Inligting

Eleanor van Aquitanië



Geskiedenis … die interessante stukkies!

Die verhaal van Rosamund de Clifford is gehul in meer legendes as die meeste middeleeuse lewens. Na Eleanor van Aquitanië is sy die vrou wat die meeste met Henry II, koning van Engeland, verband hou. In historiese fiksie is sy die vrou wat sy hart geëis het en hom van sy koningin gesteel het. Maar wie was sy? Hoeveel van haar verhaal is werklik, hoeveel is fantasie?

Rosamund de Clifford is waarskynlik gebore omstreeks 1140. Sy was die dogter van Walter de Clifford, 'n heer op die Walliese optogte, en sy vrou Margaret de Tosny. Ons weet niks van haar kinderjare nie; sy is moontlik opgelei by Godstow Abbey, maar dit is nie seker nie en ook nie wanneer sy die koning ontmoet het nie. Die res van haar lewe bestaan ​​uit gerugte en geskinder.

Rosamund se pa het Henry II in die 1160's in die veldtog in Wallis gedien. Dit is moontlik dat die koning die jong vrou die eerste keer ontmoet het tydens 'n besoek aan de Clifford se woning in Bredelais tydens die veldtog. Sommige teorieë het 'n verhouding tussen Henry en Rosamund omstreeks 1165, die eerste Kersfees wat Henry deurgebring het, afgesien van sy koningin, Eleanor van Aquitaine. Eleanor het haar Kersfeeshof in Angers gehou terwyl Henry in Oxford was. Henry het die neiging om voortdurend aan die gang te bly, en dit was ongewoon dat hy so onbeweeglik was, wat tot vermoedens gelei het dat dit was toe sy liefdesverhouding met Rosamund begin het. Daar is egter bewyse dat Henry moontlik ook 'n besering opgedoen het, wat ook sy bewegings sou beperk.

Henry en Eleanor sou nog 'n kind hê, John, wat met Kersfees 1166 gebore is, wat daarop dui dat die skeiding van Kersfees 1165 meer te wyte was aan die logistiek van regerende groot domeine as dat Henry elders liefde gevind het. Daar is egter 'n latere verhaal van Eleanor wat van plan was om haar by die koninklike paleis van Woodstock te laat lê, net om Rosamund by haar aankoms te vind en vinnig na Oxford te verhuis om geboorte te skenk.

Henry was nooit 'n getroue eggenoot nie en dit was bekend dat hy verskeie buite -egtelike kinders gehad het, waaronder William Longspée en Geoffrey, aartsbiskop van York. Hy tel onder sy verowerings Rohese, 'n dogter van die vooraanstaande de Clare -familie en Ida de Tosny, wat later met Hugh Bigod, graaf van Norfolk, trou en die moeder van Longspée was. As Henry en Rosamund hul verhouding in die middel van die 1160's begin het, het hulle 'n wonderlike taak gedoen om die saak geheim te hou, aangesien dit eers in 1174 bekend gemaak is.

Die verhouding van Henry en sy koningin het in die vroeë 1170's aansienlik versuur toe Eleanor die kant van hul seuns geneem het en in 1172-73 by 'n opstandige rebellie aangesluit het. Henry het daarin geslaag om die opstand te verpletter en sy seuns te vergewe, maar hy was nie so toegeeflik met Eleanor nie. In 1174 het hy haar na Engeland begelei en haar in Old Sarum geïnstalleer en haar veroordeel tot 15 jaar gevangenisstraf wat sy eers vrygelaat sou word as haar gunsteling seun, Richard I, die troon in 1189 bestyg.

In dieselfde jaar as die gevangenisstraf van Eleanor, het Henry se verhouding met Rosamund algemene kennis geword. Sy woon in die koninklike paleis van Woodstock in Oxfordshire, wat in die vroeë 1170's uitgebrei opgeknap is. Daar is gesê dat koning Henry vir haar 'n huis van wonderlike vakmanskap gemaak het, 'n labirint van Daedeliaanse ontwerp. Rosamund's Well kan vandag nog gesien word op die terrein van die Blenheim -paleis, wat nou staan ​​waar Woodstock eens gestaan ​​het.

Alhoewel dit deur die legende as 'n groot liefdesverhaal gekom het, is daar niks bekend oor die gevoelens van Rosamund teenoor Henry nie, en ook nie of sy 'n sê in haar posisie as die meesteres van die koning het nie. Die kroniekskrywers van die tyd het haar natuurlik as die gevalle vrou, 'n verleidster en egbreker, geverf. Hulle het woordspelings geskep wat afgelei is van haar naam Rosamund, of rosa mundi wat beteken dat die roos van die wêreld geword het rosa immunda – die onrein roos – en rosa immundi – die onkuise roos.

Dat die arme Rosamund die skuld gekry het vir die ontrouheid van Henry, was 'n teken van die tyd dat vroue die dogters van Eva was, 'n versoeking vir eerbare mans wat nie die mag gehad het om hulle te weerstaan ​​nie. Rosamund se vroeë dood is beskou as 'n regverdige straf vir haar wulpse lewenstyl. Rosamund beëindig haar verhouding met Henry in 1175/6 en trek terug na Godstow Abbey. Dit lyk waarskynlik dat sy reeds siek was toe sy die priory binnegaan en sy sterf in 1176. Henry betaal vir 'n weelderige graf in die kloosterkerk, waarna die nonne daagliks blommegeskenke verlaat het. In die jare na die dood van Rosamund het Henry die klooster toegerus met 2 kerke in Wycombe en Bloxham, nuwe geboue en aansienlike hoeveelhede boumateriaal. Rosamund se pa, Walter, het die abdijmeulens en 'n weide toegestaan ​​vir die siel van sy vrou en dogter.

Ongelukkig mag Rosamund egter nie in vrede rus nie. In 1190, toe die heilige biskop Hugh van Lincoln Godstow besoek, was hy geskok dat die graf van Rosamund 'n ereplek in die kerk gehad het en beveel het dat haar oorskot verwyder moet word. Die graf is gevestig in die nonne -hoofstukhuis, met 'n gepaardgaande inskripsie wat haar leefstyl vermaan:

Hierdie graf sluit hier die mooiste Rose ter wêreld in,

Rose verby soet, nou niks anders as reuk nie .²

Rosamund se vroeë dood en sy was nog net in haar dertigerjare en geïnspireerde legendes van wraak Eleanor word verskeie kere beskuldig dat sy haar in haar bad gesteek en vergiftig het. In een uitspattige weergawe was Rosamund in haar geheime boor in 'n doolhof weggesteek, maar met behulp van 'n sydraad het 'n jaloerse Eleanor haar steeds gevind en gesteek terwyl sy gebad het. In 'n ander een het die weggegooide koningin Rosamund gedwing om uit 'n gifbeker te drink. Natuurlik, 'n nou bewaakte gevangene in Old Sarum of in Winchester soos sy was, was dit onmoontlik vir Eleanor om so iets te doen. Maar dit sorg vir 'n goeie storie!

Rosamund se verhouding met Henry het waarskynlik nie langer as 10 jaar geduur nie en moontlik so min as 3 jaar. Sy het moontlik in daardie tyd min van Henry gesien, aangesien hy voortdurend aan die gang was en slegs 'n bietjie meer as 3 van die tien jaar in totaal in Engeland deurgebring het. Dit is moontlik dat Rosamund soms op 'n diskrete manier saam met hom gereis het, hoewel dit onwaarskynlik lyk, aangesien niemand van haar geweet het tot ná die rebellie en gevangenisstraf van Eleanor nie. Daar is 'n paar teorieë wat daarop dui dat Henry selfs voor haar dood belangstelling in Rosamund verloor het, en dit was die rede vir haar uittrede by Godstow. Alhoewel sy weelderige begaafdheid van die Abdy anders kan argumenteer, word Henry na bewering sy aandag gerig op sy verloofde van sy seun, Richard, prinses Alys, suster van Philip II van Frankryk.

Miskien is die waarheid van die verhaal van Rosamund minder belangrik as die legende en romanse wat daar rondom gegroei het. Miskien is die verhaal van onbeantwoorde liefde, geheime pogings en verborge boewe net so belangrik vir die geskiedenis as die aaklige waarheid: 'n vrou wat deur 'n koning verlei is met min sê in die rigting van haar eie lewe, ontken man, kinders en 'n toekoms.

Miskien is die romanse wat die verhaal smaakliker maak.

The Ballad of Fair Rosamund

Die blom van die wêreld

Toe koning Henry hierdie land regeer,

Die tweede van die naam,

Behalwe die koningin, was hy baie lief vir hom

'N Mooi en mooi dame

Die mooiste van haar was haar mooiste,

Haar guns, en haar gesig

'N Soeter wese in hierdie wêreld

Kon nooit prins omhels nie.

Haar skerp slot soos gouddrade

Verskyn vir elke man se oë

Haar sprankelende oë, soos Oosterse pêrels,

Het 'n hemelse lig gewerp.

Die bloed in haar kristalwange

Het so 'n kleur gedryf,

Asof die lelie en die roos

Want meesterskap het wel gestreef.

Ja Rossamonde, mooi Rosamonde,

Haar naam is so genoem,

Aan wie ons koningin, dame Ellinor,

Was bekend as 'n dodelike vyand.

