Inligting

Italianers in Brittanje se skoolaktiwiteite


Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het die Britse regering voortdurend die sukses van sy verskillende beleid rakende die Tuisfront gemonitor. Die regering was ook bewus van die moontlikheid dat dit nodig sou wees om wetgewing in te stel om enige probleme op te los.

Dit is Desember 1941. U is gevra om 'n verslag oor Italianers in Brittanje te skryf. Dit moet in twee afdelings verdeel word.

Italianers in Brittanje: Hoofartikel

Dinge wat u moet oorweeg, sluit in:

(a) Waarom is Italiaanse restaurante en roomys in Mei 1940 aangeval?

(b) Watter tipe Italianers is gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog geïnterneer?

(c) Waarom het mense in Brittanje gedurende die somer van 1940 vyandiger geword teenoor buitelanders?

(d) Hoe was toestande in Brittanje se interneringskampe?

Dinge wat u moet oorweeg, sluit in:

(a) Was die regering se interneringsbeleid regverdig en verstandig?

(b) Was dit moreel reg om Italiaanse geïnterneerdes na Kanada en Australië te deporteer?

(c) Sou u enige veranderinge aan die regering se interneringsbeleid aanbring?


Romeinse lewe en kultuur

Die ou Romeine het gewoon in 'n stad met die naam Rome. Rome bestaan ​​vandag nog, en dit is die hoofstad van Italië.

Die Romeine en hul kultuur het 'n groot impak gehad op hoe ons ons lewens vandag leef, en het ons dinge gegee soos maniere om skoon water te kry, maniere om paaie te bou en selfs die basis van ons taal. Brittanje was ongeveer 400 jaar lank deel van die Romeinse Ryk, so baie van die dinge wat Romeine gedoen het, het ons bygebly en die moderne lewe beïnvloed.


Inhoud

Geboorte en familie Redigeer

Montessori is gebore op 31 Augustus 1870 in Chiaravalle, Italië. Haar pa, Alessandro Montessori (33), was 'n amptenaar van die Ministerie van Finansies wat in die plaaslike tabakfabriek werk. Haar ma, Renilde Stoppani, 25 jaar oud, was goed opgevoed vir die tyd en was die ousus van die Italiaanse geoloog en paleontoloog Antonio Stoppani. [1] [2] Hoewel sy geen spesifieke mentor gehad het nie, was sy baie na aan haar ma wat haar geredelik aangemoedig het. Sy het ook 'n liefdevolle verhouding met haar pa gehad, hoewel hy nie saamstem met haar keuse om haar opleiding voort te sit nie. [3]

1883–1896: Onderwys wysig

Vroeë onderwys Redigeer

Die Montessori -gesin verhuis in 1873 na Florence, dan in 1875 na Rome as gevolg van haar pa se werk. Montessori betree 'n openbare laerskool op 6 -jarige ouderdom in 1876. Haar vroeë skoolrekord was "nie besonder opmerklik nie", [4] hoewel sy in die 1ste graad en vir "lavori donneschi", of "vroue se werk ", die volgende jaar. [5]

Sekondêre skool Redigeer

In 1883 [6] of 1884, [7], op die ouderdom van 13, het Montessori 'n sekondêre, tegniese skool, Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti, aangegaan, waar sy Italiaans, rekenkunde, algebra, meetkunde, rekeningkunde, geskiedenis, aardrykskunde en wetenskappe bestudeer het. . Sy studeer in 1886 met goeie punte en eksamenuitslae. Daardie jaar, op 16 -jarige ouderdom, gaan sy voort by die tegniese instituut Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, en studeer Italiaans, wiskunde, geskiedenis, geografie, geometriese en sierlike tekening, fisika, chemie, plantkunde, dierkunde en twee vreemde tale. Sy het goed gevaar in die wetenskappe en veral in wiskunde.

Sy was aanvanklik van voorneme om die studie ingenieurswese na die gradeplegtigheid te volg, daarna 'n ongewone aspirasie vir 'n vrou. Teen die tyd dat sy in 1890 op 20 -jarige ouderdom studeer, met 'n sertifikaat in fisika -wiskunde, besluit sy om medies te studeer, 'n meer onwaarskynlike strewe gegewe destydse kulturele norme. [8]

Universiteit van Rome — Mediese skool Redigeer

Montessori het vorentoe gegaan met haar voorneme om medies te studeer. Sy het 'n beroep gedoen op Guido Baccelli, professor in kliniese geneeskunde aan die Universiteit van Rome, maar was sterk ontmoedig. In 1890 skryf sy aan die Universiteit van Rome in 'n graad in natuurwetenskappe, slaag eksamens in plantkunde, dierkunde, eksperimentele fisika, histologie, anatomie en algemene en organiese chemie, en verdien haar diploma di licenza in 1892. Hierdie graad, tesame met addisionele studies in Italiaans en Latyn, het haar gekwalifiseer vir toelating tot die mediese program aan die Universiteit in 1893. [9]

Sommige mediese studente en professore het haar vyandigheid en teistering ontvang weens haar geslag. Omdat haar bywoning van klasse met mans in die teenwoordigheid van 'n naakte liggaam as onvanpas geag is, moes sy na ure alleen haar disseksies van kadavers uitvoer. Sy gebruik tabak om die aanstootlike reuk van formaldehied te verdoesel. [10] Montessori het in haar eerste jaar 'n akademiese prys gewen en in 1895 'n pos as hospitaalassistent gekry en vroeë kliniese ervaring opgedoen. In haar laaste twee jaar studeer sy kindergeneeskunde en psigiatrie, en werk in die pediatriese spreekkamer en nooddiens, en word 'n kenner in kindergeneeskunde. Montessori studeer in 1896 aan die Universiteit van Rome as doktor in die geneeskunde. Haar tesis is in 1897 in die tydskrif gepubliseer Policlinico. Sy het werk gekry as assistent by die universiteitshospitaal en 'n privaat praktyk begin. [11] [12]

1896–1901: Vroeë loopbaan en familie Edit

Van 1896 tot 1901 werk Montessori saam met en ondersoek na sogenaamde 'frenasteniese' kinders-in moderne terme het kinders 'n vorm van kognitiewe vertraging, siekte of gestremdheid ondervind. Sy het ook begin reis, studeer, praat en nasionaal en internasionaal publiseer, en word veral bekend as advokaat vir vroueregte en opvoeding vir verstandelik gestremde kinders. [13]

Op 31 Maart 1898 is haar enigste kind - 'n seun met die naam Mario Montessori (31 Maart 1898 - 1982) gebore. [14] Mario Montessori is gebore uit haar liefdesverhouding met Giuseppe Montesano, 'n mededokter wat saam met haar die Orthophrenic School of Rome was. As Montessori trou, sou daar van haar verwag word om op te hou om professioneel te werk. In plaas van 'n huwelik het Montessori besluit om voort te gaan met haar werk en studies. Montessori wou die verhouding met haar kind se pa geheim hou op voorwaarde dat nie een van hulle met iemand anders sou trou nie. Toe die vader van haar kind deur die familie onder druk geplaas word om 'n meer voordelige sosiale verbinding te maak en daarna getroud was, het Montessori verraad gevoel en besluit om die universiteitshospitaal te verlaat. Sy is gedwing om haar seun in die sorg te plaas van 'n nat verpleegster wat op die platteland woon, ontsteld om die eerste paar jaar van sy lewe te mis. Sy sou later in sy tienerjare herenig word met haar seun, waar hy 'n uitstekende assistent in haar navorsing was. [3] [15] [16]

