Inligting

Was dit wettig om geld te vervals tot 1600?


Om geld of munt te smee word meer dikwels vervalsing genoem en, soos bekend, word die vervalsing van geld gewoonlik aggressief deur vandag se regerings aangeval.

Maar was dit oor die algemeen dieselfde gedurende die Middeleeue? En tydens die Romeinse Ryk?

Ek vra omdat 'n Italiaanse dagblad dit beweer het "fino al '600 riprodurre monete altrui fu considerato legale"tot 1600, is vervalsing van geld wat aan 'n keiser of regering behoort, as wettig beskou.


Soos gesê, het die vraag 'n eenvoudige antwoord: nee!

In Rome was die reg om munt te slaan streng voorbehou aan die keiser. Die keiser kan soms die reg om koper of silwer (maar nie goud nie) muntstukke aan sekere gunstelingstede af te skaf, afstaan, maar dit was sy eie om toe te ken en om te onttrek. Daar was ernstige strawwe vir vervalsers (onthou nie vooraf hoe ernstig dit was nie, maar wees verseker dat dit so was).

Bww, ironies genoeg, het die keiserlike regering self dikwels tot vernedering oorgegaan wat deesdae met die eerbiedwaardige naam sou word "om die drukpers aan te skakel", maar in antieke terme baie gelyk is aan vervalsing.

Wat u bron egter in gedagte kon hê, is dat goud of silwer goud, hoe verwerk dit ook al was, as 'n wettige betaalmiddel dien. Waarskynlik kan 'n mens sy naam wettiglik op sy goud skryf, hoewel ek nie weet hoekom hulle dit moet doen nie.


In die 17de eeu in Engeland was daar 'n tekort aan kopermuntstukke. Selfs klonte koper is aanvaar, aangesien die waarde van munte in werklikheid hul gewig was, sodat handelsmerkies of valses heeltemal aanvaarbaar was, mits dit koper was. As u egter silwer- of goue muntstukke vervals het, is u gehang, getrek en in kwarte gesny (of verbrand as u 'n vrou was).


Die kwotasie "fino al '600 riprodurre monete altrui fu considerato legale" beteken eintlik dat dit wettig was om ander mense se [i. e. buitelandse] geld, in werklikheid, aristokrate, kerkmanne, handelaars en gilde wat sulke vervalsing besig was, en dit was gebruiklik dat amptelike muntstukke hul eie geldeenheid vervals (om sodoende muntstukke te produseer) - maar 'n privaat persoon kan swaar gestraf word as hy gevang word deur die geaffekteerde owerhede en kan uiteindelik lewendig gekook word.
Daar is 'n interessante hoofstuk oor valse vervalsing in Engeland in Malcom Gaskill's Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern England.


Was dit wettig om geld te vervals tot 1600? - Geskiedenis

Vandag neem ons geld as vanselfsprekend. Ons gebruik munte, rekeninge, tjeks en kredietkaarte sonder om daaroor na te dink. Ons is afhanklik van ons geld om die waarde daarvan te behou en om dinge vir ons te koop wanneer ons dit nodig het.

Die geskiedenis van geld strek duisende jare van ruilhandel en die eerste munte tot kredietkaarte en elektroniese geld.

Die oudste manier van sake behels glad nie geld nie. Mense sou goedere verruil. As iemand byvoorbeeld 'n hoender wil hê, bied hy 'n ander goed, miskien 'n dosyn appels, in ruil daarvoor. Sodra albei partye ooreengekom het, sou hulle handel dryf. Hierdie handelsvorm was egter moeilik en ondoeltreffend.

Namate gevorderde beskawings ontwikkel het, het mense regoor die wêreld geld begin gebruik. Verskillende streke het verskillende soorte items as geld gebruik, insluitend vee skulpe, sout, beeste, krale, korrels en duursame metale. Met verloop van tyd het baie gemeenskappe metale soos goud en silwer vir geld begin gebruik. Metale was duursaam en kon geweeg word om die waarde daarvan te verifieer.

Tussen 600 en 700 vC het groter stede en beskawings munte begin gebruik. Vroeë munte is gemaak van alle groottes en vorms. Sommige muntstukke het gate in die middel, sodat hulle op 'n tou gedra kon word. Uiteindelik is munte deur die plaaslike heerser of koning geslaan. Hierdie muntstukke is meer presies gemaak en met 'n stempel daarop dat hulle deur die koning gesteun is. Hierdie muntstukke maak dit makliker om handel te dryf, aangesien dit nie voortdurend geweeg hoef te word nie.

Die eerste papiergeld

Papiergeld is die eerste keer uitgevind omstreeks 600 nC in China. Dit word egter eers in ongeveer 1000 nC in China algemeen as geld gebruik. Dit het baie langer geneem voordat papiergeld vir die eerste keer in Europa gebruik is. Banke het in die 1600's in Europa begin om banknote uit te reik. Aanvanklik was 'n banknoot eintlik net 'n belofte dat die bank 'n sekere hoeveelheid munte aan die draer sou gee. Uiteindelik het die banknote as geld begin gebruik.

Die eerste Amerikaanse geldgeld was Continental Currency wat gedruk is om die Revolusionêre Oorlog te help finansier. Na die oorlog het die vasteland waardeloos geword en muntstukke was steeds die belangrikste vorm van geld. Tydens die Burgeroorlog het muntstukke skaars geword en het die regering weer papiergeld begin druk. Hierdie geld is aan die een kant met groen ink gedruk en staan ​​bekend as greenbacks. Aanvanklik het mense nog steeds nie daarvan gehou om papiergeld te gebruik nie, maar toe sê die regering dat hulle die geld met goud sal terugbetaal, en papiergeld word meer gereeld gebruik.

Kredietkaarte is die eerste keer in die 1950's en 1960's uitgereik. In 1958 het Bank of America 'n kaart uitgereik wat later Visa sou word. 'N Aantal ander banke het in 1966 'n mededingende kaart, MasterCard, bekend gestel. Kredietkaarte het sedertdien een van die algemeenste betaalmetodes geword.


10 van die vreemdste testamente van alle tye

Dit is 'n ernstige saak om instruksies na te gaan oor wat met u geld na u dood moet gebeur, maar vir sommige is die versoeking om onheil te veroorsaak of 'n glimlag van buite die graf te lok, te veel om te weerstaan

Gebruik 'n testament om 'n punt te maak. Foto: Alledaagse beelde/Alamy

Gebruik 'n testament om 'n punt te maak. Foto: Alledaagse beelde/Alamy

Laaste wysiging op Ma 25 Nov 2019 12.22 GMT

In die VK is ons nie baie goed met die opstel van testamente nie. In werklikheid het minder as die helfte van die Britse volwassenes dit gedoen, en 26 miljoen mense het geen formele instruksies gelaat oor wat met hul besittings met hul dood moet gebeur nie.

Maar miskien is ons net nie verbeeldingryk genoeg nie. Vir sommige mense is 'n testament immers nie net 'n lys van erflatings nie, dit is 'n kans om 'n geliefde 'n laaste bedagsame gebaar te laat, of 'n hoopvolle familielid te wys hoeveel jy die hond bo hulle verkies het. Ons het tien vreemde erflatings in testamente saamgestel vir almal wat 'n bietjie inspirasie nodig het ...