Die koning, daarom, vir haar verdediging

Teen die woedende koningin,

By Woodstocke het so 'n boog gebou,

Soortgelyke dinge is nog nooit gesien nie.

Die eienaardigste is dat die boeg gebou is

Van klip en hout sterk,

Honderd en vyftig deure

Het aan hierdie bower behoort.

En hulle het so listig bedink,

Met draaie rondom,

Dit niemand behalwe met 'n idee van draad

Kan in en uit gaan .³

Voetnote: ¹Polychronicon aangehaal in Oxforddnb.com ² Spoed aangehaal in Oxforddnb.com ³Anoniem aangehaal in Eleanor, April -koningin van Aquitanië deur Douglas Boyd

Foto's met vergunning van Wikipedia

Bronne: Oxforddnb.com deur T.A. Archer, rev deur Elizabeth Hallam Wordsworth Dictionary of British History deur J.P. Kenyon konings, Queens, Bones en Bastards deur David Hilliam Engeland onder die Norman en Angevin Kings 1075-1225 deur Robert Bartlett Koning John deur Marc Morris The Devil ’s Brood deur Desmond Seward Die Grootste Ridder deur Thomas Asbridge Eleanor, April -koningin van Aquitanië deur Douglas Boyd Eleanor van Aquitanië deur Alison Weir Die Plantagenet Chronicles Geredigeer deur Elizabeth Hallam.


Dekonstruksie van die verhaal van Eleanor van Aquitanië

Veertiende -eeuse uitbeelding van die huwelik van koning Lodewyk VII en Eleanor van Aquitanië. Die prentjie regs wys hoe Louis na die Tweede Kruistog vertrek.

Alles wat u van Eleanor van Aquitaine weet, is verkeerd! Of so sê Michael R. Evans, dosent in die Middeleeuse geskiedenis aan die Central Michigan University. In sy boek "Inventing Eleanor: The Medieval and Post-Medieval Image of Eleanor of Aquitaine", werk hy daaraan om die mites rondom die lewe van Eleanor te vernietig.

Hy begin deur die rol van middeleeuse koninginne te definieer en hoe Eleanor by die beeld pas. Tydens haar bewind as koningin van Frankryk verskyn sy wel saam met haar man Louis VII in handveste oor Frankryk en haar hertogdom Aquitaine. As koningin van Engeland verskyn sy ook in handveste en in sommige kronieke. Maar dit lyk asof sy meer saam met haar man Henry II werk, in teenstelling met outonoom, tensy sy as regent in sy afwesigheid regeer. Sy vervul beslis die gebruiklike middeleeuse koninginrol van moeder, diplomaat en voorbidder tydens Henry se bewind en dié van haar seuns Richard I en John.

Oom Raymond van Poitiers van Eleanor verwelkom Louis VII in Antiochië uit 'n vyftiende -eeuse manuskrip

Evans praat oor Eleanor en die skepping van wat hy die 'Black Legend' noem, wat ontstaan ​​het deur die kroniekskrywer se beskrywings van haar skandalige gedrag wat gewoonlik met hul eie politieke agenda geskryf is. Dit sluit haar vermeende bloedskande in saam met haar oom Raymond van Poitiers, Prins van Antiochië tydens die Tweede Kruistog. Hierdie gerugte het eers regtig begin toe later kroniekskrywers soos Willem van Tirus daaroor geskryf het. Bloedskande -aantygings is nooit aan die lig gebring tydens die nietigverklaring van die huwelik tussen Eleanor en Louis nie. Alhoewel ons nooit met sekerheid sal weet nie, is die waarskynlikheid van bloedskande tussen Eleanor en Raymond onbeduidend en is die gerug slegs aangevoer om Eleanor om politieke redes in diskrediet te bring. Dit was 'n standaard werkingsprosedure vir skrywers om middeleeuse koninginne in diskrediet te bring met beskuldigings van seksuele wangedrag.

Die interessantste is die legende dat Eleanor en haar dames as Amazones aangetrek het op pad na die Tweede Kruistog. Evans verduidelik hoe hierdie legende ontstaan ​​het. 'N Bisantynse hofmeester met die naam Niketas Choniates beskryf in sy "Historia" 'n vrou wat saam met die kruisvaardersleër verskyn het toe dit in 1147 deur Konstantinopel gegaan het. Hy noem 'n veldtog van Duitsers wat vroue te perd ingesluit het, nie sypaadjies soos gewoonlik nie, maar skandalig astride. Hierdie vroue was geklee in manneklere en het lansies en wapens gedra. Hy sê dat hulle 'n krygsvoorkoms gehad het en dat hulle 'meer manlik was as die Amazones'. Choniates sê een vrou het in die skare opgemerk en die voorkoms van Penthesilea met geborduurde goud om die soom en die rande van haar kledingstuk gemaak. Hierdie vrou is Goldfoot (Chrysópous) genoem. Penthesilea was 'n Amasone -koningin uit die Griekse mitologie.

Miniatuur van Niketas Choniates uit 'n manuskrip uit die veertiende eeu “Historia ”, Wien, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Cod. Hist. gr. 53*, fol. 1v

Nêrens in hierdie gedeelte word die naam van Eleanor genoem nie. Hierdie vroue is nie eens Frans hier nie, soos Choniates hulle Duits noem. Hy sê nie dat hulle spesifiek as Amazones geklee was nie. Eleanor se besoek aan Konstantinopel is gemaak voordat Choniates selfs gebore is, sodat hy nie eintlik hierdie vroue persoonlik gesien het nie. Hy het dit byna vyftig jaar na 1147 geskryf. Hieruit is aanvaar dat die vrou Goldfoot Eleanor was en die legende het daarvandaan gegroei. Dit is selfs deur latere skrywers uitgebrei om te sê dat Eleanor en ander vroue as Amazones in Frankryk aangetrek het voordat hulle die kruistog vertrek het.

'N Ander deel van die' Black Legend 'is die beskuldiging dat Eleanor Henry se minnares Rosamund Clifford laat vermoor het. Eleanor was tydens die dood van Rosamund in die tronk en onder bewaking. In 'n kroniek uit die veertiende eeu word genoem dat Henry Rosamund in Woodstock gehou het om haar weg te hou van Eleanor se wraak, maar Eleanor noem nie haar moordenaar nie. Die eerste verwysing na Eleanor as 'n moordenaar kom eers in die middel van die veertiende "French Chronicle of London" voor wat beweer dat Eleanor Rosamund doodgebloei het. In 'n kroniek uit die sestiende eeu vind Eleanor Rosamund in die labirintiese boeg met behulp van 'n sydraad. In 'n latere sestiende -eeuse kroniek word die verhaal uitgebrei waarin gesê word dat Eleanor 'n getroue ridder die sydraad verkry het en dat Eleanor Rosamund vergiftig het toe sy om haar lewe gepleit het. En so het die legende gegroei.

Beeld van Willem van Tirus wat sy geskiedenis skryf, uit 'n 13de -eeuse Ou Franse vertaling

Historiese bewyse dat Eleanor haar oupa in die troubadoer -tradisie gevolg het en gevalle van hoflike liefde saam met haar dogter Marie toegedien het, bestaan ​​eenvoudig nie. Evans sê dat hierdie legende meestal dood is totdat Amy Kelly se biografie "Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings" in 1950 gepubliseer is.

Evans spreek die idee aan dat Eleanor uit die suide van Frankryk kom, die Oksitaanse dialek van Frans praat en die suidelike kultuur na haar man Louis se agtergeblewe hof in Parys gebring het. Hy beweer oortuigend dat Eleanor geleef en geïdentifiseer het met die kultuur van Poitiers wat op die skeidslyn was tussen die gebiede in Frankryk wat 'langue d'oc' en 'langue d'oïl' gepraat het. Evans meen sy het nie langue d'oc gepraat nie en het geen spesiale kultuur van die suide na die noorde oorgedra toe sy met Louis getrou het nie. Aangesien ons geen historiese bewyse het oor haar opvoeding as 'n jong meisie nie, weet ons nie regtig of sy buitengewoon opgelei is nie. Daar is ook geen bewyse dat sy 'n groter beskermvrou van die kunste was as ander middeleeuse edelvroue van die era nie.

'N Ander legende oor Eleanor fokus op haar beweerde skoonheid. Daar is geen geskrewe beskrywings van Eleanor nie, so ons het geen idee van haar lengte, hare of oogkleur of velkleur nie. Daar is ook geen oorlewende visuele uitbeeldings van Eleanor nie. Evans merk op dat die meeste kronieke Middeleeuse koninginne as mooi beskryf, so dit is nie ongewoon nie.