Werk met verstandelik gestremde kinders

Nadat sy in 1896 aan die Universiteit van Rome gegradueer het, het Montessori voortgegaan met haar navorsing by die Universiteit se psigiatriese kliniek. In 1897 word sy daar as vrywillige assistent aanvaar. As deel van haar werk besoek sy asiele in Rome, waar sy kinders met verstandelike gestremdhede waarneem, waarnemings wat fundamenteel was vir haar toekomstige opvoedingswerk. Sy het ook die werke van die 19de-eeuse dokters en opvoeders Jean Marc Gaspard Itard en Édouard Séguin gelees en bestudeer, wat 'n groot invloed op haar werk gehad het. Montessori was geïntrigeerd deur die idees van Itard en het 'n baie meer spesifieke en georganiseerde stelsel geskep om dit toe te pas op die daaglikse opvoeding van kinders met gestremdhede. Toe sy die werke van Jean Itard en Édouard Séguin ontdek, het hulle haar 'n nuwe denkrigting gegee en haar beïnvloed om op kinders met leerprobleme te fokus. Ook in 1897 het Montessori die universiteitskursusse in pedagogiek geoudit en 'al die belangrikste werke oor opvoedkundige teorie van die afgelope tweehonderd jaar' gelees. [17]

Openbare voorspraak Redigeer

In 1897 het Montessori op die National Congress of Medicine in Turyn gepraat oor die sosiale verantwoordelikheid vir jeugmisdaad. In 1898 het sy verskeie artikels geskryf en weer gepraat tydens die Eerste Pedagogiese Konferensie van Turyn, waarin sy 'n beroep op die oprigting van spesiale klasse en instellings vir verstandelik gestremde kinders, sowel as onderwysersopleiding vir hul instrukteurs. [18] In 1899 word Montessori aangestel as raadslid van die nuutgestigte National League for the Protection of Retarded Children en word hy genooi om lesings te gee oor spesiale onderrigmetodes vir kinders met intellektuele gestremdhede aan die onderwyserskool van die College of Rome. Daardie jaar het Montessori 'n nasionale lesingreis van twee weke onderneem vir gehore vir prominente openbare persone. [19] Sy het by die raad van die National League aangesluit en is aangestel as dosent in higiëne en antropologie aan een van die twee onderwysers-opleidingskolleges vir vroue in Italië. [20]

Ortofreniese Skool Redigeer

In 1900 het die National League die Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica, of Orthophrenic School, 'n 'medies-pedagogiese instituut' vir die opleiding van onderwysers in die opvoeding van verstandelik gestremde kinders met 'n aangehegte laboratoriumklaskamer. Montessori is as mede-direkteur aangestel. [21] 64 onderwysers het ingeskryf vir die eerste klas, wat sielkunde, anatomie en fisiologie van die senuweestelsel bestudeer het, antropologiese metings, oorsake en kenmerke van verstandelike gestremdheid en spesiale onderrigmetodes. Gedurende haar twee jaar by die skool het Montessori metodes en materiaal ontwikkel wat sy later aangepas het om saam met hoofstroomkinders te gebruik. [22]

Die skool was 'n onmiddellike sukses en het die aandag van regeringsamptenare van die departemente van onderwys en gesondheid, burgerlike leiers en prominente figure op die gebied van onderwys, psigiatrie en antropologie van die Universiteit van Rome getrek. [23] Die kinders in die modelklaskamer is uit die asiel en gewone skole gehaal, maar as 'onopvoedbaar' beskou as gevolg van hul tekortkominge. Sommige van hierdie kinders het later openbare eksamens geslaag wat aan sogenaamde 'normale' kinders gegee is. [24]

1901–1906: Verdere studies Redigeer

In 1901 verlaat Montessori die Ortofreniese Skool en haar privaat praktyk, en in 1902 skryf sy in vir die filosofiegraadkursus aan die Universiteit van Rome. (Filosofie het destyds baie van die sielkunde ingesluit.) Sy bestudeer teoretiese en morele filosofie, filosofiegeskiedenis en sielkunde as sodanig, maar sy studeer nie. Sy het ook 'n onafhanklike studie in antropologie en opvoedingsfilosofie gevolg, waarnemings en eksperimentele navorsing in laerskole gedoen en die werk van Itard en Séguin herbesoek en hul boeke in handgeskrewe Italiaans vertaal. Gedurende hierdie tyd het sy begin oorweeg om haar metodes vir die opvoeding van verstandelik gestremde kinders by hoofstroomonderrig aan te pas. [25]

Montessori se werk aan die ontwikkeling van wat sy later 'wetenskaplike pedagogiek' sou noem, het die volgende paar jaar voortgegaan. In 1902 het Montessori 'n verslag voorgelê op 'n tweede nasionale pedagogiese kongres in Napels. Sy het in 1903 twee artikels oor pedagogiek gepubliseer, en nog twee die volgende jaar. In 1903 en 1904 het sy antropologiese navorsing gedoen met Italiaanse skoolkinders, en in 1904 is sy gekwalifiseer as 'n gratis dosent in antropologie aan die Universiteit van Rome. Sy is aangestel as dosent in die Pedagogiese Skool aan die Universiteit en het in die pos bly tot 1908. Haar lesings is gedruk as 'n boek met die titel Pedagogiese Antropologie in 1910. [26]

1906–1911: Casa dei Bambini en die verspreiding van Montessori se idees Edit

Die eerste Casa Redigeer

In 1906 is Montessori genooi om toesig te hou oor die versorging en opvoeding van 'n groep kinders van werkende ouers in 'n nuwe woonstelgebou vir gesinne met 'n lae inkomste in die San Lorenzo-distrik in Rome. Montessori was geïnteresseerd in die toepassing van haar werk en metodes op kinders sonder verstandelike gestremdhede, en sy het dit aanvaar. [27] Die naam Casa dei Bambini, of Kinderhuis, is aan Montessori voorgestel, en die eerste Casa geopen op 6 Januarie 1907, met 50 of 60 kinders tussen die ouderdomme van twee of drie en ses of sewe. [28]

Aanvanklik was die klaskamer toegerus met 'n onderwyser se tafel en bord, 'n stoof, klein stoeltjies, leunstoele en groeptafels vir die kinders en 'n geslote kas vir die materiaal wat Montessori by die Ortofreniese Skool ontwikkel het. Aktiwiteite vir die kinders het persoonlike versorging ingesluit, soos aantrek en uittrek, versorging van die omgewing, soos afstof en vee, en die versorging van die tuin. Die kinders het ook die gebruik van die materiaal wat Montessori ontwikkel het, gewys. [29] Montessori, besig met onderrig, navorsing en ander professionele aktiwiteite, het toesig gehou oor die klaskamerwerk, maar het die kinders nie direk geleer nie. Onder die leiding van Montessori is daaglikse onderrig en sorg gelewer deur die dogter van die bouportier. [30]

In hierdie eerste klaskamer het Montessori gedrag by hierdie jong kinders waargeneem, wat die grondslag van haar opvoedingsmetode was. Sy het episodes van diepe aandag en konsentrasie, meervoudige herhalings van aktiwiteite en 'n sensitiwiteit vir orde in die omgewing opgemerk. Omdat hulle 'n vrye keuse van aktiwiteite gehad het, het die kinders meer belangstelling in praktiese aktiwiteite en Montessori se materiaal getoon as in speelgoed wat hulle voorsien, en was verrassend ongemotiveerd deur lekkers en ander belonings. Met verloop van tyd sien sy 'n spontane selfdissipline na vore kom. [31]

Op grond van haar waarnemings het Montessori 'n aantal praktyke geïmplementeer wat kenmerkend geword het van haar opvoedkundige filosofie en metode. Sy vervang die swaar meubels met tafels en stoele wat lig genoeg is vir die kinders om te beweeg, en plaas materiaal in 'n klein grootte op lae, toeganklike rakke. Sy het die reeks praktiese aktiwiteite soos vee en persoonlike sorg uitgebrei tot 'n wye verskeidenheid oefeninge vir die versorging van die omgewing en die self, insluitend blommerangskikking, handewas, gimnastiek, versorging van troeteldiere en kook. [32] Sy het ook groot opelugafdelings in die klas ingesluit wat kinders aanmoedig om te kom en te gaan soos hulle wil in die verskillende areas en lesse van die kamer. In haar boek [33] gee sy 'n tipiese wintersdag van lesse, wat om 09:00 begin en om 16:00 eindig:

  • 9–10. Ingang. Groetnis. Inspeksie oor persoonlike netheid. Oefeninge uit die praktiese lewe wat mekaar help om die voorskote op te trek en aan te trek. Gaan deur die kamer om te sien dat alles stof en in orde is. Taal: Gespreksperiode: Kinders gee rekenskap van die gebeure van die vorige dag. Godsdienstige oefeninge.
  • 10–11. Intellektuele oefeninge. Objektiewe lesse onderbreek deur kort rusperiodes. Nomenklatuur, sinvolle oefeninge.
  • 11–11: 30. Eenvoudige gimnastiek: Gewone bewegings wat grasieus gedoen word, normale liggaamsposisie, loop, in lyn ry, groete, bewegings vir aandag, plasing van voorwerpe grasieus.
  • 11: 30–12. Middagete: kort gebed.
  • 12–1. Gratis speletjies.
  • 1–2. Gerigte speletjies, indien moontlik, in die buitelug. Gedurende hierdie tydperk gaan die ouer kinders op hul beurt deur met die oefeninge van die praktiese lewe, die kamer skoonmaak, afstof, die materiaal regmaak. Algemene inspeksie vir netheid: Gesprek.
  • 2–3. Handwerk. Kleimodellering, ontwerp, ens.
  • 3–4. Gesamentlike gimnastiek en liedjies, indien moontlik in die buitelug. Oefeninge om vooruit te dink: Besoek en versorg die plante en diere.

Sy voel dat kinders selfstandig kan werk en dat hulle selfgemotiveerd kan raak om nuwe begripsvlakke te bereik. Montessori het ook geglo dat die erkenning van alle kinders as individue en die behandeling daarvan as sodanig beter leer en die potensiaal van elke spesifieke kind sou oplewer. [33]

Sy het voortgegaan met die aanpassing en verfyning van die materiaal wat sy vroeër ontwikkel het, deur die oefeninge wat die kinders minder gereeld gekies het, te verander of te verwyder. Op grond van haar waarnemings het Montessori geëksperimenteer om kinders die vrye keuse van materiaal, ononderbroke werk en bewegingsvryheid binne die perke wat die omgewing stel, toe te laat. Sy het onafhanklikheid begin sien as die doel van opvoeding en die rol van die onderwyser as waarnemer en direkteur van die aangebore sielkundige ontwikkeling van kinders. [32]

Verspreiding van Montessori -onderwys in Italië Redigeer

Die eerste Casa dei Bambini was 'n sukses, en 'n tweede is op 7 April 1907 geopen. Die kinders in haar programme toon steeds konsentrasie, aandag en spontane selfdissipline, en die klaskamers het die aandag van prominente opvoeders, joernaliste en openbare persone begin trek . [34] In die herfs van 1907 begin Montessori eksperimenteer met onderrigmateriaal vir skryf en lees - letters wat uit skuurpapier gesny is en op borde aangebring is, beweegbare uitknipsels en prentkaartjies met etikette. Vier- en vyfjarige kinders was spontaan besig met die materiaal en het vinnig vaardigheid in skryf en lees verwerf bo die verwagting van hul ouderdom. Dit het verdere openbare aandag op Montessori se werk getrek. [35] Nog drie Case dei Bambini is in 1908 geopen, en in 1909 het Italiaanse Switserland begin om Froebelliaanse metodes te vervang deur Montessori in weeshuise en kleuterskole. [36]

In 1909 het Montessori die eerste onderwysersopleiding in haar nuwe metode in Città di Castello, Italië, gehou. In dieselfde jaar beskryf sy haar waarnemings en metodes in 'n boek met die titel Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica Applicato All'Educazione Infantile Nelle Case Dei Bambini (Die metode van wetenskaplike pedagogiek wat toegepas word op die opvoeding van kinders in die kinderhuise). [37] Nog twee opleidingskursusse is in 1910 in Rome gehou, en 'n derde in Milaan in 1911. Montessori se reputasie en werk het internasionaal begin versprei. Omtrent daardie tyd het sy haar mediese praktyk prysgegee om meer tyd te spandeer aan haar opvoedkundige werk, die ontwikkeling van haar metodes en die opleiding van onderwysers. [38] In 1919 bedank sy haar pos aan die Universiteit van Rome, aangesien haar opvoedingswerk al haar tyd en belangstelling al hoe meer opneem.

1909–1915: Internasionale erkenning en groei van Montessori -onderwys Edit

Reeds in 1909 het Montessori se werk begin om die aandag van internasionale waarnemers en besoekers te trek. Haar werk is internasionaal wyd gepubliseer en het vinnig versprei. Teen die einde van 1911 is Montessori -onderwys amptelik in openbare skole in Italië en Switserland aanvaar en was dit vir die Verenigde Koninkryk beplan. [39] Teen 1912 het Montessori -skole in Parys en baie ander Wes -Europese stede geopen, en was beplan vir Argentinië, Australië, China, Indië, Japan, Korea, Mexiko, Switserland, Sirië, die VSA en Nieu -Seeland. Openbare programme in Londen, Johannesburg, Rome en Stockholm het die metode in hul skoolstelsels aangeneem. [40] Montessori -verenigings is gestig in die Verenigde State (die Montessori American Committee) en die Verenigde Koninkryk (die Montessori Society for the United Kingdom). [41] In 1913 is die eerste internasionale opleidingskursus in Rome gehou, met 'n tweede in 1914. [42]

Montessori se werk is gedurende hierdie tydperk wyd vertaal en gepubliseer. Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica is in die VSA gepubliseer as Die Montessori -metode: wetenskaplike pedagogiek soos toegepas op kinderopvoeding in die kinderhuise, waar dit 'n topverkoper geword het. [43] Britse en Switserse uitgawes het gevolg. 'N Hersiene Italiaanse uitgawe is in 1913 gepubliseer. Russiese en Poolse uitgawes verskyn in 1913, en Duitse, Japannese en Roemeense uitgawes verskyn in 1914, gevolg deur Spaanse (1915), Nederlandse (1916) en Deense (1917) uitgawes. Pedagogiese Antropologie is in 1913 in Engels gepubliseer. [44] In 1914 publiseer Montessori, in Engels, Dokter Montessori se eie handboek, 'n praktiese gids vir die didaktiese materiaal wat sy ontwikkel het. [45]

Montessori in die Verenigde State Redigeer

In 1911 en 1912 was Montessori se werk gewild en wyd bekend in die VSA, veral in 'n reeks artikels in McClure's Magazine. Die eerste Noord -Amerikaanse Montessori -skool is in Oktober 1911 in Tarrytown, New York, geopen. Die uitvinder Alexander Graham Bell en sy vrou het voorstanders van die metode geword en 'n tweede skool is in hul Kanadese huis geopen. [46] Die Montessori -metode vinnig verkoop deur ses uitgawes. [43] Die eerste internasionale opleidingskursus in Rome in 1913 is geborg deur die Amerikaanse Montessori -komitee, en 67 van die 83 studente was uit die VSA. [47] Teen 1913 was daar meer as 100 Montessori -skole in die land. [48] ​​Montessori reis in Desember 1913 na die Verenigde State op 'n lesingreis van drie weke, wat films van haar Europese klaskamers insluit, en ontmoet met groot, entoesiastiese skares waar sy ook al reis. [49]

Montessori keer in 1915 terug na die VSA, geborg deur die National Education Association, om haar werk te demonstreer by die Panama – Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, Kalifornië, en om 'n derde internasionale opleidingskursus te gee. 'N Klaskamer met glasmure is op die uitstalling geïnstalleer, en duisende waarnemers het 'n klas van 21 studente besoek. Montessori se pa is in November 1915 oorlede, en sy keer terug na Italië. [50]