'N Roos per dag vir die res van u dae. Foto: Alamy

1) 'n Daaglikse roos Die legendariese Amerikaanse komediant Jack Benny het 'n ongewone, maar aangrypende opdrag in sy testament gelaat toe hy in 1974 oorlede is. , kort na sy dood. 'Ek het geleer dat Jack eintlik 'n voorsiening vir die blomme in sy testament ingesluit het. Een rooi roos moet elke dag vir my vir die res van my lewe afgelewer word. ”

2) Anonieme skenking "om die staatskuld te vereffen" 'N Openbare gees het in 1928 'n halfmiljoen pond bemaking aan Brittanje gelewer, wat nou meer as £ 350 miljoen werd is. Ongelukkig was die anonieme skenker baie spesifiek oor hoe die geld bestee moet word: dit moet slegs deurgegee word as dit genoeg is om die hele staatskuld te vereffen. Ongelukkig staan ​​die totale nasionale skuld tans op £ 1,5 ton en kan die land dus nie die geld raak nie.

3) 'n Lekker naweek Ons dink almal daaraan dat ons vriende 'n glas vir ons sal lig as ons weg is, maar Roger Brown het dit verseker. Die 67-jarige het in 2013 sy lewe aan prostaatkanker verloor en 'n geheime erflating van £ 3,500 aan sewe van sy naaste vriende agtergelaat, met die voorwaarde dat hulle dit kan gebruik vir 'n heerlike naweek weg na 'n Europese stad.

'Ons wil Roger se twee seuns, Sam en Jack, formeel om verskoning vra dat hulle 'n deel van hul erfenis weggeneem het,' het begunstigde Roger Rees aan die South Wales Evening Post gesê nadat die vriende 'n naweek in Berlyn deurgebring het. "Ons het die meeste daarvan op bier bestee, die res het ons gemors."

William Shakespeare. Skynbaar 'n geneesbare romantikus. Foto: Alamy

4) Die "tweede beste bed" Die arme Anne Hathaway, oftewel mev Shakespeare, het in die geskiedenis opgeneem omdat sy van die graf af deur die Bard gestamp is. In sy testament het Shakespeare sy "tweede beste bed" vir haar gelos terwyl die grootste deel van sy boedel na sy dogter Susanna gegaan het.

Antony Nixon, 'n vennoot by Thomas Eggar LLP, stel voor dat hierdie testament vandag maklik uitgedaag kan word: 'Anne kon byna beslis onder die Wet op erfenis (voorsiening vir familie en afhanklikes) van 1975 beweer dat William se testament nie redelike finansiële voorsiening gemaak het nie. 'vir haar, en vra die hof om haar meer toe te ken. "

5) $ 12 miljoen aan 'n hond In 2004 het die miljardêr-hotelier Leona Helmsley instruksies vir haar fortuin van $ 4 miljard (£ 2,5 miljard) agtergelaat om na die versorging van honde te spandeer, nadat sy blykbaar 'n vroeëre konsep heroorweeg het wat dit aan die armes oorgelaat het. Haar negejarige Maltese, Trouble, het $ 12 miljoen (£ 8 miljoen) in die testament ontvang, terwyl haar kleinkinders óf uitgesny is óf beveel het om hul vader se graf jaarliks ​​te besoek om hul deel te erf.

Die erfenis van Trouble is later deur die regter tot slegs $ 2 miljoen (£ 1,2 miljoen) gesny, hoewel die hond nog steeds moes wegkruip te midde van die dood en die dreigemente van ontvoering.

6) Blomme vir Sidmouth Toe die selfgemaakte finansierder, Keith Owen (69), met kanker gediagnoseer word en net 'n paar weke oor het om te lewe, besluit hy om sy hele fortuin van £ 2,3 miljoen te skenk aan sy gunsteling vakansieplek, Sidmouth in Devon.

Die geld is aan die Sid Vale -vereniging gegee, met die bepaling dat 'n deel daarvan aan een miljoen blombolle bestee sou word om die kusdorp vol kleur te hou. Sy testament bepaal dat die hoofstad nie aangeraak moet word nie, maar dat die rente - ongeveer £ 125,000 per jaar - bestee moet word aan die instandhouding van die stad en twee nabygeleë dorpe.

In bloei ... Sidmouth in Devon. Foto: John Doornkamp/Design Pics/Corbis

Die stad het nog nie die miljoen bolle geplant nie en gesê dit kan nog 'n paar jaar neem.

7) 'n Nuwe man Vir sommige verbitterde eggenote is 'n laaste testament eintlik 'n laaste kans om hul lewensmaat nog 'n keer te beledig. So was dit ook vir die Duitse digter Heinrich “Henry” Heine wat sy landgoed in 1856 aan sy vrou, Matilda, oorgelaat het op voorwaarde dat sy weer trou, sodat “daar ten minste een man sal wees wat my dood betreur”. Ai.

Nixon waarsku dat dit 'n grap is wat vandag terugval: 'As Henry geen ander bepaling in sy testament gemaak het nie, sou Matilda vandag van die toestand ontslae kon raak deur Henry se geskenk te ontken. Omdat Henry geen kinders agtergelaat het nie, sou Matilda, volgens 'n wet wat sedert Oktober verlede jaar van krag was, Henry se hele boedel absoluut en onvoorwaardelik erf. "

8) 'n erfenis van bitterheid Die Michigan -miljoenêr Wellington Burt het sy wil gebruik om sy enorme rykdom amper 'n volle eeu buite bereik van sy gesin te plaas. Toe hy in 1919 sterf, is sy testament gevind om aan te dui dat sy groot fortuin eers 21 jaar na die dood van sy laaste oorlewende kleinkind oorgedra sou word. Sy sterf in 1989 en die 21-jarige aftelling eindig op November 2010. Ongeveer 12 mense het ontdek dat hulle begunstigdes is van die vreemde testament, beskryf as 'n "erfenis van bitterheid", en hulle deel 'n fortuin wat na raming $ 110 miljoen werd is.

9) 'n Vrou vir 'n gay seun Toe die testament van Frank Mandelbaum in 2007 gelees word, is ontdek dat hy 'n trustfonds van $ 180 000 vir sy kleinkinders agtergelaat het. Daar was egter 'n bykomende klousule wat sy seun Robert betref. Robert se kinders sou slegs 'n deel erf as Robert ingestem het om binne ses maande na hul geboorte met hul ma te trou. Een klein probleem: Robert is gay en maak sy seun, Cooper, saam met sy man groot.

Begunstigdes willekeurig ... die enigste keer dat dit die moeite werd is om nie 'n ex-gids te wees nie?

Christine Thornley, hoof van testamente, trusts en probate by Gorvins Solicitors, sê dat die testament in die Verenigde Koninkryk nie gehandhaaf kon word nie. 'Dit is moontlik om bates aan begunstigdes oor te dra op sekere gebeurtenisse, dit wil sê na die ouderdom van 18, of as hulle na my honde kyk, ens. Hierdie gebeure is egter alles wat die begunstigde kan beheer. Om 'n testament op te stel om bates aan iemand oor te laat, afhanklik van 'iemand anders wat iets doen', sal nie werk nie, aangesien dit uiteindelik buite die begunstigdes se beheer is. "

10) Sewentig vreemdelinge uit 'n telefoonlys Dit is die ding van dagdrome en filmskrifte. Toe die Portugese aristokraat Luis Carlos de Noronha Cabral da Camara sy testament opstel, het hy sy aansienlike fortuin nagelaat aan 70 vreemdelinge wat willekeurig uit 'n telefoonboek van Lissabon gekies is. 'Ek het gedink dit is 'n wrede grap,' het 'n 70-jarige erfgenaam aan die Portugese Sol-koerant gesê. “Ek het nog nooit van die man gehoor nie.”