Ons weet nie regtig hoe Eleanor gelyk het nie

Bewyse dat sy bloedskande gepleeg het saam met haar oom Raymond van Poitiers is weglaatbaar

Sy het nooit soos 'n Amasone aangetrek nie

Daar is geen bewyse dat sy die minnares Rosamund Clifford van Henry vermoor het nie

Sy het nooit sake van hoflike liefde voorgehou nie

Sy het nie langue d ’oc gepraat nie

Dit is slegs 'n paar van die mites wat Evans aanspreek en hy voer aan dat Eleanor nie werklik uitsonderlik is wat die Middeleeuse koninginne betref nie, maar ek is nie seker of ek hierdie argument heelhartig kan omhels nie. Sy was die koningin van Frankryk en die koningin van Engeland en die moeder van drie konings: Henry the Young King, Richard I en John. Sy het ook aan die Tweede Kruistog deelgeneem. Sy het as diplomaat opgetree en deur Europa op missies vir haar seuns gereis en tot 'n hoë ouderdom geleef. Maar die feit dat legendes en mites oor haar lewe deur die eeue en oor verskillende media uitgebreek het, spreek daartoe dat mense haar om baie verskillende redes boeiend vind. Selfs sonder die mitologie, dink ek dat die bietjie wat ons weet van die verhaal van haar lewe uniek is.

Lees verder: “Uitvindsel van Eleanor: The Medieval and Post-Medieval Image of Eleanor of Aquitaine” deur Michael R. Evans


Inhoud

Eleanor se geboortejaar is nie presies bekend nie: 'n laat 13de-eeuse geslagsregister van haar familie wat haar as 13 jaar oud in die lente van 1137 noem, bied die beste bewyse dat Eleanor miskien so laat as 1124 gebore is. [5] Aan die ander kant In sommige kronieke word 'n eed van 'n getroue eed van sommige here van Aquitaine genoem tydens die veertiende verjaardag van Eleanor in 1136. Dit, en haar bekende ouderdom van 82 by haar dood, maak 1122 die mees waarskynlike jaar van haar geboorte. [6] Haar ouers trou byna seker in 1121. Haar geboorteplek was moontlik Poitiers, Bordeaux of Nieul-sur-l'Autise, waar haar ma en broer oorlede is toe Eleanor 6 of 8 was. [7]

Eleanor (of Aliénor) was die oudste van drie kinders van William X, hertog van Aquitanië, wie se glinsterende hertoglike hof vroeg in die 12de eeu bekend was, en sy vrou, Aenor de Châtellerault, die dogter van Aimery I, burggraaf van Châtellerault, en Dangereuse de l'Isle Bouchard, wat jare lange minnares van William IX was, sowel as Eleanor se ouma aan moederskant. Haar ouers se huwelik is deur Dangereuse gereël met haar oupa William IX van vaderskant.

Eleanor word genoem na haar ma Aenor en gebel Aliénor uit die Latyn Alia Aenor, wat beteken die ander Aenor. Dit het geword Eléanor in die langues d'oïl van Noord -Frankryk en Eleanor in Engels. [4] Daar was egter nog 'n prominente Eleanor voor haar - Eleanor van Normandië, 'n tante van Willem die Veroweraar, wat 'n eeu vroeër geleef het as Eleanor van Aquitanië. In Parys as koningin van Frankryk is sy Helienordis genoem, haar eerbare naam soos dit in die Latynse sendbriewe geskryf is.

Volgens haar het Eleanor se pa verseker dat sy die beste opvoeding ontvang het. [8] Eleanor het rekenkunde, die sterrebeelde en geskiedenis geleer. [4] Sy het ook huishoudelike vaardighede aangeleer, soos huishoudelike bestuur en die naaldwerk van borduurwerk, naaldpunt, naaldwerk, spin en weef. [4] Eleanor het vaardighede ontwikkel in gesprekke, dans, speletjies soos backgammon, dam en skaak, harp speel en sing. [4] Alhoewel haar moedertaal Poitevin was, het sy geleer om Latyn te lees en te praat, was sy goed onderrig in musiek en letterkunde en het sy geleer in ry, smous en jag. [9] Eleanor was ekstrovert, lewendig, intelligent en vol wil. Haar vierjarige broer William Aigret en hul ma is in die lente van 1130 oorlede op die kasteel van Talmont aan die Atlantiese kus van Aquitaine. Eleanor het die erfgenaam geword van haar vader se domeine. Die hertogdom Aquitanië was die grootste en rykste provinsie van Frankryk. Poitou, waar Eleanor die grootste deel van haar kinderjare deurgebring het, en Aquitaine saam was amper 'n derde van die grootte van die moderne Frankryk. Eleanor het net een ander wettige broer of suster gehad, 'n jonger suster met die naam Aelith (ook Petronilla genoem). Haar halfbroer Joscelin word deur William X as 'n seun erken, maar nie as sy erfgenaam nie. Die idee dat sy nog 'n halfbroer, William, gehad het, word gediskrediteer. [10] Later, gedurende die eerste vier jaar van Henry II se bewind, het haar broers en susters by Eleanor se koninklike huis aangesluit.

Erfenis Redigeer

In 1137 het hertog Willem X Poitiers na Bordeaux verlaat en sy dogters saamgeneem. Toe hy Bordeaux bereik het, het hy hulle onder die leiding van die aartsbiskop van Bordeaux gelaat, een van sy min getroue vasale. Die hertog vertrek toe saam met ander pelgrims na die heiligdom van Sint Jakobus van Compostela. Hy sterf egter op Goeie Vrydag van daardie jaar (9 April).

Eleanor, tussen 12 en 15 jaar oud, word toe die hertogin van Aquitaine, en dus die mees geskikte erfgenaam in Europa. Aangesien dit die dae was toe ontvoering van 'n erfgenaam as 'n lewensvatbare opsie vir die verkryging van 'n titel beskou word, het William op die dag van sy dood 'n testament bepaal wat sy domeine aan Eleanor nagelaat het en koning Louis VI van Frankryk as haar voog aangestel het. [11] William versoek die koning dat hy vir die lande en vir die hertogin moet sorg en vir haar 'n geskikte man moet vind. [8] Totdat 'n man gevind is, het die koning egter die reg op Eleanor se grond gehad. Die hertog dring ook aan sy metgeselle daarop aan dat sy dood geheim gehou word totdat Louis in kennis gestel is dat die mans so vinnig as moontlik van Sint Jakobus van Compostela oor die Pireneë sou reis om na Bordeaux te gaan om die aartsbiskop in kennis te stel en dan vinnig te kom Parys om die koning in kennis te stel.

Die koning van Frankryk, bekend as Louis the Fat, was op daardie stadium ook ernstig siek en het aan 'n aanval van disenterie gelei, waarna dit onwaarskynlik was dat hy sou herstel. Maar ondanks sy naderende dood, het Louis se gedagtes helder gebly. Sy oudste oorlewende seun, Louis, was oorspronklik bestem vir 'n kloosterlewe, maar het die erfgenaam geword toe die eersgeborene, Philip, in 1131 in 'n ryongeluk gesterf het. [12]

Die dood van William, een van die magtigste vasale van die koning, het die gewenste hertogdom in Frankryk beskikbaar gestel. Terwyl Louis 'n plegtige en waardige gesig aan die bedroefde Aquitainiese boodskappers voorhou, juig Louis toe hulle vertrek. In plaas daarvan om as voog van die hertogin en hertogdom op te tree, het hy besluit om die hertogin met sy 17-jarige erfgenaam te trou en Aquitaine onder die beheer van die Franse kroon te bring, en sodoende die mag en prominensie van Frankryk en sy regerende familie aansienlik te verhoog, die House of Capet. Binne 'n paar uur het die koning gereël dat sy seun Louis met Eleanor getroud was, met Abt Suger in beheer van die troue. Louis is na Bordeaux gestuur met 'n begeleiding van 500 ridders, saam met Abt Suger, Theobald II, graaf van Champagne en graaf Ralph.

Op 25 Julie 1137 is Eleanor en Louis in die katedraal van Saint-André in Bordeaux getroud deur die aartsbiskop van Bordeaux. [8] Onmiddellik na die troue is die egpaar op die troon geplaas as hertog en hertogin van Aquitaine. [8] Daar is ooreengekom dat die land onafhanklik van Frankryk sal bly totdat Eleanor se oudste seun koning van Frankryk en hertog van Aquitaine word. Haar besittings sou dus eers in die volgende generasie met Frankryk saamgesmelt word. As 'n huweliksgeskenk het sy Louis 'n kristalvaas gegee wat tans in die Louvre te sien is. [8] [12] [13] Louis het die vaas aan die Basiliek van St Denis gegee. Hierdie vaas is die enigste voorwerp wat nog met Eleanor van Aquitaine verband hou. [14]

Louis se ampstermyn as graaf van Poitou en hertog van Aquitanië en Gascogne duur slegs 'n paar dae. Alhoewel hy op 8 Augustus 1137 as sodanig belê is, het 'n boodskapper hom die nuus gegee dat Louis VI op 1 Augustus aan dysenterie gesterf het terwyl hy en Eleanor 'n toer deur die provinsies onderneem het. Hy en Eleanor is op Kersdag van dieselfde jaar as koning en koningin van Frankryk gesalf en gekroon. [8] [15]