Alhoewel Montessori en haar opvoedkundige benadering in die VSA gewild was, was sy nie sonder opposisie en kontroversie nie. Die invloedryke progressiewe opvoeder William Heard Kilpatrick, 'n aanhanger van die Amerikaanse filosoof en onderwyshervormer John Dewey, het 'n afwysende en kritiese boek getiteld geskryf Die Montessori -metode ondersoek, wat 'n breë impak gehad het. Die National Kindergarten Association was ook kritiek. Kritici het aangevoer dat Montessori se metode verouderd, te rigied, te sterk afhanklik is van sintuiglike opleiding, en dat daar te min ruimte is vir verbeelding, sosiale interaksie en spel. [51] Boonop het Montessori se aandrang op streng beheer oor die uitwerking van haar metode, die opleiding van onderwysers, die vervaardiging en gebruik van materiaal en die oprigting van skole 'n bron van konflik en kontroversie geword. Nadat sy in 1915 vertrek het, het die Montessori -beweging in die VSA gefragmenteer, en Montessori -onderwys was tot 1952 'n weglaatbare faktor in die onderwys in die VSA. [52]

1915–1939: Verdere ontwikkeling van Montessori -onderwys Redigeer

In 1915 keer Montessori terug na Europa en vestig hom in Barcelona, ​​Spanje. Gedurende die volgende 20 jaar het Montessori wyd in Europa gereis en lesings gelewer en talle onderwysersopleidingskursusse aangebied. Montessori -onderwys het aansienlike groei ondergaan in Spanje, Nederland, die Verenigde Koninkryk en Italië.

Spanje (1915–1936) Redigeer

Met haar terugkeer uit die VSA het Montessori haar werk in Barcelona voortgesit, waar 'n klein program wat deur die Catalaanse regering in 1915 begin is, ontwikkel het tot die Escola Montessori, wat kinders van drie tot tien jaar oud bedien, en die Laboratori i Seminari de Pedagogia, 'n navorsings-, opleidings- en onderriginstituut. 'N Vierde internasionale kursus is daar in 1916 aangebied, insluitend materiaal en metodes wat die afgelope vyf jaar ontwikkel is vir die onderrig van grammatika, rekenkunde en meetkunde aan laerskoolkinders van ses tot twaalf jaar. [53] In 1917 publiseer Montessori haar elementêre werk in L'autoeducazionne nelle Scuole Elementari (Self-Education in Elementary School), wat in Engels verskyn het as Die gevorderde Montessori -metode. [54] Omstreeks 1920 het die Katalaanse onafhanklikheidsbeweging begin eis dat Montessori 'n politieke standpunt inneem en 'n openbare verklaring aflê ten gunste van Katalaanse onafhanklikheid, en sy het geweier. Amptelike steun is aan haar programme onttrek. [55] In 1924 het 'n nuwe militêre diktatuur Montessori se modelskool in Barcelona gesluit, en Montessori -onderwys het in Spanje afgeneem, hoewel Barcelona die volgende twaalf jaar Montessori se tuiste gebly het. In 1933, onder die Tweede Spaanse Republiek, is 'n nuwe opleidingskursus deur die regering geborg, en steun van die regering is hervestig. In 1934 publiseer sy twee boeke in Spanje, Psicogeometrica en Psicoarithemetica. [56] Met die aanvang van die Spaanse burgeroorlog in 1936 het politieke en sosiale toestande Montessori gedryf om Spanje permanent te verlaat. [57]

Nederland (1917–1936) Redigeer

In 1917 doseer Montessori in Amsterdam, en die Nederlandse Montessori -vereniging word gestig. [58] Sy keer in 1920 terug om 'n reeks lesings aan die Universiteit van Amsterdam te hou. [59] Montessori-programme floreer in Nederland, en teen die middel van die 1930's was daar meer as 200 Montessori-skole in die land. [60] In 1935 het die hoofkwartier van die Association Montessori Internationale, oftewel AMI, permanent na Amsterdam verhuis. [61]

Verenigde Koninkryk (1919–1936) Redigeer

Montessori -onderwys is tussen 1912 en 1914 in Engeland met entoesiasme en kontroversie ontmoet. [62] In 1919 het Montessori vir die eerste keer na Engeland gekom en 'n internasionale opleidingskursus aangebied wat met groot belangstelling ontvang is. Montessori -onderwys het steeds in die Verenigde Koninkryk versprei, hoewel die beweging 'n paar van die stryd ondervind het oor egtheid en fragmentasie wat in die VSA plaasgevind het. [63] Montessori het tot die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog om die ander jaar steeds opleidingskursusse in Engeland aangebied. [64]

Italië (1922–1934) Redigeer

In 1922 is Montessori namens die regering na Italië genooi om 'n kursus te hou en later Italiaanse Montessori -skole te inspekteer. Later dieselfde jaar kom die fascistiese regering van Benito Mussolini aan die bewind in Italië. In Desember keer Montessori terug na Italië om 'n reeks jaarlikse opleidingskursusse te beplan onder borgskap van die regering, en in 1923 het die minister van onderwys, Giovanni Gentile, sy steun uitgespreek vir Montessori -skole en onderwysersopleiding. [65] In 1924 ontmoet Montessori Mussolini, wat sy amptelike steun vir Montessori -onderwys uitgebrei het as deel van die nasionale program. [66] 'n Vooroorlogse groep Montessori-ondersteuners, die Societa gli Amici del Metodo Montessori (Society of Friends of the Montessori Method) word die Opera Montessori (Montessori Society) met 'n regeringshandves, en teen 1926 word Mussolini tot erepresident van die organisasie. [67] In 1927 stig Mussolini 'n Montessori -onderwyserskollege, en teen 1929 ondersteun die Italiaanse regering 'n wye verskeidenheid Montessori -instellings. [68] Vanaf 1930 het Montessori en die Italiaanse regering in konflik gekom oor finansiële ondersteuning en ideologiese kwessies, veral na Montessori se lesings oor vrede en opvoeding. [69] In 1932 is sy en haar seun Mario onder politieke toesig geplaas. [70] In 1933 bedank sy by die Opera Montessori, en in 1934 verlaat sy Italië. Die Italiaanse regering het in 1936 die Montessori -aktiwiteite in die land beëindig. [71]

Ander lande Redigeer

Montessori het in 1923 in Wene les gegee, en haar lesings is gepubliseer as Il Bambino in Famiglia, in 1936 in Engels gepubliseer as Die kind in die gesin. Tussen 1913 en 1936 is daar ook Montessori -skole en -genootskappe gestig in Frankryk, Duitsland, Switserland, België, Rusland, Serwië, Kanada, Indië, China, Japan, Indonesië, Australië en Nieu -Seeland. [72]

Die Vereniging Montessori Internationale Edit

In 1929 is die eerste internasionale Montessori -kongres in Helsingør, Denemarke, gehou in samewerking met die vyfde konferensie van die New Education Fellowship. By hierdie geleentheid het Montessori en haar seun Mario die Association Montessori Internationale of AMI gestig "om toesig te hou oor die aktiwiteite van skole en verenigings oor die hele wêreld en om toesig te hou oor die opleiding van onderwysers." [73] AMI beheer ook die regte op die publikasie van Montessori se werke en die vervaardiging van gemagtigde Montessori -didaktiese materiaal. Vroeë borge van die AMI was Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget en Rabindranath Tagore. [74]

Vrede Edit

In 1932 het Montessori gepraat oor vrede en opvoeding tydens die Tweede Internasionale Montessori -kongres in Nice, Frankryk. Hierdie lesing is gepubliseer deur die Bureau International d'Education, Genève, Switserland. In 1932 het Montessori by die International Peace Club in Genève, Switserland, gepraat oor die tema Vrede en Onderwys. [75] Montessori het van 1932 tot 1939 vredeskonferensies gehou in Genève, Brussel, Kopenhagen en Utrecht, wat later in Italiaans gepubliseer is as Educazione en Pace, en in Engels as Onderwys en vrede. [76] In 1949, en weer in 1950 en in 1951, is Montessori genomineer vir die Nobelprys vir Vrede, met 'n totaal van ses benoemings. [77]