Wilskrag
Alhoewel dit snaaks kan lyk om grappies in 'n testament in te skryf, is dit nie sonder risiko nie. Emma Myers, testamentehoof van Saga Legal Services, sê: 'Dit is waarskynlik aanloklik om uit te gaan, maar dit is waarskynlik beter om versigtig te wees en u testament ernstig op te neem.

'As u absoluut op 'n grap of 'n vreemde versoek aandring, kyk of dit die testament ongeldig kan maak, en vermy dit. Vir meer vreemde versoeke is dit dalk beter om die nie-wetlik bindende wensbrief te gebruik. ”


Die geld vervalsers

In die twee vorige artikels hier en hier is lesers onthul oor die korrupte geldstelsel en hoe en waarom dit geskep is, duidelik as 'n hulpmiddel om ons almal in skuldslawerny te plaas. Na ongeveer 110 jaar, waaruit die afgelope 50 jaar slegs deur papier gesteun is, raak die Deep State se fiat dollar -stelsel nou op en blaas dit op. Omdat hulle nie 'n wêreldgebeurtenis kon skep nie - bv. WW3, om die stelsel dringend te vervang met 'n ander bedrieglike geldskema. Vooraf gereël, die sogenaamde SDR-Wêreldgeldstelsel, bestuur deur die IMF in die funksie as sentrale bank vir die hele wêreld.

Ingevolge die bestaande bedrieglike monetêre stelsel word skuld in reële terme onmoontlik om terugbetaal te word, terwyl die vereiste skuld likwidasie slegs bewerkstellig kan word deur die munt te verniel, naamlik inflasie. Valse geld beloon die spesiale belangegroepe wat die naaste verband hou met geldbestuurders: om maar 'n paar te noem, die Deep State -skare, die militêre industriële kompleks, Wall Street, Banks en die vele begunstigdes van staatsuitgawes.

Onregverdige verdeling van rykdom is 'n kenmerk van 'n fiat -monetêre stelsel en word vandag in sy uiterste gesien. As voorbeeld besit die drie rykste mense meer as die onderste 50% van die wêreld se bevolking. Fiat -geld hou nie van moraliteit nie en skep 'n immorele samelewing. Dit vereis die verwerping van a omskepbare kommoditeitsstandaard, en kan slegs toegepas word met kragtige wette op wettige betaalmiddels.

Ekonomiese borrels is die monsters wat ontstaan ​​deur fiat -geldeenhede en die sentrale bank se geldvoorraad en die manipulasie van rentekoerse. 'N Fiat -geldeenheid verwyder 'n definieerbare rekeneenheid wat nodig is vir 'n goeie ekonomiese berekening.

Die werklike probleem met die mark is dat aandele en vaste eiendom baie gewaardeer word, danksy die druk van die sentrale bank, wat 'n valse tydren veroorsaak het deur sy geheime optrede deur voortdurend valse geld in die stelsel te pomp. Die enigste ding wat die markte ondersteun, is die Sentrale Bank met al die geld wat hulle druk. Almal weet dit. Hulle weier net om dit te erken. Daar is geen sterk ekonomie agter dit alles nie. Dit is 'n inflasie-gedrewe borrel.

Die belangrikste is dat die wêreldwye fiat-finansiële stelsel van die sentrale bank op die punt van deflasie gebring word, wat beteken dat minder skuldgeld in omloop is, wat die Deep-staat outomaties dwing om hul globale beheer oor te gee. Die fiat finansiële stelsel sal vervang word deur plaaslike soewereine geldeenhede, dit wil sê goud- of bate-gesteunde soewereine geldstelsels, wat op die QFS bedryf word. Dit sal die grondslag wees vir die post-fiat, GESARA-wêreld.

As voorbeeld is Rusland reeds baie minder afhanklik van die Amerikaanse dollar of enige ander buitelandse valuta. Hul sentrale bank hervorm sy internasionale besittings en verminder die aandeel van die Amerikaanse dollar ten gunste van ander geldeenhede en goud. Verlede jaar het die Rothschild -eienaar van die Sentrale Bank van Rusland – CBR berig dat die greenback -aandeel in twaalf maande vanaf Maart 2018 van 43,7 persent tot 23,6 persent gedaal het. Moskou het ook sy goudgeldreserwes aktief verhoog, wat $ 110,3 miljard beloop het. van 1 Januarie.

As die Amerikaanse volk ooit toelaat dat private banke die kwessie van hul geldeenheid beheer, eers deur inflasie, dan deur deflasie, sal die banke en korporasies wat rondom hulle sal groei, die mense van alle eiendom ontneem totdat hul kinders dakloos wakker word die kontinent wat hul vaders verower het … Ek glo dat bankinstellings gevaarliker is vir ons vryhede as staande leërs. ” – THOMAS JEFFERSON – Stigende vader wat van 1801 tot 1809 as die derde president van die Verenigde State gedien het.

Sentrale banke en belastingkantore is korporatiewe ondernemings

Mense wat dink dat vrede en voorspoed waardige doelwitte is, moet beslis fiat -geldeenhede verwerp. – Ten minste sedert die 1600's in Europa is belastingbetalers onwettig onder die toesig van die pous deur die Vatikaanbank gewas. Belastingkantore en sentrale banke het ook bekend geword as korporatiewe ondernemings, geïdentifiseer en geleë in Washington DC, Londen en die Heilige Stoel in Vatikaanstad. Soos belastinginkomste vir elite en omkoop van politikus is om hul sak te vul. Aan die ander kant word regerings heeltemal gefinansier deur swart verdienprojekte, soos dwelmhandel, orgaan- en mensehandel, insluitend kinder-sekshandel en buite die begroting, soos gepubliseer in die uitgebreide jaarlikse finansiële verslag (CAFR).

Trouens, die wêreld word bestuur deur onverkose en onwettig verkose individue wat vir meer as 80% onder meer bedorwe is deur pedofilie en geheime bloedrituele. – As president Trump uiteindelik die GESARA -wet implementeer, sou die Federale Reserweraad en die IRS amptelik ontbreek. Inkomstebelasting word afgeskaf en vervang met 'n omsetbelasting op nie-noodsaaklike items.

Dit sal baie moeiliker wees om te herstel van die skade wat deur die fiat -geldeenhede veroorsaak is, as om die versoeking om 'n fiat -geldeenheid as rekeneenheid te begin in die eerste plek te verwerp. – Eerlike geld is die belangrikste bondgenoot van vryheid. Edelmetale moet en sal terugkeer om te dien as die grondslag vir die nuwe QFS-stelsel. Die QFS oefen nie beheer uit oor die finansiële stelsel in elke land nie, maar dien as toesighouer oor elke transaksie om korrupsie binne die stelsel te voorkom.