Volgens bronne het Eleanor 'n hoogmoedige geaardheid gehad, maar volgens die bronne was dit nie gewild onder die noordelike inwoners nie, Louis se ma, Adelaide van Maurienne, het haar vlug en 'n slegte invloed gedink. Sy word nie gehelp deur herinneringe aan Constance of Arles, die Provençaalse vrou van Robert II nie, waarvan die onbeskofte kleredrag en taal nog steeds met afgryse vertel is. [a] Die optrede van Eleanor is herhaaldelik gekritiseer deur kerkouderlinge, veral Bernard van Clairvaux en Abt Suger, as onbetaamlik. Die koning was egter dolverlief op sy pragtige en wêreldse bruid en het haar elke gril toegestaan, al het haar gedrag hom verstom en kwel. Baie geld is ingewin om die sobere Cité -paleis in Parys gemakliker te maak ter wille van Eleanor. [12]

Konflik wysig

Louis het spoedig in gewelddadige konflik met pous Innocentius II gekom. In 1141 het die aartsbiskop van Bourges vakant geraak, en die koning het as kandidaat een van sy kanseliers, Cadurc, voorgestel, terwyl hy 'n veto uitgespreek het teen die geskikte kandidaat, Pierre de la Chatre, wat onmiddellik deur die kanonne van Bourges verkies is en deur die Pous. Louis het die poorte van Bourges teen die nuwe biskop vasgemaak. Die pous, wat herinner aan soortgelyke pogings van William X om aanhangers van Innocent uit Poitou te verban en hulle te vervang met priesters wat getrou was aan homself, blameer Eleanor en sê dat Louis slegs 'n kind is en dat hy maniere moet leer. Woedend sweer Louis by oorblyfsels dat Pierre, solank hy geleef het, nooit Bourges moet binnekom nie. 'N Interdik is daarop gelê op die lande van die koning, en Pierre het toevlug gekry deur Theobald II, graaf van Champagne.

Louis het in 'n oorlog met graaf Theobald betrokke geraak deur Raoul I, graaf van Vermandois en senior skool van Frankryk, toe te laat om sy vrou Eleanor van Blois, Theobald se suster, te verwerp en met Petronilla van Aquitaine, Eleanor se suster, te trou. Eleanor het Louis aangemoedig om haar suster se huwelik met graaf Raoul te ondersteun. Theobald het Louis ook beledig deur hom by die pous aan te spreek in die geskil oor Bourges. Die oorlog duur twee jaar (1142–44) en eindig met die besetting van Champagne deur die koninklike leër. Louis was persoonlik betrokke by die aanranding en brand van die stad Vitry. Meer as duisend mense wat daar skuiling in die kerk gesoek het, het in die vlamme gesterf. Ontsteld en met die doel om die oorlog te beëindig, het Louis probeer om vrede te maak met Theobald in ruil vir sy ondersteuning om die interdik op Raoul en Petronilla op te hef. Dit is lank genoeg behoorlik opgehef om die gronde van Theobald te laat herstel, maar dit is weer verlaag toe Raoul weier om Petronilla te verwerp, en het Louis genoop om na Champagne terug te keer en dit weer te verwoes.

In Junie 1144 besoek die koning en die koningin die nuutgeboude kloosterkerk in Saint-Denis. Terwyl hy daar was, ontmoet die koningin Bernard van Clairvaux en eis dat hy sy invloed by die pous gebruik om die ekskommunikasie van Petronilla en Raoul op te hef, in ruil daarvoor dat koning Louis toegewings in Champagne sou maak en Pierre de la Chatre erken as aartsbiskop van Bourges. Bernard was ontsteld oor haar houding en skel Eleanor uit oor haar gebrek aan berou en inmenging in staatsaangeleenthede. In reaksie hierop het Eleanor gebreek en haar gedrag gedwee verskoon en beweer dat sy bitter was weens haar gebrek aan kinders (haar enigste aangetekende swangerskap was in ongeveer 1138, maar sy het 'n miskraam [16] [17]). In reaksie hierop het Bernard vriendeliker teenoor haar geword: "My kind, soek die dinge wat vrede veroorsaak. Hou op om die koning teen die Kerk op te wek en dring by hom aan op 'n beter manier van optrede. As u dit belowe, Ek belowe om die genadige Here te smeek om aan u nageslag te skenk. ” Binne 'n paar weke het vrede teruggekeer na Frankryk: Theobald se provinsies is teruggegee en Pierre de la Chatre is as aartsbiskop van Bourges aangestel. In April 1145 het Eleanor geboorte gegee aan 'n dogter, Marie.

Louis brand egter steeds skuldig oor die slagting in Vitry en wou 'n pelgrimstog na die Heilige Land maak om sy sondes te versoen. In die herfs 1145 versoek pous Eugene III dat Louis 'n kruistog na die Midde -Ooste moet lei om die Frankiese state daar te red van 'n ramp. Gevolglik verklaar Louis op Kersdag 1145 in Bourges sy voorneme om op 'n kruistog te gaan.

Kruistog Edit

Eleanor van Aquitanië het ook formeel die kruis simbolies van die Tweede Kruistog aangeneem tydens 'n preek wat deur Bernard van Clairvaux gehou is. Boonop het sy gekorrespondeer met haar oom Raymond, prins van Antiochië, wat verdere beskerming van die Franse kroon teen die Sarasene gesoek het. Eleanor het 'n paar van haar koninklike dames in afwagting vir die veldtog gewerf, asook 300 nie-edele Aquitainiese vasale. Sy het daarop aangedring om aan die kruistogte deel te neem as die feodale leier van die soldate uit haar hertogdom. Die verhaal dat sy en haar dames as Amazones geklee word, word deur geskiedkundiges betwis, soms verwar met die verhaal van koning Conrad se dametrein tydens hierdie veldtog in Edward Gibbon Die geskiedenis van die agteruitgang en val van die Romeinse Ryk. Sy vertrek in Junie 1147 na die Tweede Kruistog vanuit Vézelay, die gerugte van die graf van Maria Magdalena.

Die Kruistog self het min bereik. Louis was 'n swak en ondoeltreffende militêre leier met geen vaardigheid om troepedissipline of moraal te handhaaf of ingeligte en logiese taktiese besluite te neem nie. In Oos -Europa word die Franse leër soms belemmer deur Manuel I Comnenus, die Bisantynse keiser, wat gevrees het dat die kruistog die swak veiligheid van sy ryk in gevaar sou stel. Nietemin, tydens hul drie weke lange verblyf in Konstantinopel, is Louis gevier en Eleanor was baie bewonder. Sy is vergelyk met Penthesilea, die mitiese koningin van die Amazones, deur die Griekse historikus Nicetas Choniates. Hy het bygevoeg dat sy die naam gekry het chrysopous (goue voet) van die doek van goud wat haar kleed versier en omring het. Louis en Eleanor het in die Philopation -paleis net buite die stadsmure gebly.

Sedert die kruisvaarders die Klein -Asië binnegekom het, het dit sleg gegaan. Die koning en die koningin was nog steeds optimisties — die Bisantynse keiser het vir hulle gesê dat koning Conrad III van Duitsland 'n groot oorwinning behaal het teen 'n Turkse leër, terwyl die Duitse leër in Dorylaeum feitlik heeltemal vernietig is. Terwyl hulle naby Nicea kampeer, steier die oorblyfsels van die Duitse weermag, waaronder 'n verdwaalde en siek Conrad III, verby die Franse kamp en bring nuus oor hul ramp. Die Franse, met die oorblyfsels van die Duitsers, het toe op 'n toenemend ongeorganiseerde manier na Antiochië begin marsjeer. Hulle was op Kersaand baie opgewonde toe hulle gekies het om in 'n welige vallei naby Efese te kamp. Hier is hulle in 'n hinderlaag gelei deur 'n Turkse afdeling, maar die Franse het voortgegaan om hierdie eenheid te slag en hul kamp toe te eien.

Louis besluit toe om die Frygiese berge direk oor te steek in die hoop om Raymond van Poitiers in Antiochië vinniger te bereik. Toe hulle die berge bestyg, was die leër en die koning en koningin egter geskok om die lyke van die Duitsers wat vroeër vermoor is, te ontdek.

Op die dag dat die berg Cadmus oorgesteek is, het Louis gekies om die agterkant van die kolom te neem, waar die ongewapende pelgrims en die bagasie treine opgeruk het. Die voorhoede, waarmee koningin Eleanor opgeruk het, was onder bevel van haar Aquitainiese vasaal, Geoffrey de Rancon. Ongedwaalde bagasie bereik hulle die top van Cadmus, waar Rancon beveel is om die nag te kamp. Rancon besluit egter om voort te gaan en besluit in samewerking met Amadeus III, graaf van Savoye, Louis se oom, dat 'n nabygeleë plato 'n beter kampterrein sou wees. Na bewering was sulke ongehoorsaamheid algemeen.

Teen die middag het die agterkant van die kolom-wat geglo het dat die dag se optog byna op 'n einde sou wees-bedwelm. Dit het daartoe gelei dat die weermag van mekaar geskei is, sommige het die top al oorgesteek en ander het dit nog steeds benader. In die daaropvolgende Slag van die berg Cadmus het die Turke, wat al baie dae lank gevolg en gesoek het, hul kans aangegryp en diegene aangeval wat nog nie die top oorgesteek het nie. Die Franse, beide soldate en pelgrims, wat verras was, was vasgekeer. Diegene wat probeer ontsnap het, is gevang en vermoor. Baie mans, perde en 'n groot deel van die bagasie is in die canyon hieronder gegooi. The chronicler William of Tyre, writing between 1170 and 1184 and thus perhaps too long after the event to be considered historically accurate, placed the blame for this disaster firmly on the amount of baggage being carried, much of it reputedly belonging to Eleanor and her ladies, and the presence of non-combatants.