Laren, Nederland (1936–1939) Redigeer

In 1936 verlaat Montessori en haar gesin Barcelona na Engeland en verhuis gou na Laren, naby Amsterdam. Hier het Montessori en haar seun Mario voortgegaan met die ontwikkeling van nuwe materiale, insluitend die knoplose silinders, die grammatikasimbole en die plantkunde -nomenklatuurkaarte. [78] In die konteks van stygende militêre spanning in Europa, het Montessori toenemend haar aandag gevestig op die tema van vrede. In 1937 is die sesde internasionale Montessori -kongres gehou oor die tema 'Education for Peace', en Montessori het 'n 'wetenskap van vrede' gevra en gepraat oor die rol van opvoeding van die kind as 'n sleutel tot die hervorming van die samelewing. [79] In 1938 is Montessori deur die Theosophical Society na Indië genooi om 'n opleidingskursus te gee, en in 1939 verlaat sy Nederland saam met haar seun en medewerker Mario. [80]

1939–1946: Montessori in Indië Redigeer

'N Belangstelling in Montessori bestaan ​​sedert 1913 in Indië toe 'n Indiese student die eerste internasionale kursus in Rome bygewoon het, en studente in die 1920's en 1930's het na Indië teruggekeer om met skole te begin en Montessori -onderwys te bevorder. Die Montessori Society of India is in 1926 gestig, en Die Metodo is in 1927 in Gujarati en Hindi vertaal. [81] Teen 1929 het die Indiese digter Rabindranath Tagore baie "Tagore-Montessori" -skole in Indië gestig, en die Indiese belangstelling in Montessori-onderwys was sterk verteenwoordig op die Internasionale Kongres in 1929. [82] Montessori was self sedert 1899 persoonlik verbonde aan die Theosophical Society toe sy lid geword het van die Europese afdeling van die genootskap - hoewel haar lidmaatskap uiteindelik sou verval. [83] Die teosofiese beweging, gemotiveer om armes in Indië op te voed, is op Montessori -onderwys as 'n oplossing gevestig. [84]

Internering in Indië Wysig

Montessori het in 1939 'n opleidingskursus by die Theosophical Society in Madras gegee en was van plan om 'n rondleiding deur verskeie universiteite te gee en dan terug te keer na Europa. [85] Toe Italië in 1940 die Tweede Wêreldoorlog aan die kant van Duitsland binnegaan, het Brittanje alle Italianers in die VK en sy kolonies as vyandige vreemdelinge geïnterneer. Trouens, slegs Mario Montessori is geïnterneer, terwyl Montessori self beperk was tot die Theosophical Society -kompleks, en Mario na twee maande met sy ma herenig is. Die Montessoris het tot 1946 in Madras en Kodaikanal gebly, hoewel hulle toegelaat is om te reis in verband met lesings en kursusse.

Elementêre materiaal, kosmiese opvoeding en geboorte van drie Edit

Gedurende haar jare in Indië het Montessori en haar seun Mario haar opvoedingsmetode voortgesit. Die term "kosmiese opvoeding" is bekendgestel om 'n benadering vir kinders van ses tot twaalf jaar te beskryf wat die onderlinge afhanklikheid van al die elemente van die natuurlike wêreld beklemtoon. Kinders het direk met plante en diere in hul natuurlike omgewings gewerk, en die Montessoris het lesse, illustrasies, grafieke en modelle ontwikkel vir gebruik met kinders van laerskool. Materiaal vir plantkunde, dierkunde en aardrykskunde is geskep. Tussen 1942 en 1944 is hierdie elemente opgeneem in 'n gevorderde kursus vir werk met kinders van ses tot twaalf jaar oud. Hierdie werk het tot twee boeke gelei: Onderwys vir 'n nuwe wêreld en Om die menslike potensiaal op te voed. [86]

Terwyl hy in Indië was, het Montessori kinders en adolessente van alle ouderdomme waargeneem en hulle tot die studie van kinderskoene gewend. In 1944 het sy 'n reeks van 30 lesings oor die eerste drie lewensjare gehou en 'n opleiding wat deur die regering erken is in Sri Lanka. Hierdie lesings is in 1949 in die boek versamel Wat u van u kind moet weet. [87]

In 1944 the Montessoris were granted some freedom of movement and traveled to Sri Lanka. In 1945 Montessori attended the first All India Montessori Conference in Jaipur, and in 1946, with the war over, she and her family returned to Europe. [88]

1946–1952: Final years Edit

In 1946, at the age of 76, Montessori returned to Amsterdam, and she spent the next six years travelling in Europe and India. She gave a training course in London in 1946, and in 1947 opened a training institute there, the Montessori Centre. After a few years this centre became independent of Montessori and continued as the St. Nicholas Training Centre. Also in 1947, she returned to Italy to re-establish the Opera Nazionale Montessori and gave two more training courses. Later that year she returned to India and gave courses in Adyar and Ahmedabad. These courses led to the first English edition of the book The Absorbent Mind, which was based on notes taken by students during the courses. During these courses, Montessori described the development of the child from birth onwards and presented her concept of the Four Planes of Development. In 1948 Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica applicato all'educazione infantile nelle Case dei Bambini was revised again and published in English as The Discovery of the Child. In 1949 she gave a course in Karachi, Pakistan and the Pakistan Montessori Association was founded. [89]

In 1949 Montessori returned to Europe and attended the 8th International Montessori Congress in Sanremo, Italy, where a model classroom was demonstrated. The same year, the first training course for birth to three years of age, called the Scuola Assistenti all'infanzia (Montessori School for Assistants to Infancy) was established. [90] She was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Montessori was also awarded the French Legion of Honor, Officer of the Dutch Order of Orange Nassau, and received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Amsterdam. In 1950 she visited Scandinavia, represented Italy at the UNESCO conference in Florence, presented at the 29th international training course in Perugia, gave a national course in Rome, published a fifth edition of Il Metodo with the new title La Scoperta del Bambino (The Discovery of the Child), and was again nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1951 she participated in the 9th International Montessori Congress in London, gave a training course in Innsbruck, was nominated for the third time for the Nobel Peace Prize.

Montessori was directly involved in the development and founding of the UNESCO Institute for Education in 1951. She was present at the first preliminary meeting of the UNESCO Governing Board in Wiesbaden, Germany on June 19, 1951 and delivered a speech. [91] She used the address as an opportunity to redouble her advocacy for the rights of the child – whom she often referred to as the "forgotten citizen" or "neglected citizen" [92] – by declaring:

Remember that people do not start at the age of twenty, at ten or at six, but at birth. In your efforts at solving problems, do not forget that children and young people make up a vast population, a population without rights which is being crucified on school-benches everywhere, which – for all that we talk about democracy, freedom and human rights – is enslaved by a school order, by intellectual rules, which we impose on it. We define the rules which are to be learnt, how they should be learnt and at what age. The child population is the only population without rights. The child is the neglected citizen. Think of this and fear the revenge of this populace. For it is his soul that we are suffocating. It is the lively powers of the mind that we are oppressing, powers which cannot be destroyed without killing the individual, powers which tend either towards violence or destruction, or slip away into the realm of sickness, as Dr. Stern has so well elucidated. [93]

December 10, 1951 was the third anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in observance of this UNESCO held a celebration. Montessori was one of the invited guests who would also deliver a speech to commemorate and memorialize the momentous occasion. As with her speech six months previously – in front of the UNESCO Board of Governors in Wiesbaden – Montessori once again highlighted the lack of any "Declaration of the Rights of the Child" stating in part, "in truth, the [Universal] Declaration of Human Rights appears to be exclusively dedicated to adult society." [94]

Dood Redigeer

Montessori died of a cerebral hemorrhage on May 6, 1952, at the age of 81 in Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. [95]


Koerante

In both sales and reputation the national papers published in London dominate. Within the national newspaper business in the United Kingdom, a distinction has developed between popular papers (often tabloids) with multimillion circulation and quality broadsheet papers with relatively small sales. Generally, British newspapers are not formally tied to specific political parties. However, most display clear political sympathies that are usually determined by their proprietors. The tabloid Daaglikse pos and the broadsheet Die Daily Telegraph have consistently supported the Conservative Party, while the tabloid The Daily Mirror and the broadsheet Die voog (published in both London and Manchester) have normally supported Labour. Die tye of London is one of the world’s oldest newspapers. Die Son—long the United Kingdom’s biggest-selling newspaper, whose popularity since it was bought by Rupert Murdoch’s News International company in 1969 has stemmed from a diet of sensational personality-based news stories, show-business gossip, lively sports reporting, and pictures of scantily dressed young women—supported Labour in the early 1970s, switched to the Conservative Party under Margaret Thatcher in 1979, and switched back again to Labour in the late 1990s only to return to the Conservatives by the early 21st century. Metro, a free paper launched in 1999, now rivals Die Son in terms of circulation. In England there are also several regional dailies and weeklies and national weeklies—some targeting particular ethnic communities.