Wêreldwyd word mense wakker van die feit dat die huidige ekonomiese stelsel van geldgebaseerde skuld onvolhoubaar is. Sentrale banke berei stil en heimlik voor vir die ergste deur goud teen goedkoop te koop. Regerings sal doen wat hulle altyd doen in 'n finansiële krisis: die beskerming van die insiders en diegene wat naby die Deep State is.

Inflasie is eenvoudige diefstal wat tot stagflasie lei

Inflasie is niks anders as gewettigde diefstal deur ons regerings nie; dit staan ​​op slegs twee persent, dit is ten minste wat die statistieke sê. Maar hierdie getalle beeld nie die waarheid uit nie. Die reële koers is waarskynlik nader aan 9%, miskien selfs hoër. Wie weet? Alles gepubliseer inflasie -gegewens is versinsels, aangesien hierdie getalle saamgestel is om by die regering te pas. Laer inflasiegetalle in statistieke lyk beter, en dit toon nie die diefstal wat deur regerings gepleeg is nie.

Byvoorbeeld, 'n inflasiekoers van 8% per jaar beteken dat $ 100,000 in kontant vandag slegs $ 46,319 in tien jaar werd sou wees. Dit is meer as die helfte van sy waarde in die niet verdamp. Oor 20 jaar sou dit slegs $ 21 455 werd wees. Oor 30 jaar sou dit 'n gruwelike $ 9 938 werd wees. Wat kan u doen om uself te beskerm? - Die enigste antwoord is om edelmetale te koop vir enige bedrag wat u in die bank gestort het en nie onmiddellik nodig het nie.

Nietemin bly die meeste banke die afgelope tien jaar ondanks die werklikheid van tientalle biljoene dollars wat deur die sentrale banke in die VSA, Europa, die Verenigde Koninkryk en Japan gedruk en verdien is, die meeste banke onderfinansier en sou dit insolvent wees as hulle ware rekeningkundige praktyke moes administreer.

Die sentrale banke in Cabal besit 'n inflasiekoers van 2%. Hulle sê amptelik dat dit goed is namate die koopkrag van die geldeenheid daal. Maar vir wie is dit goed? Vir die bankiers self en die politieke klas natuurlik, wie kry eers die nuut uitgereikte geldeenheid. Vir die res van ons is dit glad nie so wonderlik nie. As meer geldeenheid in die ekonomiese stelsel ingepomp word, loop meer geld na dieselfde hoeveelheid goedere, wat lei tot 'n groot verlies aan koopkrag vir die mense, eers die middelklas en dan die armes. Die mees kwesbare groep mense word die swaarste getref.

Verbruikersprysinflasie was twee dekades lank laag. In die vroeë 60's was dit minder as 1,5%, soos vandag, hoewel dit op gewysigde parameters is, sien hieronder. Maar toe kruip dit tot 5,8% in 1971. Terwyl die res van die wêreld, wat miljarde dollars beslaan het, begin senuweeagtig raak. En tereg.

Die Nixon -administrasie het in 1970 eerder nie sy toewyding om Amerikaanse dollar vir $ 35 per gram goud in te betaal nie, maar ook 'n goue venster gesluit. ' Die Feds kon nou soveel druk as wat hulle wou.

Slim beleggers het die stap verwag, maar nie te veel nie. Goud was reeds tot $ 40 per ons toe die aankondiging op 15 Augustus 1971 gemaak word. Daarna het die dollar gedaal totdat teen die einde van 1979 goud van $ 512 per ons verander het.

Die uitgangspunt van die Amerikaanse tesourie en die ekonome wat dit gelei het, insluitend die Nobelpryswenner Milton Friedman, was dat die nuwe dollar net so goed soos die ou sou wees en dat sy voogde by die tesourie versigtig sou wees om nie te veel te druk. Die uitgangspunt was egter vals. In 1973 bewys die Arabiere dit en verhoog die olieprys met 300% net om tred te hou met die dalende dollar.

Regerings bestee te veel geld, die tekorte moes geleen word. Dit het private lenings “oorvol” en die ekonomie vertraag. Die kombinasie van stygende verbruikerspryse en ekonomiese stagnasie is slim saamgevoeg, wat gelei het tot die monster van 'stagflasie.”

Stagflasie beteken volgehoue ​​hoë inflasie gekombineer met hoë werkloosheid en stilstaande vraag. Inflasie vernietig verbruikers se koopkrag. Die skep van geld en krediet skep nie voorspoed nie. Dit is 'n vorm van diefstal deur verborge belasting van verbruikers.

Teen 1974 blaas die monster vuur. Verbruikerspryse styg teen 'n koers van 11%. Regerings was byna paniekbevange en het verdediging opgebou. Hulle het die Congressional Budget Office (CBO) gestig om hul uitgawes en inkomste nader aan mekaar te bring. Miskien het die CBO gehelp. Of miskien het dit nie. Hoe dan ook, die monster het losgeraak. Amerikaanse staatskuld het gestyg van $ 371 miljard in 1970 tot $ 908 miljard in 1980. En teen 1980 was die inflasiekoers 14%. – Die amptelike inflasiekoers van vandag is daarenteen minder as 2%. Maar wag…

In die 1990's het die federale die manier waarop hulle die inflasiesyfers bereken, verander. As hulle dink dat die kwaliteit van 'n produk toeneem, het hulle geredeneer dat kopers meer vir hul geld kry. Hulle maak dus asof verbruikers ook 'n laer prys kry.

As 'n nuwe rekenaar byvoorbeeld tien keer so vinnig as 'n ou was, het hulle die prys met 90% verlaag - al moes u net soveel betaal vir die nuwe as vir die ou. Soos u kan voorstel, sny hierdie 'hedoniese' handjies die 'inflasiekoers' aansienlik af.

Maar John Williams, van Shadow Government Statistics, bereken steeds inflasie met dieselfde formule wat in 1980 gebruik is. Raai watter inflasiekoers hy verlede jaar kry? Tien persent. Met ander woorde, met dieselfde maatstaf, is inflasie reeds hoër as in 1970. Dit word bevestig deur die rys van 8% van die goudprys, en dit is ook 'n goeie maatstaf vir die werklike prysinflasie.

Die 70's het geëindig met geen ineenstorting op die aandelemark nie. Maar ná inflasie het 'n aandeelhouer die dekade verlaat met slegs ongeveer 7% soveel werklike rykdom as wat hy gehad het toe hy dit betree het. Lyk soortgelyk aan die situasie in die 1920's.

In breë trekke was die valse uitgangspunt van die sewentigerjare dat die nuwe dollar net so goed soos die ou was. U kon u geld 13 keer vermenigvuldig het, bloot deur teen die nuwe dollar te wed. Al wat u hoef te doen is om goud te koop en vas te sit.

En wat van nou? Die belangrikste uitgangspunt van die 2020's is waarskynlik dat hierdie ekonomie net so goed soos altyd is. Dit lyk asof beleggers so dink. Die pers sê so. En president Donald Trump het onlangs in Davos gesê dat hy 'n 'skouspelagtige' ommekeer in die Amerikaanse ekonomie gelei het en die wêreld aangespoor het om in Amerika te belê. Die vraag is: Is dit waar of onwaar?

As dit onwaar is, sal die 2020's minstens so pynlik wees as die 1970's of selfs die 1920's, en waarskynlik baie erger.