The king, having scorned royal apparel in favour of a simple pilgrim's tunic, escaped notice, unlike his bodyguards, whose skulls were brutally smashed and limbs severed. He reportedly "nimbly and bravely scaled a rock by making use of some tree roots which God had provided for his safety" and managed to survive the attack. Others were not so fortunate: "No aid came from Heaven, except that night fell." [18]

Official blame for the disaster was placed on Geoffrey de Rancon, who had made the decision to continue, and it was suggested that he be hanged, a suggestion which the king ignored. Since Geoffrey was Eleanor's vassal, many believed that it was she who had been ultimately responsible for the change in plan, and thus the massacre. This suspicion of responsibility did nothing for her popularity in Christendom. She was also blamed for the size of the baggage train and the fact that her Aquitanian soldiers had marched at the front and thus were not involved in the fight. Continuing on, the army became split, with the commoners marching towards Antioch and the royalty travelling by sea. When most of the land army arrived, the king and queen had a dispute. Some, such as John of Salisbury and William of Tyre, say Eleanor's reputation was sullied by rumours of an affair with her uncle Raymond. However, this rumour may have been a ruse, as Raymond, through Eleanor, had been trying to induce Louis to use his army to attack the actual Muslim encampment at nearby Aleppo, gateway to retaking Edessa, which had all along, by papal decree, been the main objective of the Crusade. Although this was perhaps a better military plan, Louis was not keen to fight in northern Syria. One of Louis's avowed Crusade goals was to journey in pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and he stated his intention to continue. Reputedly Eleanor then requested to stay with Raymond and brought up the matter of consanguinity —the fact that she and her husband, King Louis, were perhaps too closely related. Consanguinity was grounds for annulment in the medieval period. But rather than allowing her to stay, Louis took Eleanor from Antioch against her will and continued on to Jerusalem with his dwindling army. [19]

Louis's refusal and his forcing her to accompany him humiliated Eleanor, and she maintained a low profile for the rest of the crusade. Louis's subsequent siege of Damascus in 1148 with his remaining army, reinforced by Conrad and Baldwin III of Jerusalem, achieved little. Damascus was a major wealthy trading centre and was under normal circumstances a potential threat, but the rulers of Jerusalem had recently entered into a truce with the city, which they then forswore. It was a gamble that did not pay off, and whether through military error or betrayal, the Damascus campaign was a failure. Louis's long march to Jerusalem and back north, which Eleanor was forced to join, debilitated his army and disheartened her knights the divided Crusade armies could not overcome the Muslim forces, and the royal couple had to return home. The French royal family retreated to Jerusalem and then sailed to Rome and made their way back to Paris.

While in the eastern Mediterranean, Eleanor learned about maritime conventions developing there, which were the beginnings of what would become admiralty law. She introduced those conventions in her own lands on the island of Oléron in 1160 (with the "Rolls of Oléron") and later in England as well. She was also instrumental in developing trade agreements with Constantinople and ports of trade in the Holy Lands.

Annulment Edit

Even before the Crusade, Eleanor and Louis were becoming estranged, and their differences were only exacerbated while they were abroad. Eleanor's purported relationship with her uncle Raymond, [20] the ruler of Antioch, was a major source of discord. Eleanor supported her uncle's desire to re-capture the nearby County of Edessa, the objective of the Crusade. In addition, having been close to him in their youth, she now showed what was considered to be "excessive affection" towards her uncle. Raymond had plans to abduct Eleanor, to which she consented. [21]

Home, however, was not easily reached. Louis and Eleanor, on separate ships due to their disagreements, were first attacked in May 1149 by Byzantine ships. Although they escaped this attempt unharmed, stormy weather drove Eleanor's ship far to the south to the Barbary Coast and caused her to lose track of her husband. Neither was heard of for over two months. In mid-July, Eleanor's ship finally reached Palermo in Sicily, where she discovered that she and her husband had both been given up for dead. She was given shelter and food by servants of King Roger II of Sicily, until the king eventually reached Calabria, and she set out to meet him there. Later, at King Roger's court in Potenza, she learned of the death of her uncle Raymond, who had been beheaded by Muslim forces in the Holy Land. This news appears to have forced a change of plans, for instead of returning to France from Marseilles, they went to see Pope Eugene III in Tusculum, where he had been driven five months before by a revolt of the Commune of Rome.

Eugene did not, as Eleanor had hoped, grant an annulment. Instead, he attempted to reconcile Eleanor and Louis, confirming the legality of their marriage. He proclaimed that no word could be spoken against it, and that it might not be dissolved under any pretext. He even arranged for Eleanor and Louis to sleep in the same bed. [22] Thus was conceived their second child —not a son, but another daughter, Alix of France.

The marriage was now doomed. Still without a son and in danger of being left with no male heir, as well as facing substantial opposition to Eleanor from many of his barons and her own desire for annulment, Louis bowed to the inevitable. On 11 March 1152, they met at the royal castle of Beaugency to dissolve the marriage. Hugues de Toucy, archbishop of Sens, presided, and Louis and Eleanor were both present, as were the archbishop of Bordeaux and Rouen. Archbishop Samson of Reims acted for Eleanor.

On 21 March, the four archbishops, with the approval of Pope Eugene, granted an annulment on grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree Eleanor was Louis' third cousin once removed, and shared common ancestry with Robert II of France. Their two daughters were, however, declared legitimate. Children born to a marriage that was later annulled were not at risk of being "bastardised," because "[w]here parties married in good faith, without knowledge of an impediment, . children of the marriage were legitimate." [Berman 228.] [ hoekom? ] ) Custody of them was awarded to King Louis. Archbishop Samson received assurances from Louis that Eleanor's lands would be restored to her.


Annotated Bibliography

Glusman, Laurea. Book Review of Eleanor of Aquitaine, by Regine Pernoud. http://gray.music.rhodes.edu/musichtmls/MHDocs/eleanor.html Internet accessed 3 October 2000.
The reviewer in this article again gave valuable insight into the way past historians viewed women. It showed how the slightest words can make someone of great influence seem like a power hungry dictator bent on world domination. This was not the case in this review but Glusman thought that the author of the book took a harsh approach when writing about Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Joan s Royal Favorites and Links Page, http://www.xs4all.nl/

kvenjb/favour.htm Internet accessed 3 October 2000.
This web site is the result of someone s hobby. This site was used as one side to an argument. Most of the information at the site were facts but there seems to be some bits of information that cannot be easily corroborated. Some of the information tended to be interpretive rather than fact. This person is not a historian with any credentials other than vast amounts of reading. The usefulness of this page was that it helped to eliminate some of the false information.

Kelly, Amy Ruth. Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1950.
This book focused on her role as a queen and the rules of her husbands. Later the rules of her sons and how she played a role in their reign. Again there was little credit given to her as a political entity rather than her being influential and disruptive.

Melisende s Women of History, http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Styx/9329/women35.html http://www.geocities.com/mz_melisende/woman35.html Internet accessed 3 October 2000.
The site gave useful information that was supportive to the information collected from other sources. As with each different resource there were little bits of information that were either substantiated, proven false, or were unable to be determined. It was nice to see what other people had compiled and compare it with what was gathered here.

Owen, D.D.R. Eleanor of Aquitaine: Queen and Legend. Cambridge, Mass.:Blackwell, 1993.
This book was very useful because it made finding all of her accomplishments very easy. A lot of the things that she helped to carry on like the troubadour style and the way she introduced it to other parts of Europe.

Seward, Desmond. Eleanor of Aquitaine. New York, Times Books, 1979.
Very little new information was gained from this book. It was basically used to verify information gathered from other sources. It gave a general biographical description and tended to focus on the actions of her husbands and sons and the role she played in their lives rather than an account of her life.

Weir, Alison. Eleanor of Aquitaine: A life. New York: Ballantine Books, 2000.
The most recent work on Eleanor it helped because it was so new. The facts presented in this book came from a female point of view and also were written during a time when the truth about women in history is being rediscovered. Still not everything can be read as truth and a reader must remain objective, this book gave a refreshing breath to the otherwise male dominated perspectives.


Part one followed Eleanor’s life from her birth through to the big cliffhanger: after divorcing King Louis and heading back to Aquitaine she popped up only a few weeks later married again to 18 year-old, King in Training, Henry FitzEmpress of Anjou.

The newlyweds took the “it’s easier to get forgiveness than permission” strategy and didn’t ask their king (Louis) if they could marry but, really? Would he have given it? No, he would not. Henry’s star was rising and his parents were powerful and connected. His mother, Empress Matilda, needs her own episode, she was daardie powerful and after a lifetime of civil war over the crown of England (Matilda was beat to it by her cousin, Stephen) Henry’s military training was substantial and he was very good at it. But the biggie? When Eleanor’s lands combined with Henry’s they controlled more than half of modern day France.

Eleanor’s fancy new seal and one of the few illustrations of her

Of course there is so much more to Eleanor’s entire story and we cover all of it in the podcast, but within the first couple years of their marriage, Eleanor gave birth to their first child , a son (take that Louis), Henry let King Stephen know, in no uncertain terms, that he was going to be his successor…and then he was.