The Welsh press includes several daily papers (e.g., the Western Mail en die South Wales Echo) as well as a number of weekly English-language, bilingual, or Welsh-language newspapers. Scotland has national daily newspapers based in Edinburgh and Glasgow with wide circulation (e.g., Die Skot, die Daily Record, en The Herald) and a number of regional weeklies as well. Northern Ireland’s daily papers (e.g., the Belfast Telegraph en The Irish News) are all published in Belfast. There is a large periodical press in the United Kingdom that ranges from such traditional publications as Die ekonoom, Die toeskouer, en Nuwe staatsman to more specialized and, often, more mercurial journals.


The Great Arrival

Most of this generation of Italian immigrants took their first steps on U.S. soil in a place that has now become a legend—Ellis Island. In the 1880s, they numbered 300,000 in the 1890s, 600,000 in the decade after that, more than two million. By 1920, when immigration began to taper off, more than 4 million Italians had come to the United States, and represented more than 10 percent of the nation's foreign-born population.

What brought about this dramatic surge in immigration? The causes are complex, and each hopeful individual or family no doubt had a unique story. By the late 19th century, the peninsula of Italy had finally been brought under one flag, but the land and the people were by no means unified. Decades of internal strife had left a legacy of violence, social chaos, and widespread poverty. The peasants in the primarily poor, mostly rural south of Italy and on the island of Sicily had little hope of improving their lot. Diseases and natural disasters swept through the new nation, but its fledgling government was in no condition to bring aid to the people. As transatlantic transportation became more affordable, and as word of American prosperity came via returning immigrants and U.S. recruiters, Italians found it increasingly difficult to resist the call of "L'America".

This new generation of Italian immigrants was distinctly different in makeup from those that had come before. No longer did the immigrant population consist mostly of Northern Italian artisans and shopkeepers seeking a new market in which to ply their trades. Instead, the vast majority were farmers and laborers looking for a steady source of work—any work. There were a significant number of single men among these immigrants, and many came only to stay a short time. Within five years, between 30 and 50 percent of this generation of immigrants would return home to Italy, where they were known as ritornati.

Those who stayed usually remained in close contact with their family in the old country, and worked hard in order to have money to send back home. In 1896, a government commission on Italian immigration estimated that Italian immigrants sent or took home between $4 million and $30 million each year, and that "the marked increase in the wealth of certain sections of Italy can be traced directly to the money earned in the United States."


Life in Italy from 1900 to 1940

The recently unified country of Italy in the early 1900s faced several issues continuously. Italy had a very large debt, very few natural resources, and almost no transportation or industries. This combined along with a high ratio of poverty, illiteracy, and an uneven tax structure weighed heavily on the Italian people in the country. Regionalism was still strong at the time, and only a small fraction of Italians had voting rights. The Pope was also angry because of the loss of the city of Rome and the Papal States and so refused to recognize the state of Italy. So that’s how life in Italy in the early 1900s begun.

March 1922, Rome, Italy

In the Italian rural areas, banditry and several other problems resulted in repression by the government. The new Italian government was also known to be often brutal. During the 1880s a new movement started developing among the city workers. The already existing differences between the impoverished, rural south of the country and the wealthy, industrialized north increased even more.

The government did not do much to solve these problems. Throughout the liberal period from 1870 to 1915, the country was governed by a series of liberal politicians who were not able to form a majority. Despite the fact that a little progress did happen before World War I in social and economic forms, Italy was at the time a nation in crisis.

Development of Italy

Since the Nationalist Movement had begun in the country, leaders dreamed about joining the modern World Powers. In Northern Italy, industrialization and modern infrastructure facilities had begun to be built in the 1890s. Die railway lines in the Alpine region connected the country to the rail networks in Austria, Germany, and France. Two other coastal lines were also developed in the southern part of the country.

The larger industries and businesses were first founded with large investments from countries like France, Britain, and Germany. Over the years, the government decided to help start various heavy industries in the country like shipbuilding, steelworks, and car factories. It even adopted a trade policy. Agriculture in the northern part of the country had been modernized, which started bringing larger profits, and were backed by many powerful co-operatives. However, the southern regions of the country remained ignored and undeveloped for a long time.

Early Colonialism in Italy

During the 19th and the early 20th century, the country made several attempts to join the superpowers of the world in an effort to acquire colonies. However, this was difficult for the country because of the large costs and the resistance going on in the country.

Several different colonial projects were started by the Italian government. These projects were undertaken to get the support of the imperialists and the nationalists, who had always dreamt of building a large empire similar to the ancient Roman Empire.

Italy at the time had various sizeable settlements in Tunis, Cairo, and Alexandria. The country first tried to get colonies by making negotiations with the world powers, which failed several times. Another approach tried by Italy was to send missionaries to investigate the areas which had been underdeveloped and uncolonized. The most promising ones were in the desert areas and distant parts of Africa.

Giovanni Giolitti

Giovanni Giolitti was the first Prime Minister of Italy, chosen in 1892. However, during his first term, the government collapsed quite quickly within just a year. He then returned to lead the government in 1903 which lasted till 1914. He had spent his life in the capacity of a civil servant prior to becoming the prime minister. Later he took positions within the Crispi cabinets.

It was believed that Giolitti mastered various practices like bribing, coercing, and manipulating government officials. Fraud in voting was also quite common in those times. Corruption had also been a major problem in the country in the early 1900s.

Southern Italy was in a bad condition before Giolitti’s tenure began in the country. More than half of the inhabitants in the area were still illiterate. There were problems with absentee landlords, rebellion, organized crime, and even starvation in these areas. Thousands of Southern Italians were leaving the new nation of Italy every year during this time, hoping for a better life in America.

Balilla, the Italian youth paramilitary organization
under the Fascist regime. Date circa 1930

Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in Italië

At the beginning of the First World War, Italy has stayed neutral. It claimed that the Triple Alliance had just been for defense. However, during the war, the Triple Entente as well as the central nations tried to lure Italy into the war. In April 1915 the government declared war on the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country did so in order to get a few territories like that of Dalmatia, Istria, and Trieste in return.

In 1917, Austria entered the lines at Caporetto after they received help from Germany. However, Italy and its allies stopped them at the Piave River. It was later during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto that Austria-Hungary began negotiating terms with Italy in 1918. The armistice of Villa Giusti had been signed in November 1918, a day later Italian troops occupied Tyrol capturing more than 300,000 soldiers without any problem at all.

World War II in Italië

Like in the First World War, during the Second World War Italy initially remained neutral. In June 1940 the country declared war against Britain and France when it was clear that France could be easily defeated. In the early times of the war, Hitler consented that Italy remains out of the war however this changed later.

Mussolini believed that Britain would also be easily defeated and would ask Italy for mercy, but this proved to be completely wrong. Britain had originally been attacked only so Italy would get a seat on the peace table later, the performance of the Italian army was quite disappointing for both Hitler and Mussolini. Italy constantly needed German help and only the Italian naval forces could be considered successful.