Gratis geld is 'n bedrogspul wat die samelewing bederf

Op 17 September, sonder 'n wolk in die lug, het die sentrale bank 'die perse ingedruk' om ongeveer $ 100 miljard per maand by te voeg volgende vyf maande - bloot om Amerikaanse tekorte te dek. Dit is inflasie. Suiwer en eenvoudig. Die soort dinge wat regerings doen om hul aktiwiteite te finansier, wat dikwels verkwistend is, maar wat die indruk gee dat dit waardevol is.

Onthou, "inflasie" verwys na die verhoging van die geldvoorraad, nie spesifiek na die soort "inflasie" waarvan mense nie hou nie, naamlik verbruikersprysinflasie. Eers kom die gelddruk. Dan kom bateprysstygings. Skerp stygende verbruikerspryse is gewoonlik die laaste en is die mees skouspelagtige fase van 'n inflasionêre ramp.

Gratis gedrukte geld is 'n bedrogspul. Hoe langer dit aangaan, hoe meer korrup word die hele samelewing, en hoe meer burgers eis ingrypende hervormings. Die nuwe geld het tot dusver meestal na die Deep State -kabaal gegaan en in die sak van die rykes en politici.

Die BBP -groei word positief gehou deur geld te leen onder die koers van verbruikersprysinflasie. Wêreldwyd het sentrale banke verlede jaar sy koerse ongeveer 90 keer verlaag. En nou gebruik hulle die Repo-drukprogram om geld nog vinniger in die stelsel te pomp as tydens die krisis van '08 -'09.

Vir 'n paar jaar tot 2013 het die Sentrale Banke ongeveer $ 1,5 triljoen skatkis en verbandlenings gekoop om langtermyn rentekoerse te probeer behou en meer lenings en besteding aan te moedig. Laer koerse het ook daartoe gelei dat beleggers meer in aandele belê het.

Amerika en die res van die wêreld sal nie weer goed gemaak word voordat die werklike onregte en ewige oorlog en ewige inflasie van valse geld reggestel word nie. Hierdie onreg word nie deur kapitaliste of deur die Chinese, Mexikane of Iraniërs gepleeg nie. Hulle word deur sentrale beplanners by die sentrale banke van Rothschild gepleeg en uitgevoer deur politici, burokrate, lobbyiste, makkers en ander Deep State -makkers, wat hulle opdrag gegee het om so op te tree. Hulle sal nie ophou totdat die hele saak opblaas nie.


Hoe bedrieërs werk

Daar was baie gevalle van bedrog en swendelary in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, en almal onthul afwykende skemas wat gebaseer is op hebsug en 'n begeerte na mag.

Die eerste gedokumenteerde bedrog het plaasgevind in 300 v.C., en dit is onwaarskynlik dat dit ooit heeltemal uit die weg geruim sal word, omdat dit gedryf word deur hebsug en die begeerte na mag.

Die eerste insiderhandelskandaal

In 1792, slegs 'n paar jaar nadat Amerika amptelik onafhanklik geword het, het die land sy eerste bedrog beleef. Op hierdie tydstip was Amerikaanse effekte soortgelyk aan kwessies in die ontwikkelende wêreld of rommelobligasies vandag-dit het in waarde geskommel met elke nuus oor die lotgevalle van die kolonies wat hulle uitgereik het. Die truuk om in so 'n onbestendige mark te belê, was om 'n stap voor die nuus te wees wat 'n verband se waarde op of af sou dryf.

Alexander Hamilton, sekretaris van die tesourie, het begin om Amerikaanse finansies te herstruktureer deur uitstaande obligasies uit verskillende kolonies te vervang deur effekte van die nuwe sentrale regering. Gevolglik het beleggers met groot effekte mense gesoek wat toegang tot die tesourie gehad het om uit te vind watter verbandkwessies Hamilton gaan vervang.

William Duer, 'n lid van president George Washington se binnekring en assistent -sekretaris van die tesourie, was ideaal geplaas om voordeel te trek uit insider -inligting. Duer was bewus van al die optrede van die tesourie en sou sy vriende tik en sy eie portefeulje verruil voordat hy sekere inligting aan die publiek uitlek wat hy weet pryse sou verhoog. Dan sou Duer eenvoudig verkoop vir 'n maklike wins. Na jare van hierdie tipe manipulasie, selfs nadat hy tesourie -fondse ingeval het om groter weddenskappe te doen, verlaat Duer sy pos, maar behou sy binnekontakte. Hy het voortgegaan om sy eie geld sowel as dié van ander beleggers te belê in beide skuldkwessies en die aandele van banke wat landwyd opduik.

Met al die Europese en binnelandse geld wat effekte jaag, was daar egter 'n spekulatiewe oorvloed terwyl uitreikers hulle vinnig inbetaal. In plaas daarvan om terug te keer van die mark vir oorverhitting, reken Duer op sy voorsprong op inligting. Hy het sy slegte winste en dié van sy beleggers in die mark opgehoop. Duer het ook swaar geleen om sy verbandweddenskappe verder te benut.

Die regstelling was onvoorspelbaar en skerp, waardeur Duer waardelose beleggings en groot skuld laat hang het. Hamilton moes die mark red deur effekte op te koop en as laaste uitlener op te tree. William Duer beland in die skuldenaarsgevangenis, waar hy in 1799 sterf. Die spekulatiewe belborrel in 1792 en die groot hoeveelheid verbandhandel was interessant genoeg die katalisator vir die Buttonwood -ooreenkoms, wat die begin van die Wall Street -beleggingsgemeenskap was.

Bedrog vee 'n president uit

Ulysses S. Grant, 'n bekende burgeroorlogheld en voormalige president, wou net sy seun help om sukses te behaal, maar uiteindelik het hy 'n finansiële paniek veroorsaak. Grant se seun, Buck, het reeds by verskeie ondernemings misluk, maar was vasbeslote om op Wall Street sukses te behaal. Buck het 'n vennootskap aangegaan met Ferdinand Ward, 'n gewetenlose man wat net geïnteresseerd was in die legitimiteit wat die Grant -naam verkry het. Die twee het 'n firma oopgemaak met die naam Grant & amp; Ward. Ward het onmiddellik kapitaal by beleggers gesoek en valslik beweer dat die voormalige president ingestem het om hulle te help om winsgewende regeringskontrakte te kry. Ward gebruik hierdie kontant toe om oor die mark te bespiegel. Ongelukkig was Ward nie so bekwaam om te spekuleer as om te praat nie, en hy het swaar verloor.

Van die kapitaal wat Ward vermors het, was $ 600 000 gekoppel aan die Marine National Bank, en beide die bank en Grant & amp Ward was op die punt om in duie te stort. Ward het Buck oortuig om sy pa vir meer geld te vra. Grant Sr., wat reeds swaar belê is in die onderneming, kon nie genoeg geld opdoen nie en was genoodsaak om 'n persoonlike lening van $ 150,000 van William Vanderbilt te vra. Ward het in wese die geld geneem en gehardloop en die Grants, Marine National Bank en die beleggers in die sak gelaat. Marine National Bank stort in duie na 'n bankloop, en sy val het gehelp om die paniek van 1884 af te skakel.

Grant Sr. paid off his debt to Vanderbilt with all his personal effects including his uniforms, swords, medals, and other memorabilia from the war. Ward was eventually caught and imprisoned for six years.