Boem! Net so. The new Angevin Empire is what formed after Henry and Eleanor were crowned King and Queen of England

The first 21 years of their marriage went pretty well. After becoming King and Queen of England, Henry cleaned up the mess the civil war had made, instituted a new judicial system, conducted an office bromance with Thomas Becket, slapped down any rebellions, and touched base with Eleanor long enough to father eight children. Eleanor gave birth to five sons and three daughters in various castles throughout their lands. She was a hands-on Queen and toured quite a bit signing documents, settling disputes, and when Louis needed her special touch in Aquitaine (after she had retired from the baby-making business) she headed down there to rule it.

Eleanor in Poitiers Cathedral window

Things started to turn sideways for Henry. He had made his former fancy-pants adviser, Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury in hopes of taking some control away from the church by having “his guy” in there. But Becket didn’t play that way and a few years later ended up dead with Henry claiming he had been misunderstood when he shouted something like, “Who will rid me of this meddlesome priest!?” Huh. Wonder how that could be misunderstood?

His boys, now men, staged a rebellion to take the things that had been promised to them by their father…and Eleanor had her hand in that. The junior Plantagenets were not successful and Henry imprisoned Eleanor for 16 years. He had to die before she was released when their son, Richard, succeeded him. When Richard headed off to his own (failed) Crusade, Eleanor was left to rule in his place, and when hy died she helped her last remaining son, John, learn the kingly ropes (although he didn’t take the crown until she was 77!)

This is Evil Eleanor attacking fair Rosamund Clifford, Henry’s mistress (an oft repeated an most likely incorrectly twist in Eleanor’s story.)

Eleanor did things at an age when most people of her time were long gone and most women of her time were long silent. She died of natural causes at the age of 82 on April 1, 1204. Although John lost everything that was in France the Plantagenets ruled England for the next 300 years.

The remade effigies of Eleanor and Henry

TIME TRAVEL WITH THE HISTORY CHICKS

All of the media recommendations for both part one and two are here…and there are a lot. Get comfy and pace yourself!

In addition to the ones we recommend, here is a lovely Goodreads list of history fiction about Eleanor!


Miscellaneous Web Finds!

Hair shirt! Here’s a nice write-up of the many uses of the hair shirt (in penance and grammar!) Grammar Party

The most excellent History of the Crusades podcast.

More grisly details of the murder of Thomas Becket (not, of course, Beckett) Eyewitness to History.

Can’t go on the Eleanor of Aquitaine tour? Neither can we (right now, anyway) but reading about it is the next best thing! Sharon Kay Penman blog

Fontevraud is a hotel! If you go, post a picture there on Instagram with #historychicksfieldtrip so we can live vicariously!

Jinkies! Eleanor’s character sure appears in a lot of movies and television shows! Eleanor’s IMDB list.

There is a famous movie about Eleanor, Henry and three of the boys starring Katherine Hepburn (and a remake starring Glenn Close). It’s got some really fabulous one liners.

Ek know. You know I know. I know you know I know. We know Henry knows, and Henry knows we know it. We’re a knowledgeable family.”

And here is the promised The Lion in Winter, compare and contrast:


Eleanor of Aquitaine, king-maker and king-breaker

From teenage duchess to elderly mother of kings, Eleanor of Aquitane sat at the heart of European politics for six decades, refusing to accept the traditional position of her gender in a medieval world.

Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit

When her father died in 1137, Eleanor of Aquitaine, still just a teenager, became the most eligible heiress in all of Europe. She was not only beautiful, smart and tenacious, but the 15-year-old had inherited expansive territories in the south of France and a great fortune, making her the ideal choice of wife for the powerful or ambitious young men of the continent.

In a 12th-century world dictated by men, even wealthy women like Eleanor rarely had a say in their own life – the most important roles they could perform were as trading commodities (to be married off as part of political alliances) and to bear male heirs. It therefore seemed that Eleanor’s future as a doting and loyal wife was laid before her and yet, for more than 60 years, she refused to accept this fate.

Politically shrewd and dynamic, she skilfully manoeuvred herself to the peak of European politics – rising to be the queen consort of both France and England – and established her own legacy as two of her sons would go on to be kings. Eleanor held her own in a male-dominated society to be, arguably, the most powerful woman of the Middle Ages.

Thrust into power

The teenage Eleanor was a quick and avid learner, which turned out to be a necessity when her father fell ill and died suddenly while on a pilgrimage. Thrust into her inherited duchy, Eleanor now controlled a large domain – more land, in fact, than French King Louis VI, who, at her father’s request, was made her guardian. Within hours of the King hearing the news, Eleanor had been betrothed to his heir, also named Louis. The pair were married in July 1137, shortly before the King died and Eleanor’s 17-year-old husband became Louis VII.

In a matter of months, Eleanor went from duchess-in-waiting to queen consort of France. What’s more, the unworldly and weak-minded Louis adored her for her intelligence, strength and, as described by contemporary writers, for being “perpulchra”, meaning ‘more than beautiful’.

Eleanor, on the other hand, was not so devoted to her husband, allegedly announcing: “I thought I was wed to a king, now I find I am wed to a monk.” For the first decade of their marriage, she exerted considerable influence over his rule – dominated by conflicts with his own lords as well as with the Pope – and gave birth to only one child, a daughter.

In 1147, in an attempt to restore favour with Rome, the pious Louis embarked on the Second Crusade to win control of Jerusalem over the Turks, and Eleanor made the surprising decision to accompany him. She knew that this meant a journey of thousands of miles over treacherous lands, risking disease and experiencing the horrors of war, but Eleanor remained steadfast, even taking her own military support with her.

The crusade was ultimately a failure and the greatest danger Eleanor faced during the two-year expedition came not from the Turks, but a scandalous rumour that she was having an incestuous affair with her uncle, Raymond, ruler of Antioch (in modern-day Turkey). As Louis’ suspicions of his queen’s behaviour deepened, the couple grew more estranged and Eleanor risked being accused of treason.

Yet, it was her who made the daring first move against Louis and began seeking an annulment on the grounds of consanguinity (meaning they shouldn’t have been permitted to marry in the first place as they were too closely related by blood).

Her efforts, which would have been unprecedented if successful, achieved nothing and she was forced to travel back to France with Louis and the remains of his doomed crusade. There seemed to be signs of a reconciliation, especially when a second daughter was born, but the relationship continued to deteriorate until, in 1152, Louis was eventually granted an annulment. Eleanor immediately left Paris and made for Poitiers.

Empire builder

Only two months after the annulment, and risking Louis’ wrath, she was wed to Henry, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy – the grandson of King Henry I of England – in a small service at Poitiers Cathedral. Henry, 11 years her junior, was much more suited to Eleanor’s personality as he was strong, courageous, bursting with energy, ambitious and charming, although he also had a ferocious temper.

When he was crowned as Henry II of England in 1154, Eleanor’s second marriage changed the political landscape of Europe and created a vast empire. Their shared domain stretched from England’s northernmost border to the Pyrenees in the south of France. Eleanor spent many years travelling between England and France playing an integral part in the running of these territories.

Theirs was a fiery, tempestuous marriage. In some ways, it was very successful – Eleanor gave birth to eight children, with the three daughters going on to marry into Europe’s ruling dynasties – but they also fought often. Eleanor strived for the same influence she had held over her first husband, but Henry was much more assertive and unwilling to delegate power, particularly to a woman.

In 1167, Eleanor left Henry’s court and moved her household to Poitiers, where she grasped the opportunity to rule Aquitaine in Henry’s name. Why she separated from Henry remains debatable some argued she resented the lack of power she was being given, while others claims she had grown angry at his increasingly flagrant infidelities.

Any loyalty Eleanor felt towards Henry had eroded by 1173, when one of their sons, ‘Young Henry’, launched a revolt in the hope of seizing the throne. He was joined by two of his brothers as well as Eleanor, who provided military support from disillusioned nobles in Aquitaine. The rebellion plunged the royal family into civil war and Eleanor was captured and imprisoned for the next 16 years. And although the King offered mercy to his surviving sons, the betrayal of his wife clearly cut deeper – he kept her captive until his death in 1189. Only when her son Richard (the Lionheart) came to the throne was Eleanor released.

After so long away from power, Eleanor was ardent in achieving influence in Richard’s new regime, and she was rewarded with more than she could have hoped.

As Richard had dreams of glory in the Third Crusade, he sailed to the Holy Land and left his mother to rule as regent, despite her being in her late 60s. Maybe after her own aborted effort in the Crusades, she advised against Richard’s actions, arguing that the priority should be securing his new and fragile throne.

With him gone, she worked tirelessly to administer the laws of the land – which she did by personally moving from city to city with a royal retinue – and withstood the opportunistic coup led by her other son, John Lackland. When Richard was captured in Germany on his way home, it was Eleanor who collected the hefty ransom for his release.

At the time of Richard’s death in 1199, having been struck by an arrow at a siege, Eleanor ensured that her second son, ‘Bad King’ John, was crowned. She was approaching 80 but remained a dynamic political player. To show her support for John, she even crossed the Pyrenees in winter so that she could escort her granddaughter, Blanche, back to France to negotiate a key marriage alliance that would keep the peace between John and the French King.