Some pictures of Italy at the beginning of the 20 th Century

Naples, ca. 1900. Source: Library of Congress Courtyard in Venice at the beginning of the 20th Century. Bron: Library of Congress Via Roma in Naples, beginning of 20th Century. Bron: Library of Congress The market in Piazza delle Erbe, Verona, at the beginning of the 20th Century. Bron: Library of Congress

Exporting Fascism: Italian Fascists and Britain's Italians in the 1930s.

Exporting Fascism: Italian Fascists and Britain's Italians in the 1930s. By CLAUDIA BALDOLI. Oxford and New York: Berg. 2003. vi+217 pp. 50 [pounds sterling] (pbk 15.99 [pounds sterling]). ISBN 1-85973-756-0 (pbk 1-85973-761-7).

Claudia Baldoli's book focuses on two main areas: the activities of the Fasci Abroad in London and Great Britain during Dino Grandi's term as Italy's ambassador to London from 1932 to 1939, and Grandi's relationship with the British Union of Fascists (BUF) and the British Right. The book explores several issues: how Italians living in Britain responded to Fascism, the relationship between Fascists in Britain and the British Right, and the implications of British Italophilia during the Fascist years. It is also an enquiry into the project of fascistization of the communities abroad in the 1930s. As Baldoli demonstrates, such a project did not just aim at the fascistization of emigrants, but also at their transformation into new Italians it also included the expansion of Fascism in other countries through the diffusion of Fascist ideology. In this context the Fasci Abroad played an important role and were actively involved in establishing contacts and organizing activities between them and the Fascist movements abroad.

Following a chronological order, the book's six chapters explore several issues related to the activities of the Fasci in Britain. After introducing the Fasci and their relationship with earlier institutions, such as the Dante Alighieri Society, the book analyses the educational activities of the Fasci Abroad (Chapters 1 and 3), in particular the creation of Italian schools, which, by providing an openly Fascist education (details of the curriculum for Italian primary schools in London are provided), participated in the creation of the myth of the new Italian. Baldoli also analyses how the Italian Fascist newspaper in London, Italia Nostra, carried out the ideological mission of creating a sense of national pride through constant references to national roots and traditions, and through the revivification of the myth of imperial Rome, thereby attempting to create a sense of belonging which would reinforce the relationship between the emigrants and the fatherland, even among those who were born in England. The year 1937 was an important one in the activities of the Fasci--as Baldoli accurately charts--as they managed to transform the Italian communities abroad into Fascist corporate entities. The mythical discourse is exemplified by Grandi, who increasingly presented his position as that of someone fighting in a trench.

As she follows the project of Fascistization of the Italian communities in the United Kingdom through the activities of the Fasci Abroad, Baldoli conducts a parallel analysis, namely that of the relationship between Grandi and the British Right. Chapter 2 focuses on the relationship between Grandi and the British Fascists between 1932 and 1934, on Grandi's role as a mediator between Italian and British Fascism (a relationship which was complicated by the advent of Nazi Germany), and on his activities meant to transform the Italian community in Britain into a Fascist nation within a foreign society.

The difficulties of Grandi's position are outlined in Chapters 4 and 6, which focus on the contacts between Grandi and the British Right (particularly the BUF and the Conservative Italophiles) in the years following the Ethiopian War and leading to the Second World War both chapters show how Grandi's position became increasingly difficult, as he was trying to maintain good relations with the British Foreign Office and the British Right in the face of Italy's growing and pressing anti-British propaganda and pro-German foreign policy.

Chapter 5 shows how the outbreak of the Second World War did not stop the activities of the Fasci: indeed, the organization of schools, summer camps, dopolavoro, and assistance activities was carried out, as Baldoli points out, 'as if Italy were not going to enter a war that the London Fascio, the consulate and the embassy regarded as solely British' (pp. 129-30). The activities stopped only in 1940.

Baldoli's study is well documented, clearly written, and interestingly presented, despite a slightly intermittent structure. Although it could be considered a piece of micro-history, the book constantly refers to a wider national and international context, shedding light on several aspects of Mussolini's regime, its ideology, myths, and policies, which makes the volume a very interesting read for anyone interested in the history and ideology of Fascism as well as in the history of Italian communities abroad.


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Italian education system, italian schools, schooling in italy, Italian nursery school, primary schools in italy, italian middle school, high school, secondary schools in italy, vocational studies in italy, academic schools, Italian universities

Free state education is available to children of all nationalities who are resident in Italy.

Children attending the Italian education system can start with the Scuola dell'Infanzia also known as Scuola Materna (nursery school), which is non-compulsory, from the age of three. Every child is entitled to a place.

Scuola Primaria (Primary School)

At age six, children start their formal, compulsory education with the Scuola Primaria also known as Scuola Elementare (Primary School). In order to comply with a European standard for school leaving age, it is possible to enter the Scuola Primaria at any time after the age of five and a half. At Scuola Primaria children learn to read and write and study a wide range of subjects including maths, geography, Italian, English and science. They also have music lessons, computer studies and social studies. Religious instruction is optional. Scuola Primaria lasts for five years. Classes are small with between 10 and 25 pupils. Pupils no longer take a leaving exam at the Scuola Primaria. At the age of eleven they begin their Secondary education.

Scuola Media (Middle School

Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado (First Grade Secondary School)

All children aged between eleven and fourteen must attend the Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado (First Grade Secondary School). Students must attend at least thirty hours of formal lessons per week, although many schools provide additional activities in the afternoons such as computer studies, music lessons and sports activities. Formal lessons cover a broad range of subjects following a National Curriculum set by the Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione, MPI (Ministry of Public Education). At the end of each term, students receive a school report. At the end of the third year, students sit a written exam in the subjects of Italian, mathematics, science and a foreign language. There is an oral examination of the other subjects. Successful students are awarded the Licenza di Scuola Media (Licenza Media). They then move onto the Scuola Secondaria di Secondo Grado (Second Grade Secondary School)

Scuola Superiore(High School)

Scuola Secondaria di Secondo Grado (Second Grade Secondary School)

There are two types of Scuola Secondaria di Secondo Grado in Italy: the Liceo (like a British grammar school), which is more academic in nature, and an Istituto, which is essentially a vocational school. For the first two years all students use the same state-mandated curriculum of Italian language and literature, science, mathematics, foreign language, religion, geography, history, social studies and physical education. Specialised courses, called 'Indirizzi' begin in the third year.

Types of Italian High Schools:

Liceo Classico (Classical High School):

Liceo Scientifico (Scientific High School):

Lasts for five years with an emphasis on physics, chemistry and natural sciences. The student also continues to study Latin and one modern language.

Liceo Artistico (Fine Arts High School):

Studies can last four to five years and prepare for university studies in painting, sculpture or architecture.

Istituto Magistrale (Teacher Training School):

Studies last for five years and prepare future primary school teachers. There is also a three year training course for nursery school teachers, but this diploma does not entitle students to then enrol at a university.

Istituto d'Arte (Artistic Schools):

Studies last three years and prepare for work within an artistic field and leading to an arts qualification (diploma di Maestro d'Arte)

Istituti Tecnici (Technical Institutes):

Studies last five years and prepare for both university studies and for a vocation. There is a majority of students in technical schools that prepare students to work in a technical or administrative capacity in agriculture, industry or commerce.

Istituti Professionali (Professional Institutes):

These studies lead, in three or five years, to achievement of a vocational qualification. In order to received the Diploma di Scuola Superiore also known as the Diploma di Maturità (Secondary school diploma), students must pass written and oral exams. The first written exam requires an essay, written in Italian, on an aspect of literature, history, society or science. Some students may stuck on essay as they need to remember facts to describe ones in their essay. The second written exam requires the student to write a paper relating to their chosen specialisation. The third exam is more general and includes questions regarding contemporary issues and the student's chosen foreign language.

