the sky Find 20 words from the newspaper that begin with "B" etc.
    Submitted by: Anne Martini
    Create your own or use our word list.
    Create your own or use our word list.
  • A class memory!
    An easy and creative idea to help students remember their fellow classmates. I give the students an extra large piece of construction paper, and give them a 4x6 patter to trace. Then I have them decorate around it, like a frame. I have a digital camera and I took a picture of the class on a sunny day. I had 25 copies made, one for each of my students. They then placed the picture in the frame and let everyone sign around it!
    Submitted by: Denise
  • AutobiographiesGrades Any
    Not only will this activity build writing skills, but it will also be a special keepsake. My grade 5 Language Arts students wrote simple autobiographies. They wrote 3-10 sentences for each year of their life. Then I copied and bound them into a "yearbook" with memory pages to give as end of the year keepsakes.
    Voorgelê deur:[e -pos en#160 beskerm]
  • Autograph BookGrades Any
    A great book your students will treasure forever. At the end of the year have each child make an autograph book and for an afternoon activity let them pass around their books and get everyone's signatures and notes for a summer keepsake.
    Submitted by: Jessica [email protected]
    Grades Any
    A fun letter of things to do that you can send home with your students.
  • "How To Survive 5TH Grade"
    An activity to end one year and prepare for the next. I have my children create an ABC book called, "How To Survive 5TH Grade." They each come up with a word for every letter of the alphabet. We do allow cheating for x, but the kids are good at the other letters. Then they illustrate their books. I save these and have them on the desks for next year's new students.
    Submitted by: Cheryle Hodges [email protected]
  • Ice Cream Cones
    Give students a chance to share what they've learned throughout the school year. Trace a triangle for the cone. Students will draw at least 3 scoops and cut out. On each scoop they write something they learned from the school year. Then they glue the scoops attaching them to the cone.
    Submitted by: Danielle
  • The Jolly PostmanGrades K-2
    A fun way to wrap up the school year and the study of fairy tales. I read The Jolly Postman to my class. I also have read many of the other fairy tales over the school year. Then I have my class write letters to the characters in any of the fairy tales and make an envelop with an appropriate address. Ex: Jack Bean (from Jack and the Beanstalk) 7 Lima Bean Rd. Beansville, NY 90783
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Last-Day Water StationsGrades Any
    Help your kids cool off and have a little fun in the process. The last week of school was into the 90 degree days this year and at the spur of the moment, we decided to have a Water Fun day. All the kids in our school (about 400) wore/brought their swimsuits and towels to school and we went outside for 2 hours in the morning and 1 1/2 in the afternoon to take part in about 15 different "water" stations. (similar to our field day activities). Stations included beach volleyball, basketball hoop in a baby swim pool, obstacle course (through a sprinkler, over hurdles, through tires, etc.), sprinkler limbo or jump rope (using those hoses with holes in them), filling buckets with frisbees from a kiddie pool, water balloon activities including several relays, tug-of-war and to top it off, the village fire truck was there all day to spray anyone and everyone. We finished activities in time to dry off or change clothes so that no one went home on the bus wet. It was a great cool off and quite a nice change for the last week of school.
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Puzzle FunGrades Any
    Personalize your end-of-the-year puzzles. For the last day of school I make a word search with everyone's first name. Use our Word Search Maker! An additional tip: Use the "Fun Options" to scramble their names before they can find them - it is super simple and quick to make a fantastic word search!
    Submitted by: [email protected]
  • Summer WritingGrades 2+
    Help you and your students keep in touch. Over the summer I have my class list with addresses of all my students, and also send the list home so we can all write over the summer. This works well by email as well. You can use our Writing Prompts for inspiration!

Back to Summer Activities


Kyk die video: Discover the 5 News and Improvements of Google Workspace. September 12 2021. (Januarie 2022).