The Pioneering Daniel Drew

The late 1800s saw men such as Jay Gould, James Fisk, Russell Sage, Edward Henry Harriman, and J.P. Morgan turn the fledgling stock market into their personal playground. However, Daniel Drew was a true pioneer of fraud and stock market manipulation. Drew started out in cattle, bringing the term "watered stock" to our vocabulary—watered stock are shares issued at a much greater value than its underlying assets, usually as part of a scheme to defraud investors. Drew later became a financier when the portfolio of loans he provided to fellow cattlemen gave him the capital to start buying large positions in transportation stocks.

Drew lived in a time before disclosure, when only the most basic regulations existed. His technique was known as a corner. He would buy up all of a company's stocks, then spread false news about the company to drive the price down. This would encourage traders to sell the stock short. Unlike today, it was possible to sell short many times the actual stock outstanding.

When the time came to cover their short positions, traders would find out that the only person holding stock was Daniel Drew and he expected a high premium. Drew's success with corners led to new operations. Drew often traded wholly owned stocks between himself and other manipulators at higher and higher prices. When this action caught the attention of other traders, the group would dump the stock back on the market.

The danger of Drew's combined poop and scoop and pump and dump schemes lay in taking the short position. In 1864, Drew was trapped in a corner of his own by Vanderbilt. Drew was trying to short a company that Vanderbilt was simultaneously trying to acquire. Drew shorted heavily, but Vanderbilt had purchased all the shares. Consequently, Drew had to cover his position at a premium paid directly to Vanderbilt.

Drew and Vanderbilt battled again in 1866 over a railroad, but this time Drew was much wiser, or at least much more corrupt. As Vanderbilt tried to buy up one of Drew's railroads, Drew printed more and more illegal shares. Vanderbilt followed his previous strategy and used his war chest to buy up the additional shares. This left Drew running from the law for watering stock and left Vanderbilt cash poor. The two combatants came to an uneasy truce: Drew's fellow manipulators, Fisk and Gould, were angered by the truce and conspired to ruin Drew. He died broke in 1879.

The Stock Pools

Until the 1920s, most market fraud affected only the few Americans who were investing. When it was confined largely to battles between wealthy manipulators, the government felt no need to step in. After World War I, however, average Americans discovered the stock market. To take advantage of the influx of eager new money, manipulators teamed up to create stock pools. Basically, stock pools carried out Daniel Drew-style manipulation on a larger scale. With more investors involved, the profits from manipulating stocks were enough to convince the management of the companies being targeted to participate. The stock pools became very powerful, manipulating even large cap stocks such as Chrysler, RCA, and Standard Oil.

When the bubble burst in 1929, both the general public and the government were staggered by the level of corruption that had contributed to the financial catastrophe. Stock pools took the lion's share of the blame, leading to the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission. Ironically, the first head of the SEC was a speculator and former pool insider, Joseph Kennedy Sr.

Fast Fact

The first head of the SEC was a speculator and former pool insider, Joseph Kennedy Sr. The stock pools were held largely to blame for the bubble that burst in 1929.

The SEC Era

With the creation of the SEC, market rules were formalized and stock fraud was defined. Common manipulation practices were outlawed as was the large trade in insider information. Wall Street would no longer be the Wild West where gunslingers like Drew and Vanderbilt met for showdowns. That isn't to say that the pump and dump or insider trading has disappeared. In the SEC era, investors still get taken in by fraud, but legal protection do now exist giving investors some recourse.


QFS ousts fraudulent monetary system

The banking system is a fantastic business they lend out money they don’t have and charge the lender interest on it, add to it the ‘fractional reserve lending’ that allows the banks to lend ten times more than what they have on deposit. In other words, they lend ‘money’ they don’t have and doesn’t exist, properly called – credit or debt money – with interest charges attached.

Under a fraudulent monetary system, debt in real terms, becomes impossible to pay, while the required debt liquidation can only be accomplished by debasement of the currency, that is inflation, in other words theft. Fake money rewards the special interest cliques most closely associated with money managers: such as the Deep State, banking industry, military industrial complex, Wall Street, and the many beneficiaries of government spending.

Unfair distribution of wealth is a characteristic of a fiat monetary system and is being witnessed today in its extreme. As an example the three richest people on Earth own more than the bottom 60% of the world’s population. Fiat money dislikes morality, and thus creates an immoral society. It requires the rejection of a convertible commodity standard, and can only be enforced with powerful legal tender laws.

Economic bubbles are the monsters birthed by fiat currencies, central bank manipulation of the money supply and interest rates. A fiat currency eliminates a definable unit of accounting, which is needed for sound economic calculation.

Most importantly, the central bank global financial debt system is being brought to the point of deflation, which will force the Deep State to relinquish their global control. The fiat financial system will be replaced by local currencies, i.e. gold-backed sovereign money units, run on the QFS. This will be the foundation for the post-fiat, GESARA world

Recovering from the damage caused by the fiat currencies will prove to be much more difficult than rejecting the temptation to initiate a fiat currency as the unit of account in the first place. – Honest money is the essential ally of vryheid. Precious metals must and will return to serve as the foundation for the new QFS-system.

Worldwide, people are waking up to the fact that the current economic system of fiat debt-money is unsustainable, and banksters are quietly and secretly preparing for the worst. Governments will do what they always do in a financial crisis: protect insiders and those close to the Deep State.

Average middle-class citizens are already suffering from the corrupt monetary system, and are scrambling to find the best way to protect their wealth and ensure their safety in these challenging times. The unwinding of history’s largest financial fraud and greatest bubble is now upon us.

People must understand that they are living with a criminal and totally unfair privately owned central banking system with their government as partner. – What is observed is us living like medieval “serfs” under this system. So, it is vital that all private Central Banks are abolished at all costs and that legislation is enacted to ensure no such bank in the future is ever being established again.

Deep State’s funding swindle

The plan is not only to go after the Shadow Government and the Deep State, but to go after the source of their funding that has made it possible for them to do what it does print easy money and promote corruption. In short the Rothschilds controlled central banks print money out of thin air, governments borrow and force taxpayers to fund this Ponzi scheme.

Central Banks are not tied to checks and balances audits, so they are able to do whatever they want to do. They have been applying fraudulent accounting practices that don’t account for the money they have created. And as is observed, the entire economic system is deteriorating rapidly. President Trump continuously and correctly points his finger at the Fed. He maintains that they allow the economy to slide into recession, and repeats endlessly what the Fed is doing is wrong, insinuating that this will be the reason if the economy weakens, and finally falls to pieces, the Central Banks are to blame.

Look at today’s economy and people will see that all sales are drying up. Car sales are down 12%. Also new home sales in various areas are disintegrating with a 5% month to month downtrend. Meanwhile, sales prices in many regions have declined 3,5 % from a year ago. This is a complete and utter disaster, even worse after the Central Bank lowered the interest rate to zero, which first and foremost affects the retirees.

Real money changed into fake money

In the depression of the 1930s it was the supply of money that mattered, but after Nixon in 1972 abolished the gold backing for the US dollar, he changed ‘real money’ into fake ‘credit/debt money’. So now, it’s not the supply of money that matters, it’s the supply of credit – the quantity of debt made. As long as credit is increasing at a healthy rate below 2% which means inflation and is nothing else as plain theft by the government, markets and GDP go up. When the demand of credit doesn’t increase expect recession and bear markets. The idea behind the QE (quantitative easing) was to supply more credit money, but as there was no market for, QE became a worthless tool, because it does not create extra lending capability.