After completing the written exams, students must take an oral exam in front of a board of six teachers. This exams covers aspects of their final year at school. Successful students receive various types of Diploma according to the type of school attended. The Diploma di Scuola Superiore is generally recognised as a university entrance qualification, although some universities have additional entrance requirements.

University is available to all students if they have completed five years of secondary school and received an upper secondary school diploma. It is possible for students who have attended vocational schools to attend university. If a student attended a four-year secondary school program, an additional year of schooling is necessary to qualify for university.

Those attending university after completing their Diploma di Scuola Superiore go for three years (four years for teaching qualifications) to achieve their Laurea (Bachelor's Degree).

Vocational education is called the Formazione Professionale. The first part of this lasts for three years, after which they are awarded the Qualifica Professionale. The second part, which lasts for a further two years, leads to the Licenza professionale also known as the Maturità professionale.

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Pell takes on the Italians

Rome &mdash A choir of voices has begun lauding Cardinal George Pell for cleaning up the Vatican's money management operations. And the strongest notes in this hymn of praise come from the basso profondo of the Australian cardinal himself.

The 73-year-old Pell, who is officially the prefect of the Vatican's recently created Secretariat for the Economy, gave a glowing progress report of his financial reform efforts in an 1,800-word article published last week in Britain's Catholic Herald.

Modern and transparent with checks and balances

He made it clear that Pope Francis was mandated by "an almost unanimous consensus among the cardinals" to carry out financial reform. He said they were "well under way and already past the point where it would be possible to return to the 'bad old days,' " even though much remained to be done. He added that the basic program for reform was drawn up by an "international body of lay experts" that the pope appointed and was based on the following three principles: first, the adoption of "contemporary international financial standards" and "accounting procedures" second, transparency in producing annual financial balance sheets and third, "something akin to a separation of powers" with "multiple sources of authority."

Yet Pell made it clear that his secretariat, above all others, possessed "authority over all economic and administrative activities" in the Vatican, even though its policies would be "determined by the Council for the Economy." That body is headed by Cardinal Reinhard Marx of Munich and includes eight other cardinals and seven laymen. "Having decision-making lay members at this level is an innovation in the Vatican," Pell wrote.

His article highlighted several other positive developments in the way the Vatican will manage its financial resources in the future. Indeed, there is much to be praised. But the article has also set off alarm bells and raised concerns over a reform that is deeply unpopular among Vatican employees fearful of ending up on the wrong end of the stick. It also never mentioned why the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (Propaganda Fide), a virtual empire that has a vast patrimony of investments and prime properties in central Rome and elsewhere, is apparently not subject to the reforms.

Blasting the Italians

Characteristically, the article was blunt. It was also less than flattering toward Italians and even expressed a patronizing attitude toward their business practices. The cardinal said a British parliamentarian had asked him why Vatican authorities had allowed the financial situation "to lurch along, disregarding modern accounting standards, for so many decades." He said the politician's question "was one of the first that would come to our minds as English-speakers." Then he added that it was also "one that might be much lower on the list for people in another culture, such as the Italians."

Of course, Italians have always been the principal managers of the Vatican. And a number of them currently in positions of power are said to have been less than amused by their Australian confrere's not-so-subtle dig. They also did not appreciate this headline-grabbing assertion in his article: "We have discovered that the situation is much healthier than it seemed, because some hundreds of millions of Euros were tucked away in particular sectional accounts and did not appear on the balance sheet."

The implication, of course, was that the Italians were cooking the books. That impression was reinforced a day after Pell's article was published when it was announced that two former managers of the so-called Vatican bank (Institute for the Works of Religion, or IOR) and an attorney, all Italians, were under investigation for embezzlement.

An Italian backlash?

Already within hours after the cardinal's piece appeared in the Catholic Herald, the director of the Holy See Press Office, Jesuit Fr. Federico Lombardi, issued a statement of clarification.

"It should be noted that Cardinal Pell did not speak of illegal, illicit or badly administrated funds, but of funds that do not appear in the official financial statements of the Holy See or Vatican City State," it said.

"In any case, it was known and has been explained before, even publicly, by the Prefecture of Economic Affairs, that the consolidated budgets of the Holy See and Vatican City which were submitted every year to the Council of 15 Cardinals, did not in any way embrace all the many agencies that depend on the Vatican, but only the principal institutions of the Curia and the State," the brief statement concluded.

It was issued in Italian only, somewhat odd considering that press office statements on Vatican reforms generally have been in multiple languages. But it is also not surprising given that a number of influential Italians in the Curia long have bristled at what they perceive as an Australian cardinal's condescending attitude toward them.

Not all these Italians will go quietly into the night as Pell tries to bust up their longstanding dominance in administrating the hundreds of institutions, bureaus and offices that fall beneath the wide umbrella known as the Holy See and Vatican City State.

If history is any indication, they will try to impede the pace of reform through partial or noncompliance. And some will do what is necessary to make life as difficult for the reformers, especially Pell's closest aides. One is his former business manager from the Sydney archdiocese, a layman named Danny Casey who is known to have close ties to Opus Dei. He effectively runs the secretariat, and even supporters for the cardinal fear that he will be the first casualty if the old guard mounts a backlash.

"I feel sorry for Danny Casey," said a high-ranking Curia official. "The Italians are going to chew him up."

The Scola connection

Another of Pell's close aides, though apparently many in the Vatican are unaware of it, is Msgr. Brian Ferme. He is actually the prelate-secretary of Marx's Council for the Economy. But he is Pell's man. Repeatedly and erroneously identified as British, the monsignor was actually born and raised in south Australia. He was a longtime Salesian of Don Bosco before leaving the order soon after getting his doctorate (in Rome and Oxford). He incardinated into the diocese of Portsmouth, England, though he never served there. Instead, he taught mostly in Rome. He spent the past decade in Venice, where Cardinal Angelo Scola, another of his cardinal-patrons, hired him to run an institute for canon law that the cardinal set up just after becoming patriarch of the historic diocese in 2002.

Casey and Ferme are just two of Pell's various aides likely to feel the heat of any resistance to Pell's financial reorganization at the Vatican. For his part, the cardinal seems impervious to any pushback, obstacles or opposition. He's demonstrated his indomitability many times before, most recently as head of the Vox Clara Committee, the group that bulldozed objections from the majority of world's English-speaking bishops and produced the current translation of the Roman Missal.

Many people, especially in Australia, where Pell has always been a controversial figure, wonder why Pope Francis brought him to the Vatican and why he made him an original member of his special papal advisory group, the Council of Cardinals. After all, he is hardly anyone's idea of a "Francis bishop."

For example, he's one of only a handful of cardinals that fervently supports use of the pre-Vatican II Mass. He's a self-professed climate change skeptic. He's a bricks-and-mortar bishop who spent loads of money on building projects, such as establishing a Catholic university in Australia and turning a former religious convent in Rome into an upscale hotel for Australian "pilgrims." Ironically, he's been accused of lack of transparency in the expenditures.

On top of all this, it is also pretty well understood that he backed Angelo Scola of Milan at the last conclave as the main rival of the Argentine Jesuit named Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who emerged as the new bishop of Rome. Scola, 73, is a Vatican outsider, and many Italian bishops mistrust him because his deep roots in the Communion and Liberation movement. They also resent what they believe was his clear ambition to become pope, indicated by his successful effort to get transferred from Venice to Milan in 2011.

So why did Pope Francis bring the Scola-linked George Pell to the Vatican? It's actually a win-win situation for the pope. The cardinals elected him, in part, to reform money management, something he's notorious for criticizing. By handing the task over to those who rivaled his election, he's put the onus on them to get this reform right. If it succeeds, the pope will win the praise. But if it fails, those who carried out the work in his name will bear the blame.

[Robert Mickens is editor-in-chief of Global Pulse. Since 1986, he has lived in Rome, where he studied theology at the Pontifical Gregorian University before working 11 years at Vatican Radio and then another decade as correspondent for The Tablet of London.]

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