In the first years of the 13th century, John was once again indebted to his ageing mother after her grandson, Arthur of Brittany, attempted to capture England’s territories in France, only for Eleanor to muster enough men to rebuff him at Mirebeau in 1202.

It was 65 years after she had inherited her father’s land and wealth in Aquitaine that Eleanor finally left the political arena. Retiring to the Anjou monastery at Fontevraud in 1202, she spent her last two years in increasingly poor health, dying on 1 April 1204. When she was buried, next to Henry II, the nuns at Fontevrault described Eleanor as a queen “who surpassed almost all the queens of the world”.


6. She had a historically bad break-up.

However, relations between Eleanor and Henry soured after years of his open adultery and frequent absences. They separated in 1167, and she moved to her lands in Poitiers. The distance didn’t change her opinion of Henry when their sons revolted against him in 1173, she didn't waver in choosing sides, backing her children over her husband. When the revolt failed, it had catastrophic consequences for her freedom, with Henry making her his prisoner.


Eleanor of Aquitaine Drama in Development at Starz as Part of ‘Extraordinary Women of History’ Slate

Starz is delving far into the past once again for its latest project.

Fresh off the success of “The Spanish Princess,” the network is developing another historical drama based around the life of Eleanor of Aquitaine. The project is one of multiple series Starz is working on in conjunction with Lionsgate TV and Colin Callender’s Playground banner as part of what the network is calling its “extraordinary women of history” slate.

The Eleanor of Aquitaine show is based on Alison Weir’s biography “Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life” and its companion novel “Captive Queen.” Starz has acquired the rights to both, and intends to announce additional properties in its aforementioned slate in due time.

&ldquoThis slate of series will focus on lesser known, but undeniably exceptional female historical figures while continuing the exploration of fierce characters in history,&rdquo said Christina Davis, president of programming for Starz. &ldquoAlison Weir&rsquos novels are the perfect jumping off point for this collection of series from Playground, who are known for their sophisticated storytelling.&rdquo

Eleanor of Aquitaine, born in the 12th century, was Queen consort of England and France and wife to King Henry II of England, whom she famously betrayed. The series will depict Eleanor’s unwavering spirit which saw her through many years of victories and defeats &ndash a marriage bound by duty, a passionate love affair, family alliances and betrayals, the grandeur of power and the desolation of imprisonment.

Susie Conklin, whose previous credits include “A Discovery of Witches” and “Cranford,” will pen the Eleanor adaptation and serve as executive producer. Scott Huff and David Stern will oversee development for Playground and serve also exec produce the series.

&ldquoWe&rsquore excited to partner with Starz and Lionsgate to bring Alison Weir&rsquos acclaimed biography and novel of Eleanor of Aquitaine to television,&rdquo said Huff and Stern in a joint statement. &ldquoEleanor presided over a magnificent, progressive court filled with scandal and intrigue, and we&rsquore thrilled with Susie’s bold and provocative take on this fascinating story.&rdquo

&ldquoI&rsquom thrilled at the opportunity to bring Eleanor&rsquos story to life – the drama and adventures she experienced are truly epic. I&rsquom also captivated at how a woman who lived over 800 years ago can be so strikingly modern. She&rsquos determined to live her life on her own terms, and the way she goes about that are extraordinary,” added Conklin.

Senior vice president of original programming Karen Bailey is the Starz executive overseeing the show, while Lionsgate Television SVP Jocelyn Sabo is in charge on behalf of the studio.


Eleanor of Aquitaine

One of the most outstanding female figures of the Middle Ages and a fascinating character in her own right, Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitou was born around 1122, the daughter of William X of Aquitaine and Aenor of Châtellerault, the daughter of Aimeric I, Vicomte of Chatellerault.

Vroeë lewe

Eleanor's paternal grandfather, William IX, Duke of Aquitaine was, by all accounts, a colourful character with an infectious joie de vivre, a musician and poet, he came to be acknowledged as the first of the troubadours. He had abducted Dangereuse, the wife of Aimeric I, Vicomte of Chatellerault and made her his long term mistress, flaunting their relationship by displaying her naked image on his shield. His wife, Phillipa of Toulouse, retired into a nunnery.

Effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine at Fontevraud

At the prompting of Dangereuse, William IX married his son and heir William, to her daughter Aenor. This complicated family situation resulted in Eleanor's maternal grandmother being the mistress of her paternal grandfather. The future William X and Aenor produced three children, a son, William Aigret, who died young, and two daughters, Eleanor and Petronella, the children were nurtured in the troubador culture of the warm south at her grandfather's court, with its cult of courtly love.

Marriage to Louis VII of France

William X succeeded his father as Duke of Aquitaine and in 1137, set out on pilgrimage to the shrine of St. James of Compostella, leaving his daughters in the charge of Geoffrey de Lauroux, Archbishop of Bordeaux. He failed to return, on the journey home he was taken gravely ill and died on the 9th April 1137. Eleanor, then aged about 15, became one of the most powerful heiresses in Europe, her father had named Louis VI of France, known as the Fat, as her guardian. At the time of William X of Aquitaine's death, Louis VI was himself mortally ill, vastly obese, he was confined to his bed. He decided to marry his new ward to his teenage son, Louis, the heir to France, thereby acquiring the vast lands and wealth of Aquitaine for the French crown.

Contemporary writers praise Eleanor's beauty, when she was young, she was described as perpulchra, meaning more than beautiful. When she was around 30, Bernard de Ventadour, a noted troubadour, called her "gracious, lovely, the embodiment of charm," extolling her "lovely eyes and noble countenance". William of Newburgh emphasized the charms of her person, and even in her old age, Richard of Devizes described her as beautiful.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Louis and Eleanor were duly married at the cathedral of Saint-André in Bordeaux on the 12th of July 1137. The newlywed pair possessed disparate personalities, Eleanor was high-spirited, worldly and strong-headed Louis was pious, meek and monkish. Louis VI died a few days after the wedding, making Eleanor Queen Consort of France. Eleanor's sister, Petronella, who was brought to the French court, engaged in an illicit affair with Raoul I of Vermandois who attempted to repudiate his wife, the niece of the powerful Theobald of Champagne, to marry Petronella. Louis VII, encouraged by Eleanor supported Petronella and Raoul. War broke out as a result. The town of Vitry was burnt and the townspeople sought refuge in a church, which burned down. More than one thousand perished in the flames. The sensitive Louis' conscience was sorely troubled by the affair and he was plagued by the screams of the dying.

Peace was eventually restored and King Louis decided to go on crusade to the Holy Land to expiate his sins. Eleanor also enthusiastically took up the cross and persuaded her husband to allow her and her ladies to accompany him. The Second Crusade achieved little and it was rumoured that Eleanor indulged in an extramarital affair with her uncle, Raymond of Antioch. Raymond was described as a tall and elegant figure, handsome and a man of charming affability and conversation, open-handed and magnificent beyond measure. Eleanor spent so much time in her uncle's council, that chroniclers were later to hint at improprieties were committed between the two. She was torn away from Antioch at night by a furious Louis, who was later advised in a letter from Abbot Suger 'conceal your rancour against the queen.' Raymond and Eleanor never met again. Raymond was killed at the Battle of Inab in 1149. He was beheaded by Shirkuh, the uncle of Saladin.

Eleanor and Louis produced two daughters, Marie (1145-1198), who later married Henry I, Count of Champagne and Alix (1151-1198), who married Theobald V, Count of Blois. However, the couple became increasingly estranged as the years passed, Eleanor found her meek and devout husband boring and the marriage was finally annulled on 11th March 1152. Louis acquired custody of the couple's daughters and Eleanor retained the rich lands of Aquitaine.

Henry II and Thomas Becket in stained glass, Chester Cathedral

Marriage to Henry II

Once again a wealthy heiress in her own right, attempts were made to abduct Eleanor to acquire her estates. Only six weeks after her annulment, Eleanor married for a second time to the young Henry Plantagenet, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou, a man eleven years her junior. Both were strong characters, accustomed to having their own way and resultantly the stage was set for a extremely stormy and tumultuous union. A man of immense energy and dynamic personality, Henry was possessed of the fearful Angevin temper, apparently a dominant family trait. In his notorious and uncontrollable rages he would lie on the floor and chew at the rushes and was never slow to anger. Eleanor had previously been the lover of his father Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou who advised his son against the marriage.

On the death of King Stephen in 1154, Henry ascended to the throne of England at the age of 21. The tempestuous union of Henry and Eleanor were to produce a large and dysfunctional family of eight children. Their firstborn, William, Count of Poitiers (b. 1153) the traditional title of the heirs to the Dukes of Aquitaine, died in infancy, he was followed by another son Henry, (1155-1183), known as the Young King, then came a daughter Matilda (1156-1189), followed by a third son, the future Richard the Lionheart (1157-1199), Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany (1158-1186), then came two more daughters, Eleanor (1162-1214) and Joanna (1165-1199) and finally, that afterthought of his parents cooling passion, John (1166-1216).