QE effectively cannot create new lending volume. To put it as simply as possible. Reserves are bank assets. Lending is constrained by available capital. QE shifts assets but doesn’t alter capital. For example, if the Central Bank buys $2.6 trillion in Treasuries from the nongovernment sector the nongovernment sector sells $2.6 trillion in Treasuries to the Central Bank. This gives the impression that the Federal Reserve central bank ‘injected’ $2.6 trillion in liquidity into the system. In spite of this, the net effect is still zero.

In addition, a bank can go to Goldman Sachs and lever up that $2.6 trillion as if it were something new, which is false.They could do that before using Treasury securities as collateral.

The idea that the excess reserves point to future hyperinflation is also absurd. The assumption is that the banking system will somehow ‘lend out’ those excess reserves. It can’t happen. It’s impossible. Banks in aggregate cannot lend reserves. Tydperk. Even very well educated people have not been aware of this.

The Central Banks know credit must expand, otherwise there will be a depression. But, today’s debt levels are so high that a depression would be catastrophic. The disaster would be worldwide. While people would die.

“Because a depression in the US would mean tens of millions… maybe hundreds of millions… of people in China and Southeast Asia would lose their jobs. Businesses would go broke. Governments would go broke. People living at the margin – with no savings – would soon be desperate. Civilisation would not survive. That’s why the Fed will not allow a real credit contraction.”

Governments and Central Banks are very keen to stop a depression, as they do not want to admit that they had any role in causing it. Due to their own policies, – ultra-low interest rates and fake money – they have created excesses that need to be purged. Don’t expect them to confess that their impotent remedy of more money-printing, will only make the ultimate correction worse.

So far this century, they’ve held off three major corrections. From October 2000 to July 2003, they chopped 5% off their key lending rate and set off the blow-up of the real estate market in 2008-2009. Then, they thwarted that correction too, again cutting their key rate by more than 5%, and printing up an additional $3.6 trillion. And this year, they’ve gone “Full Weimar”, with rates back down to zero, and another $3 trillion in new fake money.

After the fake COVID pandemic has ended, the new economy will not require so much office and parking spaces, because more people have been working from home. Restaurant tables, airplane seats, big-city housing, cruise ships, and theatres are left empty. Since fewer people commute to work, they don’t need so many automobiles or gasoline, either. Oil shares have been cut in half so far this year.

This has put the financial system in a situation with many fingers in the dike, and it isn’t known in advance, which one finger is being removed that might cause the dike to give way. But it does look more certain that the end of U.S. reserve dollar hegemony is in sight. Two of the main questions at this point in time are: When does it end, and when does the real panic begin? Regardless, the demise of the fiat reserve dollar is a certainty.

Stimulus is Fraud

All stimulus efforts are merely different forms of fraud — all based on misleading consumers, investors and businesses with “inflation,” that is the case, with fake money that no one ever earned or saved.

Counterfeiting money is a do-it-yourself version of inflation. It is illegal, for good reason. It’s a fraud, pretending that this new money represents real wealth. The only people who can get away with this sort of fraud are those who work for the government they falsely claim that their counterfeiting stimulates the economy.

The counterfeit money has been introduced into the economy in a number of different ways. In the West over the last 30 years, it has mostly gone in like a thief through the monetary back alleys, remaining mainly in financialised assets.

Naturally, this was great for people who owned stocks and bonds. The top 10% of the population, for example, watched its wealth grow from about $20 trillion 30 years ago to about $75 trillion today. During that same time, U.S. GDP rose only $15 trillion — which is about what the bottom 90% gained in wealth during that time.

Another way to look at it is to compare total household net worth to GDP. Typically, households have a total net worth equal to about 3.5 times GDP. Now, the figure is over five times GDP. Households have about $30 trillion more, almost all of it owned by the 10% of richest families and almost all of it based not on increased real wealth (GDP increases), but on the aforementioned funny-money counterfeiting.

Gold will be trading for at least ten times what the price is today. It’s going to happen but the date is uncertain. People need to own gold/silver because the central planners are leading the economy to ruin. Also, silver is going to see extraordinary gains over the long term. Copper too will see fantastic gains as they continue to modernise and invest in infrastructure. The bottom line is people need to be patient because the day is drawing near when the world will shift its attention once again to gold, silver, platinum and other commodities, and the criminal central bankers’ manipulations come to an end.

The Western central planners and their agents at the bullion banks have had an ongoing war against gold for a long time now, and the tide may finally be turning against them, despite the ongoing downdraft by their manipulations.

Taxpayer Monies Laundered Through Privately Owned Tax Offices

People who think that peace and prosperity are worthy goals, must eventually reject fiat currencies. For at least since the 1600s, taxpayer monies have been illegally laundered through what now is known as privately owned tax offices, central banks and cabal owned corporations identified as: Washington DC, the City of London and the Holy See in Vatican City. The elites, banksters and politicians have been filling their pockets all along the way.

Governments are funded totally through black earning projects, such as drug-, organ- and human-trafficking, including child-sex-trading and the off-budget accounting as published in the comprehensive annual financial report (CAFR). –

When President Trump finally implements GESARA Law the Federal Reserve Central Bank and IRS will officially be defunct. Income taxes will be abolished and replaced with a sales tax on non-essential items.

The new monetary system known as the Quantum Financial System (QFS) will end the Cabal’s corruption, usury, and manipulation within the banking industry. The QFS is ready for its implementation, and is waiting behind the coulisses. This new Quantum Financial System is set to be run on a quantum computer that is based on an orbiting satellite, and is protected by Secret Space Programs to ensure that it cannot be hacked. The quantum technology that corresponds to this new system is being provided by benevolent Galactics. The key is to implement limitations that will prevent corrupted banksters from gaining significant profits. Crooked banksters are no longer in charge of any funds within the QFS. Paper money and banks will eventually disappear, though coinage will remain as a safeguard against corruption, and the populace will prosper.

All Cabal assets are to be seized by the Alliance and redistributed to benefit humanity. Alliance theoreticians have been working on a daily basis to determine the timing of the RV (currency revaluation) release using mathematical formulas based on multiple factors. The issues taken into account are the current state of the geopolitical arena, the global economy, the number of un-awakened masses, current events, and future planned events.

This allows the Alliance to determine the optimal time to release the RV. This optimal time for the release of the RV is quickly approaching as all the dominoes steadily fall into place, revealing the greater picture.

Meanwhile, the RV has evolved beyond a simple revaluation of currencies, and is not going to be done the way as was originally imagined. Now, it is going to be handled through the Quantum Financial System (QFS). The QFS currently has accounts for each and every human being on Earth. Compensation funds will be given to every human being everything the Cabal has stolen will be directly deposited into individual QFS accounts.