Like his grandfather before him, Henry was a man of strong passions and a serial adulterer, he incensed his passionate and strong-willed wife by introducing his bastard son, Geoffrey, the son of Hikenai, a woman of loose morals, into the royal nursery in the early days of their marriage. Eleanor, a proud woman, found this insult difficult to stomach. Much to the chagrin of his wife, he later took Rosamund Clifford as his long term mistress. Eleanor was aware that he was particularly enamoured of Rosamund and she was to become the mother of two of his many illegitimate children. The neglected Queen returned to her native Aquitaine, there establishing her court and taking her son Richard along with her, who was designated her heir. Spurned by her husband's neglect, Eleanor encouraged her brood of unruly and discontented sons to rebel against their father and in 1173 was captured by Henry whilst attempting to join her sons in Paris.

She spent the next fifteen years as her husband's prisoner, during which time her eldest surviving son, Henry, the Young King, "a restless youth, born for the undoing of many" died while in revolt against his father. Her fourth son, Geoffrey, was killed at a tournament in Paris on August 19, 1186, at the age of twenty-eight, he was reputed to have been trampled to death in the melee.

Widowhood

When Henry died on July 6, 1189, her favourite son Richard ascended the throne of England and one of his first acts was to order the release of his revered mother. He was to prove to be an absentee king and soon after his coronation, inspired no doubt by the tales of his mother's crusade, left England to take part in the Third Crusade.

Eleanor of Aquitaine and Prince John

Eleanor escorted his intended bride, Berengaria of Navarre, who was to join him on the crusade, from Spain to Sicily, for their marriage. Their union produced no children. On his return journey, Richard was taken captive and held for ransom. Eleanor campaigned tirelessly for his release, adressing the Pope in an outraged letter of complaint as "Eleanor, by the wrath of God, Queen of England". She personally delivered his ransom.

When Richard was mortally wounded at the Siege of Chaluz, she rushed to be with him at the end. On 6th April 1199 "he ended his earthly day" in her arms and she escorted his body to Fontevrault for burial.

Now in her late seventies, Eleanor's travels were far from over. The terms of a truce between Louis' son, King Philip Augustus II of France and King John in 1199, agreed that Philip's son the Dauphin Louis, then 12, was to marry one of John's Castillian nieces, the daughters of King Alfonso VIII and Eleanor's daughter, Queen Eleanor of Castille. John sent his mother to Castile to select one of the princesses and escort her to France. Then aged 77, Eleanor set out from Poitiers. Just outside the city she was ambushed and held captive by Hugh IX of Lusignan. Eleanor secured her release by agreeing to his demands and continued on her journey south, crossing the Pyrenees, she arrived in Castille before the end of January 1200.

King Alfonso VIII and Queen Eleanor had two daughters who were yet unmarried, Urraca and Blanche. Eleanor chose the younger daughter, Blanche, whose name she thought would appeal more to French ears. She remained at the Castilian court for two months, spending time with the daughter she had not seen in decades. Late in March, Eleanor set off back across the Pyrenees with her granddaughter Blanche. She celebrated Easter at Bordeaux, where she was joined by Richard's captain, Mercadier, intending to escort Eleanor and Blanche north through France. However, on the second day in Easter week, he was slain in the city by a man-at-arms in the pay of a rival mercenary captain. This tragedy distressed Eleanor, who was suffering from fatigue. She felt unable to continue to Normandy. She and Blanche travelled in easy stages to the valley of the Loire, where she entrusted the care of Blanche to the Archbishop of Bordeaux. Exhausted, Eleanor retired to Fontevrault.

She supported her youngest son John as King of England in preference to her grandson, Arthur of Brittany. Arthur, the son of Eleanor's fourth son Geoffrey and Constance of Brittany, attempted to recover his inheritance from John and in the summer of 1202, besieged his octogenarian grandmother at Mirebeau Castle which she valiantly held for John. Eleanor resorted to delaying tactics while sending an urgent message to her son for aid. John responded with alacrity, covering the 80-mile distance from Le Mans in 48 hours, he came to the aid of his mother and took Arthur, prisoner. Eleanor advised her son to make peace with her grandson, but Arthur was later murdered at Rouen by his ruthless uncle. Eleanor's reaction to his disappearance has gone unrecorded, although it led Shakespeare to refer to her as a 'cankered grandam'.

Eleanor retired to Fontevraud, where she hoped to find peace and took the veil. Her magnificent constitution was at last exhibiting signs of failing and she was reported to be often unwell, she was visited there by John. Richard's 'saucy castle' Chateau Gaillard, fell to the French and as Phillip began the dismemberment of the crumbling French Angevin Empire, Eleanor sank into a coma, the annals of Fontevrault recorded that she 'existed as one already dead to the world'. Eleanor of Aquitaine died in 1204 and was buried at Fontevraud, the mausoleum of the early Plantagenets, by her husband, Henry II and her best loved son, Richard. Constructed in the thirteenth century, and ravaged by time and revolution, her painted effigy depicts her reading a book, reflecting her love of learning.

The Ancestry of Eleanor of Aquitaine

Father: William X, Duke of Aquitaine

Paternal Grandfather: William IX, Duke of Aquitaine

Paternal Great-grandfather: William VIII of Aquitaine

Paternal Great-grandmother: Hildegarde of Burgundy

Paternal Grandmother: Philippa of Toulouse

Paternal Great-grandfather: Count William IV of Toulouse

Paternal Great-grandmother: Emma of Mortain

Mother:Aenor de Châtellerault

Maternal Grandfather: Aimery I, Viscount of Châtellerault

Maternal Great-grandfather: Boson II de Châtellerault

Maternal Great-grandmother: Aleanor de Thouars

Maternal Grandmother: Dangereuse de L' Isle Bouchard

Maternal Great-grandfather: Bartholomew de L'Isle Bouchard

The Children and Grandchildren of Eleanor of Aquitaine

By her first marriage to Louis VII, King of France :-

(1 )Marie of France (1145 - March 11, 1198) married Henry I, Count of Champagne.

Issue:- (i) Henry II of Champagne (1166-1197)

(ii) Marie of Champagne (died 1204), married Baldwin I of Constantinople

(iii) Theobald III of Champagne (1179-1201)

(iv) Scholastique of Champagne (died 1219), married William IV of Macon

(2) Alix of France (1151 - 1197/1198) married Theobald V, Count of Blois

Issue :-(i) Theobald of Blois (d. 1182)

(ii) Louis I, Count of Blois, d. 1205

(iii) Henry of Blois (d. 1182)

(iv) Philip of Blois (d. 1202)

(v) Margaret, Countess of Blois (d. aft. 1230), married (1) Otto I, Count of Burgundy (2) Gauthier II, Seigneur of Avesnes

(vi) Isabella (1180-1247/1248), married (1) Sulpice of Amboise (2) Jean de Montmirail

(vii) Alix, Abbess of Fontevrault

By her second marriage to Henry II, King of England :-

(1) Prince William, Count of Poiters 1153-56 died in infancy

(2) Henry, 'the Young King' 1155-83 m. Margaret of France.

Issue:- (i) William b. & d. 1177

(3) Matilda of England 1156-1189 m. Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony.

(i) Matilda of Saxony 1172-1216 m. Geoffrey III, Count of Perche

(ii) Henry I, Count Palatine of the Rhine 1173-1227

(iv) OTTO THE GREAT, HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR 1175-1219

(v) William, Duke of Luneberg 1184-1213

(4) RICHARD I ' the Lionheart' 1157-99 m. Berengaria of Navarre.

(5) Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany 1158-86 m. Constance of Brittany.

(i) Eleanor of Brittany 1184-1241

(ii) Matilda of Brittany 1185-1189

(iii) Arthur, Duke of Brittany 1187-1203

(6) Eleanor of England 1161-1214 m. ALPHONSO VIII OF CASTILLE.

(i) BERENGARIA, QUEEN OF CASTILLE 1180-1214

(ii) Sancho of Castille b. & d. 1181

(iii) Sancho of Castille 1182-84

(iv) Matilda of Castille 1183?-1204

(v) Urraca of Castille 1186-1220 m. ALPHONSO II OF PORTUGAL

(vi) Blanche of Castille m. LOUIS VIII OF FRANCE

(vii) Ferdinand of Castille 1189-1216

(viii) Constance of Castille b 1196?

(ix) Eleanor of Castille 1200-44 m. JAMES I OF ARAGON

(x) Constance of Castille 1203?-43

(xi) HENRY I OF CASTILLE 1204-1217

(7) Joanna of England 1165-99 m. (1) WILLIAM II OF SICILY (2) Raymond VI of

(i) Raymond VII of Toulouse

(ii) Richard of Toulouse b. & d. 1199

(8) KING JOHN 1167-1217 m. (1) Isabella of Gloucester (2) Isabella of

(i) HENRY III 1207-72 m. Eleanor of Provence

(ii) Richard, Earl of Cornwall 1209-72 m. (1) Isabella Marshall (2) Sanchia of Provence

(iii) Joanna of England 1210-38 m. ALEXANDER II, KING OF SCOTS

(iv) Isabella of England 1214-41 m. FREDERICK II HOLY ROMAN EMPEROR

(v) Eleanor of England b.1215 m. (1) William Marshall (2) Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester


Kyk die video: The Face of Eleanor of Aquitaine Photoshop Reconstruction (Januarie 2022).