The Quantum Financial System is going to be explained after the full disclosure event, as the enactment of GESARA (the Global Economic Security and Reformation Act) is announced. Assets will be connected to a true algorithm that predicts actual prices based on production and demand, ending the market rigging. The QFS is going to be enacted with:

  • Goud standaard
  • Debt Elimination
  • A flat tax on new goods only
  • Elimination of all income tax
  • Elimination of government subsidised pharmaceutical drug pushers

For readers interested in more details, The book The Great Awakening, explains how the Elite are running the world with the purpose of enslaving every individual in every country of the world. They incite wars for their own profit with as many casualties as possible, the details of which will blow your mind. Be grateful, for every day that Trump has become the US President, the swamp is being drained on a daily basis as he promised. It is everyone’s duty to be a Patriot in their country all over the world.

Awake people want to meet other awake individuals, without masks, for the reason that we together are stronger, and able to defeat the Deep State cabal quicker. Our liberation process cannot be stopped anymore. Uniting with others who are like minded creates and shapes our best reality. World wide awake networks have been and are being created, like those in the Marbella / Malaga area of Spain who have been around for several months with increasing numbers of participants. If you would like to meet up with them, please contact Peggy via email. Meetings and lectures in English are organised on a regular basis.

If you found this information interesting, helpful, or insightful, please share it with everyone you know to help awake them. And don’t forget to put up your national flag showing the world you are awake. The more flags out show that the cabals are losing their grip of power over us. There is much more enlightening information to follow! You can subscribe free of charge in the right hand box.


Fake $1,000 Bills

Good news, I’ll start by saying your $1,000 bill is likely real. If it’s fake, it’s worth

Resensies

Old Money Prices

4.9/5 ★★★★★ 5 Reviews

Verified Customer Reviews

I sold my old World paper money from Hong Kong to Oldmoneyprices.com and it was a very easy process, very happy, 10/10 five star *****

TRUST TRUST TRUST! Do not hesitate to trust Britini Conners. I had no references, no affiliation, and nothing to go off of, I found Britini through google and proceeded to communicate via her easy to follow website. She was almost immediate with response time, as well as completely transparent, she also exceeded all prior offers I had received on my notes. Britini is a refreshing professional, I hope to do business again soon. A+ from start to finish.

Britini Conners is a true expert and is real top-notch. I was somewhat worried about shipping my currency to her but he assured me everything would be OK. And it was lol. There is no risk when I sell my money here because I know I'm getting the full value of my collection.

Very pleasant experience. Been selling old money to Britini for 5 years would recommend.

Britini is very friendly and helpful. She helped determine the value of my currency collection and the best way to go about selling it! She has a large wealth of information regarding $500 bills. Britini also gave me more money for my $500 bill than I could have got anywhere locally. It was a pleasure dealing with you and will come back to you for any other currency-related sales.

So I was given a large paper money collection from my grandfather and had no idea what to do with it. I researched online and found this website. I contacted Britini conners and she made the whole thing really easy. Thank you for everything.

. We’ve handled literally tens of thousands of high denomination $1,000 bills.

We have seen nearly every single fake counterfeit $1,000 bill under the sun. For us, they are pretty easy to point out, even from images over a computer screen.

We have worked for and with some of the best counterfeit paper money detecting experts in the industry for decades.

While it may be second nature for us to spot them out, we wanted to take some time and put together this guide to help you spot fake $1,000 bills and better educate yourself.

If your $1,000 bill is any/all of the following, your bill is fake:

  • It’s laminated
  • It’s black/white
  • It feels like printer paper
  • It’s smaller than paper money today
  • It’s much bigger than paper money today

This is also one of the main reasons why the United States stopped printing $1,000 dollar bills, they didn’t want people to counterfeit them. This goes for any country in the world today that still prints paper money.

High denomination currency is typically the most highly counterfeited money in the world. The idea is the bigger you make the money, the easier it is to transport large quantities without detection.

$1,000 bills from 1900 and earlier have a higher chance of being a forgery. If you need help please send us a picture and we’d gladly determine the authenticity of your high denomination $1,000 bill.


Fake purses, real money: Louis Vuitton's massive Canadian counterfeiting award

This article was published more than 9 years ago. Sommige inligting daarin is moontlik nie meer aktueel nie.

It has the makings of a prime-time TV drama, almost: A pair of undercover investigators approach the back alley entrance to a Vancouver-area warehouse. Once inside, they aren't searching for drugs, terrorists, or illegal weaponry. They are looking for fake designer purses.

In 2009, private investigators working for Paris-based Louis Vuitton Malletier SA – a subsidiary of LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA – entered the warehouse of Singga Enterprises (Canada) Inc., where they believed the importers and sellers of an array of counterfeit handbags were operating, according to court documents.

The investigators posed as potential customers and were greeted by a woman who showed them merchandise and handed them a catalogue listing handbags and other copied items bearing the trademarks of a laundry list of the world's top luxury brands.

Die storie gaan voort onder die advertensie

Two years later, the evidence the investigators found resulted in the largest anti-counterfeiting award ever imposed in Canada, as a Federal Court judge ruled last week that Singga and two other companies involved in the case must pay Louis Vuitton and its co-plaintiff Burberry Ltd. $2.48-million.

The summary judgment, issued without a full trial, is the latest victory in a global assault on counterfeit goods launched by Louis Vuitton – which has an entire department devoted to the cause and regularly employs private investigators and lawyers in its fight. In recent years, Louis Vuitton and other companies like it have taken it upon themselves to stem the flow of fakes, which experts say come mostly from China, to protect their recognizable brands.

They warn that the counterfeit business hurts more than just their bottom lines. Cheaper counterfeit goods are often made in sweatshops, they say. And the much-cheaper goods are often sold on the black market, costing Canadian and other governments tax revenue.

Louis Vuitton hailed the Federal Court judgment as a landmark, saying it showed Canada's courts are increasingly taking counterfeit goods seriously. But Valerie Sonnier, the company's global intellectual property director, said Canada needs to do more, including giving customs agents wider powers to seize suspected counterfeit goods at the border.

"We hope this decision will send a message to counterfeiters the world over that Louis Vuitton will aggressively implement its zero-tolerance policy against counterfeiting," Ms. Sonnier said in a press release.

According to the text of the Federal Court judgment, Louis Vuitton found out about the Singga operation after its head of civil enforcement for North America had purchased two handbags with trademarks "confusingly similar" to its own at a store in Quebec City a few months earlier.


The future of money

Westerners now regard online banking as normal, and it seems inevitable that the trend of digital transactions will continue. It is likely that they will become commonplace around the world. Cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Litecoin, are attracting more public interest.

Whatever the future holds, money will almost certainly maintain its place as a means of facilitating transactions between groups and individuals.

Elisa Abbott is a freelancer whose passion lies in creative writing. She completed a degree in Computer Science and writes about ways to apply machine learning to deal with complex issues. Insights on education, helpful tools and valuable university experiences – she has got you covered) When she’s not engaged in assessing translation services for PickWriters you’ll usually find her sipping cappuccino with a book.


Vir meer inligting

Boeke

American Correctional Association. The American Prison from the Beginning: A Pictorial History. College Park, MD: American Correctional Association, 1983.

Foner, Eric. The Story of American Freedom. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.

Friedman, Lawrence M. Crime and Punishment in American History. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

Hirsch, Adam Jay. The Rise of the Penitentiary: Prisons and Punishment inEarly America. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992.

Huggins, Nathan I. Black Odyssey: The Afro-American Ordeal in Slavery. New York: Pantheon Books, 1977.